National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radia tive forcing

  1. RadiaBeam PPT template

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    718 to 316 SS) Applications in nuclear (fission and fusion) and concentrated solar power components (DOE Nuclear Energy Phase III (DE-SC0011826)) RadiaBeam-led...

  2. Further descrip-on of the solar radia-on balance of the climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Further descrip-on of the solar radia-on balance of the climate system: HAS222d Solar radia-on, the greenhouse, global heat engine h-on heat engines degrada-on (and entropy) storage u-liza-on by plants and animals

  3. Inves&ga&ng the Trade-Off between Luminous Efficacy of Radia&on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Inves&ga&ng the Trade-Off between Luminous Efficacy of Radia&on and Color, Canada · Lorne Whitehead, Canada #12;Inves&ga&ng the Trade-Off between Luminous

  4. 6. Impact of smoke and moisture on shortwave radia7ve hea7ng profile Dynamical and Radia7ve Influences of Smoke Transport on the Southeast Atlan7c Atmospheric Ver7cal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    6. Impact of smoke and moisture on shortwave radia7ve hea7ng profile-tropospheric air above the cloud-top inversion layer, thereby inhibi:ng the entrainment stability impac:ng the stratocumulus deck. What is the role of regional circula

  5. tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and associated NO.,. emissions) and found them comparable. Stricter controls on power plants were as- sumed than are currently in place Analy- sis article on battery-powered vehicles (Sept. 1996, p. 402A) serves as a useful reminder

  6. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the rela-tively selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jian

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the rela- tively selective degeneration into a stiff, hollow tube. Each Microtubule: A Common Target for Parkin and Parkinson's Disease Toxins JIAN performed on twins (Tanner and others 1999), reveal strong environmental connections to the disease

  7. Eos volume 93 number 35 28 August 2012 Geoengineering through solar radia-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    the planet could help to temporarily alleviate some dangerous impacts of anthropogenic warming and, depending- ment on reductions in the global hydrologic cycle from balancing increases in green- house gases sensitivities to solar and green- house gas forcings. Methods of coordinated analysis were discussed, as were

  8. MUSIC-TYPE ALGORITHM FOR EDDY-CURRENT NONDESTRUC-TIVE EVALUATION OF SMALL DEFECTS IN METAL PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MUSIC-TYPE ALGORITHM FOR EDDY-CURRENT NONDESTRUC- TIVE EVALUATION OF SMALL DEFECTS IN METAL PLATES Eddy-Current nondestructive evaluation of metal plates is of interest in a wide range of applications in the lower frequency band (kHz) for eddy-current testing, to retrieve small void defects inside a conducting

  9. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 87518761, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/8751/2012/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Center for the Energy and the Environment, La Jolla, CA, USA 2Key Laboratory of Aerosol, SKLLQG capacities for absorbing and reflecting incident solar radiation, with a direct radia- tive forcing of +0­40 % of households burn garbage in their backyards (US EPA, 2006). In developing countries, open garbage burn- ing

  10. RadiaBeam PPT template

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Machine shops (clean and regular) Assembly area Magnetic measurements lab Optics lab Hot test cell (up to 9 MeV) Clean room Chemical processing RF test...

  11. RadiaBeam PPT template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011REMSViewEnergy RTP Green Fuel:Race1 June

  12. A complete analytic inversion of supernova lines in the Sobolev approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasen, Daniel; Branch, David; Baron, E.; Jeffery, David

    2001-01-01

    D . & Branch, D . 1990, in Supernovae, ed. J . C . Wheeler &radia­ tive transfer — supernovae Lawrence Berkeley Nationalgradients, such as supernovae. The Sobolev approximation has

  13. Stefan Schmid 1 Radia Perlman: Principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    ..) in every possible network standard?? Answer: ISO Object Identifier tree: Hierarchical naming of all objects Each branch point has name, number 1.3.6.1.2.1.7.1 ISO (0=ITU) ISO-ident. Org. US DoD Internet udp) e.g., also used for X.509 public key certificates (objects therein...) #12;Stefan Schmid 8 Check out

  14. Climate forcing Climate forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKinnon, Jennifer

    parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

  15. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

  16. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-03-07

    The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

  17. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

  18. Castro with Carranzista Forces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Casimir pistons are models in which finite Casimir forces can be calculated without any suspect renormalizations. It has been suggested that such forces are always attractive, but we present several counterexamples, notably ...

  19. Administering Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-05-14

    The order provides requirements and responsibilities for administering work force discipline and corrective actions. Supersedes DOE O 3750.1.

  20. Forces from Connes' geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2007-03-26

    We try to give a pedagogical introduction to Connes' derivation of the standard model of electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces from gravity.

  1. NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randrup, J.

    2011-01-01

    One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

  2. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

  3. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  4. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-02-13

    To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

  5. Federal Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-07-15

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  6. Conservative entropic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Entropic forces have recently attracted considerable attention as ways to reformulate, retrodict, and perhaps even "explain'" classical Newtonian gravity from a rather specific thermodynamic perspective. In this article I point out that if one wishes to reformulate classical Newtonian gravity in terms of an entropic force, then the fact that Newtonian gravity is described by a conservative force places significant constraints on the form of the entropy and temperature functions. (These constraints also apply to entropic reinterpretations of electromagnetism, and indeed to any conservative force derivable from a potential.) The constraints I will establish are sufficient to present real and significant problems for any reasonable variant of Verlinde's entropic gravity proposal, though for technical reasons the constraints established herein do not directly impact on either Jacobson's or Padmanabhan's versions of entropic gravity. In an attempt to resolve these issues, I will extend the usual notion of entropic...

  7. Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2007-12-11

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

  8. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuda, Takuya; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not needed. Nevertheless, it is often asserted that the tidal force can be explained by the centrifugal force. If we literally take into account the centrifugal force, it would mislead us. We therefore also discuss the proper treatment of the centrifugal force.

  9. Int. Journ. of Unconventional Computing, Vol. 8, pp. 99105 2012 Old City Publishing, Inc. Reprints available directly from the publisher Published by license under the OCP Science imprint,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svozil, Karl

    environment into a medium whose index of refraction is smaller than one, thereby trespassing the speed-of-light barrier. Keywords: Optical computation, index of refraction, medium computation, radia- tive corrections [57, 26, 16, 34, 51] enabling the construction of "infinity machines" capable of hypercomputation [10

  10. CHEN ET AL. VOL. 5 ' NO. 8 ' 67546763 ' 2011 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as "bright modes". On the contrary, for narrow modes with small net dipole moments, their radia- tive decays are very weak. They are often termed as "dark mode".16À18 The presence of both bright and dark modes forms Multilayer coreÀshell nanostructures have been designed with spectrally overlapping bright and dark modes

  11. the past 150-year period of reported global Second, historical information on solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compared with the radia- tive relaxation time of layers storing the heat blocked by sunspots. This timethe past 150-year period of reported global warming. Second, historical information on solar increase in solar activity beyond present levels might make the sun dimmer, decreasing its average out- put

  12. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 421437, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/421/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    -421-2011 © Author(s) 2011. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics A regional real of moist available energy for at- mospheric circulation and the major sink of atmospheric ki- netic energy energy, but only moderately increasing downward longwave radia- tive flux (Klein and Hartmann, 1993

  13. Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-03-23

    The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

  14. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30

    Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

  15. Contractor Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-05

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  16. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  17. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  18. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  19. Is gravity entropic force?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong-Jia Yang

    2014-09-11

    If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, $\\rho$ and $p$, are also the source of gravity, thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce effects of gravity, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential, gravity can be seen as an entropic force. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.

  20. Forced Granular Orifice Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng Peng; Hepeng Zheng; Yimin Jiang

    2009-09-06

    The flow of granular material through an orifice is studied experimentally as a function of force $F$ pushing the flow. It is found that the flow rate increases linearly with $F$ -- a new, unexpected result that is in contrast to the usual view that $F$, completely screened by an arch formed around the orifice, has no way of altering the rate. Employing energy balance, we show that this behavior results mainly from dissipation in the granular material.

  1. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  2. Work Force Restructuring Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyThe U.S.Lacledeutilities.EnergyKirstin AlberiComputerMathewsWeiWork Force

  3. Quantum anti-centrifugal force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Cirone; K. Rzazewski; W. P. Schleich; F. Straub; J. A. Wheeler

    2001-08-16

    In a two-dimensional world a free quantum particle of vanishing angular momentum experiences an attractive force. This force originates from a modification of the classical centrifugal force due to the wave nature of the particle. For positive energies the quantum anti-centrifugal force manifests itself in a bunching of the nodes of the energy wave functions towards the origin. For negative energies this force is sufficient to create a bound state in a two-dimensional delta function potential. In a counter-intuitive way the attractive force pushes the particle away from the location of the delta function potential. As a consequence, the particle is localized in a band-shaped domain around the origin

  4. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2010-09-22

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  5. Force As A Momentum Current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-07-28

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  6. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  7. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  8. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  9. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  10. Stochastic force in gravitational systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo

    2001-05-10

    In this paper I study the probability distribution of the gravitational force in gravitational systems through numerical experiments. I show that Kandrup's (1980) and Antonuccio-Delogu & Atrio-Barandela's (1992) theories describe correctly the stochastic force probability distribution respectively in inhomogeneous and clustered systems. I find equations for the probability distribution of stochastic forces in finite systems, both homogeneous and clustered, which I use to compare the theoretical predictions with Montecarlo simulations of spherically symmetric systems. The agreement between theoretical predictions and simulations proves to be quite satisfactory.

  11. Prediction of vehicle impact forces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  12. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan Gao

    2011-07-16

    The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde's example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde's argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  13. "Centrifugal Forces," Spring, 2015 Centrifugal Forces: Reading Russia's Regional Identities and Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    "Centrifugal Forces," Spring, 2015 Centrifugal Forces: Reading Russia's Regional Identities and articulating their particular identities and interests. Proposals for "Centrifugal Forces" will resist "Moscow and periphery. "Centrifugal Forces" will be a three-day conference offering broad interdisciplinary perspectives

  14. Integration of contractile forces during tissue invagination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Adam C.

    Contractile forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton within individual cells collectively generate tissue-level force during epithelial morphogenesis. During Drosophila mesoderm invagination, pulsed actomyosin ...

  15. Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zihua Weng

    2011-03-31

    The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in the interplanetary space between the sun and the earth.

  16. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  17. Nuclear force in Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

    2006-01-05

    We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

  18. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  19. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  20. Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected.............................................................................20 #12;ii Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities #12;1 Work Force Planning for Public Power as a result of the aging work force; and · Public power utilities need to do more to plan for their future

  1. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  2. October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

  3. LABORATORY II FORCE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    on an object and its kinetic energy. · Define and use sine, cosine and tangent for a right triangleLABORATORY II FORCE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Lab II - 1 After studying forces and material bodies the relationship between forces and energy conservation. Energy and forces, together, support an extremely

  4. Ecosystem Task Force Meeting Minutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    targets for future reductions? 3.1. No. We could work on those with the Task Force. Water Quality. How would growth affect water quality? 3.1. Are we following Rob's recommendations from storm water. 5. There is more work to be done to characterize lands to east as well as west. Waste Management

  5. LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM Lab I -1 In biological systems, most objects of interest system. OBJECTIVES: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to: · Determine and 6), and chapter 15 (section 4). It is likely that you will be doing some of these laboratory

  6. Nuclear Force from String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koji Hashimoto; Tadakatsu Sakai; Shigeki Sugimoto

    2010-03-09

    We compute nuclear force in a holographic model of QCD on the basis of a D4-D8 brane configuration in type IIA string theory. Repulsive core of nucleons is quite important in nuclear physics, but its origin has not been well-understood in strongly-coupled QCD. We find that string theory via gauge/string duality deduces this repulsive core at short distance between nucleons. Since baryons in the model are realized as solitons given by Yang-Mills instanton configuration on flavor D8-branes, ADHM construction of two instantons probes well the nucleon interaction at short scale, which provides the nuclear force quantitatively. We obtain, as well as a tensor force, a central force which is strongly repulsive as suggested in experiments and lattice results. In particular, the nucleon-nucleon potential V(r) (as a function of the distance) scales as 1/r^2, which is peculiar to the holographic model. We compare our results with one-boson exchange model using the nucleon-nucleon-meson coupling obtained in our previous paper (arXiv:0806.3122).

  7. The Engineering of Optical Conservative Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Junjie; Ding, Kun; Du, Guiqiang; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T; Ng, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Optical forces have been fruitfully applied in a broad variety of areas that not only span the traditional scientific fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in more applied fields. It is customary and useful to split the optical force into the (conservative) gradient force and the (non-conservative) scattering and absorption force. These forces are different in attributes. The ability to tailor them will open great potential in fundamental optics and practical applications. Here, we present an analytical and a numerical approach to calculate these forces, and, with these tools, we create a fairly general class of 2D conservative optical force field. In general, particles immersed in an optical force do not obey equilibrium statistical mechanics, making the analysis complicated. With conservative forces, these issues are resolved.

  8. Centrifugal force in Kerr geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sai Iyer; A R Prasanna

    1992-07-31

    We have obtained the correct expression for the centrifugal force acting on a particle at the equatorial circumference of a rotating body in the locally non-rotating frame of the Kerr geometry. Using this expression for the equilibrium of an element on the surface of a slowly rotating Maclaurin spheroid, we obtain the expression for the ellipticity (as discussed earlier by Abramowicz and Miller) and determine the radius at which the ellipticity is maximum.

  9. Development of a light force accelerometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butts, David LaGrange

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of a light force accelerometer was experimentally demonstrated. The light force accelerometer is an optical inertial sensor which uses focused laser light to levitate and trap glass microspheres ...

  10. Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  11. Chemistry 365: Force Constant Calculations David Ronis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    cost energy, and hence, there will no force in thy y or z directions (thereby resulting in 4 zero eigenChemistry 365: Force Constant Calculations © David Ronis McGill University Here is an example of a force constant matrix calculation. We will consider a diatomic molecule, where the two atoms interact

  12. RELATING CLIMATE FORCINGS AND CLIMATE RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    RELATING CLIMATE FORCINGS AND CLIMATE RESPONSE Stephen E. Schwartz Upton NY USA Bern, Switzerland change are tightly correlated. Forcing by GHGs only leads to extremely low climate sensitivity, well to rapid changes in forcings by stratospheric volcanic aerosols. Climate sensitivity is quite low, probably

  13. Anomalous swelling of lipid bilayer stacks is caused by softening of the bending modulus Nanjun Chu,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    of membranes and to understand the effec- tive forces between mesoscale structures 11,12 . The phe- nomenon

  14. Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

  15. Lorentz-Force Hydrophone Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Gilles, Bruno; Poizat, Adrien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    A Lorentz-force hydrophone consists of a thin wire placed inside a magnetic field. When under the influence of an ultrasound pulse, the wire vibrates and an electrical signal is induced by the Lorentz force that is proportional to the pulse amplitude. In this study a compact prototype of such a hydrophone is introduced and characterized, and the hydrodynamic model previously developed is refined. It is shown that the wire tension has a negligible effect on the measurement of pressure. The frequency response of the hydrophone reaches 1 MHz for wires with a diameter ranging between 70 and 400 \\micro m. The hydrophone exhibits a directional response such that the signal amplitude differs by less than 3dB as the angle of the incident ultrasound pulse varies from -20$^o$ and +20$^o$. The linearity of the measured signal is confirmed across the 50 kPa to 10 MPa pressure range, and an excellent resistance to cavitation is observed. This hydrophone is of interest for high pressure ultrasound measurements including Hi...

