National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiance interferometer radiometric

  1. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Archived Data at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AERI instrument is an advanced version of the high spectral resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) designed and fabricated at the University of Wisconsin (Revercomb et al. 1988) to measure upwelling infrared radiances from an aircraft. The AERI is a fully automated ground-based passive infrared interferometer that measures downwelling atmospheric radiance from 3.3 - 18.2 mm (550 - 3000 cm-1) at less than 10-minute temporal resolution with a spectral resolution of one wavenumber. It has been used in DOEĆs Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Much of the data available here at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), an institute within the University of Wisconsin’s Space Science and Engineering Center, may also be available in the ARM Archive. On this website, data and images from six different field experiments are available, along with AERIPLUS realtime data for the Madison, Wisconsin location. Realtime data includes temperature and water vapor time-height cross sections, SKEWT diagrams, convective stability indices, and displays from a rooftop Lidar instrument. The field experiments took place in Oaklahoma and Wisconsin with the AERI prototype.

  2. Facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven W.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Lykke, Keith R

    2006-11-10

    Detectors have historically been calibrated for spectral power responsivity at the National Institute of Standards and Technology by using a lamp-monochromator system to tune the wavelength of the excitation source. Silicon detectors can be calibrated in the visible spectral region with combined standard uncertainties at the 0.1% level. However,uncertainties increase dramatically when measuring an instrument's spectral irradiance or radiance responsivity. We describe what we believe to be a new laser-based facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCUS) that was developed to calibrate instruments directly in irradiance or radiance mode with uncertainties approaching or exceeding those available for spectral power responsivity calibrations. In SIRCUS, the emission from high-power, tunable lasers is introduced into an integrating sphere using optical fibers, producing uniform, quasi-Lambertian, high-radiant-flux sources. Reference standard irradiance detectors, calibrated directly against national primary standards for spectral power responsivity and aperture area measurement,are used to determine the irradiance at a reference plane. Knowing the measurement geometry, the source radiance can be readily determined as well. The radiometric properties of the SIRCUS source coupled with state-of-the-art transfer standard radiometers whose responsivities are directly traceable to primary national radiometric scales result in typical combined standard uncertainties in irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations of less than 0.1%. The details of the facility and its effect on primary national radiometric scales are discussed.

  3. Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Data Analysis Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters Posters513

  4. The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConferencePriceshieldingFocus The ALS

  5. Radiometrics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactiveRadiometrics Jump to:

  6. Modelling TOVS radiances of synoptic systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coe, Thomas Eddy

    1992-01-01

    compared against observed satellite radiances by ~ing the analyzed variables into synthetic radiances using a radiative transfer model (~) . Gtme~ 'IOVS satellite radiances are used as a grourd truth, since they are the only scurce of continuous... information similar to the satellite observations. ~ is often too noisy, producing features not verified by the satellite; NMC is often too smooth. NMC more closely resembles the TOVS contours. Modelled water vapor channel analyses resemble observed monthly...

  7. ANALYSIS WITH RADIOACTIVE REAGENTS AND RADIOMETRIC TITRATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    & Separations Chemistry-- Radiometric & Radiochemical Procedures; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; COMPLEXES; DETERMINATION; PRECIPITATION; RADIOISOTOPES; SEPARATION PROCESSES; TITRATION...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Datanarrowbandspectral radiance

  9. Radiance Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎ |RENERCO RenewableRGSRadar JumpRadiance

  10. Radiance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performers:-- Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) – Berkeley, CA-- Greg Ward, Anyhere Software – Berkeley, CA-- National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) – Golden, CO

  11. Super-radiance and flux conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as super-radiance still continues to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that super-radiance in a quantum field theory [QFT] context is not the same as super-radiance (super-fluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation, (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux non-conservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of super-radiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibi...

  12. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1999-08-03

    An interferometer is disclosed which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 11 figs.

  13. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Calibrated Radiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]· International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data product· First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE Visible, Infrared, and Water Vapor Images· SAFARI 2000: Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer Data, Southern Africa· LBA: Radiance data 1998-2001, and gridded surface radiation and rain rates 1999 for Amazonia

  15. SPIE March 23, 1998 Palomar Testbed Interferometer Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPIE March 23, 1998 Palomar Testbed Interferometer JKW-1 Palomar Testbed Interferometer Kent 23, 1998 Palomar Testbed Interferometer JKW-2 Acknowledgements A. Boden, G. Brack, M. Colavita, M Belle, J. Yu #12;SPIE March 23, 1998 Palomar Testbed Interferometer JKW-3 Overview · Brief description

  16. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  17. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  18. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1996-08-29

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

  19. Super-radiance and open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volya, Alexander [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Zelevinsky, Vladimir [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2005-07-08

    Quantum wires, loosely bound nuclei, molecules in chemical reactions and exotic narrow pentaquark states are different examples of open quantum mesoscopic systems. The coupling with and through continuum is their common feature. We discuss general properties of quantum systems in the regime of strong continuum coupling, when the mechanism of Dicke super-radiance changes intrinsic dynamics, signatures of quantum chaos, lifetime of unstable states and reaction cross sections. The examples are shown for various areas of mesoscopic physics.

  20. Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters Posters5139

  1. On the relationship between radiance and irradiance: determining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    On the relationship between radiance and irradiance: determining the illumination from images between incoming radiance and irradiance. Specifically, we address the question of whether it is possible. This is a fundamental question in computer vision and inverse radiative transfer. We show that the irradiance can

  2. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements radiance using correlated photons are presented. The method has the remarkable feature that it allows be measured using correlated photons [1-4]. That work outlined some of the useful features of the method. One

  3. Measuring Atomic Properties with an Atom Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Tony David

    2006-06-28

    Two experiments are presented which measure atomic properties using an atom interferometer. The interferometer splits the sodium de Broglie wave into two paths,

  4. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1988-05-23

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observations means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns. 7 figs.

  5. Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances Jun Li,1 emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large temperature and moisture profile errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity

  6. Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Rendering in Dynamic, Low-Frequency Lighting Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Rendering in Dynamic, Low-Frequency Lighting a new, real-time method for rendering diffuse and glossy objects in low-frequency lighting environments-frequency incident lighting into transferred radiance which includes global effects like shadows and interreflections

  7. Direct-to-Indirect Acoustic Radiance Lakulish Antani, Anish Chandak, Micah Taylor and Dinesh Manocha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    the acoustic wave equation. However, their complexity is proportional to the volume of the scene and the fourth1 Direct-to-Indirect Acoustic Radiance Transfer Lakulish Antani, Anish Chandak, Micah Taylor for visual rendering and uses them to develop an improved acoustic radiance transfer technique. We precompute

  8. Evaluating spectral radiances simulated by the HadGEM2 global climate model using longwave satellite measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Emma Catherine

    2015-06-30

    A 'model-to-radiance' comparison of simulated brightness temperatures and radiances from the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 2 (HadGEM2-A) with longwave measurements from the High Resolution Infrared Radiation ...

  9. Interferometer Techniques for Gravitational-Wave Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charlotte Bond; Daniel Brown; Andreas Freise; Kenneth Strain

    2015-12-04

    Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed world wide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of the optical system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be performed using well-known classical optical techniques; however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review we give a textbook-style introduction to the optical science required for the understanding of modern gravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser interferometers. In addition, we provide a number of examples for a freely available interferometer simulation software and encourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussed optical methods.

  10. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  11. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  12. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Driggers, J.?C.

    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common least mean square adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results ...

  13. Temperature compensated two-mode fiber interferometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doma, Jagdish Ramchandra

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we propose an innovative approach of designing and implementing a temperature compensated two-mode optical fiber interferometer in a control system of stabilizing the wavelength of a laser. We give the procedure for designing...

  14. Single and double superimposing interferometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Interferometers which can imprint a coherent delay on a broadband uncollimated beam are described. The delay value can be independent of incident ray angle, allowing interferometry using uncollimated beams from common extended sources such as lamps and fiber bundles, and facilitating Fourier Transform spectroscopy of wide angle sources. Pairs of such interferometers matched in delay and dispersion can measure velocity and communicate using ordinary lamps, wide diameter optical fibers and arbitrary non-imaging paths, and not requiring a laser.

  15. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfredo Luis; Ángel Rivas

    2015-04-21

    We examine nonlinear quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. The interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear detection. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.

  16. CIMEL SUN PHOTOMETERS: UPDATES ON NEW DEPLOYMENTS AND CLOUD MODE ZENITH RADIANCE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CIMEL SUN PHOTOMETERS: UPDATES ON NEW DEPLOYMENTS AND CLOUD MODE ZENITH RADIANCE DATA Richard of Science ABSTRACT Since March 1998, ARM has deployed Cimel Sun PHOTometers (CSPHOT) at several but not all

  17. Achromatic self-referencing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer for accurately measuring laser wavefronts over a broad wavelength range (for example, 600 nm to 900 nm). The apparatus directs a reference portion of an input beam to a reference arm and a measurement portion of the input beam to a measurement arm, recombines the output beams from the reference and measurement arms, and registers the resulting interference pattern ("first" interferogram) at a first detector. Optionally, subportions of the measurement portion are diverted to second and third detectors, which respectively register intensity and interferogram signals which can be processed to reduce the first interferogram's sensitivity to input noise. The reference arm includes a spatial filter producing a high quality spherical beam from the reference portion, a tilted wedge plate compensating for off-axis aberrations in the spatial filter output, and mirror collimating the radiation transmitted through the tilted wedge plate. The apparatus includes a thermally and mechanically stable baseplate which supports all reference arm optics, or at least the spatial filter, tilted wedge plate, and the collimator. The tilted wedge plate is mounted adjustably with respect to the spatial filter and collimator, so that it can be maintained in an orientation in which it does not introduce significant wave front errors into the beam propagating through the reference arm. The apparatus is polarization insensitive and has an equal path length configuration enabling measurement of radiation from broadband as well as closely spaced laser line sources.

  18. Achromatic self-referencing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, M.

    1994-04-19

    A self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer is described for accurately measuring laser wavefronts over a broad wavelength range (for example, 600 nm to 900 nm). The apparatus directs a reference portion of an input beam to a reference arm and a measurement portion of the input beam to a measurement arm, recombines the output beams from the reference and measurement arms, and registers the resulting interference pattern ([open quotes]first[close quotes] interferogram) at a first detector. Optionally, subportions of the measurement portion are diverted to second and third detectors, which respectively register intensity and interferogram signals which can be processed to reduce the first interferogram's sensitivity to input noise. The reference arm includes a spatial filter producing a high quality spherical beam from the reference portion, a tilted wedge plate compensating for off-axis aberrations in the spatial filter output, and mirror collimating the radiation transmitted through the tilted wedge plate. The apparatus includes a thermally and mechanically stable baseplate which supports all reference arm optics, or at least the spatial filter, tilted wedge plate, and the collimator. The tilted wedge plate is mounted adjustably with respect to the spatial filter and collimator, so that it can be maintained in an orientation in which it does not introduce significant wave front errors into the beam propagating through the reference arm. The apparatus is polarization insensitive and has an equal path length configuration enabling measurement of radiation from broadband as well as closely spaced laser line sources. 3 figures.

  19. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1994-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  20. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1994-02-15

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  1. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Thomas J. (Maumee, OH); Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  2. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-03-28

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  3. Measuring Cepheid Angular Sizes Directly using the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring Cepheid Angular Sizes Directly using the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. Kuchner, B Cepheids with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) to measure their angular diameters at H and K bands

  4. Microwave Interferometer Density Diagnostic for the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microwave Interferometer Density Diagnostic for the Levitated Dipole Experiment A. Boxer, J. Kesner a multi-channel microwave interferometer. Such a device makes use the relationship between a plasma;Basic Design · An RF of 60 GHz puts our interferometer in the microwave spectrum. · The primary design

  5. Microwave Interferometer Density Diagnostic for the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microwave Interferometer Density Diagnostic for the Levitated Dipole Experiment A. Boxer, J. Kesner design follows other microwave interferometers in the literature, in particular C.W. Domier et. al. Rev.Sci.Instrum. 59 [1988], 1588 · An RF beam of 60 GHz puts our interferometer in the microwave spectrum. · Our

  6. Microwave Interferometer Density Diagnostic for the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microwave Interferometer Density Diagnostic for the Levitated Dipole Experiment A. Boxer, J. Kesner the density profile of the plasma in LDX, we are constructing a multi-channel microwave interferometer be inverted to reconstruct a radially symmetric density profile. The microwave interferometer of LDX

  7. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer Draft: January 23, 1998 Abstract The Palomar Testbed Interferometer PTI is a long-baseline in- frared interferometer installed at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single-baseline visibility measure- ments

  8. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer Draft: February 18, 1998 Abstract The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long­baseline in­ frared interferometer installed at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single­baseline visibility measure­ ments

  9. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  10. Ramsey-Bordé interferometer for electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl-Peter Marzlin

    2013-07-15

    A scheme to realize an electron interferometer using low-intensity, bi-chromatic laser pulses as beam splitter is proposed. The splitting process is based on a modification of the Kapitza-Dirac effect, which produces a momentum kick for electrons with a specific initial momentum. A full interferometric setup in Ramsey-Bord\\'e configuration is theoretically analyzed.

  11. Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data using a Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, Aron

    2015-06-25

    This presentation summarizes uncertainty estimation of radiometric data using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM) method.

  12. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  13. The impact of explicit cloud boundary information on ice cloud microphysical property retrievals from infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    from infrared radiances Steven J. Cooper, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, and Graeme L. Stephens Department inclusion of explicit cloud boundary information from complementary sensors as well as providing a suite of diagnostic tools for evaluating the dominant sources of uncertainty in all retrieved quantities. Errors

  14. Modeling Wildland Fire Radiance in Synthetic Remote Sensing B.S. Beijing Institute of Technology, 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    efforts in phenomenology studies, algorithm development, and sensor evaluation. Synthetic scenes are also and op- tical properties of wildfire and burn area in an infrared remote sensing system will assist look like as seen by the airborne sensor. Radiance scene rendering of the 3D flame iv #12;v includes 2D

  15. Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    .1029/2007JD008742. 1. Introduction [2] The present atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is about 380Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances Petr remote-sensing algorithm that utilizes reflected visible and near-infrared radiation to discriminate

  16. Derivation of global hyperspectral resolution surface emissivity spectra from advanced infrared sounder radiance measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Derivation of global hyperspectral resolution surface emissivity spectra from advanced infrared 9 July 2008; published 6 August 2008. [1] The global IR surface emissivity spectra are very. In this study, global IR surface emissivity spectra have been generated by using AIRS radiance measurements from

  17. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  18. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Medecki, Hector (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  19. Thermal-noise-limited underground interferometer CLIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuhiro Agatsuma; Koji Arai; Masa-Katsu Fujimoto; Seiji Kawamura; Kazuaki Kuroda; Osamu Miyakawa; Shinji Miyoki; Masatake Ohashi; Toshikazu Suzuki; Ryutaro Takahashi; Daisuke Tatsumi; Souichi Telada; Takashi Uchiyama; Kazuhiro Yamamoto; CLIO collaborators

    2010-01-29

    We report on the current status of CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory), which is a prototype interferometer for LCGT (Large Scale Cryogenic Gravitational-Wave Telescope). LCGT is a Japanese next-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector featuring the use of cryogenic mirrors and a quiet underground site. The main purpose of CLIO is to demonstrate a reduction of the mirror thermal noise by cooling the sapphire mirrors. CLIO is located in an underground site of the Kamioka mine, 1000 m deep from the mountain top, to verify its advantages. After a few years of commissioning work, we have achieved a thermal-noise-limited sensitivity at room temperature. One of the main results of noise hunting was the elimination of thermal noise caused by a conductive coil-holder coupled with a pendulum through magnets.

  20. Photorefractive Interferometers for Ultrasonic Measurements on Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafond, E. F.; Brodeur, P. H.; Gerhardstein, J. P.; Habeger, C. C.; Telschow, Kenneth Louis

    2002-12-01

    Photorefractive interferometers have been employed for the detection of ultrasound in metals and composites since 1991 [1–4]. Instances of laser-generated ultrasound and laser-based detection in paper were reported in 1996 [5]. More recently, bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) photorefractive interferometers were adapted to detect ultrasound in paper [6]. In this article we discuss BSO and GaAs photorefractive detection of ultrasound on different paper grades and present the resulting waveforms. Compared to contact piezoelectric transducer methods, laser interferometry offers signifcant advantages. One of these is that it is a noncontact technique. This is especially important for on-line application to lightweight papers which could be marked or damaged by contact transducers. Broadband ultrasonic laser generation matched with the broadband sensitivity of laser interferometers is another beneft. This is important for obtaining narrow pulses in nondispersive time-of-fight determinations and for measuring the phase velocity of dispersive modes over a wide frequency band. Also, laser ultrasonic techniques provide a measure of bending stiffness through the analysis of low frequency A0 waves.

  1. Process of preparing metal parts to be heated by means of infrared radiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Howard Robinson (Cincinnati, OH); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-06-09

    A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.

  2. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01

    for finite atmospheres with phase functions ranging from isotropic to the extremely anisotropic nimbo- stratus model. The main advantages of the Monte Carlo method were illustrated. One such advantage is that parameters, such as the single scattering... as an isotropic one. Another is that a single "computer run" can produce radiance values for a large number of ground albedos for any reasonable number of detectors placed at any desired depth in the atmosphere. 2. The Monte Carlo Method Monte Carlo, in all...

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION & COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Radiance Transfer Biclustering for Real-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Kun

    --We present a real-time algorithm to render all-frequency radiance transfer at both macro-scale and meso-scale. At a meso-scale, the shading is computed on a per-pixel basis by integrating the product of the local inci in a meso-scale, densely sampled at each pixel and mapped over the object. The bi-scale transfer

  4. The Palomar Testbed Interferometer Calibrator Catalog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. van Belle; G. van Belle; M. J. Creech-Eakman; J. Coyne; A. F. Boden; R. L. Akeson; D. R. Ciardi; K. M. Rykoski; R. R. Thompson; B. F. Lane; for The PTI Collaboration

    2007-11-27

    The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) archive of observations between 1998 and 2005 is examined for objects appropriate for calibration of optical long-baseline interferometer observations - stars that are predictably point-like and single. Approximately 1,400 nights of data on 1,800 objects were examined for this investigation. We compare those observations to an intensively studied object that is a suitable calibrator, HD217014, and statistically compare each candidate calibrator to that object by computing both a Mahalanobis distance and a Principal Component Analysis. Our hypothesis is that the frequency distribution of visibility data associated with calibrator stars differs from non-calibrator stars such as binary stars. Spectroscopic binaries resolved by PTI, objects known to be unsuitable for calibrator use, are similarly tested to establish detection limits of this approach. From this investigation, we find more than 350 observed stars suitable for use as calibrators (with an additional $\\approx 140$ being rejected), corresponding to $\\gtrsim 95%$ sky coverage for PTI. This approach is noteworthy in that it rigorously establishes calibration sources through a traceable, empirical methodology, leveraging the predictions of spectral energy distribution modeling but also verifying it with the rich body of PTI's on-sky observations.

  5. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  6. Spectroscopic Binary Star Studies with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spectroscopic Binary Star Studies with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer II A.F. Boden 1;2#3; , B; bode@ipac.caltech.edu ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long-baseline near-infrared interfer- ometer located at Palomar Observatory. Following our previous work on resolving spectroscopic

  7. PHASE-REFERENCED STELLAR INTERFEROMETRY AT THE PALOMAR TESTBED INTERFEROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHASE-REFERENCED STELLAR INTERFEROMETRY AT THE PALOMAR TESTBED INTERFEROMETER Benjamin F. Lane implementation and testing of phase referencing at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer. A new instrument) to allow an accurate measurement of the fringe phase and, thus, to allow fringe tracking. At the Palomar

  8. Radiometric characterization of a high temperature blackbody in the visible and near infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubert, R. D.; Hollandt, J.

    2013-09-11

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt the radiance temperature in the range from 962 °C to 3000 °C is disseminated by applying a high temperature blackbody (HTBB) with a directly heated pyrolytic graphite cavity. The thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB was measured in the temperature range from 1000 °C to 3000 °C by applying almost simultaneously absolutely calibrated silicon photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 476 nm, 676 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm and InGaAs photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 1300 nm, 1550 nm and 1595 nm. The results demonstrate that, expressed in terms of irradiance, within an uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) in a broad wavelength range the thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB is wavelength independent in the investigated temperature interval.

  9. Coherent Thermoelectric Effects in Mesoscopic Andreev Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ph. Jacquod; R. S. Whitney

    2009-10-15

    We investigate thermoelectric transport through Andreev interferometers. We show that the ratio of the thermal and the charge conductance exhibits large oscillations with the phase difference $\\phi$ between the two superconducting contacts, and that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds only when $\\phi=\\pi$. A large average thermopower furthermore emerges whenever there is an asymmetry in the dwell times to reach the superconducting contacts. When this is the case, the thermopower is odd in $\\phi$. In contrast, when the average times to reach either superconducting contact are the same, the average thermopower is zero, however mesoscopic effects (analogous to universal conductance fluctuations) lead to a sample-dependent thermopower which is systematically even in $\\phi$.

  10. A validation of the Radiance three-phase simulation method for modeling annual daylight performance of optically-complex fenestration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    complex fenestration systems (CFS). They include systems asprograms. Again, lack of CFS modeling tools has inhibitedwe discuss a new Radiance CFS annual simulation modeling

  11. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  12. Mechanical Realization of a Multichanel Martin Puplett Interferometer for Perpendicular and Oblique ECE Measurements on JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical Realization of a Multichanel Martin Puplett Interferometer for Perpendicular and Oblique ECE Measurements on JET

  13. Analysis and Improvements of Fringe Jump Corrections by Electronics on the JET Tokamak FIR Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis and Improvements of Fringe Jump Corrections by Electronics on the JET Tokamak FIR Interferometer

  14. On the design of lithographic interferometers and their application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Michael E. (Michael Edward), 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Interference lithography is presented as an ideal technique for fabricating large-area periodic structures with sub-100nm dimensions. A variety of interferometer designs are discussed and implemented, each of which emphasizes ...

  15. Broadband detuned Sagnac interferometer for future generation gravitational wave astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronchev, N V; Danilishin, S L

    2015-01-01

    Broadband suppression of quantum noise below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) becomes a top-priority problem for the future generation of large-scale terrestrial detectors of gravitational waves, as the interferometers of the Advanced LIGO project, predesigned to be quantum-noise-limited in the almost entire detection band, are phased in. To this end, among various proposed methods of quantum noise suppression or signal amplification, the most elaborate approach implies a so-called *xylophone* configuration of two Michelson interferometers, each optimised for its own frequency band, with a combined broadband sensitivity well below the SQL. Albeit ingenious, it is a rather costly solution. We demonstrate that changing the optical scheme to a Sagnac interferometer with weak detuned signal recycling and frequency dependent input squeezing can do almost as good a job, as the xylophone for significantly lower spend. We also show that the Sagnac interferometer is more robust to optical loss in filter cavity, used f...

  16. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Miami; Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-04-30

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  17. Hawking-Unruh Thermal Radiance as Relativistic Exponential Scaling of Quantum Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. Hu

    1996-06-26

    The Hawking-Unruh effect of thermal radiance from a black hole or observed by an accelerated detector is usually viewed as a geometric effect related to the existence of an event horizon. Here we propose a new viewpoint, that the detection of thermal radiance in these systems is a local, kinematic effect arising from the vacuum being subjected to a relativistic exponential scale transformation. This kinematic effect alters the relative weight of quantum versus thermal fluctuations (noise) between the two vacua. This approach can treat conditions which the geometric approach cannot, such as systems which do not even have an event horizon. An example is the case of an observer whose acceleration is nonuniform or only asymptotically uniform. Since this approach is based on concepts and techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, it is more adept to dynamical problems, such as the dissipation, fluctuation, and entropy aspects of particle creation and phase transitions in black hole collapse and in the early universe.

  18. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  19. An Electromechanical Which-Path Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Armour; M. P. Blencowe

    2001-08-28

    We investigate the possibility of an electromechanical which-path interferometer, in which electrons travelling through an Aharonov-Bohm ring incorporating a quantum dot in one of the arms are dephased by an interaction with the fundamental flexural mode of a radio frequency cantilever. The cantilever is positioned so that its tip lies just above the dot and a bias is applied so that an electric field exists between the dot and the tip. This electric field is modified when an additional electron hops onto the dot, coupling the flexural mode of the cantilever and the microscopic electronic degrees of freedom. We analyze the transmission properties of this system and the dependence of interference fringe visibility on the cantilever-dot coupling and on the mechanical properties of the cantilever. The fringes are progressively destroyed as the interaction with the cantilever is turned up, in part due to dephasing arising from the entanglement of the electron and cantilever states and also due to the thermal smearing that results from fluctuations in the state of the cantilever. When the dwell time of the electron on the dot is comparable to or longer than the cantilever period, we find coherent features in the transmission amplitude. These features are washed out when the cantilever is decohered by its coupling to the environment.

  20. Laser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    -scattering or in the transmission mode using a variety of sensor probes. In this work we used the infrared (IR) photothermal radioLaser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation A. Mandelis*, M. Munidasa, L. Nicolaides Photothermal and Optoelectronic Diagnostics

  1. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sun- photometer data for two of the sunphotometer to retrieve aerosol optical depths, a, along with observed surface flux data from field campaigns

  2. Radiance in the ocean: effects of wave slope and raman scattering near the surface and at depths through the asymptotic region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slanker, Julie Marie

    2009-05-15

    in shallow and deep water. The nature of the radiance field is also gives an understanding of the living environment for ocean animals. Hydrolight 4.1, a simulation software developed by Curtis D. Mobley, was used to calculate the spectral radiance in clear...

  3. The glacier and land ice surface topography interferometer: An airborne proof-of-concept demonstration of high-precision Ka-band single-pass elevation mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN): AAND LAND ICE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY INTERFEROMETER application,”AND LAND ICE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY INTERFEROMETER Fig. 2.