  16. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2009-01-07

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure constant alpha.

  17. Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

    2014-12-19

    We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

  18. Static balance control and external force estimation using ground reaction forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Satoshi

    Static balance control and external force estimation using ground reaction forces Satoshi ITO1 In this paper, we consider a balance control with focus- ing on ground reaction forces. As an example of balance control, the static balance with constant external forces act- ing is treated. Ankle joint torque is used

  19. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long Liang; Christopher Jones; Bo Sun; Yang Jiao

    2015-08-18

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the focal adhesion sites. A force-based stochastic relaxation method is employed to obtain force-balanced network under cell contraction. We find that the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emitted from the contracting cells. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to the reorientation induced by cell contraction. Large fluctuations of the forces along different force chains are observed. Importantly, the decay of the forces along the force chains is significantly slower than the decay of radially averaged forces in the system. These results suggest that the fibrous nature of biopolymer network structure can support long-range force transmission and thus, long-range mechanical signaling between cells.

  20. Heterogeneous Force Chains in Cellularized Biopolymer Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Long; Sun, Bo; Jiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymer Networks play an important role in coordinating and regulating collective cellular dynamics via a number of signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the mechanical response of a model biopolymer network due to the active contraction of embedded cells. Specifically, a graph (bond-node) model derived from confocal microscopy data is used to represent the network microstructure, and cell contraction is modeled by applying correlated displacements at specific nodes, representing the focal adhesion sites. A force-based stochastic relaxation method is employed to obtain force-balanced network under cell contraction. We find that the majority of the forces are carried by a small number of heterogeneous force chains emitted from the contracting cells. The force chains consist of fiber segments that either possess a high degree of alignment before cell contraction or are aligned due to the reorientation induced by cell contraction. Large fluctuations of the forces along different force chains are observed. ...

  1. Dark Forces At The Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckley, Matt; Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Hooper, Dan; Neil, Ethan

    2011-08-19

    A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ?more »~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.« less

  2. Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ishii; S. Aoki; T. Hatsuda

    2007-06-26

    Nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential is studied by lattice QCD simulations in the quenched approximation, using the plaquette gauge action and the Wilson quark action on a 32^4 (\\simeq (4.4 fm)^4) lattice. A NN potential V_{NN}(r) is defined from the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude with a local interpolating operator for the nucleon. By studying the NN interaction in the ^1S_0 and ^3S_1 channels, we show that the central part of V_{NN}(r) has a strong repulsive core of a few hundred MeV at short distances (r \\alt 0.5 fm) surrounded by an attractive well at medium and long distances. These features are consistent with the known phenomenological features of the nuclear force.

  3. Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Wisniacki, Diego A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Universidad de Buenos Aires, and Instituto de Fisica de Buenos Aires, Concejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Monastra, Alejandro G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Concejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, could be qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries. This suggests that there could be signatures of quantum chaos in the Casimir effect.

  4. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14

    coefficients (non-cavitating) - D, z = water depth ft d1, d2 = Cutting force coefficients (cavitating) - d50 = Mean grain diameter mm Dc = Depth of Cut in Dcutter = Diameter of cutterhead in ????1???? = Distance between cell1 to center of mass... redesigned cell1 to center of mass of cutter in z direction in ? = Phase shift rad ?c = Cavitation transition angle rad ???? = Axial cutting force lb ??? = Horizontal cutting force (F#nc represents non-cavitating) lb ???? = Vertical cutting...

  5. Note: Artificial neural networks for the automated analysis of force map data in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: tilman.schaeffer@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Force curves recorded with the atomic force microscope on structured samples often show an irregular force versus indentation behavior. An analysis of such curves using standard contact models (e.g., the Sneddon model) would generate inaccurate Young's moduli. A critical inspection of the force curve shape is therefore necessary for estimating the reliability of the generated Young's modulus. We used a trained artificial neural network to automatically recognize curves of “good” and of “bad” quality. This is especially useful for improving the analysis of force maps that consist of a large number of force curves.

  6. Force Modulation System for Vehicle Manufacturing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System for Vehicle Manufacturing Force Modulation System for Vehicle Manufacturing Novel Technology Enables Energy-Efficient Production of High-Strength Steel Automotive Parts...

  7. David J. Gross and the Strong Force

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    described electromagnetism, the force that acts between charged particles, such as electrons and protons, and which governs all chemical interactions. That theory, called...

  8. Plasmonic lateral forces on chiral spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canaguier-Durand, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We show that the optical force exerted on a finite size chiral sphere by a surface plasmon mode has a component along a direction perpendicular to the plasmon linear momentum. We reveal how this chiral lateral force, pointing in opposite directions for opposite enantiomers, stems from an angular-to-linear crossed momentum transfer involving the plasmon transverse spin angular momentum density and mediated by the chirality of the sphere. Our multipolar approach allows us discussing the inclusion of the recoil term in the force on a small sphere taken in the dipolar limit and observing sign inversions of the lateral chiral force when the size of the sphere increases.

  9. Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

  10. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Esquivel-Sirvent

    2007-08-02

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  11. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R

    2007-01-01

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  12. Quantum Force in a Superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Nikulov

    2001-04-23

    A contradiction of the Little-Parks experiment with the Ohm's law and other fundamental laws is explained. This explanation shows that the Little-Parks oscillations of the loop resistance are an experimental evidence of a direct (non-chaotic) Brownian motion. The Langevin force is connected with a change of the momentum circulation of superconducting pairs because of the quantization. Its average value can be non-zero because of the quantization. The existence of a direct Brownian motion contradicts to the principle on which the second law of thermodynamic is based. Therefore the Little-Parks experiment is evidence of a possibility of violation of the second law. In the last years other authors have stated also violation of the second law in different quantum systems: A.E.Allahverdyan and Th.M.Nieuwenhuizen, PRL 85, 1799 (2000); cond-mat/0011389; V.Capec and J.Bok, Czech.J. of Phys. 49, 1645 (1999); cond-mat/0012056; Physica A 290, 379 (2001); P. Weiss, Science News, 158, 234 (2000).

  13. Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

    2006-09-30

    The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

  14. Designing for forces : an early-stage design program for axial-force structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Alexander D. W. (Alexander David Weigert)

    2011-01-01

    Structures that carry most of their load through the axial forces of tension or compression are more materially efficient than standard structures. However, they are not as straightforward to design since the forces in the ...

  15. WCVM Research Task Force Report March 2011 WCVM Research Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    #12; #12;WCVM Research Task Force Report ­ March 2011 p.1 WCVM Research Task Force Report MarchDeanFreemanforreaffirmingtheimportanceoftheresearchenterpriseatthe WCVMthroughtheinceptionoftheResearchTaskForceandpermittingcomplete autonomyinitsmachinations.Taskforcememberswouldalsoliketothankthefacultythat tooktimetofillouttheResearch

  16. Time history analysis of axial forces (Pass Through Forces) at joints in a braced frame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paschini, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    As buildings keep getting taller, traditional braced lateral systems take more loads. This generates a phenomenon at every joint of a frame called "Pass Through Force". Pass through forces come from the transfer of axial ...

  17. grasslands by adding a diverse mixture of na-tive species without knowing which are likely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fee, Michale S.

    tractable than the one that has made me famous--but not rich." Paine argues that keystone interactions, are the keystone. Otters eat urchins, which is what allows kelp to thrive and facilitate other species. Bertness's own research in fact under- scores the importance of keystone species, Paine claims. In a study

  18. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fosco, Cesar D.; Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche ; Lombardo, Fernando C.; IFIBA ; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2012-08-15

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

  19. On Dual Configurational Forces SHAOFAN LIj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    they provide the dual energy­momentum tensor. Some previously unknown and yet interesting results in elasticity the configuration force (energy­momentum tensor) P and the dual configuration force (dual energy­momentum tensor) L energy­ momentum tensor (referred to as the dual energy­momentum tensor in this j Corresponding author

  20. Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2007-11-19

    The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

  1. Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate Directed Energy Directorate to partner with AFRL scientists and engineers on current research projects that are often the basis Phillips Scholars Phillips Scholars directed Energy Scholars directed Energy Scholars Air Force Research

  2. Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

  3. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  4. LABORATORY IV ELECTRIC FIELDS AND FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab IV - 1 LABORATORY IV ELECTRIC FIELDS AND FORCES Action-at-a-distance forces (gravitational and inspires the invention of new devices. The problems in this laboratory are primarily designed to give you through an electric field. OBJECTIVES: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able

  5. LABORATORY I ELECTRIC FIELDS AND FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY I ELECTRIC FIELDS AND FORCES Lab I - 1 The most fundamental forces are characterized the invention of new applications. The problems in this laboratory are primarily designed to give you practice visualizing fields and using the field concept in solving problems. In this laboratory, you will first explore

  6. An Adhesion Model for the Drag Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Comanescu

    2008-01-28

    The paper present a model for the drag force between a resistive medium and a solid body using the hypothesis that the drag force is created by the adhesion of some particles of the resistive medium on the solid body's surface. The study focus on the mass evolution of the solid body.

  7. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Forced Convection Heat Transfer 1 Forced Convection Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    surface, and the type of the fluid flow (laminar or turbulent). Fig. 1: Forced convection fluid. Whereas in forced convection, the fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a tube Boundary Layer Consider the flow of a fluid over a flat plate, the velocity and the temperature

  8. Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard General of the Air Force/Army

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard O-10 General of the Air Force/Army (Reserved Corps Navy & Coast Guard WarrantOfficers No Warrant Officer Rank Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer 5 Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard E-9 Chief Master Sergeant of the Air

  9. Entropic forces generated by grafted semiflexible polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azam Gholami; Jan Wilhelm; Erwin Frey

    2006-03-09

    The entropic force exerted by the Brownian fluctuations of a grafted semiflexible polymer upon a rigid smooth wall are calculated both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations. Such forces are thought to play an important role for several cellular phenomena, in particular, the physics of actin-polymerization-driven cell motility and movement of bacteria like Listeria. In the stiff limit, where the persistence length of the polymer is larger than its contour length, we find that the entropic force shows scaling behavior. We identify the characteristic length scales and the explicit form of the scaling functions. In certain asymptotic regimes we give simple analytical expressions which describe the full results to a very high numerical accuracy. Depending on the constraints imposed on the transverse fluctuations of the filament there are characteristic differences in the functional form of the entropic forces; in a two-dimensional geometry the entropic force exhibits a marked peak.

  10. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Fosco; F. C. Lombardo; F. D. Mazzitelli

    2012-04-23

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated to their shapes. Indeed, in the so called "proximity force approximation" the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contribution of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied to different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful to discuss the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes.

  11. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  12. Force localization in contracting cell layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carina M. Edwards; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2012-01-13

    Epithelial cell layers on soft elastic substrates or pillar arrays are commonly used as model systems for investigating the role of force in tissue growth, maintenance and repair. Here we show analytically that the experimentally observed localization of traction forces to the periphery of the cell layers does not necessarily imply increased local cell activity, but follows naturally from the elastic problem of a finite-sized contractile layer coupled to an elastic foundation. For homogeneous contractility, the force localization is determined by one dimensionless parameter interpolating between linear and exponential force profiles for the extreme cases of very soft and very stiff substrates, respectively. If contractility is sufficiently increased at the periphery, outward directed displacements can occur at intermediate positions, although the edge itself still retracts. We also show that anisotropic extracellular stiffness leads to force localization in the stiffer direction, as observed experimentally.

  13. Field-regulated force by grafted polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Seidel; Yury A. Budkov; Nikolay V. Brilliantov

    2014-11-08

    Generation of mechanical force regulated by external electric field is studied both theoretically and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The force arises in deformable bodies linked to the free end of a grafted polyelectrolyte chain which is exposed to electric field that favours its adsorption. We consider a few target bodies with different force-deformation relations including (i) linear and (ii) cubic dependences as well as (iii) Hertzian-like force. Such force-deformation relations mimic the behaviour of (i) coiled and (ii) stretched polymer chains, respectively, or (iii) that of a squeezed colloidal particle. The magnitude of the arising force varies over a wide interval although the electric field alters within a relatively narrow range only. The predictions of our theory agree quantitatively well with the results of numerical simulations. Both cases of zero and finite electrical current are investigated and we do not obtain substantial differences in the force generated. The phenomenon studied could possibly be utilised to design, e.g., vice-like devices to fix nano-sized objects.

  14. Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

  15. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ?10?100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  16. Demonstration of the Lateral Casimir Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Chen; U. Mohideen; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2002-01-19

    The lateral Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and large sphere was measured for surface separations between 0.2 $\\mu$m to 0.3 $\\mu$m using an atomic force microscope. The measured force shows the required periodicity corresponding to the corrugations. It also exhibits the necessary inverse fourth power distance dependence. The obtained results are shown to be in good agreement with a complete theory taking into account the imperfectness of the boundary metal. This demonstration opens new opportunities for the use of the Casimir effect for lateral translation in microelectromechanical systems.

  17. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  18. Accurate capacitive metrology for atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents accurate capacitive sensing metrology designed for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) originally developed in the MIT Precision Motion Control Lab. The capacitive measurements use a set of ...

  19. Chiral Expansion, Renormalization and the Nuclear Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ruiz Arriola; M. Pavon Valderrama

    2006-09-29

    The renormalization of singular chiral potentials as applied to NN scattering and the structure of the deuteron is discussed. It is shown how zero range theories may be implemented non-perturbatively as constrained from known long range NN forces.

  20. Qualifying Facility Wheeling Task Force-- Status Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panjavan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Docket No. 8650 that the PUCT review the applicability of certain parts of the wheeling rules, and in April the Commission appointed a task force composed of representatives from affected industries, utilities, and regulatory staff to review the wheeling...

  1. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  2. Hill Air Force Base Energy Performance Contract 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a basewide energy performance contract in progress at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) near Ogden, Utah. This performance contract differs from many performance contracts in that energy conservation measures (ECMs) which provide short...

  3. Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

  4. Treecodes for Potential and Force Approximations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kannan, Kasthuri Srinivasan

    2009-05-15

    N-body problems encompass a variety of fields such as electrostatics, molecularbiology and astrophysics. If there are N particles in the system, the brute force algorithmfor these problems based on particle-particle ...

  5. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  6. Agencies Approve Bacteria TMDL Task Force Recommendations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 10 In June 2007 the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) and the TexasState Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSW- CB) approved the recommendations of the Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force and asked... their agencies to update their TMDL guidance documents to reflect these recommendations. They also authorized establishing a multi-agency bacteria TMDL work group to examine the research and development needs identified in the task force report. Both TCEQ...

  7. Before Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Before Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services By: David Huizenga, Senior Advisor for...

  8. July 15, 2014 SEAB Task Force Meeting on Technology Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Task Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management July 15, 2014 SEAB Task Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management July 15,...

  9. Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

  10. Building Bridges: Federal Agencies Join Forces to Promote Sustainable...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building Bridges: Federal Agencies Join Forces to Promote Sustainable, Resilient Tribal Communities Building Bridges: Federal Agencies Join Forces to Promote Sustainable, Resilient...

  11. Zipping mechanism for force-generation by growing filament bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Kuehne; Reinhard Lipowsky; Jan Kierfeld

    2011-03-02

    We investigate the force generation by polymerizing bundles of filaments, which form because of short-range attractive filament interactions. We show that bundles can generate forces by a zipping mechanism, which is not limited by buckling and operates in the fully buckled state. The critical zipping force, i.e. the maximal force that a bundle can generate, is given by the adhesive energy gained during bundle formation. For opposing forces larger than the critical zipping force, bundles undergo a force-induced unbinding transition. For larger bundles, the critical zipping force depends on the initial configuration of the bundles. Our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop Cyber Security Requirements for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to...

  13. 6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahn, Markus, 1946-

    Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

  14. Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series The four-part Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country webinar series provided tribal leaders an...

  15. Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology August 12,...

  16. Task Force for Strategic Developments to Blue Ribbon Commission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Task Force for Strategic Developments to Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendations Task Force for Strategic Developments to Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendations Formed at the...

  17. Enabling Force Sensing During Ground Locomotion: A Bio-Inspired, Multi-Axis, Composite Force Sensor Using Discrete Pressure Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuah, Meng Yee

    This paper presents a new force sensor design approach that maps the local sampling of pressure inside a composite polymeric footpad to forces in three axes, designed for running robots. Conventional multiaxis force sensors ...

  18. Force Density Balance inside the Hydrogen Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, F J

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the long-debated question about the internal stability of the electron, the force densities acting on the charge density of the 1s electron in the H atom are investigated. The problem is mapped onto the canonical formalism for a classical Dirac field coupled to the electric field of an external point charge. An explicit calculation shows that the attractive Coulomb force density is balanced exactly at every point in space by the repulsive confinement force density. The latter requires evaluating the divergence of the stress tensor for the 1s solution of the Dirac equation. Such a local force balance goes beyond the global stability criteria that are usually given for the H atom. This concept is extended to the internal stability of any charged particle by investigating the force densities acting on its surrounding vacuum polarization. At large distances one has to consider only the charge density of virtual electrons and positrons, induced by a point charge in the vacuum of quantum electrodynamic...

  19. Force-extension curves of bacterial flagella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinhard Vogel; Holger Stark

    2010-11-10

    Bacterial flagella assume different helical shapes during the tumbling phase of a bacterium but also in response to varying environmental conditions. Force-extension measurements by Darnton and Berg explicitly demonstrate a transformation from the coiled to the normal helical state [N.C. Darnton and H.C. Berg, Biophys. J. {92}, 2230 (2007)]. We here develop an elastic model for the flagellum based on Kirchhoff's theory of an elastic rod that describes such a polymorphic transformation and use resistive force theory to couple the flagellum to the aqueous environment. We present Brownian dynamics simulations that quantitatively reproduce the force-extension curves and study how the ratio $\\Gamma$ of torsional to bending rigidity and the extensional rate influence the response of the flagellum. An upper bound for $\\Gamma$ is given. Using clamped flagella, we show in an adiabatic approximation that the mean extension, where a local coiled-to-normal transition occurs first, depends on the logarithm of the extensional rate.

  20. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2007-04-30

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  1. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel, O

    2007-01-01

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  2. Tidal Forces in Naked Singularity Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goel, Akash; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-01-01

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of non-rotating naked singularity backgrounds, and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic centre.

  3. On the nature of gravitational forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo

    2008-01-07

    In this paper I show how the statistics of the gravitational field is changed when the system is characterized by a non-uniform distribution of particles. I show how the distribution functions W(dF/dt) giving the joint probability that a test particle is subject to a force F and an associated rate of change of F given by dF/dt, are modified by inhomogeneity. Then I calculate the first moment of dF/dt to study the effects of inhomogenity on dynamical friction. Finally I test, by N-Body simulations, that the theoretical W(F) and dF/dt describes correctly the experimental data and I find that the stochastic force distribution obtained for the evolved system is in good agreement with theory. Moreover, I find that in an inhomogeneous background the friction force is actually enhanced relative to the homogeneous case.

  4. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

    2014-07-23

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

  5. Recent Progress with the KWISP Force Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cantatore; A. Gardikiotis; D. H. H. Hoffmann; M. Karuza; Y. K. Semertzidis; K. Zioutas

    2015-10-20

    The KWISP opto-mechanical force sensor has been built and calibrated in the INFN Trieste optics laboratory and is now under off-beam commissioning at CAST. It is designed to detect the pressure exerted by a flux of solar Chameleons on a thin (100 nm) Si$_3$N$_4$ micromembrane thanks to their direct coupling to matter. A thermally-limited force sensitivity of $1.5 \\cdot 10^{-14}~\\mbox{N}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$, corresponding to $7.5 \\cdot 10^{-16}~\\mbox{m}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$ in terms of displacement, has been obtained. An originally developed prototype chameleon chopper has been used in combination with the KWISP force sensor to conduct preliminary searches for solar chamaleons.

  6. Recent Progress with the KWISP Force Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantatore, G; Hoffmann, D H H; Karuza, M; Semertzidis, Y K; Zioutas, K

    2015-01-01

    The KWISP opto-mechanical force sensor has been built and calibrated in the INFN Trieste optics laboratory and is now under off-beam commissioning at CAST. It is designed to detect the pressure exerted by a flux of solar Chameleons on a thin (100 nm) Si$_3$N$_4$ micromembrane thanks to their direct coupling to matter. A thermally-limited force sensitivity of $1.5 \\cdot 10^{-14}~\\mbox{N}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$, corresponding to $7.5 \\cdot 10^{-16}~\\mbox{m}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$ in terms of displacement, has been obtained. An originally developed prototype chameleon chopper has been used in combination with the KWISP force sensor to conduct preliminary searches for solar chamaleons.

  7. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  8. Analytical Form of Forces in Hydrophobic Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Chakrabarti; Suman Dutta

    2015-05-29

    We calculate analytically the forces between two solvophobic solutes, considering a model system. We show that the effective interaction forces between two solvophobic solutes, mediated by the solvent, is attractive for short ranges, which decreases linearly with surface-to-surface separation s between the solutes and repulsive in the long range falling off as 1 / s 4 . The attraction originates from the unbalanced Laplace force at the liquid-gas interface, generated by the repulsive interaction with the solvent particles, around the solutes at small s. The long range part arises due to unbalanced osmotic pressure. We illustrate the calculations for the Lennard-Jones solvent. We discuss the general implication of our results in the context of hydrophobic collapse.

  9. 6/2015 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    6/2015 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES PURPOSE: To study the deflection of a beam of electrons by electric and magnetic fields. APPARATUS: Electron beam tube, stand with coils, power supply the electrons strike a fluorescent screen. As the electrons move in the horizontal (x) direction, an electric

  10. Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

    2008-01-21

    Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

  11. "Centrifugal force: A gedanken experiment" - new surprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Z. Machabeli; A. D. Rogava

    1996-04-22

    A recently proposed "gedanken experiment" [G.Z. Machabeli and A.D. Rogava. Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 50}, 98 (1994)], exhibiting surprising behavior, is reexamined. A description of this behavior in terms of the laboratory inertial frame is presented, avoiding uncertainties arising due to a definition of a centrifugal force in relativity. The surprising analogy with the radial geodesic motion in Schwarzschild geometry is discovered. The definition of the centrifugal force, suggested by J.C. Miller and M.A. Abramowicz, is discussed.

  12. Stability of adhesion clusters under constant force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Erdmann; U. S. Schwarz

    2004-01-27

    We solve the stochastic equations for a cluster of parallel bonds with shared constant loading, rebinding and the completely dissociated state as an absorbing boundary. In the small force regime, cluster lifetime grows only logarithmically with bond number for weak rebinding, but exponentially for strong rebinding. Therefore rebinding is essential to ensure physiological lifetimes. The number of bonds decays exponentially with time for most cases, but in the intermediate force regime, a small increase in loading can lead to much faster decay. This effect might be used by cell-matrix adhesions to induce signaling events through cytoskeletal loading.

  13. Lab 6: Forced Harmonic Motion Driven harmonic oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Lab 6: Forced Harmonic Motion Driven harmonic oscillation Example: Atomic force microscope watch, circuit, ... #12;A constant energy flow at steady state ( )F t dF Rx= - 0oin ut PP + = #12;Forced harmonic t - = + #12;Forced harmonic oscillation (cont.) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 2 2 0 cos 2 sin cos cosF m

  14. Calculation of a fluctuating entropic force by phase space sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waters, James T

    2015-01-01

    A polymer chain pinned in space exerts a fluctuating force on the pin point in thermal equilibrium. The average of such fluctuating force is well understood from statistical mechanics as an entropic force, but little is known about the underlying force distribution. Here, we introduce two phase space sampling methods that can produce the equilibrium distribution of instantaneous forces exerted by a terminally pinned polymer. In these methods, both the positions and momenta of mass points representing a freely jointed chain are perturbed in accordance with the spatial constraints and the Boltzmann distribution of total energy. The constraint force for each conformation and momentum is calculated using Lagrangian dynamics. Using terminally pinned chains in space and on a surface, we show that the force distribution is highly asymmetric with both tensile and compressive forces. Most importantly, the mean of the distribution, which is equal to the entropic force, is not the most probable force even for long chain...

  15. Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harchol-Balter, Mor

    Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi Carnegie Mellon University anshulg@cs.cmu.edu Mor@us.ibm.com Abstract We introduce a novel power capping technique, IdleCap, that achieves higher effective server frequency for a given power constraint than existing techniques. IdleCap works by repeatedly alternating

  16. Casimir force between sharp-shaped conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad F. Maghrebi; Sahand Jamal Rahi; Thorsten Emig; Noah Graham; Robert L. Jaffe; Mehran Kardar

    2010-10-15

    Casimir forces between conductors at the sub-micron scale cannot be ignored in the design and operation of micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices. However, these forces depend non-trivially on geometry, and existing formulae and approximations cannot deal with realistic micro-machinery components with sharp edges and tips. Here, we employ a novel approach to electromagnetic scattering, appropriate to perfect conductors with sharp edges and tips, specifically to wedges and cones. The interaction of these objects with a metal plate (and among themselves) is then computed systematically by a multiple-scattering series. For the wedge, we obtain analytical expressions for the interaction with a plate, as functions of opening angle and tilt, which should provide a particularly useful tool for the design of MEMs. Our result for the Casimir interactions between conducting cones and plates applies directly to the force on the tip of a scanning tunneling probe; the unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the force in these configurations should attract immediate experimental interest.

  17. Self-force approach for radiation reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lior M. Burko

    1999-12-13

    We overview the recently proposed mode-sum regularization prescription (MSRP) for the calculation of the local radiation-reaction forces, which are crucial for the orbital evolution of binaries. We then describe some new results which were obtained using MSRP, and discuss their importance for gravitational-wave astronomy.

  18. Separation problems and forcing Jindrich Zapletal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapletal, Jindrich

    to a forcing preservation property, with a fusion type infinite game associated to it. As an application and K(X) its hyperspace of compact subsets of X. If J I K(X) are two collections of compact sets, one of compact sets or even J = K0 (X), the collection of countable compact subsets of X. For example, Pelant

  19. Manipulation of Colloids by Osmotic Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Manipulation of Colloids by Osmotic Forces J´er´emie Palacci Pr´esent´ee pour l'obtention du titre . . . . . . . . . 15 1.1.2 Electro-osmosis for dummies . . . . . . . 16 1.1.3 Electro-osmotic flow in microchannel . . . . . . . 63 2.3 Trapping by rectified diffusio-phoresis . . . . . . 70 2.3.1 Osmotic trapping of colloids

  20. Open Access Task Force Open Access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Libraries Initiative launched by National Science Foundation; Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN Library System rgmiller@pitt.edu #12;Open Access Task Force Open Access is... · A family of copyright · The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain

  1. The drag force during the transient regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, P V S; de Oliveira, P M C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the drag force acting on a cylinder in a wind tunnel. The inspiration comes from an experimental result: a small, light ball falls on air; its speed increases, reaches a maximum, decreases and finally stabilizes. This surprising breaking behavior is due to the gradual formation of the so-called von K\\'arm\\'an street of air vortices behind the ball: while it is not completely formed, the transient drag force is smaller than the known steady state value and the ball can reach speeds higher than its final value. To show it, we treat the similar problem of a cylinder inside a wind tunnel suddenly switched on, by solving the Navier-Stokes dynamic equation. We use a finite difference method with successive relaxations on a grid. We also treat the case of a rotating cylinder, leading to the Magnus force. The novelty is the method we use to calculate these forces, which avoids the traditional surface integration of velocity gradients; the latter demands a very precise determination of the ve...

  2. LABORATORY VI MAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab VI - 1 LABORATORY VI MAGNETIC FIELDS AND FORCES Magnetism plays a large role in our world for the differences as you go through the problems in this lab. In this set of laboratory problems, you will map: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to: · Explain the differences

  3. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyan, S. Froehlich, Th.