  4. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (5239 Miles Ave., Apt. A, Oakland, CA 94618); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (1195 Keeler Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708)

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  5. To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Precomputed Local Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Henrik Wann

    -Time Lighting Design Anders Wang Kristensen UCSD Tomas Akenine-M¨oller Lund University Henrik Wann Jensen UCSD Abstract This paper introduces a new method for real-time relight- ing of scenes illuminated by local light sources. We extend previous work on precomputed radiance transfer for distant lighting to local lighting

  6. A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2 slicing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2]. Other studies have compared CO2- slicing cloud heights with those computed from lidar data [Smith in assessing the accuracy of the CO2-slicing cloud height algorithm. Infrared measurements of upwelling

  7. A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2 slicing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    with dual polarization at 0.532 m. The comparisons were performed for 10 flight days during the Subsonic specification of clear-sky radiances. 1. Introduction Clouds have a large impact on the Earth's water and energy budgets. Their impact on the radiation budget can result in a heating or in a cooling of the planet

  8. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF WATER AND MAFICS IN M3 RADIANCE IMAGES. D. R. Thompson1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF WATER AND MAFICS IN M3 RADIANCE IMAGES. D. R. Thompson1,2 , M. Gilmore,3 L. Introduction: We describe the detection of water (OH/H2O) and mafic mineralogy absorption features in Ryder catalog [1]. We employ superpixel endmember analy- sis [2] to detect spectral outliers. Our approach oper

  9. Polarizing optical interferometer having a dual use optical element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotidis, Petros A. (Waban, MA); Woodroffe, Jaime A. (North Reading, MA); Rostler, Peter S. (Newton, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  10. Polarizing optical interferometer having a dual use optical element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-04

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  11. Broadband detuned Sagnac interferometer for future generation gravitational wave astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Voronchev; S. P. Tarabrin; S. L. Danilishin

    2015-03-05

    Broadband suppression of quantum noise below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) becomes a top-priority problem for the future generation of large-scale terrestrial detectors of gravitational waves, as the interferometers of the Advanced LIGO project, predesigned to be quantum-noise-limited in the almost entire detection band, are phased in. To this end, among various proposed methods of quantum noise suppression or signal amplification, the most elaborate approach implies a so-called *xylophone* configuration of two Michelson interferometers, each optimised for its own frequency band, with a combined broadband sensitivity well below the SQL. Albeit ingenious, it is a rather costly solution. We demonstrate that changing the optical scheme to a Sagnac interferometer with weak detuned signal recycling and frequency dependent input squeezing can do almost as good a job, as the xylophone for significantly lower spend. We also show that the Sagnac interferometer is more robust to optical loss in filter cavity, used for frequency dependent squeezed vacuum injection, than an analogous Michelson interferometer, thereby reducing building cost even more.

  12. A comparison of model-generated and satellite-observed radiances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Donna Ellen Woolley

    1989-01-01

    and sensitivity for January time period for observed and synthetic radiance set. Channel Observed mean 'C Synthetic mean 'C SYN-OBS t' statistic Observed Synthetic SYN-OBS mean C Std Dev. 'C Std Dev. C Normalized 24 03 23 04 16 12 05 11 15 22 06 07... 52. 4 -26. 8 50. 6 3. 0 1. 8 1. 4 1. 3 2. 2 6. 5 1. 8 5. 1 2. 5 2. 5 2. 1 2. 1 2. 5 2. 7 2. 9 4. 1 5. 3 3. 6 0. 9 0. 4 1. 2 1. '2 1. 6 7. 1 1. 8 6. 4 2. 9 2. 9 2. 4 2. 9 3. 9 3. 6 4. 0 5. 1 4. 8 6. 7 4. 4 -0. 7 -0. 8 -0. 1 -0...

  13. A nanoflare model for active region radiance: application of artificial neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bazarghan; H. Safari; D. E. Innes; E. Karami; S. K. Solanki

    2008-12-20

    Context. Nanoflares are small impulsive bursts of energy that blend with and possibly make up much of the solar background emission. Determining their frequency and energy input is central to understanding the heating of the solar corona. One method is to extrapolate the energy frequency distribution of larger individually observed flares to lower energies. Only if the power law exponent is greater than 2, is it considered possible that nanoflares contribute significantly to the energy input. Aims. Time sequences of ultraviolet line radiances observed in the corona of an active region are modelled with the aim of determining the power law exponent of the nanoflare energy distribution. Methods. A simple nanoflare model based on three key parameters (the flare rate, the flare duration time, and the power law exponent of the flare energy frequency distribution) is used to simulate emission line radiances from the ions Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si iii, observed by SUMER in the corona of an active region as it rotates around the east limb of the Sun. Light curve pattern recognition by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) scheme is used to determine the values. Results. The power law exponents, alpha 2.8, 2.8, and 2.6 for Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si iii respectively. Conclusions. The light curve simulations imply a power law exponent greater than the critical value of 2 for all ion species. This implies that if the energy of flare-like events is extrapolated to low energies, nanoflares could provide a significant contribution to the heating of active region coronae.

  14. Multiphoton- and simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Borde atom interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chu, Steven [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2008-03-06

    We report on our experiment to measure h/M, the ratio of the Planck constant to the mass of Cs atoms, and thereby the fine-structure constant. The target accuracy is 1 part per billion or better. We focus on two recent milestones: (i) The first realization of atom interferometers based on light-pulse beam splitters that transfer the momentum of up to 12 photon pairs, which increases the useful signal (matter wave phase shift) by a factor of 144 compared to the beam splitters used in the best present atom interferometers. Moreover, they lead to a cancellation of important systematic effects. (ii) The first realization of a simultaneous pair of conjugate Ramsey-Borde interferometers. In these, the relative sign of the inertial term is reversed so that it can be cancelled. Simultaneous operation means that this holds for a time-dependent inertial term (vibrations) too, which promises a substantial improvement in the signal to noise ratio.

  15. Fully achromatic nulling interferometer (FANI) for high SNR exoplanet characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henault, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Space-borne nulling interferometers have long been considered as the best option for searching and characterizing extra-solar planets located in the habitable zone of their parent stars. Solutions for achieving deep starlight extinction are now numerous and well demonstrated. However they essentially aim at realizing an achromatic central null in order to extinguish the star. In this communication is described a major improvement of the technique, where the achromatization process is extended to the entire fringe pattern. Therefore higher Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and appreciable simplification of the detection system should result. The basic principle of this Fully achromatic nulling interferometer (FANI) consists in inserting dispersive elements along the arms of the interferometer. Herein this principle is explained and illustrated by a preliminary optical system design. The typical achievable performance and limitations are discussed and some initial tolerance requirements are also provided

  16. PUBBLICAZIONI SCIENTIFICHE CASTORINA F., PETRINI R. (1989). Radiometric geochronology: some constraints to the isochron method by an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1989-01-01

    PUBBLICAZIONI SCIENTIFICHE ISI CASTORINA F., PETRINI R. (1989). Radiometric geochronology: some of geochronological and isotopic studies to volcanotectonics. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 75. (1998). Calcites at Vulcano island (Italy): isotopic and geochronological data bearing on the timing

  17. Accurate and precise characterization of linear optical interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ish Dhand; Abdullah Khalid; He Lu; Barry C. Sanders

    2015-08-02

    We combine single- and two-photon interference procedures for characterizing any multi-port linear optical interferometer accurately and precisely. Accuracy is achieved by estimating and correcting systematic errors that arise due to spatiotemporal and polarization mode mismatch. Enhanced precision is attained by curve fitting to measured quantities based on a Poissonian shot noise assumption, and we employ bootstrapping statistics to quantify the resultant degree of precision. A scattershot approach is devised to effect a reduction in the experimental time required to characterize the interferometer.

  18. The Leggett-Garg inequality in electron interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clive Emary; Neill Lambert; Franco Nori

    2012-10-09

    We consider the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality in electronic Mach-Zehnder inteferometers. This set-up has two distinct advantages over earlier quantum-transport proposals: firstly, the required correlation functions can be obtained without time-resolved measurements. Secondly, the geometry of an interferometer allows one to construct the correlation functions from ideal negative measurements, which addresses the non-invasiveness requirement of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We discuss two concrete realisations of these ideas: the first in quantum Hall edge-channels, the second in a double quantum dot interferometer.

  19. A novel white-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zhiguang

    This paper presents a special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer, in which the measured gap is not located in any interference arm of the interferometer, but acts as an amplitude-and-phase modulator of ...

  20. arXiv:astro-ph/0310394v115Oct2003 Palomar Testbed Interferometer Observations of Young

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arXiv:astro-ph/0310394v115Oct2003 Palomar Testbed Interferometer Observations of Young Stellar Cygni. Our K-band (2.2 µm) observations from the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) used baselines

  1. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita Jet Propulsion ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long­baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single­ baseline visibility measurement

  2. DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY OF SUBARCSECOND SCALE BINARIES AT THE PALOMAR TESTBED INTERFEROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY OF SUBARCSECOND SCALE BINARIES AT THE PALOMAR TESTBED INTERFEROMETER B. F; accepted 2003 October 15 ABSTRACT We have used the Palomar Testbed Interferometer to perform very high arcsec) level (Hummel et al 1994), while the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI, Colavita et al. 1999

  3. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita Jet Propulsion ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer PTI is a long-baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single- baseline visibility measurement

  4. The effect of the Tides on the LIGO Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian Melissinos

    2010-01-05

    We present data on the modulation of the dark port power at the free spectral range frequency of the LIGO 4 km interferometers. It is found that the power is modulated exactly at the tidal frequencies to a precision of 6e-9 Hz.

  5. Feasibility of a Small Scale Intensity Correlation Interferometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelderman, Gregory Peter

    2013-04-29

    double slit image. The interferometer consists of 2 avalanche photo-diodes connected to a data acquisition computer. The image is produced by shining light through the double slit image an image containment system. The sensors are placed at the far end...

  6. Data Analysis Used data from the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Data Analysis Used data from the Palomar Testbed Interferometer single 110 m baseline 2 in the IR (e.g. diffraction rings in 5 micron images from the Palomar 5 m telescope) #12;1999 Day 270 d e f

  7. Phase Tomography Using X-ray Talbot Interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momose, A.; Yashiro, W.; Moritake, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Takeda, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y. [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hattori, T. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2007-01-19

    A biological tomography result obtained with an X-ray Talbot interferometer is reported. An X-ray Talbot interferometer was constructed using an amplitude grating fabricated by X-ray lithography at the LIGA beamline of NewSUBARU and gold electroplating. The pitch and pattern thickness of the grating were 8 {mu}m and 30 {mu}m, respectively. The effective area was 20 x 20 mm2, which was entirely illuminated with a wide beam available at the medium-length beamline 20B2 of SPring-8, allowing the acquisition of a three-dimensional tomogram of almost the whole body of a fish. The resulting image obtained with 17.7 keV X-rays revealed organs with bones in the same view.

  8. A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires remote diagnostics of plasma density. Laser interferometry can be used to determine the line-integrated density of the plasma. A multi-chord heterodyne fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is being assembled and integrated into the experiment. The advantage of the fiber coupling is that many different view chords can be easily obtained by simply moving transmit and receive fiber couplers. Several such fiber sets will be implemented to provide a time history of line-averaged density for several chords at once. The multiple chord data can then be Abel inverted to provide radially resolved spatial profiles of density. We describe the design and execution of this multiple fiber interferometer.

  9. Noise-Immune Conjugate Large-Area Atom Interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiow Shengwey; Herrmann, Sven [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, 366 Le Conte Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    We present a pair of simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Borde atom interferometers using large (20(Planck constant/2pi)k)-momentum transfer beam splitters, where (Planck constant/2pi)k is the photon momentum. Simultaneous operation allows for common-mode rejection of vibrational noise. This allows us to surpass the enclosed space-time area of previous interferometers with a splitting of 20(Planck constant/2pi)k by a factor of 2500. Using a splitting of 10(Planck constant/2pi)k, we demonstrate a 3.4 ppb resolution in the measurement of the fine structure constant. Examples for applications in tests of fundamental laws of physics are given.

  10. The quantum bit from relativity of simultaneity on an interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O

    2014-01-01

    The patterns of fringes produced by an interferometer have always been important testbeds for our best contemporary theories of physics. Historically, interference has been used to contrast quantum mechanics to classical physics, but recently experiments have been performed that test quantum theory against even more exotic alternatives. A physically motivated family of theories are those where the state space of a two-level system is given by a sphere of arbitrary dimension. This includes classical bits, and real, complex and quaternionic quantum theory. In this paper, we consider relativity of simultaneity (that observers may disagree about the order of events at different locations) as applied to a two-armed interferometer. We show that this forbids most interference phenomena more complicated than those of standard complex quantum theory. In this sense, special relativity itself can be used to explain why physics should be described by the rules of quantum theory in this setup. Moreover, our result has con...

  11. Phase Retrieval with Application to Intensity Correlation Interferometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahan, Russell 1987-

    2012-10-24

    ? Phase of a complex value RMS Root mean squared S Far field source object?s plane SNR Signal-to-noise ratio ? Angular view coordinate UV Fourier domain coordinates vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.... .............................................................. 14 8 Graphical representation of the ? angular spatial plane which contains the image and the Fourier UV wave number plane. ............................................. 17 9 Schematic of the Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometer [2...

  12. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  13. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thilo Schuldt; Christian Schubert; Markus Krutzik; Lluis Gesa Bote; Naceur Gaaloul; Jonas Hartwig; Holger Ahlers; Waldemar Herr; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Jan Rudolph; Stephan Seidel; Thijs Wendrich; Wolfgang Ertmer; Sven Herrmann; André Kubelka-Lange; Alexander Milke; Benny Rievers; Emanuele Rocco; Andrew Hinton; Kai Bongs; Markus Oswald; Matthias Franz; Matthias Hauth; Achim Peters; Ahmad Bawamia; Andreas Wicht; Baptiste Battelier; Andrea Bertoldi; Philippe Bouyer; Arnaud Landragin; Didier Massonnet; Thomas Lévčque; Andre Wenzlawski; Ortwin Hellmig; Patrick Windpassinger; Klaus Sengstock; Wolf von Klitzing; Chris Chaloner; David Summers; Philip Ireland; Ignacio Mateos; Carlos F. Sopuerta; Fiodor Sorrentino; Guglielmo M. Tino; Michael Williams; Christian Trenkel; Domenico Gerardi; Michael Chwalla; Johannes Burkhardt; Ulrich Johann; Astrid Heske; Eric Wille; Martin Gehler; Luigi Cacciapuoti; Norman Gürlebeck; Claus Braxmaier; Ernst Rasel

    2014-12-08

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for $10^{-11}$ mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (819 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.

  14. Impact of anomalous dispersion on the interferometer measurements of plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2004-12-16

    For many decades optical interferometers have been used to measure the electron density of plasmas. During the last ten years X-ray lasers in the wavelength range 14 to 47 nm have enabled researchers to use interferometers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index of refraction less than one and the electron density proportional to the number of fringe shifts. Recent experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one and made us question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index of refraction. Recent calculations showed how the anomalous dispersion from the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many types of plasma and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the electron density of the plasma using interferometers. In this work we calculate the index of refraction of C, Al, Ti, and Pd plasmas for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV (12.4 nm) using a new average-atom code. The results show large variations from the free electron approximation under many different plasma conditions. We validate the average-atom code against the more detailed OPAL code for carbon and aluminum plasmas. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  15. On-fiber plasmonic interferometer for multi-parameter sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhijian [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Chen, Yongyao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Haijun [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bae, Hyungdae [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Olson, Douglas A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Gupta, Ashwani K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Yu, Miao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature multi-parameter sensing device based on a plasmonic interferometer fabricated on a fiber facet in the optical communication wavelength range. This device enables the coupling between surface plasmon resonance and plasmonic interference in the structure, which are the two essential mechanisms for multi-parameter sensing. We experimentally show that these two mechanisms have distinctive responses to temperature and refractive index, rendering the device the capability of simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement on an ultra-miniature form factor. A high refractive index sensitivity of 220 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a high temperature sensitivity of –60 pm/ °C is achieved with our device.

  16. On-fiber plasmonic interferometer for multi-parameter sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Bae, Hyungdae; Olson, Douglas A.; Gupta, Ashwani K.; Yu, Miao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature multi-parameter sensing device based on a plasmonic interferometer fabricated on a fiber facet in the optical communication wavelength range. This device enables the coupling between surface plasmon resonance and plasmonic interference in the structure, which are the two essential mechanisms for multi-parameter sensing. We experimentally show that these two mechanisms have distinctive responses to temperature and refractive index, rendering the device the capability of simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement on an ultra-miniature form factor. A high refractive index sensitivity of 220 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a high temperature sensitivity of ?60 pm/ °C is achieved with our device.

  17. A nonlinear Ramsey interferometer operating beyond the Heisenberg limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Choi; B. Sundaram

    2007-09-24

    We show that a dynamically evolving two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (TBEC) with an adiabatic, time-varying Raman coupling maps exactly onto a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that includes a nonlinear medium. Assuming a realistic quantum state for the TBEC, namely the SU(2) coherent spin state, we find that the measurement uncertainty of the ``path-difference'' phase shift scales as the standard quantum limit (1/N^{1/2}) where N is the number of atoms, while that for the interatomic scattering strength scales as 1/N^{7/5}, overcoming the Heisenberg limit of 1/N.

  18. Measuring the Earth's gravity field with cold atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Carraz; Christian Siemes; Luca Massotti; Roger Haagmans; Pierluigi Silvestrin

    2015-06-12

    The scope of the paper is to propose different concepts for future space gravity missions using Cold Atom Interferometers (CAI) for measuring the diagonal elements of the gravity gradient tensor, the spacecraft angular velocity and the spacecraft acceleration. The aim is to achieve better performance than previous space gravity missions due to a very low white noise spectral behaviour of the CAI instrument and a very high common mode rejection, with the ultimate goals of determining the fine structures of the gravity field with higher accuracy than GOCE and detecting time-variable signals in the gravity field.

  19. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  20. Uncertainty Analysis for Broadband Solar Radiometric Instrumentation Calibrations and Measurements: An Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Reda, I. M.; Wilcox, S. M.; Stoffel, T. L.

    2004-04-01

    The measurement of broadband solar radiation has grown in importance since the advent of solar renewable energy technologies in the 1970's, and the concern about the Earth's radiation balance related to climate change in the 1990's. In parallel, standardized methods of uncertainty analysis and reporting have been developed. Historical and updated uncertainties are based on the current international standardized uncertainty analysis method. Despite the fact that new and sometimes overlooked sources of uncertainty have been identified over the period 1988 to 2004, uncertainty in broadband solar radiometric instrumentation remains at 3% to 5% for pyranometers, and 2% to 3% for pyrheliometers. Improvements in characterizing correction functions for radiometer data may reduce total uncertainty. We analyze the theoretical standardized uncertainty sensitivity coefficients for the instrumentation calibration measurement equation and highlight the single parameter (thermal offset voltages), which contributes the most to the observed calibration responsivities.

  1. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  2. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis.more »The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).« less

  3. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

  4. Multichannel microwave interferometer for the levitated dipole experiment Alexander C. Boxer,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    along field lines, the dipole field is produced by means of a magnetically levitated superconductingMultichannel microwave interferometer for the levitated dipole experiment Alexander C. Boxer,1 constructed to measure plasma density profiles in the levitated dipole experiment LDX . The LDX interferometer

  5. Di erential Astrometry of Sub-arcsecond Scale Binaries at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di#11;erential Astrometry of Sub-arcsecond Scale Binaries at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer B, Cambridge, MA 02139 blane@mit.edu matthew1@mit.edu ABSTRACT We have used the Palomar Testbed Interferometer at the 10 mas (1 mas = 10 3 arcseconds) level (Hum- mel et al. 1994), while the Palomar Testbed

  6. Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a , Y. Bressonb in a collimated beam thus introducing Fresnel diffraction. We study the instrumental contrast taking into account, but this study can apply to any other instrument concerned with Fresnel diffraction. Keywords: Interferometer

  7. Analysis of spatial mode sensitivity of gravitational wave interferometer and targeted search for gravitational radiation from the Crab pulsar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betzwieser, Joseph (Joseph Charles)

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several years the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has been making steady progress in improving the sensitivities of its three interferometers, two in Hanford, Washington, and one ...

  8. Phase Referencing at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer B.F. Lane & M.M. Colavita (for the PTI Collaboration)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phase Referencing at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer B.F. Lane & M.M. Colavita (for the PTI Collaboration) Abstract We discuss implementation and testing of phase-referencing at the Palomar Testbed. The Instrument The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long-baseline infrared interferometer installed

  9. Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the June

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the June 2012 Venus transit A. Hauchecorne1 , M. Meftah1 , A. Irbah1 , S of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing

  10. On-fiber plasmonic interferometer for multi-parameter sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Bae, Hyungdae; Olson, Douglas A.; Gupta, Ashwani K.; Yu, Miao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature multi-parameter sensing device based on a plasmonic interferometer fabricated on a fiber facet in the optical communication wavelength range. This device enables the coupling between surface plasmon resonance and plasmonic interference in the structure, which are the two essential mechanisms for multi-parameter sensing. We experimentally show that these two mechanisms have distinctive responses to temperature and refractive index, rendering the device the capability of simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement on an ultra-miniature form factor. A high refractive index sensitivity of 220 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a high temperature sensitivity of –60more »pm/ °C is achieved with our device.« less

  11. Navy precision optical interferometer measurements of 10 stellar oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R. [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Benson, James A.; Zavala, R. T. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, AZ 86001 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard T., E-mail: ellyn.baines@nrl.navy.mil [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, we measured the angular diameters of 10 stars that have previously measured solar-like oscillations. Our sample covered a range of evolutionary stages but focused on evolved subgiant and giant stars. We combined our angular diameters with Hipparcos parallaxes to determine the stars' physical radii, and used photometry from the literature to calculate their bolometric fluxes, luminosities, and effective temperatures. We then used our results to test the scaling relations used by asteroseismology groups to calculate radii and found good agreement between the radii measured here and the radii predicted by stellar oscillation studies. The precision of the relations is not as well constrained for giant stars as it is for less evolved stars.

  12. Statistical Measures of Planck Scale Signal Correlations in Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Craig J

    2015-01-01

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. Simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out ...

  13. High data-rate atom interferometers through high recapture efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biedermann, Grant; Rakholia, Akash Vrijal; McGuinness, Hayden

    2015-01-27

    An inertial sensing system includes a magneto-optical trap (MOT) that traps atoms within a specified trapping region. The system also includes a cooling laser that cools the trapped atoms so that the atoms remain within the specified region for a specified amount of time. The system further includes a light-pulse atom interferometer (LPAI) that performs an interferometric interrogation of the atoms to determine phase changes in the atoms. The system includes a controller that controls the timing of MOT and cooling laser operations, and controls the timing of interferometric operations to substantially recapture the atoms in the specified trapping region. The system includes a processor that determines the amount inertial movement of the inertial sensing system based on the determined phase changes in the atoms. Also, a method of inertial sensing using this inertial sensing system includes recapture of atoms within the MOT following interferometric interrogation by the LPAI.

  14. Phase-coherent mapping of gravitational-wave backgrounds using ground-based laser interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph D. Romano; Stephen R. Taylor; Neil J. Cornish; Jonathan Gair; Chiara M. F. Mingarelli; Rutger van Haasteren

    2015-05-27

    We extend the formalisms developed in Gair et al. and Cornish and van Haasteren to create maps of gravitational-wave backgrounds using a network of ground-based laser interferometers. We show that in contrast to pulsar timing arrays, which are insensitive to half of the gravitational-wave sky (the curl modes), a network of ground-based interferometers is sensitive to both the gradient and curl components of the background. The spatial separation of a network of interferometers, or of a single interferometer at different times during its rotational and orbital motion around the Sun, allows for recovery of both components. We derive expressions for the response functions of a laser interferometer in the small-antenna limit, and use these expressions to calculate the overlap reduction function for a pair of interferometers. We also construct maximum-likelihood estimates of the + and x-polarization modes of the gravitational-wave sky in terms of the response matrix for a network of ground-based interferometers, evaluated at discrete times during Earth's rotational and orbital motion around the Sun. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for some simple simulated backgrounds (a single point source and spatially-extended distributions having only grad or curl components), calculating maximum-likelihood sky maps and uncertainty maps based on the (pseudo)inverse of the response matrix. The distinction between this approach and standard methods for mapping gravitational-wave power is also discussed.

  15. Estimation of the cloud transmittance from radiometric measurements at the ground level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Dario; Mares, Oana

    2014-11-24

    The extinction of solar radiation due to the clouds is more significant than due to any other atmospheric constituent, but it is always difficult to be modeled because of the random distribution of clouds on the sky. Moreover, the transmittance of a layer of clouds is in a very complex relation with their type and depth. A method for estimating cloud transmittance was proposed in Paulescu et al. (Energ. Convers. Manage, 75 690–697, 2014). The approach is based on the hypothesis that the structure of the cloud covering the sun at a time moment does not change significantly in a short time interval (several minutes). Thus, the cloud transmittance can be calculated as the estimated coefficient of a simple linear regression for the computed versus measured solar irradiance in a time interval ?t. The aim of this paper is to optimize the length of the time interval ?t. Radiometric data measured on the Solar Platform of the West University of Timisoara during 2010 at a frequency of 1/15 seconds are used in this study.

  16. Measurement of the ac Stark shift with a guided matter-wave interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deissler, B; Burke, J H T; Sackett, C A

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a guided-wave Bose-Einstein condensate interferometer for practical measurements. Taking advantage of the large arm separations obtainable in our interferometer, the energy levels of the 87Rb atoms in one arm of the interferometer are shifted by a calibrated laser beam. The resulting phase shifts are used to determine the ac polarizability at a range of frequencies near and at the atomic resonance. The measured values are in good agreement with theoretical expectations. However, we observe a broadening of the transition near the resonance, an indication of collective light scattering effects. This nonlinearity may prove useful for the production and control of squeezed quantum states.