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20?S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6?}S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1?S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  4. The Vertical Force-Couple Generator Shear waves may be generated by a force or force-couple acting on a single interface, or by vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffersen, Yngve

    The Vertical Force-Couple Generator Shear waves may be generated by a force or force-couple acting is the Love-wave generator of Stoll and Bautista (1994) using a self erecting bottom sled towed behind generator was designed and built by Y. Kristoffersen (Fig. 1). A 150 kg flywheel is mounted in a case

  5. Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    engineering, chemistry, polymer science, physics, mechanical engineering, or related. Research experience, chemical engineering, chemistry, polymer science, physics, mechanical engineering, or related. The open Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical

  6. Potential contributions of noncontact atomic force microscopy for the future Casimir force measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. Kim; U. D. Schwarz

    2010-10-18

    Surface electric noise, i.e., the non-uniform distribution of charges and potentials on a surface, poses a great experimental challenge in modern precision force measurements. Such a challenge is encountered in a number of different experimental circumstances. The scientists employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) have long focused their efforts to understand the surface-related noise issues via variants of AFM techniques, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy or electric force microscopy. Recently, the physicists investigating quantum vacuum fluctuation phenomena between two closely-spaced objects have also begun to collect experimental evidence indicating a presence of surface effects neglected in their previous analyses. It now appears that the two seemingly disparate science communities are encountering effects rooted in the same surface phenomena. In this report, we suggest specific experimental tasks to be performed in the near future that are crucial not only for fostering needed collaborations between the two communities, but also for providing valuable data on the surface effects in order to draw the most realistic conclusion about the actual contribution of the Casimir force (or van der Waals force) between a pair of real materials.

  7. Casimir force at a knife's edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Noah [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Shpunt, Alexander; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Kardar, Mehran [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Emig, Thorsten [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Batiment 100, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Jaffe, Robert L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The Casimir force has been computed exactly for only a few simple geometries, such as infinite plates, cylinders, and spheres. We show that a parabolic cylinder, for which analytic solutions to the Helmholtz equation are available, is another case where such a calculation is possible. We compute the interaction energy of a parabolic cylinder and an infinite plate (both perfect mirrors), as a function of their separation and inclination, H and {theta}, and the cylinder's parabolic radius R. As H/R{yields}0, the proximity force approximation becomes exact. The opposite limit of R/H{yields}0 corresponds to a semi-infinite plate, where the effects of edge and inclination can be probed.

  8. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Intravaia; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Stefan Buhmann; Stefan Scheel; Diego A. R. Dalvit; Carsten Henkel

    2015-02-04

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 113045]. We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v^4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v^3.

  9. AMBER Task Force February 2008 run report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Malbet; G. Duvert; A. Chelli; P. Kern

    2008-08-08

    AMBER was installed in March 2004 in the VLTI focal lab of the VLT observatory in Cerro Paranal run by ESO. Since then, there have been 4 commissioning runs and additional VLTI infrastructure installed (IRIS, FINITO and ATs,...), but AMBER is not yet fulfilling all its initial specifications and some important primary science objectives cannot be achieved. At the consortium level, an action plan has been decided in Oct 2007 that created an AMBER Task Force (ATF) to understand and possibly cure the eventual technical issues. The objectives of the February 2008 run was mainly to bring AMBER into contractual specifications the accuracy of the absolute visibility, of the differential and of the closure phase through a fundamental analysis of the instrument status and limitations. This report is the official report of the AMBER Task Force.

  10. Repulsive and restoring Casimir forces with left-handed materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaping Yang; Ran Zeng; Shutian Liu; Hong Chen; Shiyao Zhu

    2008-03-24

    We investigate repulsive Casimir force between slabs containing left-handed materials with controllable electromagnetic properties. The sign of Casimir force is determined by the electric and magnetic properties of the materials, and it is shown that the formation of the repulsive force is related to the wave impedances of two slabs. The sign change of the Casimir force as a function of the distance is studied. Special emphasis is put on the restoring Casimir force which may be found to exist between perfectly conducting material and metamaterial slabs. This restoring force is a natural power for the system oscillation in vacuum and also can be used for system stabilization.

  11. Stall force of polymerizing microtubules and filament bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaroslaw Krawczyk; Jan Kierfeld

    2011-02-10

    We investigate stall force and polymerization kinetics of rigid protofilaments in a microtubule or interacting filaments in bundles under an external load force in the framework of a discrete growth model. We introduce the concecpt of polymerization cycles to describe the stochastic growth kinetics, which allows us to derive an exact expression for the stall force. We find that the stall force is independent of ensemble geometry and load distribution. Furthermore, the stall force is proportional to the number of filaments and increases linearly with the strength of lateral filament interactions. These results are corroborated by simulations, which also show a strong influence of ensemble geometry on growth kinetics below the stall force.

  12. Force steps during viral DNA packaging ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant K. Purohit; Jane' Kondev; Rob Phillips

    2003-09-22

    Biophysicists and structural biologists increasingly acknowledge the role played by the mechanical properties of macromolecules as a critical element in many biological processes. This change has been brought about, in part, by the advent of single molecule biophysics techniques that have made it possible to exert piconewton forces on key macromolecules and observe their deformations at nanometer length scales, as well as to observe the mechanical action of macromolecules such as molecular motors. This has opened up immense possibilities for a new generation of mechanical investigations that will respond to such measurements in an attempt to develop a coherent theory for the mechanical behavior of macromolecules under conditions where thermal and chemical effects are on an equal footing with deterministic forces. This paper presents an application of the principles of mechanics to the problem of DNA packaging, one of the key events in the life cycle of bacterial viruses with special reference to the nature of the internal forces that are built up during the DNA packaging process.

  13. Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Cary, NC); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  14. Mechanical forces such as cell traction control cell growth, differ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salaita, Khalid

    Mechanical forces such as cell traction control cell growth, differ entiation, motility, which bind integrins (transmembrane receptors that relay mechanical signals from the extracellular the contribution of mechanical forces to cell behaviour and function. Eytan Zlotorynski TECHNIQUE DNA hairpins

  15. Microstructure effects for Casimir forces in chiral metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steven G.

    We examine a recent prediction for the chirality dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. ...

  16. UNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    program in order to reduce Federal employee's contribution to traffic congestion and air pollutionUNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BENEFIT PROGRAM): ____________ City (Residence): __________________________State: _______________ Zip Code: ________________ Air Force

  17. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

  18. FracFocus 2.0 Task Force Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report presents the findings and recommendations for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on FracFocus. The Task Force was charged with reviewing how FracFocus 2.0 houses...

  19. Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House...

  20. Small-Scale Forcing of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorkowski, Thomas

    In order to understand the effect of small scale forcing on turbulent flows and its implications on control, an experimental investigation is made into the forcing of the inertial scales in the wall region of a turbulent ...

  1. CENTRIFUGAL FORCES: READING RUSSIA'S REGIONAL IDENTITIES AND INITIATIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    CENTRIFUGAL FORCES: READING RUSSIA'S REGIONAL IDENTITIES AND INITIATIVES Thursday, March 26 and Natural Heritage, Moscow, Russia), " : , " ("The Centrifugality of the Centripetal: Space, Identity and Industry as Centrifugal Forces in Tsarist Transcaucasia" Helen Hundley (History, Wichita State U

  2. V.P. Biden Hosts the Middle Class Task Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu will join Vice President Biden at the White House as he hosts a Middle Class Task Force event.

  3. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  4. Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cellcell junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cell­cell junctions Zhijun Liua,1 , John L. Tanb,1 through the generation of mechanical forces at sites of cell­matrix and cell­cell contact. While increased mechanical load- ing at cell­matrix adhesions results in focal adhesion growth, whether forces drive changes

  5. The driving force of plate tectonics evaluated in spherical coordinates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, John Michael

    1985-01-01

    &' + Ri according to the force balance equation of Garison et al (1983) . The age weighting for a ridge-push driving force model is only the age, t. 13 magnetic linea tio ns I subduction boundary force vector FIG. 4. Trench segmentation scheme. I...

  6. Metabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kram, Rodger

    . Using a wind tunnel to apply horizontal impeding forces, Pugh (19) showed that the metabolic cost forces. Davies (5) compared the metabolic cost of running with wind resistance vs. wind assistanceMetabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running YOUNG-HUI CHANG AND RODGER KRAM

  7. Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1 Philippe Tassin,2,* Costas M demonstrate how the optical gradient force between two waveguides can be enhanced using transformation optics perceived by light, resulting in a more than tenfold enhancement of the optical force. This process

  8. A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force Varat Intaraprasonk,1@stanford.edu Abstract: We consider the lateral optical force between a resonator and a waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force in such system. We prove analytically

  9. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  10. Constraints on muon-specific dark forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savely G. Karshenboim; David McKeen; Maxim Pospelov

    2014-01-23

    The recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen allows for the most precise extraction of the charge radius of the proton which is currently in conflict with other determinations based on $e-p$ scattering and hydrogen spectroscopy. This discrepancy could be the result of some new muon-specific force with O(1-100) MeV force carrier---in this paper we concentrate on vector mediators. Such an explanation faces challenges from the constraints imposed by the $g-2$ of the muon and electron as well as precision spectroscopy of muonic atoms. In this work we complement the family of constraints by calculating the contribution of hypothetical forces to the muonium hyperfine structure. We also compute the two-loop contribution to the electron parity violating amplitude due to a muon loop, which is sensitive to the muon axial-vector coupling. Overall, we find that the combination of low-energy constraints favors the mass of the mediator to be below 10 MeV, and that a certain degree of tuning is required between vector and axial-vector couplings of new vector particles to muons in order to satisfy constraints from muon $g-2$. However, we also observe that in the absence of a consistent standard model embedding, high energy weak-charged processes accompanied by the emission of new vector particles are strongly enhanced by $(E/m_V)^2$, with $E$ a characteristic energy scale and $m_V$ the mass of the mediator. In particular, leptonic $W$ decays impose the strongest constraints on such models completely disfavoring the remainder of the parameter space.

  11. Normal force controlled rheology for thermoreversible gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosi Mao; Thibaut Divoux; Patrick Snabre

    2015-08-07

    A wide range of thermoreversible gels are prepared by cooling down to ambient temperature hot aqueous solutions of polymers. During the sol-gel transition, such soft solids may experience a volume contraction leading to experimental issues regarding rheological measurements such as the stress-induced release of solvent, and the partial loss of contact between the sample and the shear cell. In this article, we revisit the formation of thermoreversible gels through a series of benchmark experiments conducted on agar gels in a plate-plate geometry. Monitoring the gelation with a constant gap results in an artificial drift of the gel elastic modulus $G'$ because of the sample contraction. We show that maintaining a constant normal force equals to zero instead of a constant gap allows $G'$ to reach a plateau as the gap variation compensates the sample contraction. The latter method provides a way to measure more reliably the gel linear properties with either rough or smooth boundary conditions, and allows us to quantify the sample contraction. Furthermore, we also unravel two subtle artifacts associated with metallic boundary conditions that may impact rheological measurements during the early stage of the gelation. We show that the slow oxidation of the plate by the solution and/or the presence of an oil layer around the sample, that is traditionally used to prevent evaporation, may both lead to a premature and artificial growth of $G'$ which should not be misinterpreted as the formation of a pre-gel. Finally, we illustrate the relevance of the controlled normal force protocol, by investigating the influence of thermal history on the mechanical properties of agar gels. Our work offers an extensive review of the artifacts associated with the rheology of thermoreversible gels and paves the way for a more systematic use of normal force controlled rheology.

  12. US Air Force Facility Energy Management Program - How Industry Can Help the Air Force Meet Its Objectives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, P. C.; Kroop, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the Air Force's facility energy management program including how industry can help the Air Force meet its facility energy objectives. Background information on energy use and energy conservation efforts ...

  13. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    2012-10-25

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  14. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  15. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  16. On Oscillations in the Social Force Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The Social Force Model is one of the most prominent models of pedestrian dynamics. As such naturally much discussion and criticism has spawned around it, some of which concerns the existence of oscillations in the movement of pedestrians. This contribution is investigating under which circumstances, parameter choices, and model variants oscillations do occur and how this can be prevented. It is shown that oscillations can be excluded if the model parameters fulfill certain relations. The fact that with some parameter choices oscillations occur and with some not is exploited to verify a specific computer implementation of the model.

  17. [Band electronic structures and crystal packing forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the electronic and structural properties of low-dimensional materials and explored the structure-property correlations governing their physical properties. Progress was made on how to interpret the scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of layered materials and on how to account for charge density wave instabilities in 2-D metals. Materials studied included transition metal chalcogenides, transition metal halides, organic conducting salts, Mo bronzes, A[sub 2]PdH[sub 2], fullerenes, squarate tetrahydrate polymers Fe, Cu(C[sub 4]O[sub 4])4[center dot]H[sub 2]O, BEDT salts, etc.

  18. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  19. 136Sn and three body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Saha Sarkar; S. Sarkar

    2014-11-10

    New experimental data on 2+ energies of 136,138Sn confirms the trend of lower 2+ excitation energies of even-even tin isotopes with N > 82 compared to those with N 4+)) of these nuclei, simultaneously, apart from one whose matrix elements have been changed empirically to produce mixed seniority states by weakening pairing. We have shown that the experimental result also shows good agreement with the theory in which three body forces have been included in a realistic interaction. The new theoretical results on transition probabilities have been discussed to identify the experimental quantities which will clearly distinguish between different views.

  20. Departmental Response: SEAB Task Force Recommendations on

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratoryof Energy ElevenLGJuly 2013Response: SEAB Task Force

  1. Sandia Energy - Air Force Research Laboratory Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSample SULI Program StudentSandiaCOMMUNITYandAir Force

  2. air force | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largestnamedGroup!managementAdvancedair force |

  3. armed forces | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifiesValidation ofUV-RSS SpectralGOES &armed forces |

  4. DOE Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10 DOEEnvironmentalwith Recovery Act Funds |Work Force

  5. Vacuum Energy and Repulsive Casimir Forces in Quantum Star Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Fulling; L. Kaplan; J. H. Wilson

    2007-03-27

    Casimir pistons are models in which finite Casimir forces can be calculated without any suspect renormalizations. It has been suggested that such forces are always attractive, but we present several counterexamples, notably a simple type of quantum graph in which the sign of the force depends upon the number of edges. We also show that Casimir forces in quantum graphs can be reliably computed by summing over the classical orbits, and study the rate of convergence of the periodic orbit expansion. In generic situations where no analytic expression is available, the sign and approximate magnitude of Casimir forces can often be obtained using only the shortest classical orbits.

  6. Fluid Mechanical and Electrical Fluctuation Forces in Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Drosdoff; A. Widom

    2004-10-06

    Fluctuations in fluid velocity and fluctuations in electric fields may both give rise to forces acting on small particles in colloidal suspensions. Such forces in part determine the thermodynamic stability of the colloid. At the classical statistical thermodynamic level, the fluid velocity and electric field contributions to the forces are comparable in magnitude. When quantum fluctuation effects are taken into account, the electric fluctuation induced van der Waals forces dominate those induced by purely fluid mechanical motions. The physical principles are applied in detail for the case of colloidal particle attraction to the walls of the suspension container and more briefly for the case of forces between colloidal particles.

  7. Regularization of static self-forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Casals; Eric Poisson; Ian Vega

    2012-06-17

    Various regularization methods have been used to compute the self-force acting on a static particle in a static, curved spacetime. Many of these are based on Hadamard's two-point function in three dimensions. On the other hand, the regularization method that enjoys the best justification is that of Detweiler and Whiting, which is based on a four-dimensional Green's function. We establish the connection between these methods and find that they are all equivalent, in the sense that they all lead to the same static self-force. For general static spacetimes, we compute local expansions of the Green's functions on which the various regularization methods are based. We find that these agree up to a certain high order, and conjecture that they might be equal to all orders. We show that this equivalence is exact in the case of ultrastatic spacetimes. Finally, our computations are exploited to provide regularization parameters for a static particle in a general static and spherically-symmetric spacetime.

  8. The Role of Quantum Vacuum Forces in Microelectromechanical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Jordan Maclay

    2006-08-22

    The presence of boundary surfaces in the vacuum alters the ground state of the quantized electromagnetic field and can lead to the appearance of vacuum forces. In the last decade, landmark measurements of the vacuum stress between conducting uncharged parallel plates (Casimir force) have been made. Recently the first micromachined MEMS (microelectromechanical system) device was fabricated that utilizes the Casimir force between parallel plates. The force dependence allows the device to serve as a highly sensitive position sensor. The are many other examples of quantum vacuum forces and effects besides the well known parallel plate Casimir force. Here we discuss potential roles of quantum vacuum forces and effects in MEMS systems and other systems. With the growing capability in nanofabrication, some of the roles may be actualized in the future. Because of the computational complexity, no theoretical results are yet available for a number of potentially interesting geometries and we can only speculate.

  9. Microstructure Effects for Casimir Forces in Chiral Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander P. McCauley; Rongkuo Zhao; M. T. Homer Reid; Alejandro W. Rodriguez; Jiangfeng Zhou; F. S. S. Rosa; John D. Joannopoulos; D. A. R. Dalvit; Costas M. Soukoulis; Steven G. Johnson

    2010-06-29

    We examine a recent prediction for the chirality-dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. We compute the exact force for a chiral bent-cross pattern, as well as forces for an idealized "omega"-particle medium in the dilute approximation and identify the effects of structural inhomogeneity (i.e. proximity forces and anisotropy). We find that these microstructure effects dominate the force for separations where chirality was predicted to have a strong influence. To get observations of chirality free from microstructure effects, one must go to large separations where the effect of chirality is at most $\\sim10^{-4}$ of the total force.

  10. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  11. Optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Honghua U

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale forces play an important role in different scanning probe microscopies, most notably atomic force microscopy (AFM). In contrast, in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) a light-induced coupled local optical polarization between tip and sample is typically detected by scattering to the far field. Measurements of the optical gradient force associated with that optical near-field excitation would offer a novel optical scanning probe modality. Here we provide a generalized theory of optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy. We quantify magnitude and distance dependence of the optical gradient force and its spectral response. We show that the optical gradient force is dispersive for single particle electronic and vibrational resonances, distinct from recent claims of its experimental observation. In contrast, the force can be absorptive for collective resonances. We provide a guidance for its measurements and distinction from competing processes such as thermal expansion.

  12. The Role of Quantum Vacuum Forces in Microelectromechanical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLay, G J

    2006-01-01

    The presence of boundary surfaces in the vacuum alters the ground state of the quantized electromagnetic field and can lead to the appearance of vacuum forces. In the last decade, landmark measurements of the vacuum stress between conducting uncharged parallel plates (Casimir force) have been made. Recently the first micromachined MEMS (microelectromechanical system) device was fabricated that utilizes the Casimir force between parallel plates. The force dependence allows the device to serve as a highly sensitive position sensor. The are many other examples of quantum vacuum forces and effects besides the well known parallel plate Casimir force. Here we discuss potential roles of quantum vacuum forces and effects in MEMS systems and other systems. With the growing capability in nanofabrication, some of the roles may be actualized in the future. Because of the computational complexity, no theoretical results are yet available for a number of potentially interesting geometries and we can only speculate.

  13. Centrifugal cosmological repulsive force in a homogeneous universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko

    2011-03-21

    We study the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional worlds filled with radiation (3R-worlds). It is shown that the dynamics of these worlds with the additional fourth large-scale spatial dimension leads to an important effect. At 3R-worlds the forces of repulsion appear. The source of these forces is the thermal energy of the radiation that fills these worlds. In the four-dimensional space, these forces are centrifugal. They operate in an external for 3R-world spatial dimension and stretch it. In the three-dimensional comoving coordinate system the centrifugal forces shows themselves as forces of repulsion. Standard Einstein's equations do not describe these forces. Written generalized Einstein's equation describing the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, taking into consideration the centrifugal forces of repulsion. We propose a cosmological model of the universe, based on these equations. This model apply to explain the observation data.

  14. A New Force in the Dark Sector?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar; Rachel A. Rosen

    2007-03-15

    We study the kinematics of dark matter using the massive cluster of galaxies 1E0657-56. The velocity of the "bullet" subcluster has been measured by X-ray emission from the shock front, and the masses and separation of the main and sub-clusters have been measured by gravitational lensing. The velocity with gravity alone is calculated in a variety of models of the initial conditions, mass distribution and accretion history; it is much higher than expected, by at least 2.4 sigma. The probability of so large a subcluster velocity in cosmological simulations is <~ 10^{-7}. A long range force with strength ~ 0.4 - 1.2 times that of gravity would provide the needed additional acceleration.

  15. Muonic hydrogen and MeV forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Tucker-Smith; Itay Yavin

    2010-11-22

    We explore the possibility that a new interaction between muons and protons is responsible for the discrepancy between the CODATA value of the proton radius and the value deduced from the measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. We show that a new force carrier with roughly MeV mass can account for the observed energy shift as well as the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment. However, measurements in other systems constrain the couplings to electrons and neutrons to be suppressed relative to the couplings to muons and protons, which seems challenging from a theoretical point of view. One can nevertheless make predictions for energy shifts in muonic deuterium, muonic helium, and true muonium under the assumption that the new particle couples dominantly to muons and protons.

  16. Control of the Casimir Force Using Semiconductor Test Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; U. Mohideen; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2011-04-09

    We describe experimental and related theoretical work on the measurement of the Casimir force using semiconductor test bodies. This field of research started in 2005 and several important and interesting results have already been obtained. Specifically, the Casimir force or its gradient were measured in the configuration of an Au-coated sphere and different semiconductor surfaces. It was found that the force magnitude depends significantly on the replacement of the metal with a semiconductor and on the concentration of charge carriers in the semiconductor material. Special attention is paid to the experiment on the optical modulation of the Casimir force. In this experiment the difference Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and Si plate in the presence and in the absence of laser light was measured. Possible applications of this experiment are discussed, specifically, for the realization of the pulsating Casimir force in three-layer systems. Theoretical problems arising from the comparison of the experimental data for the difference Casimir force with the Lifshitz theory are analyzed. We consider the possibility to control the magnitude of the Casimir force in phase transitions of semiconductor materials. Experiments on measuring the Casimir force gradient between an Au-coated sphere and Si plate covered with rectangular corrugations of different character are also described. Here, we discuss the interplay between the material properties and nontrivial geometry and the applicability of the proximity force approximation. The review contains comparison between different experiments and analysis of their advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Multi-range force sensors utilizing shape memory alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-04-15

    The present invention provides a multi-range force sensor comprising a load cell made of a shape memory alloy, a strain sensing system, a temperature modulating system, and a temperature monitoring system. The ability of the force sensor to measure contact forces in multiple ranges is effected by the change in temperature of the shape memory alloy. The heating and cooling system functions to place the shape memory alloy of the load cell in either a low temperature, low strength phase for measuring small contact forces, or a high temperature, high strength phase for measuring large contact forces. Once the load cell is in the desired phase, the strain sensing system is utilized to obtain the applied contact force. The temperature monitoring system is utilized to ensure that the shape memory alloy is in one phase or the other.

  18. Modal Approach to Casimir Forces in Periodic Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Davids; F. Intravaia; F. S. S. Rosa; D. A. R. Dalvit

    2010-08-20

    We present a modal approach to calculate finite temperature Casimir interactions between two periodically modulated surfaces. The scattering formula is used and the reflection matrices of the patterned surfaces are calculated decomposing the electromagnetic field into the natural modes of the structures. The Casimir force gradient from a deeply etched silicon grating is evaluated using the modal approach and compared to experiment for validation. The Casimir force from a two dimensional periodic structure is computed and deviations from the proximity force approximation examined.

  19. Wind forces on isolated and grouped mobile homes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldham, Gary Albert

    1974-01-01

    WIND FORCES ON ISOLATED AND GROUPED MOBILE HOMFS A Thesis by GARY ALBERT OLDHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major... Subject: Aerospace Engineering WIND FORCES ON ISOLATED AND GROUPED MOBILE HOMES A Thesis by GARY ALBERT OLDHAM Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ( a of Department (Member) (Member) December 1974 ABSTRACT Wind Forces...

  20. An intuitive approach to inertial forces and the centrifugal force paradox in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-18

    As the velocity of a rocket in a circular orbit near a black hole increases, the outwardly directed rocket thrust must increase to keep the rocket in its orbit. This feature might appear paradoxical from a Newtonian viewpoint, but we show that it follows naturally from the equivalence principle together with special relativity and a few general features of black holes. We also derive a general relativistic formalism of inertial forces for reference frames with acceleration and rotation. The resulting equation relates the real experienced forces to the time derivative of the speed and the spatial curvature of the particle trajectory relative to the reference frame. We show that an observer who follows the path taken by a free (geodesic) photon will experience a force perpendicular to the direction of motion that is independent of the observers velocity. We apply our approach to resolve the submarine paradox, which regards whether a submerged submarine in a balanced state of rest will sink or float when given a horizontal velocity if we take relativistic effects into account. We extend earlier treatments of this topic to include spherical oceans and show that for the case of the Earth the submarine floats upward if we take the curvature of the ocean into account.

  1. Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of James Ownedoff, Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed...

  2. Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces House Committee on...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Armed Services Testimony of Mark Whitney, Acting Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces House Committee on Armed Services...

  3. Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - House Armed Services...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Written Statement by David Huizenga, Senior Advisor for Environmental Management For the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - House Armed Services Committee 5-9-13David Huizenga FT...

  4. Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Act Blog Leadership Budget Our Organization Strategic Plan Our History Offices Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector Government and Industry A Force for...

  5. Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research & Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has released a Broad Area Announcement (BAA) for over $25 million for Alternative Energy Research & Development.

  6. A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakio?lu, T.; Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet

    2014-04-21

    Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

  7. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of two prototype fuel cell vehicles operating at Hickam Air Force Base in Honolulu, Hawaii. 42233.pdf More Documents & Publications Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air...

  8. Transmission Services WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ("WIST"), a Task Force of technical staff primarily from Northwest and California transmission providers and sub-regional entities, completed a report documenting Phase 1 of its...

  9. Modeling Hydraulic Responses to Meteorological Forcing: from Canopy to Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Lehua; Jin, Jiming; Miller, Norman; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2008-01-01

    equations  for  some  soil  hydraulic properties.  Water Modeling Hydraulic Responses to Meteorological Forcing: CA 94720  lpan@lbl.gov  Modeling Hydraulic Responses to 

  10. Branching actin network remodeling governs the force-velocity relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel B. Smith; Jian Liu

    2011-11-28

    Actin networks, acting as an engine pushing against an external load, are fundamentally important to cell motility. A measure of the effectiveness of an engine is the velocity the engine is able to produce at a given force, the force-velocity curve. One type of force-velocity curve, consisting of a concave region where velocity is insensitive to increasing force followed by a decrease in velocity, is indicative of an adaptive response. In contrast, an engine whose velocity rapidly decays as a convex curve in response to increasing force would indicate a lack of adaptive response. Even taken outside of a cellular context, branching actin networks have been observed to exhibit both concave and convex force-velocity curves. The exact mechanism that can explain both force-velocity curves is not yet known. We carried out an agent-based stochastic simulation to explore such a mechanism. Our results suggest that upon loading, branching actin networks are capable of remodeling by increasing the number filaments growing against the load. Our model provides a mechanism that can account for both convex and concave force-velocity relationships observed in branching actin networks. Finally, our model gives a potential explanation to the experimentally observed force history dependence for actin network velocity.

  11. Coating thickness and coverage effects on the forces between...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coating thickness and coverage effects on the forces between silica nanoparticles in water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coating thickness and coverage effects on the...

  12. Summary Crown structure, absorbed photosynthetically ac-tive radiation (APAR) and growth were analyzed in 300 repli-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    solid wood products (Bow- yer et al. 2002). The importance of crown structural traits is reflected stud- ied, and is seldom utilized in tree improvement programs (Martin et al. 2001). Quantitative

  13. The Characteristics of the Factors That Govern the Preferred Force in the Social Force Model of Pedestrian Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuaib, Mohammed Mahmod; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M

    2010-01-01

    The social force model which belongs to the microscopic pedestrian studies has been considered as the supremacy by many researchers and due to the main feature of reproducing the self-organized phenomena resulted from pedestrian dynamic. The Preferred Force which is a measurement of pedestrian's motivation to adapt his actual velocity to his desired velocity is an essential term on which the model was set up. This Force has gone through stages of development: first of all, Helbing and Molnar (1995) have modeled the original force for the normal situation. Second, Helbing and his co-workers (2000) have incorporated the panic situation into this force by incorporating the panic parameter to account for the panic situations. Third, Lakoba and Kaup (2005) have provided the pedestrians some kind of intelligence by incorporating aspects of the decision-making capability. In this paper, the authors analyze the most important incorporations into the model regarding the preferred force. They make comparisons between t...

  14. Lambda-nucleon force from lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemura, H; Aoki, S; Hatsuda, T

    2008-01-01

    We study the $\\Lambda$-nucleon ($\\Lambda N$) force by using lattice QCD. The Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is calculated for the lowest scattering state of the $\\Lambda N$ so as to obtain the $\\Lambda N$ potential. The numerical calculation is twofold: (i) Full lattice QCD by using 2+1 flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations with, $\\beta=1.9$, corresponding to the lattice spacing of $a=0.0907(13)$ fm, on a $32^3\\times 64$ lattice. A set of parameter $(\\kappa_{ud},\\kappa_s)=(0.13770,0.13640)$ is used, which corresponds to $m_\\pi\\approx 300$ MeV and $m_K\\approx 594$ MeV. The spatial lattice volume corresponds to (2.86 fm)$^3$. (ii) Quenched lattice QCD with $\\beta=5.7$, the lattice spacing of $a=0.1416(9)$ fm, on the $32^3\\times48$ lattice. Two sets of hopping parameters $(\\kappa_{ud},\\kappa_s)=(0.1665,0.1643),(0.1670,0.1643)$ are used. The spatial lattice volume is (4.5 fm)$^3$. For the full QCD, we find that the $\\Lambda p$ has a relatively strong (weak) repulsive core in the $^1S_0$ ($^3S_1$) channel at short distanc...