  17. Palomar Testbed Interferometer -Update B.F. Lane a , M.M. Colavita b , A.F. Boden b , P.R. Lawson b (for the PTI Collaboration)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palomar Testbed Interferometer - Update B.F. Lane a , M.M. Colavita b , A.F. Boden b , P.R. Lawson, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA., 91109, USA. ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long-baseline near-infrared interferometer operating at Palomar Observatory, CA. The interferometer has

  18. Air convection noise of pencil-beam interferometer for long trace profiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2006-01-01

    Air Convection Noise of Pencil-beam Interferometer for Longwe investigate the effect of air convection on laser-beamshown that the NPD spectra due to air convection have a very

  19. A system for automatic positioning and alignment of fiber-tip interferometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalan, Mahesh

    2004-11-15

    The research described in this thesis involves the design, development, and implementation of an automated positioning system for fiber-optic interferometric sensors. The Fiber-Tip Interferometer (FTI) is an essential component in the proven Thermo...

  20. Simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gravity gradient with an atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Tino, G. M.; Bertoldi, A.; Bodart, Q.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Angelis, M. de; Prevedelli, M.

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate a method to measure the gravitational acceleration with a dual cloud atom interferometer; the use of simultaneous atom interferometers reduces the effect of seismic noise on the gravity measurement. At the same time, the apparatus is capable of accurate measurements of the vertical gravity gradient. The ability to determine the gravity acceleration and gravity gradient simultaneously and with the same instrument opens interesting perspectives in geophysical applications.

  1. The Response of a Two-Element Radio Interferometer to Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kipp Cannon

    2003-11-20

    This document presents a ray-optics analysis of the response of a two-element radio interferometer to the presence of a plane gravitational wave. A general expression for the differential phase observed between the two receiving stations as a result of an arbitrary gravitational wave is determined, as well as the specific responses to monochromatic and black hole ring-down waveforms. Finally, the possibility of gravitational wave detection via this mechanism is discussed in the context of interferometer noise.

  2. Non-contact measurements of ultrasonic waves on paper webs using a photorefractive interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodeur, Pierre H. (Smyrna, GA); Lafond, Emmanuel F. (Atlanta, GA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for non-contact measurement of ultrasonic waves on moving paper webs employs a photorefractive interferometer. The photorefractive interferometer employs an optical head in which the incident beam and reflected beam are coaxial, thus enabling detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane waves with a single apparatus. The incident beam and reference beams are focused into a line enabling greater power to be used without damaging the paper.

  3. Selection of linear-cavity fibre laser radiation using a reflection interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terentyev, V S; Simonov, V A [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    We consider the use of a two-mirror multibeam reflection interferometer as a selector of linear-cavity single-mode fibre laser radiation and present experimental data on continuous wavelength tuning of an erbium-doped fibre laser. Conditions are found for single-longitudinal-mode operation of the fibre laser cavity using a reflection interferometer, with the possibility of broadband wavelength tuning. (control of laser pulse parameters)

  4. Gravitational-wave Detection With Matter-wave Interferometers Based On Standing Light Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongfeng Gao; Peng Ju; Baocheng Zhang; Mingsheng Zhan

    2011-03-25

    We study the possibility of detecting gravitational-waves with matter-wave interferometers, where atom beams are split, deflected and recombined totally by standing light waves. Our calculation shows that the phase shift is dominated by terms proportional to the time derivative of the gravitational wave amplitude. Taking into account future improvements on current technologies, it is promising to build a matter-wave interferometer detector with desired sensitivity.

  5. A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Rudolph; Waldemar Herr; Christoph Grzeschik; Tammo Sternke; Alexander Grote; Manuel Popp; Dennis Becker; Hauke Müntinga; Holger Ahlers; Achim Peters; Claus Lämmerzahl; Klaus Sengstock; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

    2015-06-16

    Quantum sensors based on coherent matter-waves are precise measurement devices whose ultimate accuracy is achieved with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in extended free fall. This is ideally realized in microgravity environments such as drop towers, ballistic rockets and space platforms. However, the transition from lab-based BEC machines to robust and mobile sources with comparable performance is a challenging endeavor. Here we report on the realization of a miniaturized setup, generating a flux of $4 \\times 10^5$ quantum degenerate $^{87}$Rb atoms every 1.6$\\,$s. Ensembles of $1 \\times 10^5$ atoms can be produced at a 1$\\,$Hz rate. This is achieved by loading a cold atomic beam directly into a multi-layer atom chip that is designed for efficient transfer from laser-cooled to magnetically trapped clouds. The attained flux of degenerate atoms is on par with current lab-based BEC experiments while offering significantly higher repetition rates. Additionally, the flux is approaching those of current interferometers employing Raman-type velocity selection of laser-cooled atoms. The compact and robust design allows for mobile operation in a variety of demanding environments and paves the way for transportable high-precision quantum sensors.

  6. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fielding, M. D.; Chiu, J. C.; Hogan, R. J.; Feingold, G.; Eloranta, E.; O'Connor, E. J.; Cadeddu, M. P.

    2015-07-02

    Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to simultaneously retrieve cloud and drizzle vertical profiles in drizzling boundary-layer clouds using surface-based observations of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter, and zenith radiances under conditions when precipitation does not reach the surface. Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and drizzle is characterised throughout the cloud. An ensemble optimal estimation approach provides full error statistics given the uncertainty in the observations. To evaluate the new method, we first perform retrievalsmore »using synthetic measurements from large-eddy simulation snapshots of cumulus under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g m-2. The method also performs well in non-drizzling clouds where no assumption of the cloud profile is required. We then apply the method to observations of marine stratocumulus obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MAGIC deployment in the Northeast Pacific. Here, retrieved cloud water path agrees well with independent three-channel microwave radiometer retrievals, with a root mean square difference of 10–20 g m-2.« less

  7. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fielding, M. D.; Chiu, J. C.; Hogan, R. J.; Feingold, G.; Eloranta, E.; O'Connor, E. J.; Cadeddu, M. P.

    2015-02-16

    Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to simultaneously retrieve cloud and drizzle vertical profiles in drizzling boundary-layer cloud using surface-based observations of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter, and zenith radiances. Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and drizzle is characterised throughout the cloud. An ensemble optimal estimation approach provides full error statistics given the uncertainty in the observations. To evaluate the new method, we first perform retrievals using synthetic measurements from large-eddy simulation snapshots of cumulusmore »under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g m?2. The method also performs well in non-drizzling clouds where no assumption of the cloud profile is required. We then apply the method to observations of marine stratocumulus obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MAGIC deployment in the northeast Pacific. Here, retrieved cloud water path agrees well with independent 3-channel microwave radiometer retrievals, with a root mean square difference of 10–20 g m?2.« less

  8. Portable Doppler interferometer system for shock diagnostics and high speed motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a system that uses the Doppler effect and is widely used for measuring the velocity of projectiles, detonations, flying plates, shock pressures (particle velocity) and other high speed/high acceleration motion. Other methods of measurement such as accelerometers and pressure gauges have disadvantages in that they are sensitive to radiation, electromagnetic pulses, and their mass can drastically alter the velocity of the projectile. VISAR uses single frequency-single mode laser fight focused onto a target of interest. Reflected fight from the target is collected and sent through a modified, unequal leg Michelson interferometer. In the interferometer the light is split into two components which travel through the legs of the interferometer cavity and are then recombined. When the light recombines, an interference pattern is created which can range from dark (destructive interference) to bright (constructive interference). When the target moves, the reflected laser light experiences a frequency shift (increase) with respect to the frequency from the target in a static condition. Since the Doppler shifted light is split and routed through an unequal leg interferometer cavity, there is a time lag of the light containing the Doppler information at the recombination point in the interferometer. The effect of the time lag is to create a sinusoidally changing interference pattern (commonly called fringes). Since the interferometer time delay, laser wavelength, and the speed of light are known, an accurate measurement of target velocity/acceleration may be measured by analyzing both the number of tinges and the speed of tinge generation (system accuracy is 3--4%).

  9. Hybrid shearing and phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2003-06-03

    A new interferometry configuration combines the strengths of two existing interferometry methods, improving the quality and extending the dynamic range of both. On the same patterned mask, placed near the image-plane of an optical system under test, patterns for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry and lateral shearing interferometry coexist. The former giving verifiable high accuracy for the measurement of nearly diffraction-limited optical systems. The latter enabling the measurement of optical systems with more than one wave of aberration in the system wavefront. The interferometry configuration is a hybrid shearing and point diffraction interferometer system for testing an optical element that is positioned along an optical path including: a source of electromagnetic energy in the optical path; a first beam splitter that is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering the first beam splitter in a first position wherein the first beam splitter is in the optical path dividing light from the source into a reference beam and a test beam and in a second position wherein the first beam splitter is outside the optical path: a hybrid mask which includes a first section that defines a test window and at least one reference pinhole and a second section that defines a second beam splitter wherein the hybrid mask is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering either the first section or the second section into the optical path positioned in an image plane that is created by the optical element, with the proviso that the first section of the hybrid mask is positioned in the optical path when first beam splitter is positioned in the optical path; and a detector positioned after the hybrid mask along the optical path.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  11. Quantum Noise in Differential-type Gravitational-wave Interferometer and Signal Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atsushi Nishizawa; Seiji Kawamura; Masa-aki Sakagami

    2007-06-03

    There exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors. However, in the context of a full quantum-mechanical approach, SQL can be overcome using the correlation of shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. So far, signal recycling, which is one of the methods to overcome SQL, is considered only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced-LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and the possibility of signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. As a result, we found that signal recycling is possible and creates at most three dips in the sensitivity curve of the detector. Then, taking advantage of the third additional dip and comparing the sensitivity of a differential-type interferometer with that of a next-generation Japanese GW interferometer, LCGT, we found that SNR of inspiral binary is improved by a factor of 1.43 for neutron star binary, 2.28 for 50 M_sun black hole binary, and 2.94 for 100 M_sun black hole binary. We also found that power recycling to increase laser power is possible in our signal-recycling configuration of a detector.

  12. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at ?g/ ?Hz and ?rad/s/ ?Hz levels, making thismore »a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.« less

  13. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  14. THE VISUAL ORBITS OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES HD 6118 AND HD 27483 FROM THE PALOMAR TESTBED INTERFEROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE VISUAL ORBITS OF THE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES HD 6118 AND HD 27483 FROM THE PALOMAR TESTBED, taken with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) in the K band. HD 6118 is one of the most eccentric interfer- ometers (for a review see Quirrenbach 2001). The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) itself has

  15. Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a MachZehnder interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a Mach­Zehnder interferometer Andrew Ahn, Changhuei Yang S. Feld Harmonic phase-dispersion microscopy (PDM) is a new imaging technique in which contrast is provided by differences in refractive index at two harmonically related wavelengths. We report a new

  16. Design and implementation of a multichannel millimeter wave interferometer for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.; Stevenson, B. A. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A three-channel 1 mm wave interferometer has been designed, assembled, and installed on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid torsatron (CTH). The interferometer design makes novel use of a subharmonic mixer for detection, which simplifies alignment. It employs a single electronically tunable source that is repetitively chirped using a sawtooth waveform of frequency up to 1 MHz. The 15.25 GHz drive oscillator is multiplied in two stages to 122 GHz before a final doubler stage brings it to 244 GHz. Local oscillator (LO) power at 122 GHz is directed through waveguide to the LO input of the subharmonic mixer of each viewing chord, simplifying alignment. Phase detection is performed by directly digitizing the amplified mixer outputs at 50 MHz and processing them with a software algorithm. Initial measurements made with the central chord of the new interferometer agree with those from the existing 4 mm system at low densities. The 1 mm system performs well in current-driven discharges reaching densities over 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the lower frequency interferometer is found to be less reliable due to loss of fringes. This is a critical improvement for experiments studying the onset, avoidance, and vacuum magnetic transform dependence of disruptions in the CTH device.

  17. Study of the tear topography dynamics using a lateral shearing interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    Study of the tear topography dynamics using a lateral shearing interferometer Alfredo Dubra topography/index.htm Abstract: The dynamics of the pre-corneal tear film topography are studied on 21 in quantitative tear topography estimation. Based on the reconstructed tear topography maps, the effects of tear

  18. Triple Michelson Interferometer for a Third-Generation Gravitational Wave Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Freise; S. Chelkowski; S. Hild; W. Del Pozzo; A. Perreca; A. Vecchio

    2009-03-05

    The upcoming European design study `Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope' represents the first step towards a substantial, international effort for the design of a third-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector. It is generally believed that third-generation instruments might not be installed into existing infrastructures but will provoke a new search for optimal detector sites. Consequently, the detector design could be subject to fewer constraints than the on-going design of the second generation instruments. In particular, it will be prudent to investigate alternatives to the traditional L-shaped Michelson interferometer. In this article, we review an old proposal to use three Michelson interferometers in a triangular configuration. We use this example of a triple Michelson interferometer to clarify the terminology and will put this idea into the context of more recent research on interferometer technologies. Furthermore the benefits of a triangular detector will be used to motivate this design as a good starting point for a more detailed research effort towards a third-generation gravitational wave detector.

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 115423 (2013) Nanoscopic interferometer model for spin resonance in current noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horovitz, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    as seen by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) via its current noise. The model for this ESRPHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 115423 (2013) Nanoscopic interferometer model for spin resonance in current noise Anatoly Golub and Baruch Horovitz Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer

  20. 1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey

    1526 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 21, No. 19 / October 1, 1996 Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer H. Medecki Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 K. A. Goldberg Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National

  1. Di erential Astrometry of the 61 Cygni System with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di#11;erential Astrometry of the 61 Cygni System with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. Shao 1 astrometric measurements of the nearby binary system 61 Cygni (HD 201091 and HD 201092) taken with the Palomar at Palomar Observatory (Colavita 1999). Chief among PTI's design features is the ability to track fringes

  2. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

    2011-05-24

    We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: â?˘ Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. â?˘ Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. â?˘ Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

  3. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  4. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Michael P. (Albquuerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  5. Noise power spectral density of a fibre scattered-light interferometer with a semiconductor laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T

    2013-10-31

    Spectral characteristics of the noise intensity fluctuations at the output of a scattered-light interferometer, caused by phase fluctuations of semiconductor laser radiation are considered. This kind of noise is one of the main factors limiting sensitivity of interferometric sensors. For the first time, to our knowledge, the expression is obtained for the average noise power spectral density at the interferometer output versus the degree of a light source coherence and length of the scattering segment. Also, the approximate expressions are considered which determine the power spectral density in the low-frequency range (up to 200 kHz) and in the limiting case of extended scattering segments. The expression obtained for the noise power spectral density agrees with experimental normalised power spectra with a high accuracy. (interferometry of radiation)

  6. Phase Estimation with Non-Unitary Interferometers: Information as a Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas B. Bahder

    2011-03-02

    Determining the phase in one arm of a quantum interferometer is discussed taking into account the three non-ideal aspects in real experiments: non-deterministic state preparation, non-unitary state evolution due to losses during state propagation, and imperfect state detection. A general expression is written for the probability of a measurement outcome taking into account these three non-ideal aspects. As an example of applying the formalism, the classical Fisher information and fidelity (Shannon mutual information between phase and measurements) are computed for few-photon Fock and N00N states input into a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer. These three non-ideal aspects lead to qualitative differences in phase estimation, such as a decrease in fidelity and Fisher information that depends on the true value of the phase.

  7. Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer Imaging of Line Emission Regions of beta Lyrae Using Differential Phase Referencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, H R; Tycner, C; Armstrong, J T; Zavala, R T; Benson, J A; Gilbreath, G C; Hindsley, R B; Hutter, D J; Johnston, K J; Jorgensen, A M; Mozurkewich, D

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to image the interacting binary star beta Lyrae with data from the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), using a differential phase technique to correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the interferometer phases. We take advantage of the fact that the visual primary of beta Lyrae and the visibility calibrator we used are both nearly unresolved and nearly centrally symmetric, and consequently have interferometric phases near zero. We used this property to detect and correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the phases of beta Lyrae and to obtain differential phases in the channel containing the Halpha emission line. Combining the Halpha-channel phases with information about the line strength, we recovered complex visibilities and imaged the Halpha emission using standard radio interferometry methods. We find that the results from our differential phase technique are consistent with those obtained from a more-standard analysis ...

  8. Holographic Noise in Michelson Interferometers: A Direct Experimental Probe of Unification at the Planck Scale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hogan, Craig

    2010-01-08

    Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.

  9. Standard test method for residual strain measurements of thin, reflecting films using an optical interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measuring the compressive residual strain in thin films. It applies only to films, such as found in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials, which can be imaged using an interferometer. Measurements from fixed-fixed beams that are touching the underlying layer are not accepted. 1.2 This test method uses a non-contact optical interferometer with the capability of obtaining topographical 3-D data sets. It is performed in the laboratory. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Standard test method for strain gradient measurements of thin, reflecting films using an optical interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measuring the strain gradient in thin, reflecting films. It applies only to films, such as found in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials, which can be imaged using an optical interferometer. Measurements from cantilevers that are touching the underlying layer are not accepted. 1.2 This test method uses a non-contact optical interferometer with the capability of obtaining topographical 3-D data sets. It is performed in the laboratory. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. A new method for determining the plasma electron density using optical frequency comb interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki Tojo, Hiroshi; Sasao, Hajime; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-15

    A new method of plasma electron density measurement using interferometric phases (fractional fringes) of an optical frequency comb interferometer is proposed. Using the characteristics of the optical frequency comb laser, high density measurement can be achieved without fringe counting errors. Simulations show that the short wavelength and wide wavelength range of the laser source and low noise in interferometric phases measurements are effective to reduce ambiguity of measured density.

  12. Bunch length measurement at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector using a Martin-Puplett interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman-Keup, Randy; Fliller, Raymond Patrick; Kazakevich, Grigory; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the electron bunch lengths at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector using a Martin-Puplett interferometer on loan from DESY. The photoinjector provides a relatively wide range of bunch lengths through laser pulse width adjustment and compression of the beam using a magnetic chicane. We present comparisons of data with simulations that account for diffraction distortions in the signal and discuss future plans for improving the measurement.

  13. The 7-channel FIR HCN Interferometer on J-TEXT Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; L. Gao; J. Chen; Q. Li; Z. J. Wang; G. Zhuang

    2011-12-28

    A seven-channel far-infrared hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer has been established aiming to provide the line integrated plasma density for the J-TEXT experimental scenarios. A continuous wave glow discharge HCN laser designed with a cavity length 3.4 m is used as the laser source with a wavelength of 337 {\\mu}m and an output power up to 100 mW. The system is configured as a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. Phase modulation is achieved by a rotating grating, with a modulation frequency of 10 kHz which corresponds to the temporal resolution of 0.1 ms. The beat signal is detected by TGS detector. The phase shift induced by the plasma is derived by the comparator with a phase sensitivity of 0.06 fringe. The experimental results measured by the J-TEXT interferometer are presented in details. In addition, the inversed electron density profile done by a conventional approach is also given. The kinematic viscosity of dimethyl silicone and vibration control is key issues for the system performance. The laser power stability under different kinematic viscosity of silicone oil is presented. A visible improvement of measured result on vibration reduction is shown in the paper.

  14. Arm-Locking with the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Ira Thorpe; Kirk McKenzie

    2015-10-09

    Arm-locking is a technique for stabilizing the frequency of a laser in an inter-spacecraft interferometer by using the spacecraft separation as the frequency reference. A candidate technique for future space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), arm-locking has been extensive studied in this context through analytic models, time-domain simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop laboratory demonstrations. In this paper we show the Laser Ranging Interferometer instrument flying aboard the upcoming Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission provides an appropriate platform for an on-orbit demonstration of the arm-locking technique. We describe an arm-locking controller design for the GRACE-FO system and a series of time-domain simulations that demonstrate its feasibility. We conclude that it is possible to achieve laser frequency noise suppression of roughly two orders of magnitude around a Fourier frequency of 1Hz with conservative margins on the system's stability. We further demonstrate that `pulling' of the master laser frequency due to fluctuating Doppler shifts and lock acquisition transients is less than $100\\,$MHz over several GRACE-FO orbits. These findings motivate further study of the implementation of such a demonstration.

  15. Arm-Locking with the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2015-01-01

    Arm-locking is a technique for stabilizing the frequency of a laser in an inter-spacecraft interferometer by using the spacecraft separation as the frequency reference. A candidate technique for future space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), arm-locking has been extensive studied in this context through analytic models, time-domain simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop laboratory demonstrations. In this paper we show the Laser Ranging Interferometer instrument flying aboard the upcoming Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission provides an appropriate platform for an on-orbit demonstration of the arm-locking technique. We describe an arm-locking controller design for the GRACE-FO system and a series of time-domain simulations that demonstrate its feasibility. We conclude that it is possible to achieve laser frequency noise suppression of roughly two orders of magnitude around a Fourier frequency of 1Hz with conservative margins...

  16. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suetterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jaeckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-15

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  17. Radiometric Determination of Uranium in Natural Waters after Enrichment and Separation by Cation-Exchange and Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Pashalidis; H. Tsertos

    2003-04-28

    The alpha-radiometric determination of uranium after its pre-concentration from natural water samples using the cation-exchange resin Chelex-100, its selective extraction by tributylphosphate and electrodeposition on stainless steel discs is reported. The validity of the separation procedure and the chemical recoveries were checked by addition of uranium standard solution as well as by tracing with U-232. The average uranium yield was determined to be (97 +- 2) % for the cation-exchange, (95 +- 2) % for the liquid-liquid extraction, and more than 99% for the electrodeposition. Employing high-resolution alpha-spectroscopy, the measured activity of the U-238 and U-234 radioisotopes was found to be of similar magnitude; i.e. ~7 mBq/L and ~35 mBq/L for ground- and seawater samples, respectively. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the alpha-peaks was 22 keV, while the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) was estimated to be 1 mBq/L (at the 95% confidence limit).

  18. Scientific Potential of DECIGO Pathfinder and Testing GR with Space-Borne Gravitational Wave Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent Yagi

    2013-02-11

    DECIGO Pathfinder (DPF) has an ability to detect gravitational waves from galactic intermediate-mass black hole binaries. If the signal is detected, it would be possible to determine parameters of the binary components. Furthermore, by using future space-borne gravitational wave interferometers, it would be possible to test alternative theories of gravity in the strong field regime. In this review article, we first explain how the detectors like DPF and DECIGO/BBO work and discuss the expected event rates. Then, we review how the observed gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binaries with slightly eccentric orbits can be calculated both in general relativity and in alternative theories of gravity. For the latter, we focus on Brans-Dicke and massive gravity theories. After reviewing these theories, we show the results of the parameter estimation with DPF using the Fisher analysis. We also discuss a possible joint search of DPF and ground-based interferometers. Then, we show the results of testing alternative theories of gravity using future space-borne interferometers. DECIGO/BBO would be able to place 4--5 orders of magnitude stronger constraint on Brans-Dicke theory than the solar system experiment. This is still 1--2 orders of magnitude stronger than the future solar system mission such as ASTROD I. On the other hand, LISA should be able to put 4 orders of magnitude more stringent constraint on the mass of the graviton than the current solar system bound. DPF may be able to place comparable constraint on the massive gravity theories as the solar system bound. We also discuss the prospects of using eLISA and ASTROD-GW in testing alternative theories of gravity. The bounds using eLISA are similar to the LISA ones, but ASTROD-GW performs the best in constraining massive gravity theories among all the gravitational wave detectors considered in this article.

  19. Null test fourier domain alignment technique for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick (5239 Miles Ave., Apt. A, Oakland, CA 94618); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (1622 Oxford St., #5t, Berkeley, CA 94709)

    2000-01-01

    Alignment technique for calibrating a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer involves three independent steps where the first two steps independently align the image points and pinholes in rotation and separation to a fixed reference coordinate system, e.g, CCD. Once the two sub-elements have been properly aligned to the reference in two parameters (separation and orientation), the third step is to align the two sub-element coordinate systems to each other in the two remaining parameters (x,y) using standard methods of locating the pinholes relative to some easy to find reference point.

  20. Confirming Fundamental Parameters of the Exoplanet Host Star epsilon Eridani Using the Navy Optical Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baines, Ellyn K

    2011-01-01

    We measured the angular diameter of the exoplanet host star epsilon Eridani using the Navy Optical Interferometer. We determined its physical radius, effective temperature, and mass by combining our measurement with the star's parallax, photometry from the literature, and the Yonsei-Yale isochrones (Yi et al. 2001), respectively. We used the resulting stellar mass of 0.82 +/- 0.05 M_Sun plus the mass function from Benedict et al. (2006) to calculate the planet's mass, which is 1.53 +/- 0.22 M_Jupiter. Using our new effective temperature, we also estimated the extent of the habitable zone for the system.

  1. CONFIRMING FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI USING THE NAVY OPTICAL INTERFEROMETER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. Thomas, E-mail: ellyn.baines@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: tarmstr@crater.nrl.navy.mil [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We measured the angular diameter of the exoplanet host star {epsilon} Eridani using the Navy Optical Interferometer. We determined its physical radius, effective temperature, and mass by combining our measurement with the star's parallax, photometry from the literature, and the Yonsei-Yale isochrones, respectively. We used the resulting stellar mass of 0.82 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Sun} plus the mass function from Benedict et al. to calculate the planet's mass, which is 1.53 {+-} 0.22 M{sub Jupiter}. Using our new effective temperature, we also estimated the extent of the habitable zone for the system.

  2. Circular grating interferometer for mapping transverse coherence area of X-ray beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xianbo, E-mail: xshi@aps.anl.gov; Marathe, Shashidhara; Wojcik, Michael J.; Kujala, Naresh G.; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    A circular grating interferometer was used to map the transverse coherence area of an X-ray beam. Due to the radial symmetry of the circular grating, coherence lengths along all transverse directions were obtained simultaneously by measuring the visibility decay of interferograms recorded at different distances behind a single circular ?/2 phase grating. The technique is model-free and provides direct measurement of the complex coherence factor of the beam. The use of a circular grating also enables the unique capability of measuring the source shape profile. Sensitivity of this technique was demonstrated by detecting the small source tilt of a few degrees.

  3. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY)

    2009-02-17

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  4. Optical layout and mechanical structure of polarimeter-interferometer system for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Z. Y.; Liu, H. Q. Jie, Y. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Shen, J. S.; An, Z. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Li, G. S.; Zhu, X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lan, T.

    2014-11-15

    A Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system for measurement current density profile and electron density profile is under development for the EAST tokamak. The FIR beams are transmitted from the laser room to the optical tower adjacent to EAST via ?20 m overmoded dielectric waveguide and then divided into 5 horizontal chords. The optical arrangement was designed using ZEMAX, which provides information on the beam spot size and energy distribution throughout the optical system. ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system.

  5. Sub-SQL Sensitivity via Optical Rigidity in Advanced LIGO Interferometer with Optical Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Ya. Khalili; V. I. Lazebny; S. P. Vyatchanin

    2005-11-02

    The ``optical springs'' regime of the signal-recycled configuration of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors is analyzed taking in account optical losses in the interferometer arm cavities. This regime allows to obtain sensitivity better than the Standard Quantum Limits both for a free test mass and for a conventional harmonic oscillator. The optical losses restrict the gain in sensitivity and achievable signal-to-noise ratio. Nevertheless, for parameters values planned for the Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave detector, this restriction is insignificant.

  6. US and European Technology Roadmap for a Mid-infrared Space Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuller, Peter A; Lay, Olivier P; Léger, Alain; Martin, Stefan R

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mid-infrared space interferometer concepts in the USA and in Europe have converged on a single architecture. We address the question of how the US and European communities could collaborate to advance technology efforts leading to a future space mission. We present the current state of the art in nulling interferometry, as demonstrated at ambient temperature and pressure in the lab, and outline required steps to demonstrate its performance under space conditions. Design studies of a cryogenic optical test bench under vacuum have already been carried out. We highlight pre-conditions and constraints of a collaborative effort, foreseeable practical and administrative challenges, and possible strategies to meet those challenges.

  7. Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. L. Danilishin; C. Graef; S. S. Leavey; J. Hennig; E. A. Houston; D. Pascucci; S. Steinlechner; J. Wright; S. Hild

    2015-02-19

    The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalised, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally,we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope (ET) to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with meter- and kilometre-long baselines.

  8. Cosmology with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer using a space based astrometric reference frame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Tytler

    1997-01-26

    Cosmology with large interferometric telescopes is a rich and largely unexplored subject, involving three types of measurement: astrometric measurement of absolute distances and proper motions, dispersions of relative proper motions, and images. The ground based interferometers can have huge apertures, which are necessary for faint cosmological targets. But, alone, they are limited to astrometry within the isoplanatic patch, and hence to relative positions, which are of little use for parallaxes and proper motions because reference stars have unknown parallaxes and huge (500 \\mu arcsec) unknown motions. We propose that space missions should measure global astrometric parallaxes and proper motions for (V > 16) reference stars within the isoplanatic patches of important cosmological and Galactic targets. Ground based interferometers can then measure absolute distances (parallaxes) and proper motions to 10 \\mu arcsec, tied to these reference stars. But cosmological observations stretch the VLTI technically. To observe the few best targets, we need to be able to measure positions to 16) near to important targets. Most of the science is at 1 --2 microns, where excellent adaptive optics will be needed on the 8-m telescopes.

  9. A compact micro-wave synthesizer for transportable cold-atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautier, Jean; Landragin, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    We present the realization of a compact micro-wave frequency synthesizer for an atom interferometer based on stimulated Raman transitions, applied to transportable inertial sensing. Our set-up is intended to address the hyperfine transitions of Rubidium 87 atoms at 6.8 GHz. The prototype is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domain by comparison with state-of-the-art frequency references developed at LNE-SYRTE. In free-running mode, it features a residual phase noise level of -65 dBrad$^2.Hz^{-1} at 10-Hz offset frequency and a white phase noise level in the order of -120 dBrad^2.Hz^{-1} for Fourier frequencies above 10 kHz. The phase noise effect on the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer is evaluated for diverse values of cycling time, interrogation time and Raman pulse duration. To our knowledge, the resulting contribution is well below the sensitivity of any demonstrated cold atom inertial sensors based on stimulated Raman transitions. The drastic improvement in terms of size, simplicity an...

  10. A compact micro-wave synthesizer for transportable cold-atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean Lautier; Michel Lours; Arnaud Landragin

    2014-06-11

    We present the realization of a compact micro-wave frequency synthesizer for an atom interferometer based on stimulated Raman transitions, applied to transportable inertial sensing. Our set-up is intended to address the hyperfine transitions of Rubidium 87 atoms at 6.8 GHz. The prototype is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domain by comparison with state-of-the-art frequency references developed at LNE-SYRTE. In free-running mode, it features a residual phase noise level of -65 dBrad$^2.Hz^{-1} at 10-Hz offset frequency and a white phase noise level in the order of -120 dBrad^2.Hz^{-1} for Fourier frequencies above 10 kHz. The phase noise effect on the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer is evaluated for diverse values of cycling time, interrogation time and Raman pulse duration. To our knowledge, the resulting contribution is well below the sensitivity of any demonstrated cold atom inertial sensors based on stimulated Raman transitions. The drastic improvement in terms of size, simplicity and power consumption paves the way towards field and mobile operations.

  11. Creep events and creep noise in gravitational-wave interferometers: basic formalism and stationary limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    In gravitational-wave interferometers, test masses are suspended on thin fibers which experience considerable tension stress. Sudden microscopic stress release in a suspension fiber, which I call a 'creep event', would excite motion of the test mass that would be coupled to the interferometer's readout. The random test-mass motion due to a time-sequence of creep events is referred to as 'creep noise'. In this paper I present an elasto-dynamic calculation for the test-mass motion due to a creep event. I show that within a simple suspension model, the main coupling to the optical readout occurs via a combination of a "dc" horizontal displacement of the test mass, and excitation of the violin and pendulum modes, and not, as was thought previously, via lengthening of the fiber. When the creep events occur sufficiently frequently and their statistics is time-independent, the creep noise can be well-approximated by a stationary Gaussian random process. I derive the functional form of the creep noise spectral densit...

  12. Creep events and creep noise in gravitational-wave interferometers: basic formalism and stationary limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri Levin

    2012-12-05

    In gravitational-wave interferometers, test masses are suspended on thin fibers which experience considerable tension stress. Sudden microscopic stress release in a suspension fiber, which I call a 'creep event', would excite motion of the test mass that would be coupled to the interferometer's readout. The random test-mass motion due to a time-sequence of creep events is referred to as 'creep noise'. In this paper I present an elasto-dynamic calculation for the test-mass motion due to a creep event. I show that within a simple suspension model, the main coupling to the optical readout occurs via a combination of a "dc" horizontal displacement of the test mass, and excitation of the violin and pendulum modes, and not, as was thought previously, via lengthening of the fiber. When the creep events occur sufficiently frequently and their statistics is time-independent, the creep noise can be well-approximated by a stationary Gaussian random process. I derive the functional form of the creep noise spectral density in this limit, with the restrictive assumption that the creep events are statistically independent from each other.

  13. Quantum information technology with Sagnac interferometer: Interaction-free measurement, quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington Alves de Brito; Rubens Viana Ramos

    2007-06-08

    The interferometry of single-photon pulses has been used to implement quantum technology systems, like quantum key distribution, interaction-free measurement and some other quantum communication protocols. In most of these implementations, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers are the most used. In this work we present optical setups for interaction-free measurement, quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing using the Sagnac interferometer. The proposed setups are described as well the quantum protocols using them are explained.

  14. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

    2010-10-19

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the �¢����solar-background�¢��� mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM�¢����s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS�¢���� 1 Hz sampling to study the �¢����twilight zone�¢��� around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM�¢����s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM�¢����s operational data processing.

  15. The Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita 1 , J. K. Wallace 1 , B. E. Hines 1 , Y. Gursel 1 , F. Malbet 1;3 D. L. Palmer 1 , X. P.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita 1 , J. K. Wallace 1 , B. E. Hines 1 , Y. Gursel 1, techniques: interferometric ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long­baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. It was built as a testbed for interferometric

  16. The Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita1, J. K. Wallace1, B. E. Hines1, Y. Gursel1, F. Malbet1;3 D. L. Palmer1, X. P.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita1, J. K. Wallace1, B. E. Hines1, Y. Gursel1, F ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer PTI is a long-baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. It was built as a testbed for interferometric techniques applicable

  17. Diameters of delta Cephei and eta Aquilae Measured with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. T. Armstrong; Tyler E. Nordgren; M. E. Germain; Arsen R. Hajian; R. B. Hindsley; C. A. Hummel; D. Mozurkewich; R. N. Thessin

    2000-09-25

    We have measured the diameters of the Cepheid variables delta Cephei (18 nights) and eta Aquilae (11 nights) with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. The primary results of these observations are the mean angular diameters of these Cepheids: 1.520 +/- 0.014 milliseconds of arc (mas) for delta Cep and 1.69 +/- 0.04 mas for eta Aql. We also report limb-darkened diameters for the check stars in this program: for beta Lac, theta(LD) = 1.909 +/- 0.011 mas, and for 12 Aql, theta(LD) = 2.418 +/- 0.010 mas. When combined with radius estimates from period-radius relations in the literature, the Cepheid angular diameters suggest distances slightly smaller than, but still consistent with, the Hipparcos distances. Pulsations are weakly detected at a level of about 1.5 sigma to 2 sigma for both Cepheids.

  18. Transmission phase lapse in the non-Hermitian Aharonov-Bohm interferometer near the spectral singularity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Zhang; X. Q. Li; X. Z. Zhang; Z. Song

    2015-03-28

    We study the effect of PT-symmetric imaginary potentials embedded in the two arms of an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer on the transmission phase by finding an exact solution for a concrete tight-binding system. It is observed that the spectral singularity always occurs at k=${\\pm}${\\pi}/2 for a wide range of fluxes and imaginary potentials. Critical behavior associated with the physics of the spectral singularity is also investigated. It is demonstrated that the quasi-spectral singularity corresponds to a transmission maximum and the transmission phase jumps abruptly by {\\pi} when the system is swept through this point. Moreover, We find that there exists a pulse-like phase lapse when the imaginary potential approaches the boundary value of the spectral singularity.

  19. CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2015-01-01

    A polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum swapping, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. Here, we report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped degenerated 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II phase-matched periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference measurement shows the photon bandwidth of 2.4 nm. High quality of entanglement is verified by various kinds of measurements, for example two-photon interference fringes, Bell inequality and quantum states tomography. The wavelength of photons can be tuned over a broad range by changing the temperature of crystal or pump power without losing the quality of entanglement. This source will be useful for building up long-distance quantum networks.

  20. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Dettori, Mark D. (Farmington, CT); Grigely, Lawrence J. (South Windsor, CT); Murray, Terence C. (Winchester, MA); Solomon, Peter R. (West Hartford, CT); Van Dine, C. Peter (Bolton, CT); Wright, David D. (Vershire, VT)

    1996-01-01

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor.

  1. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  2. Scientific Results from High-precision Astrometry at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew W. Muterspaugh; Benjamin F. Lane; Maciej Konacki; B. F. Burke; M. M. Colavita; S. R. Kulkarni; M. Shao

    2006-05-31

    A new observing mode for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer was developed in2002-2003 which enables differential astrometry at the level of 20 micro-arcseconds for binary systems with separations of several hundred milli-arcseconds (mas). This phase-referenced mode is the basis of the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES), a search for giant planets orbiting either the primary or secondary star in fifty binary systems. We present the first science results from the PHASES search. The properties of the stars comprising binary systems are determined to high precision. The mutual inclinations of several hierarchical triple star systems have been determined. We will present upper limits constraining the the existence of giant planets in a few of the target systems.

  3. Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system for current density measurement on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X. Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Wang, Z. X.; Qian, J. P.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lan, T.; Li, G. S.

    2014-11-15

    A multichannel far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique is under development for current density and electron density profile measurements in the EAST tokamak. Novel molybdenum retro-reflectors are mounted in the inside wall for the double-pass optical arrangement. A Digital Phase Detector with 250 kHz bandwidth, which will provide real-time Faraday rotation angle and density phase shift output, have been developed for use on the POINT system. Initial calibration indicates the electron line-integrated density resolution is less than 5 × 10{sup 16} m{sup ?2} (?2°), and the Faraday rotation angle rms phase noise is <0.1°.

  4. Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer Imaging of Line Emission Regions of beta Lyrae Using Differential Phase Referencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. R. Schmitt; T. A. Pauls; C. Tycner; J. T. Armstrong; R. T. Zavala; J. A. Benson; G. C. Gilbreath; R. B. Hindsley; D. J. Hutter; K. J. Johnston; A. M. Jorgensen; D. Mozurkewich

    2008-01-30

    We present the results of an experiment to image the interacting binary star beta Lyrae with data from the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), using a differential phase technique to correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the interferometer phases. We take advantage of the fact that the visual primary of beta Lyrae and the visibility calibrator we used are both nearly unresolved and nearly centrally symmetric, and consequently have interferometric phases near zero. We used this property to detect and correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the phases of beta Lyrae and to obtain differential phases in the channel containing the Halpha emission line. Combining the Halpha-channel phases with information about the line strength, we recovered complex visibilities and imaged the Halpha emission using standard radio interferometry methods. We find that the results from our differential phase technique are consistent with those obtained from a more-standard analysis using squared visibilities (V^2's). Our images show the position of the Halpha emitting regions relative to the continuum photocenter as a function of orbital phase and indicate that the major axis of the orbit is oriented along p.a.=248.8+/-1.7 deg. The orbit is smaller than previously predicted, a discrepancy that can be alleviated if we assume that the system is at a larger distance from us, or that the contribution of the stellar continuum to the Halpha channel is larger than estimated. Finally, we also detected a differential phase signal in the channels containing HeI emission lines at 587.6 and 706.5nm, with orbital behavior different from that of the Halpha, indicating that it originates from a different part of this interacting system.

  5. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhifang; Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo; Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARM Data

  7. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARM Data Discoverydiffusedirect

  8. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARM Datadownwelling

  9. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARM

  10. Understanding the dramatic role of anomalous dispersion on the measurement of electron densities in plasmas using interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2005-07-20

    For decades the electron density of plasmas has been measured using optical interferometers. With the availability of good X-ray laser sources in the last decade interferometers have been extended into the wavelength range 14-47 nm, which has enabled researchers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index less than one. Recent interferometer experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with index of refraction greater than one at 14 nm and brought into question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index. In this paper we show how the anomalous dispersion from bound electrons can dominate the free electron contribution to the index of refraction in many plasmas and make the index greater than one or enhance the contribution to the index such that one would greatly overestimate the density of the plasma using interferometers. Using a new average-atom code we calculate the index of refraction in many plasmas at different temperatures for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV and compare against calculations done with OPAL. We also present examples of other plasmas that may have index of refraction greater than one at X-ray laser energies. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other X-ray sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  11. Performance study of ground-based infrared Bracewell interferometers - Application to the detection of exozodiacal dust disks with GENIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Absil; R. den Hartog; P. Gondoin; P. Fabry; R. Wilhelm; P. Gitton; F. Puech

    2005-11-08

    Nulling interferometry, a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of the close neighbourhood of bright astrophysical objets, is currently considered for future space missions such as Darwin or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I), both aiming at Earth-like planet detection and characterization. Ground-based nulling interferometers are being studied for both technology demonstration and scientific preparation of the Darwin/TPF-I missions through a systematic survey of circumstellar dust disks around nearby stars. In this paper, we investigate the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the performance of ground-based nulling instruments, and deduce the major design guidelines for such instruments. End-to-end numerical simulations allow us to estimate the performance of the main subsystems and thereby the actual sensitivity of the nuller to faint exozodiacal disks. Particular attention is also given to the important question of stellar leakage calibration. This study is illustrated in the context of GENIE, the Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment, to be installed at the VLTI and working in the L' band. We estimate that this instrument will detect exozodiacal clouds as faint as about 50 times the Solar zodiacal cloud, thereby placing strong constraints on the acceptable targets for Darwin/TPF-I.

  12. Standard test method for In-Plane length measurements of thin, reflecting films using an optical interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for measuring in-plane lengths (including deflections) of patterned thin films. It applies only to films, such as found in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials, which can be imaged using an optical interferometer. 1.2 There are other ways to determine in-plane lengths. Using the design dimensions typically provides more precise in-plane length values than using measurements taken with an optical interferometer. (Interferometric measurements are typically more precise than measurements taken with an optical microscope.) This test method is intended for use when interferometric measurements are preferred over using the design dimensions (for example, when measuring in-plane deflections and when measuring lengths in an unproven fabrication process). 1.3 This test method uses a non-contact optical interferometer with the capability of obtaining topographical 3-D data sets. It is performed in the laboratory. 1.4 The maximum in-plane length measured is determine...

  13. Probability distribution function for inclinations of merging compact binaries detected by gravitational wave interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoki Seto

    2014-10-20

    We analytically discuss probability distribution function (PDF) for inclinations of merging compact binaries whose gravitational waves are coherently detected by a network of ground based interferometers. The PDF would be useful for studying prospects of (1) simultaneously detecting electromagnetic signals (such as gamma-ray-bursts) associated with binary mergers and (2) statistically constraining the related theoretical models from the actual observational data of multi-messenger astronomy. Our approach is similar to Schutz (2011), but we explicitly include the dependence of the polarization angles of the binaries, based on the concise formulation given in Cutler and Flanagan (1994). We find that the overall profiles of the PDFs are similar for any networks composed by the second generation detectors (Advanced-LIGO, Advanced-Virgo, KAGRA, LIGO-India). For example, 5.1% of detected binaries would have inclination angle less than 10 degree with at most 0.1% differences between the potential networks. A perturbative expression is also provided for generating the PDFs with a small number of parameters given by directional averages of the quantity $\\epsilon$ that characterises the asymmetry of network sensitivities to incoming two orthogonal polarization modes.

  14. Asymmetric Surface Brightness Distribution of Altair Observed with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohishi, N; Hutter, D J; Ohishi, Naoko; Nordgren, Tyler E.; Hutter, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    An asymmetric surface brightness distribution of the rapidly rotating A7IV-V star, Altair, has been measured by the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI). The observations were recorded simultaneously using a triangle of three long baselines of 30m, 37m, and 64m, on 19 spectral channels, covering the wavelength range of 520nm to 850nm. The outstanding characteristics of these observations are (a) high resolution with the minimum fringe spacing of 1.7mas, easily resolving the 3-milliarcsecond (mas) stellar disk, and (b) the measurement of closure phase which is a sensitive indicator to the asymmetry of the brightness distribution of the source. Uniform disk diameters fit to the measured squared visibility amplitudes confirms the Altair's oblate shape due to its rapid rotation. The measured observables of Altair showed two features which are inconsistent with both the uniform-disk and limb-darkened disk models, while the measured observable of the comparison star, Vega, are consistent with the limb-darke...

  15. Strongly lensed neutral hydrogen emission: detection predictions with current and future radio interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deane, R P; Heywood, I

    2015-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides some of the deepest views of the Universe, enabling studies of high-redshift galaxies only possible with next-generation facilities without the lensing phenomenon. To date, 21 cm radio emission from neutral hydrogen has only been detected directly out to z~0.2, limited by the sensitivity and instantaneous bandwidth of current radio telescopes. We discuss how current and future radio interferometers such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will detect lensed HI emission in individual galaxies at high redshift. Our calculations rely on a semi-analytic galaxy simulation with realistic HI disks (by size, density profile and rotation), in a cosmological context, combined with general relativistic ray tracing. Wide-field, blind HI surveys with the SKA are predicted to be efficient at discovering lensed HI systems, increasingly so at z > 2. This will be enabled by the combination of the magnification boosts, the steepness of the HI luminosity function at the high-mass end, and t...

  16. PLANETARY TRANSITS WITH THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY RADIO INTERFEROMETER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Barbosa, C. L.; Válio, Adriana

    2013-11-10

    Planetary transits are commonly observed at visible wavelengths. Here we investigate the shape of a planetary transit observed at radio wavelengths. Solar maps at 17 GHz are used as a proxy for the stellar eclipse by several sizes of planets from super-Earths to hot Jupiters. The relative depth at mid-transit is the same as observed at visible wavelengths, but the limb brightening of the stellar disk at 17 GHz is clearly seen in the shape of the transit light curve. Moreover, when the planet occults an active region the depth of the transit decreases even further, depending on the brightness of the active region relative to the surrounding disk. For intense active region, with 50 times the brightness temperature of the surrounding disk, the decrease can supercede the unperturbed transit depth depending on the size of the eclipsing planet. For a super-Earth (R{sub p} = 0.02 R{sub s} ) crossing, the decrease in intensity is 0.04%, increasing to 0.86% in the case when a strong active region is present. On the other hand, for a hot Jupiter with R{sub p} = 0.17R{sub s} , the unperturbed transit depth is 3% increasing to 4.7% when covering this strong active region. This kind of behavior can be verified with observation of planetary transits with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array radio interferometer.

  17. Observations of the pulsation of the Cepheid l Car with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Davis; A. P. Jacob; J. G. Robertson; M. J. Ireland; J. R. North; W. J. Tango; P. G. Tuthill

    2008-12-28

    Observations of the southern Cepheid l Car to yield the mean angular diameter and angular pulsation amplitude have been made with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) at a wavelength of 696 nm. The resulting mean limb-darkened angular diameter is 2.990+-0.017 mas (i.e. +-0.6 per cent) with a maximum-to-minimum amplitude of 0.560+-0.018 mas corresponding to 18.7+-0.6 per cent in the mean stellar diameter. Careful attention has been paid to uncertainties, including those in measurements, in the adopted calibrator angular diameters, in the projected values of visibility squared at zero baseline, and to systematic effects. No evidence was found for a circumstellar envelope at 696 nm. The interferometric results have been combined with radial displacements of the stellar atmosphere derived from selected radial velocity data taken from the literature to determine the distance and mean diameter of l Car. The distance is determined to be 525+-26 pc and the mean radius 169+-8R{solar). Comparison with published values for the distance and mean radius show excellent agreement, particularly when a common scaling factor from observed radial velocity to pulsation velocity of the stellar atmosphere (the p-factor) is used.

  18. Low Frequency Gravitational Wave Detection With Ground Based Atom Interferometer Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaibi, W; Canuel, B; Bertoldi, A; Landragin, A; Bouyer, P

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new detection strategy for gravitational waves (GWs) below few Hertz based on a correlated array of atom interferometers (AIs). Our proposal allows to reduce the Newtonian Noise (NN) which limits all ground based GW detectors below few Hertz, including previous atom interferometry-based concepts. Using an array of long baseline AI gradiometers yields several estimations of the NN, whose effect can thus be reduced via statistical averaging. Considering the km baseline of current optical detectors, a NN rejection of factor 2 could be achieved, and tested with existing AI array geometries. Exploiting the correlation properties of the gravity acceleration noise, we show that a 10-fold or more NN rejection is possible with a dedicated configuration. Considering a conservative NN model and the current developments in cold atom technology, we show that strain sensitivities below $1\\times 10^{-19}/ \\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}$ in the $ 0.3-3 \\ \\text{Hz}$ frequency band can be within reach, with a peak sensitivity o...

  19. Asymmetric Surface Brightness Distribution of Altair Observed with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoko Ohishi; Tyler E. Nordgren; Donald J. Hutter

    2004-05-16

    An asymmetric surface brightness distribution of the rapidly rotating A7IV-V star, Altair, has been measured by the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI). The observations were recorded simultaneously using a triangle of three long baselines of 30m, 37m, and 64m, on 19 spectral channels, covering the wavelength range of 520nm to 850nm. The outstanding characteristics of these observations are (a) high resolution with the minimum fringe spacing of 1.7mas, easily resolving the 3-milliarcsecond (mas) stellar disk, and (b) the measurement of closure phase which is a sensitive indicator to the asymmetry of the brightness distribution of the source. Uniform disk diameters fit to the measured squared visibility amplitudes confirms the Altair's oblate shape due to its rapid rotation. The measured observables of Altair showed two features which are inconsistent with both the uniform-disk and limb-darkened disk models, while the measured observable of the comparison star, Vega, are consistent with the limb-darkened disk model. The first feature is that measured squared visibility amplitudes at the first minimum do not reach 0.0 but rather remain at about 0.02, indicating the existence of a small bright region on the stellar disk. The other is that the measured closure phases show non-zero/180 degrees at all spectral channels, which requires an asymmetric surface brightness distribution. We fitted the measured observables to a model with a bright spot on a limb-darkened disk and found the observations are well reproduced by a bright spot, which has relative intensity of 4.7%, on a 3.38 mas limb-darkened stellar disk. Rapid rotation of Altair indicates that this bright region is a pole, which is brighter than other part of the star owing to gravity darkening.

  20. Results from the northern New Mexico satellite-beacon radio interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos, R.; Jacobson, A.; Massey, R.; Wu, G.

    1994-09-01

    An interferometer described in the Boston, 1992, meeting of the Beacon Satellite Symposium has been in full operation for over a year now. It consists of four autonomous stations; three are in a triangle 70 km on a side and one is in the center. The stations receive the VHF beacons from two geosynchronous satellites, GOES-2 and ATS-3. The phases of the beacons are tracked at each station by referring them to an extremely stable rubidium oscillator. The studies of the two satellites are virtually separate experiments. The received phase of the beacon is retarded by the increased Total-Electron-Content of the dense regions of waves in the ionosphere. By comparing the phase history at four spatially separated stations, the authors can determine the two-dimensional propagation vector of the waves. This array is optimal for wavelengths of 70--300 km (periods of 300--3,000 seconds). Since the measurement is of the phase of the signal rather than the difference between the O-mode and X-mode phases, and since the beacons are in the VHF rather than in the L-band of GPS beacons, the array is very sensitive. It has a noise level of 10{sup 13} electrons/m{sup 2}, or 10{sup {minus}4} of the normal daytime TEC. This has been verified by operating two stations in the same location, so that they saw the same ionosphere. The first interesting results from a year`s study is that the authors do not see the same TID`s when looking at the two satellites. One conclusion they draw is that they do not see evidence of ionospheric winds.