  15. Unified force law for granular impact cratering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Katsuragi; D. J. Durian

    2007-03-02

    Experiments on the low-speed impact of solid objects into granular media have been used both to mimic geophysical events and to probe the unusual nature of the granular state of matter. Observations have been interpreted in terms of conflicting stopping forces: product of powers of projectile depth and speed; linear in speed; constant, proportional to the initial impact speed; and proportional to depth. This is reminiscent of high-speed ballistics impact in the 19th and 20th centuries, when a plethora of empirical rules were proposed. To make progress, we developed a means to measure projectile dynamics with 100 nm and 20 us precision. For a 1-inch diameter steel sphere dropped from a wide range of heights into non-cohesive glass beads, we reproduce prior observations either as reasonable approximations or as limiting behaviours. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the interaction between projectile and medium can be decomposed into the sum of velocity-dependent inertial drag plus depth-dependent friction. Thus we achieve a unified description of low-speed impact phenomena and show that the complex response of granular materials to impact, while fundamentally different from that of liquids and solids, can be simply understood.

  16. Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Kardar, Mehran [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Emig, Thorsten [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Graham, Noah [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Jaffe, Robert L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable to objects immersed in media other than vacuum, nonzero temperatures, and spatial arrangements in which one object is enclosed in another. Our method combines each object's classical electromagnetic scattering amplitude with universal translation matrices, which convert between the bases used to calculate scattering for each object, but are otherwise independent of the details of the individual objects. The method is illustrated by rederiving the Lifshitz formula for infinite half-spaces, by demonstrating the Casimir-Polder to van der Waals crossover, and by computing the Casimir interaction energy of two infinite, parallel, perfect metal cylinders either inside or outside one another. Furthermore, it is used to obtain new results, namely, the Casimir energies of a sphere or a cylinder opposite a plate, all with finite permittivity and permeability, to leading order at large separation.

  17. Anglepoise lamps, Zero Stiffness, Image ForcesAnglepoise lamps, Zero Stiffness, Image Forces andand EshelbyEshelby BendsBends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    algebra problems GOVERNING EQUATION (Containing interior loads) Differential equation Integral equation dislocation is assumed to exist across the free-surface for the calculation of the force (attractive

  18. Microfabricated Silicone Elastomeric Post Arrays for Measuring Traction Forces of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Christopher S.

    CHAPTER 13 Microfabricated Silicone Elastomeric Post Arrays for Measuring Traction Forces developed a device consisting of an array of flexible, microfabricated posts capable of measuring these forces under an adherent cell. Functionalizing the top of each post with ECM protein allows cells

  19. Pressure Transient Flow Forces for Hydraulic Spool Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manring, Noah D.

    of the fluid passing through the valve itself. These mo- mentum effects are familiarly known as flow forces and are generally quite substantial when a large amount of flow is passing through the valve. The size of the flowPressure Transient Flow Forces for Hydraulic Spool Valves Noah D. Manring1 Shusen Zhang Mechanical

  20. Extra force in Kaluza-Klein gravity theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Belayev

    2007-06-18

    In induced matter Kaluza-Klein gravity theory the solution of the dynamics equations for the test particle on null path leads to additional force in four-dimensional space-time. We find such force from five-dimensional geodesic line equations and apply this approach to analysis of the asymmetrically warped space-time.

  1. Experimental Determination of Crack Driving Forces in Integrated Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    8/2/2004 1 Experimental Determination of Crack Driving Forces in Integrated Structures Jun He in a structure, the crack driving force G is the reduction of the elastic energy in the structure, associated. In practice, however, such a calculation is prohibitively difficult for integrated structures of complex

  2. CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCE IN GENERAL RELATIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Robert T.

    1 CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCE IN GENERAL RELATIVITY D. BINI Istituto per acceleration which, once interpreted as a centrifugal force acting on the particle, allows writing the particle and centrifugal acceleration generalizing the classical concepts must be properly (geometrically) defined

  3. ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Claude

    1 ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

  4. ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Claude

    ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Contributions of solar and greenhouse gases forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Rokjin

    and West 2006; Lean and Rind 2008; Sch- wartz et al. 2010). There is no doubt that the climate sci- ence radiative flux from Responsible editor: S. Hong. H.-G. Lim School of Environmental Science and Engineering to the surface of Earth (Trenberth et al. 2007). In addition to the GHG forcings, however, radiative forcings due

  6. A 3D Magnetic Force Manipulator DC Prototype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    A 3D Magnetic Force Manipulator DC Prototype Leandra Vicci Microelectronic Systems Laboratory optical field intensities which interact strongly with many materials and may produce undesired side;Leandra Vicci A 3D Magnetic Force Manipulator DC Prototype 17 October 2001 1 Conceptual design

  7. Crawling Waves from Radiation Force Excitation ZAEGYOO HAH,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Kevin J.

    Crawling Waves from Radiation Force Excitation ZAEGYOO HAH,1 CHRISTOPHER HAZARD,2 YOUNG THUNG CHO1 from focused beams that produce radiation force excitation within the tissue. Some examples are also radiofrequency ablated hepatic lesions in vitro 6,7 to characterize human skeletal muscle in vivo 8, 9

  8. Mechanical force generation by G proteins Ioan Kosztin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosztin, Ioan

    Mechanical force generation by G proteins Ioan Kosztin* , Robijn Bruinsma§¶ , Paul O' Lague-hydrolyzing G proteins are molecular switches that play a critical role in cell signaling processes. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to show that Ras, a monomeric G protein, can generate mechanical force upon

  9. Steady wave drift force on basic objects of symmetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Anupam

    2009-05-15

    to the panel method. They also reviewed the pFFT method and the second order forces. The use of B splines was discussed in the higher order panel method . Numerical example on FPSO showed the accuracy of second order forces. Also the pFFT method was proved...

  10. Formal definition of POTENTIAL ENERGY (valid for conservative forces only)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    some kinetic energy as well as some potential energy change along the way. Question: What doespage - 16 Formal definition of POTENTIAL ENERGY (valid for conservative forces only) Given one type of conservative force F UB - UA= - = - Definition of 'Potential energy difference" conserv #12;page - 17

  11. Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations R. G. Derwent & D. S distributions of methane CH4 and ozone O3 following the emission of pulses of the oxides of nitrogen NOx. Month-long emission pulses of NOx produce deficits in CH4 mixing ratios that bring about negative radiative forcing

  12. Domestic violence prevention effectiveness in the United States Air Force 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Jennifer Michelle

    2005-08-29

    In 2000, the Department of Defense task force estimated roughly 8.8 in every 1,000 military children were victims of some form of maltreatment. In response to the rising incidence of child maltreatment in the military the United Stated Air Force...

  13. Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE Department of Physics form 18 December 2008) ABSTRACT The dependence of mixing efficiency on time-varying forcing is studied frame and allowing the tilt angle to vary in time. Mixing efficiency Gc is defined as the ratio

  14. Optical geometry analysis of the electromagnetic self-force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiano Sonego; Marek A. Abramowicz

    2006-02-17

    We present an analysis of the behaviour of the electromagnetic self-force for charged particles in a conformally static spacetime, interpreting the results with the help of optical geometry. Some conditions for the vanishing of the local terms in the self-force are derived and discussed.

  15. Modeling Masticatory Muscle Force in Finite Element Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Masticatory Muscle Force in Finite Element Analysis: Sensitivity Analysis Using Principal: electromyography; muscle force; mastication; primates; principal coordinates analysis; finite element analysis Our Origins, University of Arizona, Tempe, Arizona ABSTRACT Our work on a finite element model of the skull

  16. Techniques for Modeling Muscle-Induced Forces in Finite Element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    program was written to interface with a commercial finite element analysis tool to automatically apply: finite element analysis; muscle force; skull; muscle loading alogorithm, biting Finite element analysisTechniques for Modeling Muscle- Induced Forces in Finite Element Models of Skeletal Structures IAN

  17. Contact stiffness of layered materials for ultrasonic atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contact stiffness of layered materials for ultrasonic atomic force microscopy G. G. Yaralioglu,a) F the contact stiffness between a layered material and an ultrasonic atomic force microscope UAFM tip of the method for modeling defects and power loss due to radiation in layered materials. © 2000 American

  18. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  19. Nuclear forces from chiral EFT: The unfinished business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

    2010-01-06

    In spite of the great progress we have seen in recent years in the derivation of nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory (EFT), some important issues are still unresolved. In this contribution, we discuss the open problems which have particular relevance for microscopic nuclear structure, namely, the proper renormalization of chiral nuclear potentials and sub-leading many-body forces.

  20. CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation Version 1.0 Date March 2012 Status Final #12;#12;CLARIFI, by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and more importantly, by modifying cloud propertiesCLARIFI CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation M. de Graaf, L

  1. Lithium Mass Flow Control for High Power Lorentz Force Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Mass Flow Control for High Power Lorentz Force Accelerators Andrea D. Kodys1 , Gregory Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (609).258.5220, choueiri@princeton.edu Abstract. A lithium feeding system has been developed to measure and control propellant flow for 30-200 kW Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators

  2. United States of America Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    i United States of America Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force and the Federal Energy and Retail Markets for Electric Energy Docket No. AD05 Act of 2005 requires the Electric Energy Market Competition Task Force to conduct a study and analysis

  3. Body Force Model for the Aerodynamics of Inclined Perforated Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    Body Force Model for the Aerodynamics of Inclined Perforated Surfaces Juntao Xiong, Andrew Johnson of perforated surfaces inclined to a freestream. The goal is to characterize the key parameters affecting perforations. The model simulates the effects of the perforated surfaces by locally applying a body force term

  4. Fluctuation force exerted by a planar self-avoiding polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiese, Kay Jörg

    OFFPRINT Fluctuation force exerted by a planar self-avoiding polymer P. Le Doussal and K. J. Wiese.1209/0295-5075/86/22001 Fluctuation force exerted by a planar self-avoiding polymer P. Le Doussal and K. J. Wiese(a) CNRS, and Brownian motion PACS 66.30.hk ­ Polymers Abstract ­ Using the results from Schramm L¨owner evolution (SLE

  5. Liquid oil painting: Free and forced convection in an enclosure with mechanical and thermal forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheard, Gregory J; King, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video is linked to this article, which have been submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion as part of the 65th American Physical Society meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics, held in San Diego, California, USA, over 17-20 November 2012. The video serves to visualize flows generated in a rectangular enclosure that are subjected to both mechanical and thermal forcing through a common horizontal boundary. This system exhibits features consistent with either horizontal convection or lid-driven cavity flows depending on the ratio between thermal and mechanical stirring, and three different cases are visualized in the linked videos.

  6. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  7. Local nonlinear rf forces in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiale, E-mail: chen@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gao, Zhe [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-06-15

    The local nonlinear forces induced by radio frequency (rf) waves are derived in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, where the inhomogeneity exists in the rf fields, in the static magnetic field as well as in the equilibrium density and temperature. The local parallel force is completely resonant, but a novel component dependent on those inhomogeneities is obtained as the result of the inhomogeneous transport of parallel resonant-absorbed momentum by the nonlinear perpendicular drift flux. In the local poloidal force, the component induced by the inhomogeneity of rf power absorption is also confirmed and it can be recognized as the residual effect from the incomplete cancellation between the rate of the diamagnetic poloidal momentum gain and the Lorentz force due to the radial diffusion-like flux. The compact expression for radial force is also obtained for the first time, whose nonresonant component is expressed as the sum of the ponderomotive force on particles and the gradients of the nonresonant perpendicular pressure and of the nonresonant momentum flux due to the finite temperature effect. Numerical calculations in a 1-D slab model show that the resonant component dependent on the inhomogeneities may be significant when the ion absorption dominates the resonant wave-particle interaction. A quantitative estimation shows that the novel component in the parallel force is important to understand the experiments of the ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive.

  8. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the magnitude and the direction of the flow force. This paper shows that both the magnitude and the direction of the compensating flow force are incorrect if calculated from the textbook equation. A corrected analysis of the dynamic forces is presented that are in agreement with earlier experiments by this author. It follows that the compensating flow force should be calculated from the static-pressure imbalance on the spool profile. That is, not Newton but Pascal law should be applied to calculate the compensating flow force.

  9. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6.4.07.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 344770 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6....4.07.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TR-341 2009 Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report By C. Allan Jones and Kevin Wagner, Texas Water Resources...

  10. Thermal radiation, radiation force and dynamics of a polarizable particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

    2015-08-26

    We discuss basic expressions and interrelations between various physical quantities describing the fluctuation-electromagnetic interaction of a small polarizable particle during relativistic motion relative to the blackbody radiation, namely tangential radiation force, rate of heating, intensity of thermal radiation/absorption, the change of the rest mass of a particle, and acceleration. We obtain an explicit formula for the frictional force acting on the particle in its rest frame and discuss its connection with the particle acceleration and the tangential force given in the reference frame of background radiation. The criticism of our previous results in recent paper by A. I. Volokitin (Phys. Rev. A81, 2015, 032505) is refuted.

  11. Effects of realistic tensor force on nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakada, H.

    2012-10-20

    First-order tensor-force effects on nuclear structure are investigated in the self-consistent mean-field and RPA calculations with the M3Y-type semi-realistic interactions, which contain the realistic tensor force. The tensor force plays a key role in Z- or N-dependence of the shell structure, and in transitions involving spin degrees-of-freedom. It is demonstrated that the semi-realistic interactions successfully describe the N-dependence of the shell structure in the proton-magic nuclei (e.g. Ca and Sn), and the magnetic transitions (e.g. M1 transition in {sup 208}Pb).

  12. Nuclear forces in the parity odd sector and the LS forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiko Murano; for the HALQCD Collaboration

    2011-12-09

    In this paper, we report our first attempt at determining NN potentials in the parity odd sector including the spin-orbit force in lattice QCD, employing the method to extract successfully parity even NN potentials from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions through the Schr\\"odinger equation. Using Nf = 2 CP-PACS gauge configurations on a 16^3 x 32 lattice at a = 0.16 fm and m_\\pi \\cong 1.1 GeV, we calculate central, tensor and spin-orbit potentials in the parity odd sector. Although statistical errors are still large, we observe that the qualitative features of these potentials roughly agree with those of phenomenological potentials.