  1. Testing the universality of free fall with rubidium and ytterbium in a very large baseline atom interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas Hartwig; Sven Abend; Christian Schubert; Dennis Schlippert; Holger Ahlers; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

    2015-03-04

    We propose a very long baseline atom interferometer test of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) with ytterbium and rubidium extending over 10m of free fall. In view of existing parametrizations of EEP violations, this choice of test masses significantly broadens the scope of atom interferometric EEP tests with respect to other performed or proposed tests by comparing two elements with high atomic numbers. In a first step, our experimental scheme will allow reaching an accuracy in the E\\"otv\\"os ratio of $7\\times 10^{-13}$. This achievement will constrain violation scenarios beyond our present knowledge and will represent an important milestone for exploring a variety of schemes for further improvements of the tests as outlined in the paper. We will discuss the technical realisation in the new infrastructure of the Hanover Institute of Technology (HITec) and give a short overview of the requirements to reach this accuracy. The experiment will demonstrate a variety of techniques which will be employed in future tests of EEP, high accuracy gravimetry and gravity-gradiometry. It includes operation of a force sensitive atom interferometer with an alkaline earth like element in free fall, beam splitting over macroscopic distances and novel source concepts.

  2. Application of asymptotic expansions for maximum likelihood estimators errors to gravitational waves from binary mergers: The single interferometer case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanolin, M.; Vitale, S.; Makris, N.

    2010-06-15

    In this paper we apply to gravitational waves (GW) from the inspiral phase of binary systems a recently derived frequentist methodology to calculate analytically the error for a maximum likelihood estimate of physical parameters. We use expansions of the covariance and the bias of a maximum likelihood estimate in terms of inverse powers of the signal-to-noise ration (SNR)s where the square root of the first order in the covariance expansion is the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB). We evaluate the expansions, for the first time, for GW signals in noises of GW interferometers. The examples are limited to a single, optimally oriented, interferometer. We also compare the error estimates using the first two orders of the expansions with existing numerical Monte Carlo simulations. The first two orders of the covariance allow us to get error predictions closer to what is observed in numerical simulations than the CRLB. The methodology also predicts a necessary SNR to approximate the error with the CRLB and provides new insight on the relationship between waveform properties, SNR, dimension of the parameter space and estimation errors. For example the timing match filtering can achieve the CRLB only if the SNR is larger than the Kurtosis of the gravitational wave spectrum and the necessary SNR is much larger if other physical parameters are also unknown.

  3. Testing General Relativity and Alternative Theories of Gravity with Space-based Atomic Clocks and Atom Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruxandra Bondarescu; Andreas Schärer; Philippe Jetzer; Raymond Angélil; Prasenjit Saha; Andrew Lundgren

    2014-12-05

    The successful miniaturisation of extremely accurate atomic clocks and atom interferometers invites prospects for satellite missions to perform precision experiments. We discuss the effects predicted by general relativity and alternative theories of gravity that can be detected by a clock, which orbits the Earth. Our experiment relies on the precise tracking of the spacecraft using its observed tick-rate. The spacecraft's reconstructed four-dimensional trajectory will reveal the nature of gravitational perturbations in Earth's gravitational field, potentially differentiating between different theories of gravity. This mission can measure multiple relativistic effects all during the course of a single experiment, and constrain the Parametrized Post-Newtonian Parameters around the Earth. A satellite carrying a clock of fractional timing inaccuracy of $\\Delta f/f \\sim 10^{-16}$ in an elliptic orbit around the Earth would constrain the PPN parameters $|\\beta -1|, |\\gamma-1| \\lesssim 10^{-6}$. We also briefly review potential constraints by atom interferometers on scalar tensor theories and in particular on Chameleon and dilaton models.

  4. Upper limits on a stochastic gravitational-wave background using LIGO and Virgo interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Baragoya, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavagliŕ, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endr?czi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) = \\Omega_3 (f/900 \\mathrm{Hz})^3$, of $\\Omega_3 < 0.33$, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of $h_{100}=0.72$. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  5. Upper limits on a stochastic gravitational-wave background using LIGO and Virgo interferometers at 600-1000 Hz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; P. Ajith; B. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. A. Arain; M. C. Araya; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; J. C. B. Barayoga; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; D. Beck; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; A. Belletoile; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavagliŕ; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; T. Chalermsongsak; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; W. Chen; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; D. E. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endr\\Hoczi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; F. Feroz; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; S. Foley; E. Forsi; L. A. Forte; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; M. -K. Fujimoto; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; J. Garcia; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gemme; R. Geng; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; S. Gil; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; N. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; T. Ha; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; M. Holtrop; T. Hong; S. Hooper; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; Y. J. Jang; P. Jaranowski; E. Jesse; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; R. Kasturi; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; D. Kelley; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. Kim; C. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. -M. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; S. Koranda; W. Z. Korth; I. Kowalska; D. Kozak; O. Kranz; V. Kringel; S. Krishnamurthy; B. Krishnan; A. Królak; G. Kuehn; R. Kumar; P. Kwee; P. K. Lam

    2012-02-23

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of many incoherent sources of gravitational waves, of either cosmological or astrophysical origin. This background is a target for the current generation of ground-based detectors. In this article we present the first joint search for a stochastic background using data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. In a frequency band of 600-1000 Hz, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the amplitude of $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) = \\Omega_3 (f/900 \\mathrm{Hz})^3$, of $\\Omega_3 < 0.33$, assuming a value of the Hubble parameter of $h_{100}=0.72$. These new limits are a factor of seven better than the previous best in this frequency band.

  6. Multichannel microwave interferometer with an antenna switching system for electron density measurement in a laboratory plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Lin, Yu-Hsiang [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Mase, Atsushi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)] [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Nishida, Yasushi; Cheng, C. Z. [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    This study presents a simple and powerful technique for multichannel measurements of the density profile in laboratory plasmas by microwave interferometry. This technique uses electromechanical microwave switches to temporally switch the connection between multiple receiver antennas and one phase-detection circuit. Using this method, the phase information detected at different positions is rearranged into a time series that can be acquired from a minimum number of data acquisition channels (e.g., two channels in the case of quadrature detection). Our successfully developed multichannel microwave interferometer that uses the antenna switching method was applied to measure the radial electron density profiles in a magnetized plasma experiment. The advantage of the proposed method is its compactness and scalability to multidimensional measurement systems at low cost.

  7. ARM - SGP Radiometric Calibration Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendarPressExtended Facility SGP Related

  8. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Revercomb, David Tobin, Robert Knuteson, Lori Borg, Leslie Moy

    2009-06-17

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004. More specifically, our major achievements for ARM include 1. Development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) to function like a satellite on the ground for ARM, providing a steady stream of accurately calibrated spectral radiances for Science Team clear sky and cloud applications (Knuteson et al. 2004a), 2. Detailed radiometric calibration and characterization of AERI radiances, with uncertainty estimates established from complete error analyses and proven by inter-comparison tests (Knuteson et al. 2004b), 3. AERI data quality assessment and maintenance over the extended time frames needed to support ARM (Dedecker et al., 2005) 4. Key role in the radiative transfer model improvements from the AERI/LBLRTM QME (Turner et al. 2004) and AERI-ER especially from the SHEBA experiment (Tobin et al. 1999), 5. Contributed scientific and programmatic leadership leading to significant water vapor accuracy improvements and uncertainty assessments for the low to mid troposphere (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003), 6. Leadership of the ARM assessment of the accuracy of water vapor observations from radiosondes, Raman Lidar and in situ aircraft observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (Tobin et al. 2002, Ferrare et al. 2004), 7. New techniques for characterizing clouds from AERI (DeSlover et al. 1999, Turner 2003b, Turner et al. 2003b), 8. Initial design and development of the Scanning-HIS aircraft instrument and application to ARM UAV Program missions (Revercomb et al. 2005), and 9. Coordinated efforts leading to the use of ARM observations as a key validation tool for the high resolution Atmospheric IR Sounder on the NASA Aqua platform (Tobin et al. 2005a) 10. Performed ARM site and global clear sky radiative closure studies that shows closure of top-of-atmosphere flux at the level of ~1 W/m2 (Moy et al 2008 and Section 3 of this appendix) 11. Performed studies to characterize SGP site cirrus cloud property retrievals and assess impacts on computed fluxes and heating rate profiles (Borg et al. 2008 and Section 2 of this appendix).

  9. A Fast Gridded Method for the Estimation of the Power Spectrum of the CMB from Interferometer Data with Application to the Cosmic Background Imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. T. Myers; C. R. Contaldi; J. R. Bond; U. -L. Pen; D. Pogosyan; S. Prunet; J. L. Sievers; B. S. Mason; T. J. Pearson; A. C. S. Readhead; M. C. Shepherd

    2002-05-23

    We describe an algorithm for the extraction of the angular power spectrum of an intensity field, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), from interferometer data. This new method, based on the gridding of interferometer visibilities in the aperture plane followed by a maximum likelihood solution for bandpowers, is much faster than direct likelihood analysis of the visibilities, and deals with foreground radio sources, multiple pointings, and differencing. The gridded aperture-plane estimators are also used to construct Wiener-filtered images using the signal and noise covariance matrices used in the likelihood analysis. Results are shown for simulated data. The method has been used to determine the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background from observations with the Cosmic Background Imager, and the results are given in companion papers.

  10. Measurement of Electron Density near Plasma Grid of Large-scaled Negative Ion Source by Means of Millimeter-Wave Interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Ito, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Shibuya, M.; Sato, M.; Komada, S.; Kondo, T.; Hayashi, H.; Asano, E.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2011-09-26

    A millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 39 GHz ({lambda} 7.7 mm) was newly installed to a large-scaled negative ion source. The measurable line-integrated electron density (n{sub e}l) is from 2x10{sup 16} to 7x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}, where n{sub e} and l represent an electron density and the plasma length along the millimeter-wave path, respectively. Our interest in this study is behavior of negative ions and reduction of electron density in the beam extraction region near the plasma grid. The first results show the possibility of the electron density measurement by the millimeter-wave interferometer in this region. The line-averaged electron density increases proportional to the arc power under the condition without cesium seeding. The significant decrease of the electron density and significant increase of the negative ion density were observed just after the cesium seeding. The electron density measured with the interferometer agrees well with that observed with a Langmuir probe. The very high negative ion ratio of n{sub H-}/(n{sub e}+n{sub H-}) = 0.85 was achieved within 400 min. after the cesium seeding.

  11. Fabrication of high aspect grating using bonded substrate for X-ray refraction imaging by Talbot-Lau interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tada, Takuji; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Ito, Wataru; Agano, Toshitaka [Medical Systems Research and Development Center, R and D Management Headquarters, FUJIFILM Corp., 798, Miyanodai, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8538 (Japan); Imaging Technology Center, R and D Management Headquarters, FUJIFILM Corp., 798, Miyanodai, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8538 (Japan)

    2012-07-31

    In order to improve the image quality of X-ray refraction images using a Talbot-Lau interferometer, we have been attempting to fabricate gratings with high aspect ratio. In our attempt, deep grooves of grating structure were channeled on a Si substrate bonded by Au diffusion bonding method, and the grooves were filled with Au where the Au layer used for the bonding Si substrate was acting as a seed layer of Au electroplating. From the results of a visibility measurement and a cross sectional SEM image, it was confirmed that the grooves with a pitch of 5.8 {mu}m and a depth of 100 {mu}m could be successfully filled with Au over a large area of 72 Multiplication-Sign 80 mm{sup 2}. Using this grating, the X-ray refraction images for the cartilage of a knee joint of a livestock pig could be obtained where SPS method was employed for the single-shot image acquisition.

  12. Direct multi-wavelength limb-darkening measurements of three late-type giants with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wittkowski; C. A. Hummel; K. J. Johnston; D. Mozurkewich; A. R. Hajian; N. M. White

    2001-08-10

    We present direct measurements of the limb-darkened intensity profiles of the late-type giant stars HR5299, HR7635, and HR8621 obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) at the Lowell Observatory. A triangle of baselines with lengths of 18.9 m, 22.2 m, and 37.5 m was used. We utilized squared visibility amplitudes beyond the first minimum, as well as triple amplitudes and phases in up to 10 spectral channels covering a wavelength range of ~650 nm to ~850 nm. We find that our data can best be described by featureless symmetric limb-darkened disk models while uniform disk and fully darkened disk models can be rejected. We derive high-precision angular limb-darkened diameters for the three stars of 7.44 mas +/- 0.11 mas, 6.18 mas +/- 0.07 mas, and 6.94 mas +/- 0.12 mas, respectively. Using the HIPPARCOS parallaxes, we determine linear limb-darkened radii of 114 R$_\\odot \\pm $13 R$_\\odot$, 56 R$_\\odot \\pm $4 R$_\\odot$, and 98 R$_\\odot \\pm $9 R$_\\odot$, respectively. We compare our data to a grid of Kurucz stellar model atmospheres, with them derive the effective temperatures and surface gravities without additional information, and find agreement with independent estimates derived from empirical calibrations and bolometric fluxes. This confirms the consistency of model predictions and direct observations of the limb-darkening effect.

  13. A new background correction method in X-ray phase contrast imaging with Talbot-Lau interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shenghao; Momose, Atsushi; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Can; Han, Huajie; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer has been used widely to conduct X-ray phase contrast imaging with a conventional low-brilliance X-ray source. Typically, in this X-ray phase contrast imaging technique, a background correction process has to be performed in order to obtain the pure signal of the sample. In this manuscript, we reported on an experimental research on the background correction strategies within this X-ray imaging technique, especially we introduced a new way to perform background correction, the key point of this new method is changing the initial phase of each pixel by a cyclic shift operation on the raw images collected by phase stepping scan. Experimental result and numerical analysis show that this new method could successfully realize background correction without error, moreover, a potential advantage of this new method is that its effective phase measuring range could be tuned flexibly in some degree for example to (-{\\pi}+3, {\\pi}+3], thus it would find potential advantage in certain case ...

  14. Observations of traveling ionospheric disturbances with a satellite-beacon radio interferometer: Seasonal and local time behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Carlos, R.C.; Massey, R.S.; Wui, Guanghui [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors have operated a very long baseline interferometer array at a northern midlatitude site, illuminated by VHF radio beacons from two geosynchronous satellites, quasi-continuously for over a year. The array can detect and measure the trace velocity of traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) via their signatures in the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC). The system noise level is of the order of 10{sup 13} m{sup {minus}2} in the TEC, so that even very weak perturbations can be studied. They have used the year-long TID detection/velocimetry data set to describe local time and seasonal dependences of the wave parameters. The most striking finding is that the preferred azimuths of TIDs in the data set tend to belong to either of two modes: The first mode, strongest at midday and in the early afternoon, particularly around winter equinox, propagates southward. The second mode, strongest in the evening, especially during summer solstice through autumn equinox, propagates west-northwestward. The two modes are disposed in local time such as to suggest the agency of clockwise rotation of the TID preferred azimuths versus time, as expected by wind filtering in the thermospheric diurnal tide. However, there is a gap between the two modes` azimuth bands. Moreover, the two modes exist in all trace-speed quartiles of the data set TIDs, a finding which is at variance with the hypothesis of wind filtering being the primary explanation of these modes. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Radiance: Synthetic Imaging System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaTools <REpowerFormRSIRYPOSRadiance:

  16. Zenith Radiance Retrieval of Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largestnamed Electrochemical Society

  17. Generation of 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroki Takesue; Kyo Inoue

    2005-08-29

    This paper reports 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement generation. We employed a spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a dispersion shifted fiber, with which correlated photon pairs with very narrow bandwidths were generated efficiently. To observe two-photon interference, we used planar lightwave circuit based interferometers that were operated stably without feedback control. As a result, we obtained coincidence fringes with 99 % visibilities after subtracting accidental coincidences, and successfully distributed entangled photons over 20-km standard single-mode fiber without any deterioration in the quantum correlation.

  18. Relating gravitational wave constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis, pulsar timing, laser interferometers, and the CMB: implications for the early universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latham A. Boyle; Alessandra Buonanno

    2007-08-18

    We derive a general master equation relating the gravitational-wave observables r and Omega_gw(f). Here r is the tensor-to-scalar ratio, constrained by cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) experiments; and Omega_gw(f) is the energy spectrum of primordial gravitational-waves, constrained e.g. by pulsar-timing measurements, laser-interferometer experiments, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). Differentiating the master equation yields a new expression for the tilt d(ln Omega_gw(f))/d(ln f). The relationship between r and Omega_gw(f) depends sensitively on the uncertain physics of the early universe, and we show that this uncertainty may be encapsulated (in a model-independent way) by two quantities: w_hat(f) and nt_hat(f), where nt_hat(f) is a certain logarithmic average over nt(k) (the primordial tensor spectral index); and w_hat(f) is a certain logarithmic average over w_tilde(a) (the effective equation-of-state in the early universe, after horizon re-entry). Here the effective equation-of-state parameter w_tilde(a) is a combination of the ordinary equation-of-state parameter w(a) and the bulk viscosity zeta(a). Thus, by comparing constraints on r and Omega_gw(f), one can obtain (remarkably tight) constraints in the [w_hat(f), nt_hat(f)] plane. In particular, this is the best way to constrain (or detect) the presence of a ``stiff'' energy component (with w > 1/3) in the early universe, prior to BBN. Finally, although most of our analysis does not assume inflation, we point out that if CMB experiments detect a non-zero value for r, then we will immediately obtain (as a free by-product) a new upper bound w_hat < 0.55 on the logarithmically averaged effective equation-of-state parameter during the ``primordial dark age'' between the end of inflation and the start of BBN.

  19. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  20. ZYGO Mark Ivxp Interferometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single|YejunOpportunityYue

  1. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of “Violin-Mode” resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level “Violin-Mode” (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent “noise-gain peaking” arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes’ two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup ?1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/?Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  2. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-15

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (?100–?500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (?10%–?20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  3. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau interferometer as refraction diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas at energies below 10 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2014-07-15

    The highly localized density gradients expected in High Energy Density (HED) plasma experiments can be characterized by x-ray phase-contrast imaging in addition to conventional attenuation radiography. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau grating interferometer setup is an attractive HED diagnostic due to its high sensitivity to refraction induced phase shifts. We report on the adaptation of such a system for operation in the sub-10 keV range by using a combination of free standing and ultrathin Talbot gratings. This new x-ray energy explored matches well the current x-ray backlighters used for HED experiments, while also enhancing phase effects at lower electron densities. We studied the performance of the high magnification, low energy Talbot-Lau interferometer, for single image phase retrieval using Moiré fringe deflectometry. Our laboratory and simulation studies indicate that such a device is able to retrieve object electron densities from phase shift measurements. Using laboratory x-ray sources from 7 to 15 ?m size we obtained accurate simultaneous measurements of refraction and attenuation for both sharp and mild electron density gradients.

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "Â?no-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  5. Photon-counting Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry based on up-conversion detector and fiber Fabry-Perot scanning interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiyun Xia; Mingjia Shangguan; Guoliang Shentu; Chong Wang; Jiawei Qiu; Xiuxiu Xia; Chao Chen; Mingyang Zheng; Xiuping Xie; Qiang Zhang; Xiankang Dou; Jianwei Pan

    2015-04-06

    A direct-detection Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is proposed and demonstrated by using an up-conversion single-photon detector and a fiber Fabry-Perot scanning interferometer (FFP-SI). Taking advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio of the detector and high spectrum resolution of the FFP-SI, the Brillouin spectrum along a polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) is recorded on a multiscaler with a small data size directly. In contrast with conventional BOTDR adopting coherent detection, photon-counting BOTDR is simpler in structure and easier in data processing. In the demonstration experiment, characteristic parameters of the Brillouin spectrum including its power, spectral width and frequency center are analyzed simultaneously along a 10 km PMF at different temperature and stain conditions.

  6. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 8. 2B. Interferometer gauge pressure-time measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, J.E.; Seacord, D.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    This project was charged with the responsibility of conducting tests on static aircraft panels mounted on the ground at various ranges from the blast. Pressure-versus-time data were obtained using interferometer gauges. The gauge proved to be reliable and easy to operate. Its high-frequency response enabled it to record data to the pressure rise at the front of the blast wave which had not been noted previously. These results show, from measurements taken by pressure instruments mounted flush with the ground, that the rise times at the front of the blast waves were on gamma-radiation intensity by the smple expedient of stacking a few layers of lead breic around the gauge mounts.

  7. Selected applications of microwave radiometric techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean, Buford Randall

    1971-01-01

    of oil (=2) is much less than that of water (=80) [17]. Since the calming effect of an oil layer on a water surface tends to decrease the effective emissivity, the possibility exists for an oil spill to be "invisible" for certain frequencies, viewing... above about 30 GHz can be expected to provide an oil slick detection capability [34]. The higher fre- quencies are required because an uncontained oil spill spreads rapidly, and it is estimated that an oil pollution surveillance technique should...

  8. Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mapping structure because of the masking effect of widespread alluvial deposits. At the Salt Wells prospect, the 26 station sample line crosses a previously mapped basinplaya...

  9. High Precision Radiometric Dating of Sedimentary Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, G. N.

    2006-09-19

    To develop field, petrographic and geochemical criteria to allow high precision U-Pb dating of sedimentary minerals within rapidly deposited sequences of carbonate and clastic rocks.

  10. Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters9 Posters117

  11. Category:Radiometrics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap Contact Properties Jump

  12. Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenariosMarysville MtMedical Area Total Egy PltMercurius Biofuels

  13. NAVY PRECISION OPTICAL INTERFEROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXOPLANET HOST {kappa} CORONAE BOREALIS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE STAR'S AND PLANET'S MASSES AND AGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. Thomas [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard T., E-mail: ellyn.baines@nrl.navy.mil [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We used the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer to measure the limb-darkened angular diameter of the exoplanet host star {kappa} CrB and obtained a value of 1.543 {+-} 0.009 mas. We calculated its physical radius (5.06 {+-} 0.04 R{sub Sun }) and used photometric measurements from the literature with our diameter to determine {kappa} CrB's effective temperature (4788 {+-} 17 K) and luminosity (12.13 {+-} 0.09 L{sub Sun }). We then placed the star on an Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to ascertain the star's age (3.42{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25} Gyr) and mass (1.47 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }) using a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.15. With this mass, we calculated the system's mass function with the orbital elements from a variety of sources, which produced a range of planetary masses: m{sub p}sin i = 1.61-1.88 M{sub Jup}. We also updated the extent of the habitable zone for the system using our new temperature.

  14. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 25 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 17 DECEMBER 2001 Coherent Coupling of Two Quantum Dots Embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    of Two Quantum Dots Embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer A. W. Holleitner,1,* C. R. Decker,1 H quantum dots. In an intermediate coupling regime we study molecular states of the double dot and extract focus on coherently coupled states within the double quantum dot, first evidence of which has been found

  15. The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robison, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    the removed contaminant itself. The Process is inexpensive and readily adaptable to many manufacturing products ranging from computer chips, hard disks, and night vision goggles to tire molds. The Process is covered by 29 patents issued in the U...

  16. INlST Measurement Services: Radiance Temperature Calibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manufacturing Systems Integration Building and Fire Research Laboratory Structures Building Materials BuildingEngineering Laboratory Precision Engineering Automated Production Technology Intelligent Systems Fabrication Technology High Performance Systems and Services Distributed Computing and Information Services Software

  17. CIMEL Measurements of Zenith Radiances at the ARM SGP Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L OBransenBusinessInitialRadiological Surveys at -6,1,5,3,CIMEL

  18. Posters Residual Analysis of Surface Spectral Radiances Between Instrument Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters95

  19. New Concepts for Radiometric Measurements of Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2013-05-01

    There is a long history of using radioisotopes to study a variety of environmental processes. The recent release of radioisotopes from the nuclear power facilities in Fukushima, Japan, prompted a review at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of the current measurement practices applied to the measurement of actinides and radioactive fission products in the environment. The objective of this review is to identify gaps in measurement capability that might be addressed through research and development. The scope is limited to man-made radioisotopes in the environment related to nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The focus rests on actinides and fission products. This report presents the preliminary findings of the review.

  20. Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Konings, J.

    2014-11-01

    Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays that form large solar deployments relies on accurate measurements of the available solar resource. Therefore, determining the accuracy of these solar radiation measurements provides a better understanding of investment risks. This paper provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements by radiometers using methods that follow the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM). Standardized analysis based on these procedures ensures that the uncertainty quoted is well documented.