  13. Proton Dripping Tests a Fundamental Force of Nature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    off, similar to the water in this photo, leaving an oxygen-13 nucleus behind. Like gravity, the strong interaction is a fundamental force of nature. It is the essential "glue"...

  14. Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubicic, Dean M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

  15. Burnout in forced convection nucleate boiling of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds John Mitchell

    1957-01-01

    Data are presented for burnout in forced coivection nucleate boiling of water at pressures above 500 psia. A dimensionless correlation is devised for. the M.I.T. data which is found to be valid for certain recent data ...

  16. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in a hard disk drive can be considered to be one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models. In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  17. Bedrock channel response to tetonic, climatic and eustatic forcings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Noah P

    2001-01-01

    The response of bedrock channels to external forcings is investigated in this thesis. The approach is to test and constrain a theoretical model for bedrock-channel incision based on shear stress using field data. The primary ...

  18. ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE MULTISERVICE TACTICS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES Development and Integration T. L. DAVISON THOMAS J. LOFTUS Captain, US Navy Major General, USAF, MC, CFS Acting Assistant Surgeon General Navy Warfare Development Command Health Care Operations Office

  19. Generative morphologies of architectural organization in matter force field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates generative methods of architectural form finding in matter force fields that produce spatial subdivision and organizational variation. Unlike the style driven contemporary free-form architecture ...

  20. Bonding, antibonding and tunable optical forces in asymmetric membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Pui-Chuen

    We demonstrate that tunable attractive (bonding) and repulsive (anti-bonding) forces can arise in highly asymmetric structures coupled to external radiation, a consequence of the bonding/anti-bonding level repulsion of ...

  1. Colorado - Report of the Task Force on Statewide Transmission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado - Report of the Task Force on Statewide Transmission Siting and Permitting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado - Report of...

  2. Robotic Catheter Cardiac Ablation Combining Ultrasound Guidance and Force Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    manipulation speeds while allowing the operator to utilize robotic teleoperation to reduce radiation exposure force control. One medical application that may benefit from this technology is the radiofrequency (RF

  3. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in hard disk drive can be considered one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models .In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab-initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for the Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  4. Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flood Protection Structure Accreditation Task Force: Interim Report January 2, 2013 #12;FLOOD States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are pleased to present this report, titled "Flood Protection inspections and assessments and the National Flood Insurance Program levee accreditation requirements

  5. On the Correlation between Forcing and Climate Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei

    The possible correlation between climate sensitivity and radiative forcing is studied using versions of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) model with different climate sensitivities. No such correlation was found ...

  6. Report of the SEAB Hubs+ Task Force | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the new Funding Constructs for Energy Research and Development (R&D) in the Department of Energy. The Task Force was charged with assisting the DOE in evaluating the management and...

  7. 2014-09-25 Frsvarsmakten Swedish Armed Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    : SCADA protection In 2010, The Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) Defence Staff, Policy Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are used for a number of industrial and critical-infrastructure control applications. SCADA systems can involve

  8. Modeling and control of undesirable dynamics in atomic force microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Rifai, Osamah M

    2002-01-01

    The phenomenal resolution and versatility of the atomic force microscope (AFM), has made it a widely-used instrument in nanotechnology. In this thesis, a detailed model of AFM dynamics has been developed. It includes a new ...

  9. Workshop on Atomic Force Microscopy, Nanometrology and More ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Swarna Addepalli 2012.12.17 One of my colleagues from our global research center in India, K.G. V. Siva Kumar (Sivakumar), recently attended a workshop on Atomic Force...

  10. Renormalization and power counting of chiral nuclear forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bingwei

    2013-01-01

    I discuss the progress we have made on modifying Weinberg's prescription for chiral nuclear forces, using renormalization group invariance as the guideline. Some of the published results are presented.

  11. Renormalization and power counting of chiral nuclear forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bingwei Long

    2013-07-02

    I discuss the progress we have made on modifying Weinberg's prescription for chiral nuclear forces, using renormalization group invariance as the guideline. Some of the published results are presented.

  12. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  13. Turbulent drag reduction by constant near-wall forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JIN XU, SUCHUAN DONG, MARTIN R. MAXEY and GEORGE E. KARNIADAKIS

    2007-06-07

    This transition of the shear layer is correlated with a Reynolds number ... The quest for 'taming' turbulence with the objective of reducing the skin friction on ...... in principle, extracts kinetic energy from the flow and the positive forcing further.

  14. Renormalization and power counting of chiral nuclear forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Bingwei [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    I discuss the progress we have made on modifying Weinberg's prescription for chiral nuclear forces, using renormalization group invariance as the guideline. Some of the published results are presented.

  15. Portfolio management in the Air Force : current status and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Dave B

    2011-01-01

    There are hundreds of weapons programs, under the management of the United States Air Force worth billions of dollars. These programs are being developed to fulfill a need in the U.S. defense strategy. Bringing these weapon ...

  16. Optical system for high-speed Atomic Force Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kwang Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and development of an optical cantilever deflection sensor for a high speed Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This optical sensing system is able to track a small cantilever while the X-Y scanner ...

  17. Host nation security force development : a new roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Shawn (Shawn Michael)

    2013-01-01

    A new model concerning the concepts of host nation security force development, or security sector reform (SSR), is proposed. This model is rooted in scholarly literature and seeks to fill current gaps in United States Army ...

  18. Collisional effects on nonlinear ion drag force for small grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution ...

  19. Reduction of unsteady underwater propeller forces via active tail articulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Richard A. (Richard Alexander), 1982-

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the use of biologically-inspired tail articulation as a means to reduce unsteady propeller forces and by extension, noise due to stator wake blade interaction. This study is experimental in nature ...

  20. ARI Task Force, ECA Work to Stimulate Regional Economies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – DOE’s Asset Revitalization Initiative (ARI) Task Force met with the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) this week to advance the Department’s processes for transferring excess land...

  1. Energy Savings Performance Contract- Robins Air Force Base, Georgia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edge, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    saving projects is through private sector financing, also known as Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC). Robins Air Force Base, located in middle Georgia, has recently implemented such a contract. Using an Army Corps of Engineers area...

  2. Recent and future trends in synthetic greenhouse gas radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Doherty, S.

    Atmospheric measurements show that emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are now the primary drivers of the positive growth in synthetic greenhouse gas (SGHG) radiative forcing. We infer recent ...

  3. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongjun Gao; Jinqiao Duan

    2001-08-12

    The ocean thermohaline circulation, also called meridional overturning circulation, is caused by water density contrasts. This circulation has large capacity of carrying heat around the globe and it thus affects the energy budget and further affects the climate. We consider a thermohaline circulation model in the meridional plane under external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density fluctuation (under appropriate metrics) tend to zero exponentially fast as time goes to infinity. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model. This averaging principle provides convergence results and comparison estimates between the original thermohaline circulation and the averaged thermohaline circulation, where the wind forcing is replaced by its time average. This establishes the validity for using the averaged thermohaline circulation model for numerical simulations at long time scales.

  4. Recommendations of the task force on public policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Task Force on Public Policy Association for Behavior Analysis; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernstein, Gail; Czyzewski, Mare J.; Greene, Brandon F.; Hannah, Gerald T.; Iwata, Brian A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Mathews, R. Mark; Morris, Edward K.; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Seekins, Tom; Winett, Richard A.

    1988-03-01

    The Task Force on Public Policy was established by the Association for Behavior Analysis to examine ways to encourage members to contribute to policymaking relevant to the public interest. Members discussed issues pertinent ...

  5. High-throughput screening for modulators of cellular contractile force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Young; Tambe, Dhananjay; Chen, Bohao; Lavoie, Tera; Dowell, Maria; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Burger, Stephanie; Frykenberg, Matthew; Butler, James P; Stamer, W Daniel; Johnson, Mark; Solway, Julian; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    When cellular contractile forces are central to pathophysiology, these forces comprise a logical target of therapy. Nevertheless, existing high-throughput screens are limited to upstream signaling intermediates with poorly defined relationship to such a physiological endpoint. Using cellular force as the target, here we screened libraries to identify novel drug candidates in the case of human airway smooth muscle cells in the context of asthma, and also in the case of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells in the context of glaucoma. This approach identified several drug candidates for both asthma and glaucoma. We attained rates of 1000 compounds per screening day, thus establishing a force-based cellular platform for high-throughput drug discovery.

  6. Entropic force of polymers on a cone tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faghfoor Maghrebi, Mohammad

    We consider polymers attached to the tip of a cone, and the resulting force due to entropy loss on approaching a plate (or another cone). At separations shorter than the polymer radius of gyration Rg, the only relevant ...

  7. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the...

  8. Polymer-mediated entropic forces between scale-free objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faghfoor Maghrebi, Mohammad

    The number of configurations of a polymer is reduced in the presence of a barrier or an obstacle. The resulting loss of entropy adds a repulsive component to other forces generated by interaction potentials. When the ...

  9. Fast dynamic force computation for electrostatic and electromagnetic conductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koteeswaran, Prabhavathi

    2005-02-17

    -1 FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Computer Engineering FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  10. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10{sup 2} and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 {micro}m to 1km.

  11. Ion pump activity generates fluctuating electrostatic forces in biomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Loubet; M. A. Lomholt

    2011-09-19

    We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid membranes with proteins that actively pump ions across the membrane. We find that the activity leads to a fluctuating force distribution due to electrostatic interactions arising from variation in dielectric constant across the membrane. By applying a multipole expansion we find effects on both the tension and bending rigidity dominated parts of the membranes fluctuation spectrum. We discuss how our model compares with previous studies of force-multipole models.

  12. Nuclear symmetry energy and the role of the tensor force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaac Vidana; Artur Polls; Constanca Providencia

    2011-07-27

    Using the Hellmann--Feynman theorem we analyze the contribution of the different terms of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to the nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}$ and the slope parameter $L$. The analysis is performed within the microscopic Brueckner--Hartree--Fock approach using the Argonne V18 potential plus the Urbana IX three-body force. We find that the main contribution to $E_{sym}$ and $L$ is due to the tensor component of the nuclear force.

  13. Measurement of vertical ground reaction force in jumping dogs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanoff, Susan Rena

    1991-01-01

    , Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. I am grateful to Colonel Paul B. Jennings, Chief, Veterinary Division, for his endorsement of this project. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page nl DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES... Design Thirteen military working dogs, weighing 2741 kg, and greater than 1 year of age, were used in this study. The dogs were kenneled at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. Seven dogs were German Shepherd Dogs and 6 were Belgian Malinois...

  14. U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on the Implementation of Task Force Recommendations U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on the...

  15. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Cutting Forces in Dry Milling Machining Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadja, Bright Yves wilfried

    2014-04-29

    The aim in this thesis is the investigation of the cutting forces during a dry milling machining process. An experimental design was developed and the cutting forces were measured based on the cutting input parameters. The cutting forces’ signatures...

  16. Radiation pressure and gas drag forces on a melamine-formaldehyde microsphere in a dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    Radiation pressure and gas drag forces on a melamine-formaldehyde microsphere in a dusty plasma Bin and gas drag forces acting on a single melamine-formaldehyde microsphere. The radiation pressure force

  17. Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

  18. Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on EM Technology...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on EM Technology Development Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on EM Technology Development Presentation...

  19. The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on DOE National Laboratories The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on DOE National Laboratories The...

  20. Forced Vibration Testing of a Four Story RC Building Utilizing the nees@UCLA Mobile Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Eunjong; Skolnik, Derek; Whang, Daniel; Wallace, J W

    2006-01-01

    0486. Yu, E. , 2005. Forced vibration testing and analyticalbetween Ambient and Forced Vibration Experiments, EarthquakeUSA Paper No. 1566 FORCED VIBRATION TESTING OF A FOUR STORY

  1. Self-consistent Green's functions with three-body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arianna Carbone

    2014-07-24

    The present thesis aims at studying the properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter from a Green's functions point of view, including two-body and three-body chiral forces. An extended self-consistent Green's function formalism is defined to consistently incorporate three-body forces in the many-body calculations. The effect of three-nucleon interactions is included via the construction of a dressed two-body density dependent force. This is obtained performing an average of the leading order three-body terms in the chiral effective field theory expansion. The dressed force corresponds to the use of an in-medium propagator in the average which takes into account the correlations characterizing the system at each stage of the many-body calculation. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sumrule to correctly account for the effect of three-body forces. Microscopic as well as macroscopic properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are analyzed in detailed.

  2. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  3. Earth's Inner Core dynamics induced by the Lorentz force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasbleis, M; Cardin, P; Labrosse, S

    2015-01-01

    Seismic studies indicate that the Earth's inner core has a complex structure and exhibits a strong elastic anisotropy with a cylindrical symmetry. Among the various models which have been proposed to explain this anisotropy, one class of models considers the effect of the Lorentz force associated with the magnetic field diffused within the inner core. In this paper we extend previous studies and use analytical calculations and numerical simulations to predict the geometry and strength of the flow induced by the poloidal component of the Lorentz force in a neutrally or stably stratified growing inner core, exploring also the effect of different types of boundary conditions at the inner core boundary (ICB). Unlike previous studies, we show that the boundary condition that is most likely to produce a significant deformation and seismic anisotropy is impermeable, with negligible radial flow through the boundary. Exact analytical solutions are found in the case of a negligible effect of buoyancy forces in the inne...

  4. Osmotic force resisting chain insertion in a colloidal suspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Castelnovo; R. K. Bowles; H. Reiss; W. M. Gelbart

    2003-03-03

    We consider the problem of inserting a stiff chain into a colloidal suspension of particles that interact with it through excluded volume forces. The free energy of insertion is associated with the work of creating a cavity devoid of colloid and sufficiently large to accomodate the chain. The corresponding work per unit length is the force that resists the entry of the chain into the colloidal suspension. In the case of a hard sphere fluid, this work can be calculated straightforwardly within the scaled particle theory; for solutions of flexible polymers, on the other hand, we employ simple scaling arguments. The forces computed in these ways are shown, for nanometer chain and colloid diameters, to be of the order of tens of pN for solution volume fraction for biophysical processes such as the ejection of DNA from viral capsids into the cell cytoplasm.

  5. Determining the role of hydration forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hura, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Soper, A.K. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility] [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility; Pertsemlidis, A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry] [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Head-Gordon, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    One of the primary issues in protein folding is determining what forces drive folding and eventually stabilize the native state. A delicate balance exists between electrostatic forces such as hydrogen bonding and salt bridges, and the hydrophobic effect, which are present for both intramolecular protein interactions and intermolecular contributions with the surrounding aqueous environment. This article describes a combined experimental, theoretical, and computational effort to show how the complexity of aqueous hydration can influence the structure, folding and aggregation, and stability of model protein systems. The unification of the theoretical and experimental work is the development or discovery of effective amino acid interactions that implicitly include the effects of aqueous solvent. The authors show that consideration of the full range of complexity of aqueous hydration forces such as many-body effects, long-ranged character of aqueous solvation, and the assumptions made about the degree of protein hydrophobicity can directly impact the observed structure, folding, and stability of model protein systems.