  1. Comments on: Sandia Research Aims to Enhance Understanding of Radiometric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11

  2. Radiometrics At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactive Mineral

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Millimeter-wave Radiometric Arctic Winter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design togovCampaignsMASRAD: Pt. Reyes Stratus(MC3E): Multi-Frequency

  4. Procedure for Generating Data Quality Reports for SIRS Radiometric Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions | National NuclearProbingProbing metal2 Problem

  5. Radiometrics At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎ |RENERCO

  6. The 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConferencePriceshielding evaluation for the2004

  7. Radiometric Correctionradiometric correction Radiometric correction is important to ensure that terrestrial variables retrieved from optical satellite sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coburn, Craig

    that terrestrial variables retrieved from optical satellite sensor systems are calibrated to a common physical--to the entrance aperture of the satellite sensor imaging Earth, with five main pathways and associated: Schematic of photon pathways from the sun to the entrance aperture of the satellite sensor: (1) direct solar

  8. Multiorder rotating grating interferometer John Howard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    in proportion to the integral of the electron density nealong the laser-beam line of sight.4 Interferometric the diffracted beams are Doppler shifted in proportion to their order number so that the spatial information the continuous time resolution whilestill allowingsimultaneous multichannel phase- shift information

  9. Superfluid 4He interferometers: construction and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Aditya Ajit

    2013-01-01

    not be available in a given cleanroom. However, plasma-basedNANOSCALE APERTURE ARRAYS cleanroom). Anecdotal evidenceFor transporting them from the cleanroom to our lab, we pack

  10. Superfluid 4He interferometers: construction and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Aditya Ajit

    2013-01-01

    reorientation). . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Heat-pipe poweris henceforth referred to as a “heat-pipe”. See Fig.a SHeQUID containing such a heat-pipe. Putting Eqs. (1.19)

  11. Superfluid 4He interferometers: construction and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Aditya Ajit

    2013-01-01

    was not available). The cell power was ramped up to a valueis reflected in the cell power needed to hit criticality (critical power (nW) Inner cell power ramp rate (nW/s) Figure

  12. Superfluid 4He interferometers: construction and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Aditya Ajit

    2013-01-01

    combines with the battery driven flow to (respectively)flow and superflow and in modeling the chemical potential battery.

  13. Separation of Radiances from a Cirrus Layer and Broken Cumulus Clouds in Multispectral Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    in the climate system such as global warming; these are the so-called cloud feedbacks on climate [4], [5. After setting up synthetic "truth" scenarios, we evaluate the accuracy of the two-layer separation

  14. The Relationship Between X-ray Radiance and Magnetic Flux Alexei A. Pevtsov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    volumetric heating rate ŻQ ŻB/L, where ŻB is the average field strength along a closed field line and L--Sun: corona--Sun: X-rays, gamma rays--stars: magnetic fields--stars:coronae 1. Introduction What heats about the quantitative connection between magnetic fields and the amount of heat dissipated

  15. AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE THERMAL RADIANCE OF CLEAR SKIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul

    2012-01-01

    exposed to the sky. thermal Solar energy applications ofSolar Energy AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE THERMAL

  16. Centre-to-limb variation of photospheric facular radiance and image resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanahuja, Blai

    , Universitat de Vale`ncia, Spain b Departament dŐAstronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain

  17. Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Wangda

    2012-01-01

    The Art And Science Of Lighting Visualization, MorganLuminance Measurements. ” Lighting Research & Technology,The Art and Science of Lighting Visualization. ” San

  18. Mesoscale Spectra of Mars's Atmosphere Derived from MGS TES Infrared Radiances TAKESHI IMAMURA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and potential energy spectra as a function of horizontal wavenumber. Each spectrum has two different wave spectra of the atmospheric potential energy of Mars at mesoscales (wavelengths of 64­957 km) were obtained-scale ends, the spectra sometimes show prominent steepening with slopes from 2 to 3. The power peaks

  19. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility anda) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b)accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial

  20. Convective-scale data assimilation of satellite infrared radiances over the Mediterranean: adaptation of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    project (Cyclogeneses and Precipitation Impacting the Mediterranean) of the program ACI-FNS "Aléas et introduced. satsatsat Standard deviation of differences between Tbspot1 and Tb1column for AIRS water vapor channels 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 6,2 6,4 6,6 6,8 7 7,2 7,4 7,6 wavelength (microns) Tb(K) standard

  1. Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared June 2010, in final form 13 December 2010) ABSTRACT An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE the emissivities are fixed in the retrieval process. The results also confirm that the simultaneous retrieval

  2. Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Wangda

    2012-01-01

    phase method breaks luminous energy traversal of the modelthe sensor points. Luminous energy transfer for each phase

  3. AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE THERMAL RADIANCE OF CLEAR SKIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul

    2012-01-01

    conduction and heat transfer by radiation. between b heat (to compute the heat transfer by radiation from surfacesradiation accurately, along with a knowledge of other heat transfer

  4. Aura MLS Radiance Average Retrievals (RAR) BrO product guideline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .f.millan@jpl.nasa.gov Introduction A description of the retrieval methodology is given by: Mill´an et al. (2012), New Aura Microwave pressure levels [hPa] Solar Zenith Angle solar zenith angle [deg] Local Solar Time local solar time [hours

  5. AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE THERMAL RADIANCE OF CLEAR SKIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul

    2012-01-01

    from the covers of solar collectors and the exposed surfacesof heat loss from solar collector glazings, and building

  6. Radiance: Science and Stagecraft Come Together via Alan Alda and Marie

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary From: JuliaDepartment- US-China CleanResponseJohn

  7. Session Papers Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 Unlimited Release4: "Short-Term Energy PricesSession

  8. Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters95 Posters13

  9. Time series analysis of AERI radiances for GCM testing and improvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories (Journal Article)Clean4, 9/26/14),Time

  10. Improved ARM-SGP TOA OLR Fluxes from GOES-8 IR Radiances Based on CERES Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168 167 164 1982-2016ARM-SGP TOA

  11. Millimeter-Wavelength Forward-Model Comparisons Based on Ground-Based Radiometric Data Taken During the 1999 NSA/AO Radiometric Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetectionBenchmark Performance ofMilitaryMillerGases,

  12. Exo-zodi modelling for the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Bailey, Vanessa; Bryden, Geoffrey; Danchi, William C.; Defrčre, Denis; Haniff, Philip M.; Lebreton, Jérémy; Mennesson, Bertrand; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morales, Farisa; Pani?, Olja; Rieke, George H.; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, Eugene; Shannon, Andrew; Skemer, Andrew J.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Su, Katherine Y. L.; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2015-01-27

    on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the 4 Unless the dust has a very high albedo (?0.9), non-detection with high quality mid-IR photometry is already sufficient to restrict this dust to lie well inside the habitable zone (Kennedy et al., in prep). 8 G. M... as the LBTI. Such photometry will provide the most useful constraints on the disk location, so we now briefly outline how the total and LBTI-transmitted disk fluxes vary with model parameters, in particular the disk inner and outer radii. To illustrate...

  13. The Magdalena Ridge Observatory interferometer: 2014 status update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creech-Eakman, M. J.; Romero, V.; Payne, I.; Haniff, C. A.; Buscher, D. F.; Dahl, C.; Farris, A.; Fisher, M.; Jurgenson, C.; Klinglesmith, D.; McCracken, T.; Napolitano, M.; Olivares, A.; Riker, J.; Rochelle, S.; Salcido, C.; Santoro, F.; Schmidt, L.; Selina, R.; Seneta, E. B.; Shtromberg, A.; Sun, X.; Wilson, D. M. A.; Young, J. S.

    2014-07-24

    mode for the existing PICNIC detector which has a 500 Hz frame rate before including the fringe tracking algorithms. Custom periscope optics fabrications are delayed and will be built as funds become available. In the long-term, we intend to install... periscope optics and installing ICoNN in the inner BCA. • 2016: Receiving and installing telescope and enclosures 1 and 2 at MROI. Attaining first fringe measurements using two MROI telescopes. The business plan and operational model for the MROI...

  14. Mechanical Design of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, John

    and transporter, fast tip-tilt system, beam relay system, delay line system, beam compressor, automated alignment and testing inside the integration hall at Advanced Mechanical and Optical System (AMOS) test facility

  15. The Millimeter-wave Bolometric Interferometer Peter Owen Hyland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    astronomy techniques of spatial interfer- ometry, which rely on coherent receivers, to a system using-field, verifying our basic model of bolometric interferometry. Further analysis is needed to measure the scattering to organize an international move. My advisor and mentor, Peter Timbie, has been the backbone of my graduate

  16. One-Dimensional Helical Transport in Topological Insulator Nanowire Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    a gateway to generate unusual phases and particles made of the helical surface electrons, proposing new- resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).5-12 Electronic device

  17. MICA optical : a low-cost, educational Michelson interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Jillian M

    2013-01-01

    Current initiatives that provide widespread access to online educational tools, such as edX and Coursera, are transforming education. The MICA (Measurement, Instrumentation, Control, and Analysis) Project, developed by ...

  18. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  19. On the development of a low-cost lithographic interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korre, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Interference lithography is a technique for making one- and two-dimensional periodic nanostructures using interference of two coherent light beams. Despite their successes, the size, maintenance, and cost of interference ...

  20. Trajectory design and control for formation flying spaceborne interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandy, Christophe Ph. (Christophe Philippe)

    2009-01-01

    Spaceborne interferometry promises to greatly expand our knowledge of astronomy and astrophysics, and open the doors to many new discoveries. The purpose of this study is to investigate optimal resource management techniques ...

  1. Interferometric lithography with an amplitude division interferometer and a desktop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    , the manufac- turing of nanoscale rf oscillator arrays [1,2], patterned magnetic storage devices [3 on high resolution photoresists for the fabri- cation of arrays of nanostructures with physical], and convenient devices for DNA sequencing [4]. Different approaches have been ap- plied to the fabrication

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARMgovCampaignsAbsolute Solar Transmittance

  3. Investigation of Madden-Julian waves using a rotating coordinate frame from microwave radiometric measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dossen, Josephus

    1999-01-01

    separate events of these features propagating over the equatorial Indian/Western Pacific Ocean basins. The composite Tb anomalies show a five-stage morphology process: initiation east of equatorial Africa, intensification when propagating through the Indian...

  4. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  5. Measuring photometric and spectral radiometric bi-directional transmission and reflection in a video-goniospectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Eleanor (Eleanor Catherine)

    2008-01-01

    The effective use of complex fenestration systems (CFS) in buildings requires a detailed knowledge of their optical spectral and directional properties. Bidirectional scattering functions (BSDFs), either in transmission ...

  6. Determination of temperature and concentration from radiometric measurements in combustion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Tao

    2015-01-01

    vii Spectral Bands for Combustion Gases . . . . . .Spectral Bands for Combustion Gases . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3for combustion gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  7. Laser photothermal radiometric instrumentation for fast in-line industrial steel hardness inspection and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    ], and photothermal beam deflection [4]. These techniques have played an important role in non- destructive testing for nondestructive, noncontacting hardness profile measurements as an alternative to the destructive indenter

  8. Determination of temperature and concentration from radiometric measurements in combustion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Tao

    2015-01-01

    order to reduce heat transfer by radiation from the sampleinfrared radiation of gases, Journal of Heat Transfer 89 (and radiation properties of strongly radiating buoyant flames, ASME J Heat Transfer

  9. Infrared lock-in carrierography ,,photocarrier radiometric imaging... of Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT), University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada a near-infrared NIR InGaAs camera and a spread superband gap laser beam as an optoelectronic source electric fields applied to solar cells through their electrical contacts to infrared radia- tion emitted

  10. Radiometric comparison of Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission spectrometer measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandfield, Joshua L.

    accounting for the local time differences. Any potential interannual variations in global average temperature Sounder (MCS) nadir oriented thermal infrared and solar channel measurements are com- pared with Thermal compared by convolving the TES data using the MCS spectral band passes. The MCS solar channel measurements

  11. Radiometric Ages- Compilation 'B', U.S. Geological Survey | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactive Mineral Occurences

  12. Radiometrics At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactive MineralInformation

  13. Radiometrics At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactive

  14. Radiometrics At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Deal, Et Al., 1978) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎ |RENERCOEnergy Information Lightning

  15. Radiometrics At Reese River Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎ |RENERCOEnergy Information

  16. Radiometrics At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b < RAPID‎ |RENERCOEnergy

  17. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  18. The radiance of the gluon spin : constraining the proton spin structure with the direct photon double helicity asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betancourt, Michael (Michael Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    Although fundamental to the observable universe, the proton is not elementary. Rather the particle is a bound state of three valence quarks and the QCD vacuum that condenses around them, its properties an amalgamation of ...

  19. Cloudy sounding and cloud-top height retrieval from AIRS alone single field-of-view radiance measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    to 15.4 mm). The spectral coverage includes strong CO2 absorption necessary for temperature profile and Ping Yang4 Received 3 April 2007; accepted 16 May 2007; published 20 June 2007. [1] High) Aqua satellite provide unique information about atmospheric state, surface and cloud properties

  20. Numerical calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere by doubling very thin layers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entrekin, Robert David

    1976-01-01

    of reciprocity (Chandrasekhar, 1960). To demonstrate how these proofs proceed, 29 equation (64) will be proved. The remaining three relations follow very similarly. The formula for a general element of r is -1 N r. . = (4 - 26 g 6. ku. Sk. = 4 - 26+ u Si... this formula, the functions p(u, u';k4) must be obtained from the table of p(cos 8). Since the points p(u, u';ki) will not generally coincide with any particular p(cos 8 ), an interpolation method will have to be used. First, p(u, u';kg) must be put...

  1. Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergy Remote

  2. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodesic reference masses for LISA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, L.; Ciani, G.; Dolesi, R.; Hueller, M.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.; Cavalleri, A.

    2007-11-15

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodesic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the current LISA noise estimate, which assumes a maximum net force per degree of temperature difference of 100(pN/K) for the overall thermal gradient-induced effects.

  3. Posters Radiometric Sounding System C. D. Whiteman, G. A. Anderson, J. M. Alzheimer, and W. J. Shaw

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters95 Posters13137

  4. The Relationship Between X-ray Radiance and Magnetic Flux Alexei A. Pevtsov 1 , George H. Fisher 2;3 , Loren W. Acton 4 , Dana W. Longcope 4 ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    with an average volumetric heating rate #22; Q #24; #22; B=L, where #22; B is the average #12;eld strength along: magnetic #12;elds | stars: coronae 1. Introduction What heats the corona on the Sun and other active stars connection between magnetic #12;elds and the amount of heat dissipated in the corona. A quantitative

  5. The more accurate way to describe the signal mathematically is to integrate the product of the responsivity curve by the radiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    of measuring the above theoretical claims. NEP and NETD · Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) - The amount of radiant NEP and NETD mean better resolution · Both depend upon the electronic bandwidth f. Noise power increases proportional to f, noise voltage is proportional to f. Therefore is is useful to define NEP

  6. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, V.

    2015-01-01

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  7. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore »and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  8. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine [University of Reading] [University of Reading

    2014-04-10

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  9. Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) Wigner Home ·the Effect ofEvaluating Water

  10. Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwink, AB; Turner, DD

    2012-03-19

    The fore-optics of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) are protected by an automated hatch to prevent precipitation from fouling the instrument's scene mirror (Knuteson et al. 2004). Limit switches connected with the hatch controller provide a signal of the hatch state: open, closed, undetermined (typically associated with the hatch being between fully open or fully closed during the instrument's sky view period), or an error condition. The instrument then records the state of the hatch with the radiance data so that samples taken when the hatch is not open can be removed from any subsequent analysis. However, the hatch controller suffered a multi-year failure for the AERI located at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Central Facility in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2006-February 2008. The failure resulted in misreporting the state of the hatch in the 'hatchOpen' field within the AERI data files. With this error there is no simple solution to translate what was reported back to the correct hatch status, thereby making it difficult for an analysis to determine when the AERI was actually viewing the sky. As only the data collected when the hatch is fully open are scientifically useful, an algorithm was developed to determine whether the hatch was open or closed based on spectral radiance data from the AERI. Determining if the hatch is open or closed in a scene with low clouds is non-trivial, as low opaque clouds may look very similar spectrally as the closed hatch. This algorithm used a backpropagation neural network; these types of neural networks have been used with increasing frequency in atmospheric science applications.

  11. SEARCHING FOR A STOCHASTIC BACKGROUND OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES WITH THE LASER INTERFEROMETER GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Nelson

    . Bayer,8 K. Belczynski,12 J. Betzwieser,8 P. Beyersdorf,13 B. Bhawal,1 I. A. Bilenko,14 G. Billingsley,1. Kozak,1 B. Krishnan,7 P. Kwee,27 P. K. Lam,5 M. Landry,9 B. Lantz,13 A. Lazzarini,1 B. Lee,11 M. Lei,1 V

  12. An Airborne Pod-mounted Dual Beam Interferometer Dragana Perkovic, Stephen J. Frasier, Russell Tessier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    of Massachusetts (UMass) to study ocean surface waves and currents in coastal regions. This airborne radar operates. Over several years, DBI was flown on a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's WP-3D research aircraft in a number of successful missions collecting the data both over land and ocean. These deployments

  13. Can laser selffocusing in air replace interferometer siderostats and delay lines?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    experiments in high-power lasers show that they modulate of the density of air at long ranges, up, depending on the laser power. Two such laser-heated volumes can scatter stellar light into a central station, where they are made to interfere in speckled fringes. Usually the density modulations deflect the light

  14. Quantum noise and radiation pressure effects in high power optical interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbitt, Thomas Randall

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of mechanical systems have been approaching quantum limits to their sensitivity of continuous position measurements imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Most notably, gravitational ...

  15. Studies of Evolved Stars with a Mid-Infrared Interferometer Everett Arthur Lipman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Everett A.

    stars IRC +10011 and IRC +10420 were observed with the ISI. Fringe visibility data and mid models of the stellar surroundings. IRC +10011 data were well fit by a spherical dust shell with inner for uniform dust outflow. IRC +10420 data could only be fit by a shell with a much slower drop in density

  16. Studies of Evolved Stars with a Mid-Infrared Interferometer Everett Arthur Lipman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the 1997 observing season, the evolved stars IRC +10011 and IRC +10420 were observed with the ISI. Fringe generated by radiative transfer models of the stellar surroundings. IRC +10011 data were well #12;t slower than the r 2 expected for uniform dust out ow. IRC +10420 data could only be #12;t by a shell

  17. LA-ICP-AES using a high resolution fiber optic interferometer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the small differences between isotopes of radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and plutonium. The system can also detect isobars (different elements that have the...

  18. Geometric phase in entangled systems: A single-neutron interferometer experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sponar, S.; Klepp, J.; Loidl, R.; Durstberger-Rennhofer, K.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, Y. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Filipp, S. [Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bertlmann, R. A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Rauch, H. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2010-04-15

    The influence of the geometric phase on a Bell measurement, as proposed by Bertlmann et al. [Phys. Rev. A 69, 032112 (2004)] and expressed by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, has been observed for a spin-path-entangled neutron state in an interferometric setup. It is experimentally demonstrated that the effect of geometric phase can be balanced by a change in Bell angles. The geometric phase is acquired during a time-dependent interaction with a radiofrequency field. Two schemes, polar and azimuthal adjustment of the Bell angles, are realized and analyzed in detail. The former scheme yields a sinusoidal oscillation of the correlation function S, dependent on the geometric phase, such that it varies in the range between 2 and 2{radical}(2) and therefore always exceeds the boundary value 2 between quantum mechanic and noncontextual theories. The latter scheme results in a constant, maximal violation of the Bell-like CHSH inequality, where S remains 2{radical}(2) for all settings of the geometric phase.

  19. Results from prototype polarimeter/interferometer on Alcator C-Mod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Kelly (Kelly Robert)

    2007-01-01

    The poloidal field and corresponding toroidal current profiles have been among the most difficult and most important measurements in tokamak fusion research. One method demonstrated to obtain information about these ...

  20. Dynamic Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force using Short Coherence Length Fiber-Based Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum system with FFT spectrum analyzer by Bressi et almeasured by SRS760 spectrum analyzer. The PSD is roughlyVacuum system with FFT spectrum analyzer by Bressi et al

  1. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  2. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  3. Electronically swept millimetre-wave interferometer for spatially resolved measurement of plasma electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    electron density John Howard and David Oliver Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical, located in the Plasma Research Laboratory at the Australian National University, is a flexible, medium

  4. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  5. The BRAIN experiment, a bolometric interferometer dedicated to the CMB B-mode measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romain Charlassier; for the BRAIN Collaboration

    2008-05-29

    We present the BRAIN Experiment, a project of B-mode experiment using a novel technology, bolometric interferometry. This technique is a promising alternative to direct imaging experiments since it combines the advantages of interferometry in terms of systematic effects handling and those of bolometry in terms of sensitivity. We briefly introduce some of the bolometric interferometry key concepts and difficulties. We then give the specifications of the BRAIN future detector. A first module of the final instrument is planned to be installed at Dome C in 2010. We hope to constrain a tensor to scalar modes ratio of 0.01 with nine modules and one effective year of data. BRAIN is a collaboration between France, Italy and United Kingdom.

  6. Detection of inplane and outofplane ultrasonic displacements by a twochannel confocal FabryPerot interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    .g., in the aeronautic and automotive industries, are thin and made of a single sheet of metal or composite material National Research Council Canada, Industrial Materials Institute, 75 De Mortagne Boulevard, Boucherville

  7. Toward quantum opto-mechanics in a gram-scale suspended mirror interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wipf, Christopher (Christopher Conrad)

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors, currently under construction, will closely approach the fundamental quantum limits of measurement, serving as a prominent example of quantum mechanics at ...

  8. Initial Condition of Relic Gravitational Waves Constrained by LIGO S6 and Multiple Interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie-Wen Chen; Yang Zhang; Wen Zhao; Ming-Lei Tong

    2015-05-21

    The relic gravitational wave (RGW) generated during the inflation depends on the initial condition via the amplitude, the spectral index $n_t$ and the running index $\\alpha_t$. CMB observations so far have only constrained the tensor-scalar ratio $r$, but not $n_t$ nor $\\alpha_t$. Complementary to this, the ground-based interferometric detectors working at $\\sim 10^2$Hz are able to constrain the spectral indices that influence the spectrum sensitively at high frequencies. In this work we give a proper normalization of the analytical spectrum at the low frequency end, yielding a modification by a factor of $\\sim 1/50$ to the previous treatment. We calculate the signal-noise ratios (SNR) for various ($n_t,\\alpha_t$) at fixed $r=0.2$ by S6 of LIGO H-L, and obtain the observational upper limit on the running index $\\alpha_tmodels with $\\alpha_t>0.01364$.

  9. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) sensor using vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2006-10-30

    This research represents the first effort to apply vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to the monitoring of interferometric fiber optic sensors. Modulation of the drive current causes thermal tuning of the laser light frequency...

  10. Vibration sensors utilizing fiber fabry-perot interferometers and permanent magnets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conkey, Andrew P.

    2009-05-15

    , the effect of the non-linearity can be removed by signal processing. The fiber optic gap sensor (FOGS) developed has a sensitivity of 250 mV/mil for a 30 mil gap to 50 mV/mil for a 65 mil gap and a dynamic range up to 820 Hz. An advantage of the FOGS over...

  11. Physica E 40 (2008) 949953 Experimental realization of Laughlin quasiparticle interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Vladimir J.

    2008-01-01

    of a highly correlated fractional quantum Hall electron fluid. They have fractional charge and obey fractional; Quantum Hall effect A clean system of 2D electrons subjected to high magnetic field at low temperatures condenses into the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) fluids [1­3]. An exact filling f FQH condensate

  12. 0.6-M ANTENNAE FOR THE AMIBA INTERFEROMETER ARRAY Patrick Koch(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Patrick

    Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a hexapod telescope for astronomy. The fully steerable platform can.6 m antennae are being installed, aiming at first scientific results. Mechanical aspects of hexapod

  13. The Effects and Applications of Erbium Doped Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Justin K.

    2010-07-14

    medium in the cavity. In order to induce gain, a highly doped Erbium (Er) fiber is incorporated in the FFPI. A pump wavelength of 1480 nm is used with a wavelength near 1550 nm. The pump must be at a significantly higher power level than the signal...

  14. Double lateral shearing interferometer for the quantitative measurement of tear film topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    is presented. Simple data processing algorithms are discussed and tested on data illustrating different tear surgery and high-resolution retinal imaging instruments. It is likely that the largest source breakup, like that by Tutt et al.22 showing that the tear breakup affects the contrast of retinal images

  15. Noncontacting laser photocarrier radiometric depth profilometry of harmonically modulated band bending in the space-charge layer at doped SiO{sub 2}-Si interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Gibkes, Juergen; Pawlak, Michael; Pelzl, Josef [Institute fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44801, Germany and Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44801 (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44801, Germany and Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Festkoerperspekroskopie, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, Bochum D-44801 (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Laser infrared photocarrier radiometry (PCR) was used with a harmonically modulated low-power laser pump and a superposed dc superband-gap optical bias (a secondary laser beam) to control and monitor the space-charge-layer (SCL) width in oxidized p-Si-SiO{sub 2} and n-Si-SiO{sub 2} interfaces (wafers) exhibiting charged interface-state related band bending. Applying the theory of PCR-SCL dynamics [A. Mandelis, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083508 (2005)] to the experiments yielded various transport parameters of the samples as well as depth profiles of the SCL exhibiting complete ( p-type Si) or partial (n-type Si) band flattening, to a degree controlled by widely different minority-carrier capture cross section at each interface. The uncompensated charge density at the interface was also calculated from the theory.

  16. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

    2013-01-02

    This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin �������¢���������������� Madison under Dr. Turner�������¢����������������s direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

  17. Expected productivity-based risk analysis in conceptual design : with application to the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wertz, Julie (Julie Ann), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    During the design process, risk is mentioned often, but, due to the lack of a quantitative parameter that engineers can understand and trade, infrequently impacts major design decisions. The definition of risk includes two ...

  18. Real-time discrimination of spectra by time-domain adaptive filtering in a Fourier transform interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Real-time discrimination of spectra by time-domain adaptive filtering in a Fourier transform discrimination system with minimal data extraction and processing, insensitive to scan nonlinearities. We demonstrate real-time discrimination of monochromatic sources 30 nm apart, employing a spectrometer

  19. *Corresponding author. Email: m-salit@northwestern.edu Application of Fast Light in Gravitational Wave Detection with Interferometers and Resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    has been observed indirectly, by monitoring the change in the orbital frequency of neutron stars in a binary system (PSR1913+16) as they lose energy via gravitational radiation. However, GWs have not yet the sensitivities of these detectors. For example, the Advanced LIGO system will employ better mirrors, higher laser

  20. A search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a "loosely coherent" algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D V; Andersen, M; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Ashton, G; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Branco, V; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagliŕ, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Colombini, M; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M D; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J M; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Germain, V; Ghosh, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez, J; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M B; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One search disk (A) is $6.87^\\circ$ in diameter and centered on $20^\\textrm{h}10^\\textrm{m}54.71^\\textrm{s}+33^\\circ33'25.29"$, and the other (B) is $7.45^\\circ$ in diameter and centered on $8^\\textrm{h}35^\\textrm{m}20.61^\\textrm{s}-46^\\circ49'25.151"$. We explored the frequency range of 50-1500 Hz and frequency derivative from $0$ to $-5\\times 10^{-9}$ Hz/s. A multi-stage, loosely coherent search program allowed probing more deeply than before in these two regions, while increasing coherence length with every stage. Rigorous followup parameters have winnowed initial coincidence set to only 70 candidates, to be examined manually. None of those 70 candidates proved to be consistent with an isolated gravitational wave em...

  1. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Fabry-Perot Interferometer for use in Mid-Wave Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Dmitry Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical Design .from optical and mechanical design have to be broughtimaging. Chapter 4 Mechanical Design 4.1 Introduction While

  2. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. Themore »radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.« less

  3. Solar Physics with Radio Observations, Proceedings of Nobeyama Symposium 1998, NRO Report Millimeter Interferometer Observations of Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    the current state of millimeter interferometry of solar flares and the issues which can be addressedV--energy electrons in the impulsive phase of solar flares as well as from hot dense plasma in the thermal decay phase. BIMA now consists of 10 antennas and is capable of snapshot imaging of solar flares with excellent

  4. A search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a "loosely coherent" algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Aasi; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; V. B. Adya; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; A. Ain; P. Ajith; B. Allen; A. Allocca; D. V. Amariutei; M. Andersen; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. C. Arceneaux; J. S. Areeda; N. Arnaud; G. Ashton; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; P. T. Baker; F. Baldaccini; G. Ballardin; S. W. Ballmer; J. C. Barayoga; S. E. Barclay; B. C. Barish; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; J. Bartlett; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; A. Basti; J. C. Batch; C. Baune; V. Bavigadda; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; C. Belczynski; A. S. Bell; B. K. Berger; J. Bergman; G. Bergmann; C. P. L. Berry; D. Bersanetti; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; S. Bhagwat; R. Bhandare; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Birney; S. Biscans; M. Bitossi; C. Biwer; M. A. Bizouard; J. K. Blackburn; C. D. Blair; D. Blair; S. Bloemen; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; M. Boer; G. Bogaert; P. Bojtos; C. Bond; F. Bondu; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; Sukanta Bose; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; V. Branco; J. E. Brau; T. Briant; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; P. Brockill; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; D. Brown; D. D. Brown; N. M. Brown; C. C. Buchanan; A. Buikema; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Calderón Bustillo; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; K. C. Cannon; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; E. Capocasa; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; J. Casanueva Diaz; C. Casentini; S. Caudill; M. Cavagliŕ; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; C. Celerier; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; L. Cerboni Baiardi; G. Cerretani; E. Cesarini; R. Chakraborty; T. Chalermsongsak; S. J. Chamberlin; S. Chao; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; X. Chen; Y. Chen; C. Cheng; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; M. Cho; J. H. Chow; N. Christensen; Q. Chu; S. Chua; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; J. A. Clark; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; A. Colla; C. G. Collette; M. Colombini; M. Constancio Jr.; A. Conte; L. Conti; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. W. Coughlin; S. B. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; S. T. Countryman; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. J. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; R. Coyne; K. Craig; J. D. E. Creighton; T. Creighton; J. Cripe; S. G. Crowder; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; T. Dal Canton; M. D. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; N. S. Darman; V. Dattilo; I. Dave; H. P. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. S. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; M. De Laurentis; S. Deléglise; W. Del Pozzo; T. Denker; T. Dent; H. Dereli; V. Dergachev; R. De Rosa; R. T. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; M. C. Díaz; L. Di Fiore; M. Di Giovanni; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; A. Di Virgilio; G. Dojcinoski; V. Dolique; E. Dominguez; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; R. Douglas; T. P. Downes; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; M. Ducrot; S. E. Dwyer; T. B. Edo; M. C. Edwards; M. Edwards; A. Effler; H. -B. Eggenstein; P. Ehrens; J. M. Eichholz; S. S. Eikenberry; R. C. Essick; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. M. Evans; R. Everett; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Q. Fang; S. Farinon; B. Farr; W. M. Farr; M. Favata; M. Fays; H. Fehrmann; M. M. Fejer; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; E. C. Ferreira; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; J. -D. Fournier; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; H. A. G. Gabbard; J. R. Gair; L. Gammaitoni; S. G. Gaonkar; F. Garufi; A. Gatto; N. Gehrels; G. Gemme; B. Gendre; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; V. Germain; A. Ghosh; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; J. R. Gleason; E. Goetz; R. Goetz; L. Gondan; G. González; J. Gonzalez; A. Gopakumar; N. A. Gordon; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. E. Gossan; M. Gosselin; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; G. Greco; P. Groot; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. J. Guido; X. Guo; A. Gupta; M. K. Gupta; K. E. Gushwa; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; J. J. Hacker; B. R. Hall; E. D. Hall; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; M. Haney; M. M. Hanke; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; M. D. Hannam; J. Hanson; T. Hardwick; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; M. J. Hart; M. T. Hartman; C. -J. Haster; K. Haughian; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; G. Hemming; M. Hendry; I. S. Heng; J. Hennig; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Heurs; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; J. Hoelscher-Obermaier; D. Hofman; S. E. Hollitt; K. Holt; P. Hopkins; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. A. Houston; E. J. Howell; Y. M. Hu; S. Huang; E. A. Huerta; D. Huet; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; M. Huynh; T. Huynh-Dinh

    2015-10-14

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One search disk (A) is $6.87^\\circ$ in diameter and centered on $20^\\textrm{h}10^\\textrm{m}54.71^\\textrm{s}+33^\\circ33'25.29"$, and the other (B) is $7.45^\\circ$ in diameter and centered on $8^\\textrm{h}35^\\textrm{m}20.61^\\textrm{s}-46^\\circ49'25.151"$. We explored the frequency range of 50-1500 Hz and frequency derivative from $0$ to $-5\\times 10^{-9}$ Hz/s. A multi-stage, loosely coherent search program allowed probing more deeply than before in these two regions, while increasing coherence length with every stage. Rigorous followup parameters have winnowed initial coincidence set to only 70 candidates, to be examined manually. None of those 70 candidates proved to be consistent with an isolated gravitational wave emitter, and 95% confidence level upper limits were placed on continuous-wave strain amplitudes. Near $169$ Hz we achieve our lowest 95% CL upper limit on worst-case linearly polarized strain amplitude $h_0$ of $6.3\\times 10^{-25}$, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of $3.4\\times 10^{-24}$ for all polarizations and sky locations.

  5. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Fabry-Perot Interferometer for use in Mid-Wave Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Dmitry Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 18, pp: 905-13 N.Ion Etching”, Microelectromechanical Systems 11, pp. 264-High-aspect-ratio microelectromechanical systems deformable

  6. e=3 Laughlin Quasiparticle Primary-Filling 1=3 Interferometer F. E. Camino, Wei Zhou, and V. J. Goldman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Vladimir J.

    quasiparticles. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.076805 PACS numbers: 73.43.Fj, 05.30.Pr, 71.10.Pm A clean system of 2 quantum Hall (FQH) fluids [1­4]. An exact filling f FQH condensate is gapped and incompressible. The cele fluid consists of the quasiparticle- containing condensate. The FQH quasiparticles have frac- tional

  7. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Fabry-Perot Interferometer for use in Mid-Wave Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Dmitry Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Vakhshoori, D. ,. “Microelectromechanical tunable filterfilter”, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 18, pp:Ion Etching”, Microelectromechanical Systems 11, pp. 264-

  8. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    application to solar thermal power plants energy productionThe thermal radiance of clear skies. Solar Energy, 29:299–

  9. Optical and thermal depth profile reconstructions of inhomogeneous photopolymerization in dental resins using photothermal waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    by a blue light-emitting diode, the x and x depth profiles were reconstructed from photothermal radiometric

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DETECTION HADRON REACTIONS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS NUCLEAR REACTIONS NUCLEON REACTIONS RADIATION DETECTION RADIATION DETECTORS Activation Nuclear Reaction Radiometric...

  11. Novel approaches to Newtonian noise suppression in interferometric gravitational wave detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter-Jones, Nicholas R

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) attempts to detect ripples in the curvature of spacetime using two large scale interferometers. These detectors are several kilometer long Michelson interferometers ...

  12. A new fast two-color interferometer at Alcator C-Mod for turbulence measurements and comparison with phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasten, C. P., E-mail: ckasten@alum.mit.edu; White, A. E.; Irby, J. H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Accurately predicting the turbulent transport properties of magnetically confined plasmas is a major challenge of fusion energy research. Validation of transport models is typically done by applying so-called “synthetic diagnostics” to the output of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, and the results are compared to experimental data. As part of the validation process, comparing two independent turbulence measurements to each other provides the opportunity to test the synthetic diagnostics themselves; a step which is rarely possible due to limited availability of redundant fluctuation measurements on magnetic confinement experiments. At Alcator C-Mod, phase-contrast imaging (PCI) is a commonly used turbulence diagnostic. PCI measures line-integrated electron density fluctuations with high sensitivity and wavenumber resolution (1.6?cm{sup ?1}?|k{sub R}|?11?cm{sup ?1}). A new fast two-color interferometry (FTCI) diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak measures long-wavelength (|k{sub R}|?3.0?cm{sup ?1}) line-integrated electron density fluctuations. Measurements of coherent and broadband fluctuations made by PCI and FTCI are compared here for the first time. Good quantitative agreement is found between the two measurements. This provides experimental validation of the low-wavenumber region of the PCI calibration, and also helps validate the low-wavenumber portions of the synthetic PCI diagnostic that has been used in gyrokinetic model validation work in the past. We discuss possibilities to upgrade FTCI, so that a similar comparison could be done at higher wavenumbers in the future.

  13. Intrinsic advantages of the w component and spherical imaging for wide-field radio interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEwen, Jason

    . Next-generation radio interferometers, such as the Square Kilometre Array1 (SKA) [1], will inherently

  14. Modeled and measured albedo of surface snow over central Greenland M. Dumont1, C. M. Carmagnola1, F. Domine3,2, P. Wright4, M. Bergin5, J. Dibb6 ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and albedo during the compaign Solar incident zenith angle around 50 ° for all the measurements Radiance sensing retrieval algorithms using this modeling approach CONCLUSIONS & OUTLOOK References: · K. Stamnes

  15. High Performance Building Facade Solutions PIER Final Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in EnergyPlus: Integration andusing EnergyPlus 93Systems (CFS) with Radiance and EnergyPlus Market

  16. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 85 (2004) 367383

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk-Davidoff, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    sensitivity is usually more important than accuracy and long-term stability. An emphasis on climate averagesK constitute a critical observation for climate monitoring. The design of a small, low-cost instrument capable to solar radiances, direct and scattered, and to microwave radiances. With respect to the accuracy required

  17. Final Report: Global Change Research with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles UAV Applications for Studying the Radiation and Optical Properties of Upper Tropospheric Clouds, February 1, 1995 - March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1998-01-31

    This paper describes the design and characteristics of a scanning spectral polarimeter which is capable of measuring spectral radiances and fluxes in the range between 0.4 rm to 4.0 pm. The instrument characteristics are described and a discussion of the procedures to calibrate the unpolarized radiances and fluxes are prescribed along the detailed error analyses of this calibration.

  18. Evaluation of Geothermal Potential of Rio Grande Rift and Basin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    collected by: 1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic napping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; 2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; 3) radiometric...

  19. Low level absorptance measurements and scans of high performance optical coatings for atomic vapor laser isotope separation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Krupka, R.; Yang, T.

    1998-01-24

    A surface thermal lensing and a radiometric technique was used to characterize the absorptance dependence on time, power, site, and technique of low absorptance optical multilayered coatings.

  20. Measuring intensity correlations with a two-element superconducting nanowire single-photon Eric A. Dauler,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    and a conventional Hanbury Brown­Twiss interferometer to demonstrate the accuracy and advantages of the multielement a Hanbury Brown­Twiss HBT interferometer geometry, which con- sists of a beam splitter and two discrete

  1. Quantum Interferometric Sensors Leo D. Didomenico, Hwang Lee, Pieter Kok, and Jonathan P. Dowling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    Quantum Computing Technologies Group Exploration Systems Autonomy, Section 367 Jet Propulsion Laboratory at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight and orbiting optical interferometers for gravity wave detection, Laser Interferometer Gravity Observatory (LIGO

  2. FIRST SEARCHES FOR OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE CANDIDATE EVENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Nancy

    During the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory and Virgo joint science runs in 2009-2010, gravitational wave (GW) data from three interferometer detectors were analyzed within minutes to select GW candidate ...

  3. Sensitivity and noise analysis of 4 km laser interferometric gravitational wave antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adhikari, Rana, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Around the world, efforts are underway to commission several kilometer-scale laser interferometers to detect gravitational radiation. In the United States, there are two collocated interferometers in Hanford, Washington ...

  4. Searching for stochastic gravitational waves using co-located interferometric detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fotopoulos, Nickolas

    2006-01-01

    Despite their intrinsic advantages due to co-location, the two LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) Hanford interferometers have not been used in the search for the stochastic gravitational wave ...

  5. Speed limitations of optical switching using a piezoelectric transducer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chuan-Sheng

    1994-01-01

    Optical switching in interferometers using piezoelectric elements is investigated. Complete switching requires that the piezoelectric element induce enough mechanical motion to produce a 7r-radian phase shift in one arm of the interferometer...

  6. "NUMERICAL APERTURE INCREASING LENS MICROSCOPY FOR QUANTUM DOT AND INTEGRATED CIRCUIT IMAGING"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -to-noise ratio is beneficial. Specifically, we are building a Hanbury-Brown Twiss (HBT) interferometer to do both

  7. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  8. The place for sodars in a high-technology environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, R. L.

    1998-06-12

    In an era of increasingly complex technology, some of the atmospheric quantities most difficult to measure and observe are yielding their secrets to increasingly complex instruments and combinations of instruments. For example, water vapor profiles, a long-time nemesis to detailed examination, have become measurable with the use of Raman lidar; temperature profile measurements are becoming relatively routine with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs) or infrared Fourier transform instrumentation such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI); and radar, lidar, or combinations of the two are enabling wind profile measurements to increasing altitudes. What, then, is the role of the relatively pedestrian sodar in such an era? Because the sodar's propagation speed in the atmosphere is six orders of magnitude smaller than that of its electromagnetic counterparts (3 x 10{sup 2} vs. 3 x 10{sup 8} m/s), severely limiting its rate of interrogation, and because the sodar's signal limit frequency modulation techniques, many high-technology advances associated with enormous increases in computation speed and available memory have had relatively little direct impact on acoustic remote sensing. However, the principal elements of acoustic remote sensing continue to make it a useful, even essential, tool for obtaining a better understanding of the physics of the lower atmosphere. The sodar's ''slow'' propagation speed provides relatively easy access to the region between 10 m and several hundred meters above the surface that is often inaccessible to other instruments. This is the region of the atmosphere where conditions often change radically with height, the ''matching'' region between large-scale forcing and small-scale surface heterogeneities that can have large effects on human activity. The atmosphere provides signals for sodars that are rich in content because the phase speed of sound is dependent on the atmosphere itself and is tied directly to the atmosphere's temperature and wind structure. Hence, the signals from acoustic remote sensing instruments can provide boundary conditions crucial for the proper operation of numerical models of the atmosphere whose output is becoming increasingly important in individual and business decision making.

  9. NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Interferometry and entanglement detection at the nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    the experi- mental realization of electronic Mach­ Zehnder (MZ) and Hanbury­Brown­Twiss (HBT) interferometers the implementations of Mach­Zehnder and Hambury­Brown­ Twiss interferometers (Fig. 1) together with structures yet circumventing some of FIG. 1 Implementation of the Hanbury­Brown­Twiss interferometer with edge states

  10. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  11. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17

    ?µm). The discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model is used to compute the radiances for a set of optical thicknesses, particle effective sizes, viewing and illumination angles, and cloud temperatures. A parameterization of cloud bi...

  12. Physical Layer Characteristics and Techniques for Visible Light Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Kaiyun

    2012-01-01

    LED, especially high power lighting LEDs. It’s anticipatedpower spectrum of a typical three-chip RGB LED. . . . . .Power and modulation bandwidth of GaAs-AlGaAs high- radiance LED’

  13. EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on ... (200x), pp. 18 N.N. and N.N. (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnor, Marcus

    2Volkswagen AG, Germany Abstract We present a new method for estimating the radiance function of lit highlights and diffuse glow caused by scatter- Figure 1: Visualization of the Volkswagen Touran tail lamp

  14. Remote Sensing of WaterRemote Sensing of WaterRemote Sensing of Water One of the most pressing resource issues facing humanity in the 21st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    moderate to high shortages in water supply. The outlook is particularly bleak for developing countries resulting from the downwelling solar (Esun) and sky (Esky) radiation. This is unwanted path radiance

  15. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  16. 4PAPERDRAFT COMPSTAT'2004 Symposium c Physica-Verlag/Springer 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Wind Speed, Temperature, Humidity and Sun Radiance. These variables are observed in six different variables, in- dependent and identically distributed, with the same distribution as (X, Y ), with X

  17. Retrieval of cloud-cleared atmospheric temperature profiles from hyperspectral infrared and microwave observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, William Joseph, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of retrieving the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere from overhead infrared and microwave observations of spectral radiance in cloudy conditions. The contributions of the thesis ...

  18. SLA-74.0103 No For(:iqri

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Antia ,craft b1issiJ.e (SIAM). A description of the optical system is included, and models of target radiant intensity, atmospheric transmis- sion, and background radiance...

  19. COMFEN 3.0 - Evolution of an Early Design Tool for Commercial Facades and Fenestration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    US Department of Energy. 2008. EnergyPlus Energy Simulationwww.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/ Ward, G. RADIANCEor “room” and uses the EnergyPlus, and Radiance TM engines

  20. e-publishing Received 7 June 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Sönke

    the wavelength of maximum light penetration. Keywords: camouflage; colour vision; ocean optics; visual predation, the underwater radiance distri- bution in tropical oceanic water was modelled using measured inherent optical

  1. Precipitable water structure in tropical systems as estimated from TOVS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatfield, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structures of precipitable water (pW) in tropical systems are estimated using TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiances over ten cool seasons and two entire years. Statistical regression ...

  2. Radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere-ocean system using Monte Carlo techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Paul Andrew

    1987-01-01

    TRANSFER PROBLEM MONTE CARLO METHOD Assumptions of the Model Photon Pathlength Emulation Techniques Sampling Scattering Functions: Angles and Probabilities Emulation of an Interface Computing the Radiance by Statistical Estimation Determination... radiance values in both the atmosphere and the ocean from the scattering functions and other input data, with a Monte Carlo computer code. The polarization ot the radiation was taken into account by Kattawar et al. s in their computation...

  3. TES Observations duringTES Observations during Texas Air Quality Study IITexas Air Quality Study II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mb ofthe surface to .01 mb of temperature, water, ozone,temperature, water, ozone, carbon monoxide Spectral Radiance)Radiance) 2B1 filter: 700 nW/cm2B1 filter: 700 nW/cm22 /sr/cm/sr/cm--11 1B2 filter: 2001B2 filter: 200 2A1 filter: 1502A1 filter: 150 1A1 filter: 1001A1 filter: 100 Nadir NEDT @290KNadir

  4. Volume 118 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.118.020 Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    . The most careful radiometric study of the Moon to date, made with the United States Geological Survey.6028/jres.118.020 Current satellite missions use a combination of solar diffusers and well-characterized

  5. Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and friction measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and performance of a novel thermometric instrument featuring thermal- emission-intensity harmonic modulation, noncontact infrared radiometric detection, and stray background suppression is described. The instrumental

  6. Abstract: WISE, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, surveyed the entire sky in 4 mid-in-frared bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns with vastly greater sensitivity than previous all-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Michael W.

    the radiometric diameters more than 150,000 objects. WISE has a 40 cm cryogenic telescope, 1024x1024 arrays, a scan mirror to freeze images on the arrays while the spacecraft scans continuously,and takes 47'x47

  7. Stratigraphic Nomenclature of Volcanic Rocks in the Jemez Mountains...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the formations are refined by radiometric dating. Authors Roy A. Bailey, Robert Leland Smith and Clarence Samuel Ross Published U.S. Geological Survey, 1969 DOI Not Provided Check...

  8. Publications A Directory of Fisheries Agencies,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    II inches) format, costs $40.00 and is available from the publisher, National Fisherman, Cam- den, ME core drilling, radiometric dating of coral reefs, sea level measurement techniques, and more. Part II

  9. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01

    of infrared detector according to infrared radiation law. 4TE ??= ?? (1) Where E ? radiometric force, W/m2 ? ? emissivity ? ? the constant of radiation =5.67×10-8 , W/ ? m2?K4? T ? the absolute temperature of the surface , K... OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY According to the Planck?s radiation law (equation 1), radiometric force of common object has the biquadratic direct proportion with the absolute temperature of its surface. Infrared ray belongs to the electromagnetic wave, which...

  10. Chemical micro-sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2005-05-03

    An integrated optical capillary electrophoresis system for analyzing an analyte. A modulated optical pump beam impinges on an capillary containing the analyte/buffer solution which is separated by electrophoresis. The thermally-induced change in the index of refraction of light in said electrophoresis capillary is monitored using an integrated micro-interferometer. The interferometer includes a first interferometer arm intersecting the electrophoresis capillary proximate the excitation beam and a second, reference interferometer arm. Changes in index of refraction in the analyte measured by interrogating the interferometer state using white light interferometry and a phase-generated carrier demodulation technique. Background thermo-optical activity in the buffer solution is cancelled by splitting the pump beam and exciting pure buffer solution in a second section of capillary where it crosses the reference arm of the interferometer.

  11. First images on the sky from a hyper telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Pedretti; A. Labeyrie; L. Arnold; N. Thureau; O. Lardiere; A. Boccaletti; P. Riaud

    2000-09-28

    We show star images obtained with a miniature ``densified pupil imaging interferometer'' also called a hyper-telescope. The formation of such images violates a ``golden rule of imaging interferometers'' which appeared to forbid the use of interferometric arrangements differing from a Fizeau interferometer. These produce useless images when the sub-apertures spacing is much wider than their size, owing to diffraction through the sub-apertures. The hyper-telescope arrangement solves these problems opening the way towards multi-kilometer imaging arrays in space. We experimentally obtain an intensity gain of 24 +- 3X when a densified-pupil interferometer is compared to an equivalent Fizeau-type interferometer and show images of the double star alpha Gem. The initial results presented confirm the possibility of directly obtaining high resolution and high dynamic range images in the recombined focal plane of a large interferometer if enough elements are used.

  12. PPrrooggrraamm IINNTT1133--11bb QQuuaannttuumm NNooiissee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    : Yuval Gefen, Weizmann Institute "Hanbury-Brown and Twiss Interference of Anyons" A Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometer probes entanglement of initially uncorrelated identical particles

  13. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plateau, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    of wavefront sensors are commercially available (Hartmann,Shack-Hartmann, shearing interferometer). The setup used forare based on a modi?ed Hartmann test [24], in which di?

  14. Technology demonstration of Ka-band digitally-beamformed radar for ice topography mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadowy, G; Heavey, B; Moller, D; Rignot, E; Zawadzki, M; Rengarajan, S

    2007-01-01

    Beamformed Radar for Ice Topography Mapping Gregory Sadowy,Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer) is aGLISTIN will collect ice topography measurements over a wide

  15. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  16. Noise in Classical and Quantum Photon-Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    .2.2 Van Cittert­Zernike theorem 21.2.3 Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometer 21.3 Quantum Photon is stellar imaging using a Hanbury- Brown­Twiss intensity-correlation interferometer.4­7 More recently, two

  17. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 116 (2008) Printed 1 August 2008 (MN LaTEX style file v2.2) Simulating full-sky interferometric observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEwen, Jason

    2008-01-01

    for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will see the entire sky, hence the standard approach to simulating: observations. 1 INTRODUCTION The next generation of interferometers, such as the Square Kilome- tre Array (SKA 2008; in original form 14 March 2008 ABSTRACT Aperture array interferometers, such as that proposed

  18. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanton, Philip L. (Bernalillo County, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Crump, Jr., O. B. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  19. Power filters for gravitational wave bursts: network operation for source position estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien Sylvestre

    2003-04-30

    A method is presented to generalize the power detectors for short bursts of gravitational waves that have been developed for single interferometers so that they can optimally process data from a network of interferometers. The performances of this method for the estimation of the position of the source are studied using numerical simulations.

  20. Jrg R. Hrandel Afdeling Sterrenkunde IMAPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hörandel, Jörg R.

    nebula Pulsars #12;The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA #12;Centaurus A AGN of distant radio sources, based on how much they twinkle as they shine through the solar wind. Pulsars were Radio Telescope (WSRT) 1972 #12;The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA (1980

  1. Multichannel interferometry using high-order rotating diffraction gratings John Howard, George B. Warr, and Peter Dodds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    . Warr, and Peter Dodds Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering National University (ANU), two new types of multichannel density interferometer basedon scanning and multibeam rotating diffraction gratings have beenrecently proposed.3-5 The first type of interferometer

  2. A Neural Network-based ARX Model of Virgo Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Barone; R. De Rosa; A. Eleuteri; F. Garufi; L. Milano; R. Tagliaferri

    1999-06-07

    In this paper a Neural Network based approach is presented to identify the noise in the VIRGO context. VIRGO is an experiment to detect Gravitational Waves by means of a Laser Interferometer. Preliminary results appear to be very promising for data analysis of realistic Interferometer outputs.

  3. Coda wave interferometry 1 Coda wave interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Coda wave interferometry 1 Coda wave interferometry An interferometer is an instrument that is sensitive to the interference of two or more waves (optical or acoustic). For example, an optical interferometer uses two interfering light beams to measure small length changes. Coda wave interferometry

  4. A parametric study of shock jump chemistry, electron temperature, and radiative heat transfer models in hypersonic flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greendyke, Robert Brian

    1988-01-01

    will examine the radiance model and various step models in order to determine their appropriateness to the flight regime of the AOTV. The final area to be investigated will be the effect of nonequilibrium corrections on the radiative heat transfer models... of T and e T will be valid as long as there is a reasonable amount vNs of nitrogen molecules in the flow. Radiative Heat Transfer Models For this study, four radiative heat transfer models were examined. One of these models is an optically thin radiance...

  5. Optical Multi-Channel Intensity Interferometry - or: How To Resolve O-Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trippe, Sascha; Lee, Bangwon; Choi, Changsu; Oh, Junghwan; Lee, Taeseok; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Im, Myungshin; Park, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Intensity interferometry, based on the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, is a simple and inexpensive method for optical interferometry at microarcsecond angular resolutions; its use in astronomy was abandoned in the 1970s because of low sensitivity. Motivated by recent technical developments, we argue that the sensitivity of large modern intensity interferometers can be improved by factors up to approximately 25,000, corresponding to 11 photometric magnitudes, compared to the pioneering Narrabri Stellar Interferometer. This is made possible by (i) using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as light detectors, (ii) distributing the light received from the source over multiple independent spectral channels, and (iii) use of arrays composed of multiple large light collectors. Our approach permits the construction of large (with baselines ranging from few kilometers to intercontinental distances) optical interferometers at the cost of (very) long-baseline radio interferometers. Realistic intensity interferometer designs are abl...

  6. Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Müntinga; H. Ahlers; M. Krutzik; A. Wenzlawski; S. Arnold; D. Becker; K. Bongs; H. Dittus; H. Duncker; N. Gaaloul; C. Gherasim; E. Giese; C. Grzeschik; T. W. Hänsch; O. Hellmig; W. Herr; S. Herrmann; E. Kajari; S. Kleinert; C. Lämmerzahl; W. Lewoczko-Adamczyk; J. Malcolm; N. Meyer; R. Nolte; A. Peters; M. Popp; J. Reichel; A. Roura; J. Rudolph; M. Schiemangk; M. Schneider; S. T. Seidel; K. Sengstock; V. Tamma; T. Valenzuela; A. Vogel; R. Walser; T. Wendrich; P. Windpassinger; W. Zeller; T. van Zoest; W. Ertmer; W. P. Schleich; E. M. Rasel

    2013-01-24

    Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Due to their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this paper we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far-field of a double-slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.

  7. 4PAPERDRAFT COMPSTAT'2004 Symposium c Physica-Verlag/Springer 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crambes, Christophe

    , Wind Speed, Temperature, Humidity and Sun Radiance. These variables are observed in six different)i=1,...,n of pairs of random variables, in- dependent and identically distributed, with the same distribution as (X, Y ), with X belonging to the functional space L2 ([0, 1]) of square integrable func- tions

  8. STUDIES ON THE GOES-R HYPERSPECTRAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUITE (HES) ON , Timothy, J. Schmit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    resolution infrared radiances from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on Geostationary Operational with capabilities from current sensors. Corresponding author address: Jun Li, Cooperative Institute and 2 km relative humidity (RH) rms were created to evaluate the retrieval difference between LW + LMW

  9. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION doi: 10.1038/nature05508

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    , and for this study, the hydrological cycle. TES is an infrared, high resolution, Fourier transform spectrometer-mean. The forward model is evaluated by the atmospheric state vector, x !!M . In this study we define the full state the radiance for the TES sensors. www.nature.com/nature 2 #12;doi: 10.1038/nature05508 SUPPLEMENTARY

  10. ABSTRACT: The concern about water quality in inland water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs has been increasing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaubey, Indrajeet

    , many researchers have employed the digital evaluation of remote sensing information at visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths to assess these water quality parameters in various water bod- ies (e sensor radiances to surface concentrations are effective, and the results are relatively good (Baruah et

  11. Ocean Sci. J. (2012) 47(3):279-285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12601-012-0028-0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    at www.springerlink.com Evaluation of GOCI Sensitivity for At-Sensor Radiance and GDPS). While GOCI visible bands showed similar at-sensor SNRs to SeaWiFS, the near-infrared (NIR) bands showed specifications under different conditions, making a direct cross-sensor comparison difficult. Here, we compared

  12. To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film in deep open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an installed lighting power density of 0.89 W/ft2 *. Source peak electric demand reductions were 0.09-0.21 W with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones- tracing program, Radiance, were performed to evaluate the annual lighting energy use and discomfort glare

  13. Pint-Sized Accelerator Creates the Mother of All Gamma Rays DailyTech 22 September

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    than 10e23 photons per second, per square milliradian, per square millimeter, per 0.1% bandwidth a foot) of lead, or 1.5m (almost 5 feet) of concrete. The peak radiance of the super-bright beam was more. If you're not involved in research physics, suffice to say that's a whole lot of high-energy photons

  14. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment October 2005. [1] Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289­339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique

  15. Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, November 1998 -1 -CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION ESTIMATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Jack

    Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua-Kona, November 1998 - 1 - CHLOROPHYLL CONCENTRATION ESTIMATED FROM-line, bottom-tethered moorings. 1. INTRODUCTION Optical moorings are a relatively new addition, optical moorings have been developed and deployed with sensors that measure radiance and/or irradiance

  16. A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical and humid climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -years-old database for solar irradiance (W.m-2 ). So it is important to determine Luminous Efficacy in order to find illuminance from solar irradiance (or luminance from solar radiance). The measured data. Keywords Global and diffuse luminous efficacy, different sky conditions, solar irradiance, solar

  17. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 20532060 On possible drivers of Sun-induced climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2006-01-01

    Author's personal copy Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 2053 of two current hypotheses on the dependence of climate change on solar activity. One of them states that variations in the tropospheric temperature are caused directly by changes of the solar radiance (total

  18. Daylighting techniques used in indigenous buildings in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), an investigative approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alnuaimi, Maitha Mohammed

    2009-06-02

    the space. Desktop Radiance 2.0 Beta was used as the lighting performance analysis tool under clear sky conditions. Results have shown that the gypsum decorative panel performs better than the other two systems in terms of light uniformity and distribution...

  19. Thermal and lighting performance of toplighting systems in the hot and humid climate of Thailand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harntaweewongsa, Siritip

    2006-10-30

    3.10 Scale model materials and reflectance values................................................ 45 5.1 Horizontal exterior illuminance (HEI) level generated from RADIANCE .. 99 5.2 Single unit prototype: illuminance gradient comparison................................................................ 5 1.4.2. Delimitations ............................................................ 5 1.5. Organization of the Thesis ................................................... 6 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE...

  20. Uncertainty and interpretation of aerosol remote sensing due to vertical inhomogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and aerosol column number density. Monomodal aerosol size distribution is assumed. The Cost Function (CF radiance data at the TOA have been created assuming either one or two layers of aerosols using the vector is affected by the radiative forcing associated with various sources, including total solar irradiance

  1. Effects of Virtualization on a Scientific Application Running a Hyperspectral Radiative Transfer Code on Virtual Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelmann, Christian

    radiance distribution within/leaving a water body · Ex. parameters: water depth, wavelength, wind speed.0.4 includes other aspects · Run Parameters: opcontrol --start --separate=kernel \\ --event=GLOBAL_POWER profiles "--event=GLOBAL_POWER_EVENTS:100000:1:1:1 " event: GLOBAL_POWER_EVENTS reset counter: 100000reset

  2. METROLOGYWITHOUT ~tlike human twins who quantum of paired V & ~ S (within the crystal);

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    - frared detector! (Spectral radiance is optical power per unit area, per steradian and per unit bandwidth nanosecond elec- tronics and continuous-wavelasers. Parametric down-conversion All of the applications discussed in this article rely on the process of optical parametric down-conversion,illustrated in figure 1

  3. VertexBased Formulations of Irradiance from Polygonal Sources Technical Report UUCS00012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertex­Based Formulations of Irradiance from Polygonal Sources Technical Report UUCS­00­012 Michael M. Stark Department of Computer Science University of Utah May 29, 2000 Abstract Irradiance]. Radiance is measured in units of W/m 2 /sr. A related quantity is irradiance, the incident radiant flux

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 063825 (2013) Cooperativity of a few quantum emitters in a single-mode cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    pumped quantum emitters. We propose an operational measure for the medium cooperativity, valid both emitters interacting with the same electromagnetic environment are drastically different from those of N-radiance decay [1], where constructive interference of the atomic dipoles leads to enhanced relaxation

  5. A statistical study of SUMER spectral images: events, turbulence, and intermittency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Buchlin; J. -C. Vial; P. Lemaire

    2006-03-16

    We analyze a series of full-Sun observations, which was performed with the SoHO/SUMER instrument between March and October 1996. Some parameters (radiance, shift and width) of the S VI 93.3 nm, S VI 94.4 nm, and Lyman Epsilon line profiles were computed on board. Radiances and line-of-sight velocities in a large central region of the Sun are studied statistically: distributions of solar structures, field Fourier spectra and structure functions are obtained. The structures have distributions with power-law tails, the Fourier spectra of the radiance fields also display power laws, and the normalized structure functions of the radiance and velocity fields increase at small scales. These results support the idea of the existence of small scales, created by turbulence, and of intermittency of the observed fields. These properties may provide insight into the processes needed for heating the transition region, or, if confirmed in the corona, the corona itself. The difficulties encountered in this analysis, especially for the velocity data, underline the needs for sensitive ultraviolet imaging spectrometers.

  6. An experimental setup to evaluate the daylighting performance of an advanced optical light pipe for deep-plan office buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins Mogo de Nadal, Betina Gisela

    2005-11-01

    points ...................... 58 34 Iso-contours generated with Desktop Radiance of (a) low luminance values, (b) high luminance values................................................................ 59 xiii FIGURE... illumination, with high concentration of illuminance levels near the glazing and very low levels at the back of the spaces. Therefore, the core of these buildings is dark and depends exclusively on electrical lighting for obtaining adequate illumination...

  7. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 21712180, 2005 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/5/2171/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    for spotting spatial and temporal anomalies. We conclude that SCIAMACHY reflectance data in this wave- length al., 1999) may be relevant for global change research, if it can be continued over a long time period measurements are collectively called "level 1 data". These include earth radiance, solar irradiance

  8. Thermodynamic product retrieval methodology and validation for NAST-I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    and water vapor are basic meteorolog- ical parameters for weather forecasting. In addi- tion. Detailed and accurate analyses of NAST-I data, by use of lin- ear regression of radiance eigenvector are with the Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin­ Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. G. W

  9. 1771DECEMBER 2002AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | ne of the more stunning features of the images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the atmosphere. By tracking movements of individual cloud elements we can also determine the wind fields (e the energy budget of the planet. They tend to cool the earth by reflecting sunlight back to space while radiances measured by sensors on satellites. This global view, provided, for example, by the ISCCP (see

  10. Black Sun: Ocular Invisibility of Relativistic Luminous Astrophysical Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey S. Lee; Gerald B. Cleaver

    2015-08-16

    The relativistic Doppler shifting of visible electromagnetic radiation to beyond the human ocular range reduces the incident radiance of the source. Consequently, luminous astrophysical bodies (LABs) can be rendered invisible with sufficient relativistic motion. This paper determines the proper distance as a function of relativistic velocity at which a luminous object attains ocular invisibility.

  11. Supplemental Information for "Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission" by D.A. Siegel and others.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    . This water-leaving radiance, Lw(), is solar radiation that penetrated the ocean surface, interacted the SeaWiFS mission" by D.A. Siegel and others. Satellite Ocean Color Data Processing: Ocean color sensors are designed to measure the spectral distribution of visible radiation upwelling from beneath the ocean surface

  12. UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    maintain an archive for all the solar ir- radiance data sets measured by our instruments. In addition of computer models. Solar UV radiation is a primary energy input to Earth's atmosphere. High variability and Climate Solar radiation is the Earth's primary source of energy, exceeding by four orders of magnitude

  13. Polarocryptic mirror of the lookdown as a biological model for open ocean camouflage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Molly E.

    with high solar altitudes, yet ineffective against asymmetric polarized radiance fields associ- ated with low solar inclinations. Here we identify a biological model for polaro­crypsis. We measured with nonpolarization sensitive strategies, such as a ver- tical mirror. Lookdowns achieve polaro­crypsis across solar

  14. Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Monthly Weather Review EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary PDF of the author into numerical weather4 prediction models can improve precipitation forecasts and extend prediction capabilities5 that assimilates precipitation-affected microwave radiances into the7 Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

  15. Baucom, J. G., and M. Weinreb, 1996: Characteristics of E/W stripes in infrared images from the GOES-8 imager. Proc. Intl. Symp. on Optical Science, Engineering, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haines, Stephanie L.

    -376. Hafner, J., and S. Q. Kidder, 1999: Urban heat island modeling in conjunction with satellite temperatures and geostrophic winds to estimate surface energy fluxes. J. Geophys. Rev., 100, 25447., and Coauthors, 2001: Radiance and Jacobian intercomparison of radiative transfer models applied to HIRS and AMSU

  16. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 36533664 High-resolution spatial patterns of long-term mean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broday, David

    2006-01-01

    agree with published observations on larger spatial scales. The high-resolution maps capture in a small and disease. Air pollutants in an urban environment may have a wide spectrum of sources affecting- cesses and the governing meteorology, mainly sun radiance, ambient temperature and the prevailing winds

  17. Accepted for publication in Deep Sea Res. I (December 2005) 1 A SPECIES-DEPENDENT BIO-OPTICAL MODEL OF CASE I WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Accepted for publication in Deep Sea Res. I (December 2005) 1 A SPECIES-DEPENDENT BIO-OPTICAL MODEL OF CASE I WATERS FOR GLOBAL OCEAN COLOR PROCESSING S. Alvain1 , C. Moulin*1 , Y. Dandonneau2 , H. Loisel3 on the normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) spectra, is applied to coincident in situ measurements of both

  18. Angular instability due to radiation pressure in the LIGO gravitational wave detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eiichi Hirose; Keita Kawabe; Daniel Sigg; Rana Adhikari; Peter R. Saulson

    2009-08-31

    We observed the effect of radiation pressure on the angular sensing and control system of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) interferometer's core optics at LIGO Hanford Observatory. This is the first measurement of this effect in a complete gravitational wave interferometer. Only one of the two angular modes survives with feedback control, since the other mode is suppressed when the control gain is sufficiently large. We developed a mathematical model to understand the physics of the system. This model matches well the dynamics that we observe.

  19. Precisely resolve energy-time entanglement by dual channel Fabry-Perot interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan Sun

    2014-12-12

    Precisely resolving the continuous variable energy-time entanglement of paired photons is an important issue in quantum optics. The Fabry-Perot interferometer provides a distinguished opportunity for this purpose if the single photon pulse's self-interference is carefully avoided. A dual channel Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed and studied with the focus put upon higher order quantum interference effects. When the two channels are properly set up, it is capable of resolving the energy-time entanglement in detail analogously to that a usual Fabry-Perot interferometer can resolve classical light's spectrum. Variation form of the dual channel Fabry-Perot interferometry is also discussed.

  20. Low-cost interference lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fucetola, Corey P.

    The authors report demonstration of a low-cost ( ? 1000 USD) interference lithography system based on a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer that is capable of ? 300?nm pitch patterning. The components include only a 405?nm GaN ...

  1. Masters Thesis Optimization of fiber-based optical microcavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hänsch, Theodor W.

    -machining of optical fibers - characterization of surface profiles with a home-built white light interferometer spatio-temporal confinement of light, i.e. the combination of a large quality factor and a microscopic

  2. LOCALIZATION OF SHORT DURATION GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENTS WITH THE EARLY ADVANCED LIGO AND VIRGO DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Essick, Reed Clasey

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important ...

  3. Two-Color interferometry as a fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasten, Cale Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The two-color interferometer diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod has been upgraded to measure line-integrated electron density fluctuations for turbulence and transport studies. Heterodyne signals from ten vertical-viewing CO2 ...

  4. Polarization phase stepping with a Savart element Aldegonda L. Weijers, Hedser van Brug, and Hans J. Frankena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interferometer. The object under test is illuminated with a diode laser. The light, scattered by the object. The stop is imaged onto the CCD cameras by the telescope. This telescopic relay system creates the required

  5. Spatially Resolved Quantum Nano-Optics of Single Photons Using an Electron Microscope L. H. G. Tizei and M. Kociak*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer. The detection of a dip in the correlation function at small timeŢ] correlations of a given light field at different time delays, . It can be measured using a Hanbury Brown-Twiss

  6. 252 nature physics | VOL 5 | APRIL 2009 | www.nature.com/naturephysics news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    has intrigued physicists since it was first identified by Robert Hanbury Brown and Richard Twiss (HBT. Hanbury Brown and Twiss first discovered photon bunching by using a novel type of stellar interferometer

  7. Second order coherence of broadband down-converted light on ultrashort time scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    correlation is carried out thanks to a modified Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer based on two photon. Q. Twiss, "Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light," Nature 177(4497), 27

  8. Compressed Sensing in Astronomy J.-L. Starck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starck, Jean-Luc

    ), (Suskimo, 2009). The futur Square Kilometre Array (SKA) radio-interferometer will certainly use-210 microns, is covered by PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer). Launch: May 14, 2009

  9. Matter wave optical techniques for probing many-body targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on our investigation of the uses of matter waves to probe many-body targets. We begin by discussing decoherence in an atom interferometer, in which a free gas acts as a refractive medium for a matter ...

  10. Low-Frequency Imaging of Fields at High Galactic Latitude with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 Element Prototype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher Leigh

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is a new low-frequency, wide-field-of-view radio interferometer under development at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. We have used a 32 element MWA prototype ...

  11. Baffle material characterization for Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Cassandra R

    2008-01-01

    The transition to Advanced LIGO introduces new sensitivity requirements for the LIGO interferometers. When light scatters away from the main laser beam, then scatters off the beam tube and returns to the main beam, noise ...

  12. Coherent control of neutron interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pushin, Dmitry A

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, several novel techniques are proposed and demonstrated for measuring the coherent properties of materials and testing aspects of quantum information processing using a single crystal neutron interferometer. ...

  13. Spark-plug-mounted fiber optic sensor for measuring in-cylinder pressure in engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Taehan

    2001-01-01

    A new design for an in-cylinder fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) pressure sensor suitable for automotive engines has been investigated experimentally. The FFPI sensor consists of a single mode fiber containing two internal mirrors which form...

  14. Density profiles of plasmas confined by the field of a Levitating Dipole Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Alexander C

    2009-01-01

    A 4-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure the density profiles of plasmas confined within the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). LDX is the first and only experiment ...

  15. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullavey, Adam J.

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this ...

  16. Pathways Towards Habitable Planets ASP Conference Series, Vol. 430, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordé, Pascal J.

    Pathways Towards Habitable Planets ASP Conference Series, Vol. 430, 2010 Vincent Coud´e du Foresto and Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) missions. However, cost and technological issues

  17. Two applications of the Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Zhaoxia

    2009-05-15

    Two important applications of the fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FFPI) sensor are investigated: (1) an optical binary switch for aerospace application, and (2) an FFPI weigh-in-motion sensor for measuring the weight of trucks traveling down a...

  18. Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massi, Fabrizio

    , Riccardo Cesaroni 1 , Tim Jenness 4 1 INAF­Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, 50125 Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain) mation (see

  19. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Weili; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2012-03-31

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  20. Signal processing for fiber optic acoustic sensor system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Juhong

    2000-01-01

    pulses from a single mode laser. Signals from multiple sensors in the array are separated and demultiplexed. The acoustic pressure information is determined by processing the returned optical pulses using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer as an optical...

  1. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 19, OCTOBER 1, 2010 1449 Photonic Implementation of Quantum Relay and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    states and quantum relay. We describe how to implement them in integrated op- tics. Finally, we study-qubit quantum gate in integrated op- tics based on single: (a) Mach-Zehnder interferometer and (b) optical

  2. The Phase Retrieval Problem and Its Applications in Optics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahan, Russell E

    2014-10-15

    . The first two considerations are discussed here historically and reference many significant scientific discoveries, namely the Huygens-Fresnel principle, the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, and the Michelson interferometer. Within the field of interferometry...

  3. Demonstration of a hitless bypass switch using nanomechanical perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Rohit

    We demonstrate an optical hitless bypass switch based on nanomechanical proximity perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks. Embedded in a single-level ?-imbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two ...

  4. The search for gravitational wave bursts in data from the second LIGO science run

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterji, Shourov Keith

    2005-01-01

    The network of detectors comprising the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are among a new generation of detectors that seek to make the first direct observation of gravitational waves. While providing ...

  5. Phase stabilization of laser beams in a cold atom accelerometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Nicole (Nicole Malenie)

    2014-01-01

    A cold atom accelerometer measures the displacement of a proof mass of laser cooled atoms with respect to an instrument reference frame. The cold atom interferometer's reference frame is defined by a pair of specially ...

  6. Light pulse atom interferometry at short interrogation times for inertial navigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butts, David LaGrange

    2012-01-01

    Light pulse atom interferometry with cold atoms is a promising inertial sensing technology for high accuracy navigation. At present, laboratory atom interferometers match or surpass state of the art mechanical and optical ...

  7. Coherent multi-photon interference and compensation of polarization dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fini, John Michael

    2001-01-01

    This thesis will explore strategies for coherent manipulation of multi-photon packets. Correlated multi-photon states can arise in nonlinear optical devices. A nonlinear quantum interferometer which includes these states ...

  8. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 18791897, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/1879/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    green- house gases. Methane has been increasing steadily due to anthropogenic emissions. Water vapour). Correspondence to: M. Juckes (m.n.juckes@rl.ac.uk) Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sound- ing

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 11 SEPTEMBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2083 A gravitational wave observatory operating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Nelson

    with its best ever sensitivity, which proves the usefulness of quantum entanglement and the qualification the sensitivity is, in practice, limited by seismic noise, suspension thermal noise, and in future interferometers

  10. C H A P T E R T H R E E Magnetic Stratigraphy in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C H A P T E R T H R E E Magnetic Stratigraphy in Paleoceanography: Reversals, Excursions as a Stratigraphic Tool 121 9.1. Geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) 121 9.2. Relative paleointensity stratigraphy). However, it was not until the observation of the same reversal sequence in dispersed radiometrically dated

  11. 142Nd Evidence for Early (94.53 Ga) Global Differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    been sampled and is probably located at the base of the mantle. These data in- fluence models of Earth-lived radioactive systems to resetting by events occurring later in Earth_s history. Recent studies have reported, 5). The standard assumption in using this radiometric system to model the geochemical evolution

  12. LAI, fAPAR and fCover CYCLOPES global products derived1 from VEGETATION. Part 1: Principles of the algorithm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    description of the VEGETATION sensors, radiometric calibration19 process, based on vicarious desertic targets24 red, near infrared and short wave infrared bands used to the remaining cloud free observations25 and climate modelling, resource evaluation (water, agriculture or forest3 production). Surface process models

  13. Page 95 (corrected) Labs, D., and H. Neckel, 1968: The radiation of the solar photosphere from 2000 A to 100 . Zeits. Astrophyz., 69,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .L. Smith and L.D. Herman, 1981: Visible infrared spin­scan radiometer atmospheric sounder radiometric calibration: An inflight evaluation from intercomparisons with HIRS and radiosonde measurements. Appl. Optics, European Space Agency, Darmstadt. Muench, H.S., 1981: Calibration of geosynchronous satellite video sensors

  14. Method for the melting of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR)

    1992-01-01

    A method of quantitatively determining the molten pool configuration in melting of metals. The method includes the steps of introducing hafnium metal seeds into a molten metal pool at intervals to form ingots, neutron activating the ingots and determining the hafnium location by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  15. Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Resources and Environmental Sciences Department, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3120 c Energy Research Institute-microbolometer, long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagers, combined with advanced radiometric calibration methods developed at Montana State University, has led to new uses of thermal imagery in remote sensing applications. One

  16. 3D modelling of forest canopy structure for remote sensing simulations in the optical and microwave domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    3D modelling of forest canopy structure for remote sensing simulations in the optical and microwave) and backscatter (microwave) signals measured remotely. We show it is feasible to model forest canopy scattering were used to drive optical and microwave models of canopy scattering. Simulated canopy radiometric

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 1 Adaptive Control of Undetected Radio Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 1 Adaptive Control of Undetected Radio Frequency Interference With a Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer David D. Chen, Graduate Student Member, IEEE, and Christopher S. Ruf, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In microwave radiometric remote sensing, unde- tected radio

  18. Separation of niobium and tantalum using a chelating ion exchange resin with N-benzoyl phenyl hydroxyl amine as functional group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pobi, M.; Das, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Niobium is separated from Ta and V by elution with 0.5 M HF in a column of chelating resin containing N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine (NBPHA) as a function group. Niobium and tantalum can also be separated using their differential distribution coefficient and elution behavior, monitored by radiometric and also be spectrophotometric methods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Xray CCD Calibration for the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer M. Bautz, S. Kissel, G. Prigozhin, S. Jones, T. Isobe,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1%; detection efficiency knowledge error of order 1%) are reviewed. The primary standards chosen as a primary radiometric standard for the detection efficiency calibration. We review the basic models (CCD), calibration, AXAF, ACIS 1 INTRODUCTION The Advanced X­ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 17, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 2465 Detection and Segmentation of Concealed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    by measuring the radiometric temperatures of different objects on a human sub- ject. The goal of this work, segmentation, terahertz imaging. I. INTRODUCTION AT room temperature, the peak of black body radiation. In fact, we show in our experiments that state of the art image segmentation algorithms fail