  6. Collision of viscoelastic bodies: Rigorous derivation of dissipative force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin; Eugeniy A. Susloparov; Anastasiya V. Pimenova; Nikolai V. Brilliantov

    2015-01-13

    We report a new theory of dissipative forces acting between colliding viscoelastic bodies. The impact velocity is assumed not to be large, to avoid plastic deformations and fragmentation at the impact. The bodies may be of an arbitrary convex shape and of different materials. We develop a mathematically rigorous perturbation scheme to solve the continuum mechanics equation that deals with both displacement and displacement rate fields and accounts for the dissipation in the bulk of the material. The perturbative solution of this equation allows to go beyond the previously used quasi-static approximation and obtain the dissipative force. This force does not suffer from the physical inconsistencies of the latter approximation and depends on particle deformation and deformation rate.

  7. Emergence of coexisting coherence and incoherence by an external forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. K. Chandrasekar; R. Suresh; D. V. Senthilkumar; M. Lakshmanan

    2015-04-11

    A common external forcing can cause a saddle-node bifurcation in an ensemble of identical Duffing oscillators by breaking the symmetry of the individual bistable (double-well) unit. The strength of the forcing determines the separation between the saddle and node, which in turn dictates different dynamical transitions depending on the distribution of the initial states of the oscillators. In particular, chimera-like states appear in the vicinity of the saddle-node bifurcation for which theoretical explanation is provided from the stability of slow-scale dynamics of the original system of equations. Further, as a consequence, it is shown that even a linear nearest neighbor coupling can lead to the manifestation of the chimera states in an ensemble of identical Duffing oscillators in the presence of the common external forcing.

  8. Jamming transitions in force-based models for pedestrian dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Tordeux, Antoine; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Force-based models describe pedestrian dynamics in analogy to classical mechanics by a system of second order ordinary differential equations. By investigating the linear stability of two main classes of forces, parameter regions with unstable homogeneous states are identified. In this unstable regime it is then checked whether phase transitions or stop-and-go waves occur. Results based on numerical simulations show, however, that the investigated models lead to unrealistic behavior in form of backwards moving pedestrians and overlapping. This is one reason why stop-and-go waves have not been observed in these models. The unrealistic behavior is not related to the numerical treatment of the dynamic equations but rather indicates an intrinsic problem of this model class. Identifying the underlying generic problems gives indications how to define models that do not show such unrealistic behavior. As an example we introduce a new force-based model which produces realistic jam dynamics without the appearance of u...

  9. Stochastic force generation by small ensembles of myosin II motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Erdmann; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2012-02-14

    Forces in the actin cytoskeleton are generated by small groups of non-processive myosin II motors for which stochastic effects are highly relevant. Using a crossbridge model with the assumptions of fast powerstroke kinetics and equal load sharing between equivalent states, we derive a one-step master equation for the activity of a finite-sized ensemble of mechanically coupled myosin II motors. For constant external load, this approach yields analytical results for duty ratio and force-velocity relation as a function of ensemble size. We find that stochastic effects cannot be neglected for ensemble sizes below 15. The one-step master equation can be used also for efficient computer simulations with linear elastic external load and reveals the sequence of build-up of force and ensemble rupture that is characteristic for reconstituted actomyosin contractility.

  10. Analysis of scrams and forced outages at boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, R. T.; Sullivan, W. P.; Miller, K. R.; Schwegman, W. J.

    1980-07-01

    This report documents the results of a study of scrams and forced outages at General Electric Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) operating in the United States. This study was conducted for Sandia Laboratories under a Light Water Reactor Safety Program which it manages for the United States Department of Energy. Operating plant data were used to identify the causes of scrams and forced outages. Causes of scrams and forced outages have been summarized as a function of operating plant and plant age and also ranked according to the number of events per year, outage time per year, and outage time per event. From this ranking, identified potential improvement opportunities were evaluated to determine the associated benefits and impact on plant availability.

  11. Vacuum energy and repulsive Casimir forces in quantum star graphs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulling, Stephen; Kaplan, L.; Wilson, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum energy and repulsive Casimir forces in quantum star graphs S. A. Fulling,1,* L. Kaplan,2,? and J. H. Wilson1,? 1Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368, USA 2Department of Physics... vacuum en- ergy in the region outside the box, and it involves ?renormal- ization? in the sense of discarding divergent terms associated with the boundary although #1;unlike the case of parallel plates, or any calculation of forces between rigid...

  12. A channel Brownian pump powered by an unbiased external force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-quan Ai; Liang-gang Liu

    2010-03-22

    A Brownian pump of particles in an asymmetric finite tube is investigated in the presence of an unbiased external force. The pumping system is bounded by two particle reservoirs. It is found that the particles can be pumped through the tube from a reservoir at low concentration to one at the same or higher concentration. There exists an optimized value of temperature (or the amplitude of the external force) at which the pumping capacity takes its maximum value. The pumping capacity decreases with increasing the radius at the bottleneck of the tube.

  13. On transition from Alfvén resonance to forced magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Q. [MOE Key Lab of Materials Modification by Beams and School of Physics and Optoelectrical Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X., E-mail: xgwang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-07-15

    We revisit the transition from Alfvén resonance to forced magnetic reconnection with a focus on the property of their singularities. As the driven frequency tends to zero, the logarithmic singularity of Alfvén resonance shifts to the power-law singularity of forced reconnection, due to merging of the two resonance layers. The transition criterion depends on either kinetic effects or dissipations that resolve the singularity. As an example, a small but finite resistivity ? is introduced to investigate the transition process. The transition threshold is then obtained as the driven frequency reaches a level of ?O((?/k){sup 1/3})

  14. Fractal properties of stellar systems and random forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chumak, Oleg V

    2015-01-01

    The nearest neighbor distribution (Chandrasekhar 1943) is generalized to fractal stellar systems.For such systems an asymptotic distribution of the magnitude of large random forces and a formula for the effective mean interparticle spacing are derived. It is shown that in the case of a power-law distribution of conditional density the derived asymptotic fully agrees with the results obtained in terms of a general approach. It is concluded that large random forces in a fractal stellar medium are due entirely to the nearest neighbors (clumps) located inside the sphere of the effective radius determined from the generalized Holtsmark distribution.

  15. Chiral three-nucleon forces and pairing in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesinski, Thomas; Hebeler, K.; Duguet, Thomas C; Schwenk, Achim

    2012-01-01

    We present the first study of pairing in nuclei including three-nucleon forces. We perform systematic calculations of the odd-even mass staggering generated using a microscopic pairing interaction at first order in chiral low-momentum interactions. Significant repulsive contributions from the leading chiral three-nucleon forces are found. Two- and three-nucleon interactions combined account for approximately 70% of the experimental pairing gaps, which leaves room for self-energy and induced interaction effects that are expected to be overall attractive in nuclei.

  16. Spin Contribution to the Ponderomotive Force in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodin, G.; Misra, A. P.; Marklund, M. [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2010-09-03

    The concept of a ponderomotive force due to the intrinsic spin of electrons is developed. An expression containing both the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive force is derived. The results are used to demonstrate that an electromagnetic pulse can induce a spin-polarized plasma. Furthermore, it is shown that, for certain parameters, the nonlinear backreaction on the electromagnetic pulse from the spin magnetization current can be larger than that from the classical free current. Suitable parameter values for a direct test of this effect are presented.

  17. Optimal waveform for the entrainment of a weakly forced oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Harada; Hisa-Aki Tanaka; Michael J. Hankins; István Z. Kiss

    2010-07-24

    A theory for obtaining waveform for the effective entrainment of a weakly forced oscillator is presented. Phase model analysis is combined with calculus of variation to derive a waveform with which entrainment of an oscillator is achieved with minimum power forcing signal. Optimal waveforms are calculated from the phase response curve and a solution to a balancing condition. The theory is tested in chemical entrainment experiments in which oscillations close to and further away from a Hopf bifurcation exhibited sinusoidal and higher harmonic nontrivial optimal waveforms, respectively.

  18. A test method for determining adhesion forces and Hamaker constants of cementitious materials using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomboy, Gilson [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Sundararajan, Sriram, E-mail: srirams@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Wang Kejin [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Subramaniam, Shankar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A method for determining Hamaker constant of cementitious materials is presented. The method involved sample preparation, measurement of adhesion force between the tested material and a silicon nitride probe using atomic force microscopy in dry air and in water, and calculating the Hamaker constant using appropriate contact mechanics models. The work of adhesion and Hamaker constant were computed from the pull-off forces using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Derjagin-Muller-Toropov models. Reference materials with known Hamaker constants (mica, silica, calcite) and commercially available cementitious materials (Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)) were studied. The Hamaker constants of the reference materials obtained are consistent with those published by previous researchers. The results indicate that PC has a higher Hamaker constant than GGBFS. The Hamaker constant of PC in water is close to the previously predicted value C{sub 3}S, which is attributed to short hydration time ({<=} 45 min) used in this study.

  19. A Study on the Role of Force Feedback for Teleoperation of Industrial Overhead Crane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    A Study on the Role of Force Feedback for Teleoperation of Industrial Overhead Crane Ildar://robot.kut.ac.kr Abstract. In this paper, a study on the role of force feedback for tele- operation of industrial overhead types of force feedback signals which can reduce sway motion in industrial crane. First, force feedback

  20. An exact solution for the Casimir force in a spherically symmetric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt; William M. R. Simpson

    2011-07-03

    We calculated the force of the quantum vacuum, the Casimir force, in a spherically symmetric medium, Maxwell's fish eye, surrounded by a perfect mirror and derived an exact analytic solution. Our solution questions the idea that the Casimir force of a spherical mirror is repulsive - we found an attractive force that diverges at the mirror.

  1. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, William M.; Myers, Kurt; Seifert, Gary

    2010-12-31

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base.

  2. A biped static balance control and torque pattern learning under unknown periodic external forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Satoshi

    A biped static balance control and torque pattern learning under unknown periodic external forces balancing task in which an unknown external force is exerted, using so-called `ankle strategy' model. When an external force is pe- riodic, a human adaptively maintains the balance, next learns how much force should

  3. The emergence of zonal ocean jets under large-scale stochastic wind forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCasce, Joseph H.

    . But we will show how such forcing can in fact generate zonal jet-like structures. [5] Wind forcingThe emergence of zonal ocean jets under large-scale stochastic wind forcing Christopher H. O stochastic wind forcing is investigated. As found in many previous studies, long Rossby waves are excited

  4. Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force

  5. Detection of Percolating Paths in PMMA/CB Segregated Network Composites Using Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ou, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gupta, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Parker, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gerhardt, Dr. Rosario [Georgia Institute of Technology; Seal, Katyayani [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Composite specimens possessing polyhedral segregated network microstructures require a very small amount of nanosize filler, <1 vol %, to reach percolation because percolation occurs by accumulation of the fillers along the edges of the deformed polymer matrix particles. In this paper, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) were used to confirm the location of the nanosize fillers and the corresponding percolating paths in polymethyl methacrylate/carbon black composites. The EFM and C-AFM images revealed that the polyhedral polymer particles were coated with filler, primarily on the edges as predicted by the geometric models provided.

  6. Important driving forces in livestock production and agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    global shifts in consumption, marketing, production and trade: Rising incomes. Demographic shifts#12;Important driving forces in livestock production and agriculture are responsible for major the past four decades, but increasing trends due to changes in land use and crop production shifting from

  7. Analysis and specificities of adhesive forces between microscale and nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the packaging of NEMS which require handling, positioning, assembling and joining strategies in the mesoscale of the mesoscale in comparison with nanoscale and microscale. Firstly, it is shown that the distributions are presented. Thirdly, the van der Waals forces are increased by local deformations on the mesoscale contrary

  8. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  9. Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from Himalayan erosion Christian France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weathering and erosion can affect the long-term ocean­atmo- sphere budget of carbon dioxide both through of Neogene Himalayan erosion on the carbon cycle is an increase in the amount of organic carbon

  10. Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Giant optical forces in planar dielectric photonic metamaterials Jianfa Zhang,1,2 Kevin F. Mac Metamaterials, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK 2 College of Optoelectronic within all-dielectric planar photonic metamaterials at near- infrared illumination wavelengths can

  11. Climate forcings and the nonlinear dynamics of grassland ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrie, Matthew D.

    2010-04-28

    of these forcings are shaped by simulations of constant and seasonally-varying water-use efficiency to assess the role of vegetation on grassland carbon assimilation, and also to explore species-specific responses at the Konza Prairie in North Central Kansas, USA...

  12. Surfzone eddies in strong alongshore currents: Forced or Instabilities?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Surfzone eddies in strong alongshore currents: Forced or Instabilities? Falk Feddersen Associate by surfzone 2D turbulent eddies, which have length-scales > the water depth. Our group's results regarding surfzone eddy-induced mixing learned from dye, drifter, theory, and modeling will be reviewed - however

  13. NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    is to hydraulic fracturing in geothermal and gas-shale reservoirs. The source mechanisms of microearthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even, geothermal area. #12;Figure: Left pair: Radiation patterns of elastic compressional waves (left) and shear

  14. Enhancement mechanisms for optical forces in integrated optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancement mechanisms for optical forces in integrated optics M. L. Povinelli(a) , M. Loncar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 ABSTRACT We investigate the extension of optical micromanipulation to integrated optics. In particular, we consider whether propagating light signals can cause

  15. Furlough or Reduction in Force in the Senior Executive Service

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-05-15

    To establish requirements and assign responsibilities for furlough and reduction in force (RIF) of the Senior Executive Service (SES) in the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Supersedes O DOE 3350.1 Chg 1 and DOE 3351.2 Chg 1.

  16. A NEW INTERPHASE FORCE IN TWO-PHASE FLUIDIZED BEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. ZHANG; W. VANDERHEYDEN

    2001-05-01

    Mesoscale structures such as particle clusters have been observed both in experiments and in numerical simulations of circulating fluidized beds. In a numerical simulation, in order to account for the effects of such mesoscale structures, the computational grids have to be fine enough. The use of such fine grids is impractical in engineering applications due to excessive computational costs. To predict the macroscopic behavior of a fluidized bed with reasonable computation cost, they perform a second average over the averaged equations for two-phase flows. A mesoscale inter-phase exchange force is found to be the correlation of the particle volume fraction and the pressure gradient. This force is related to the mesoscale added mass of the two-phase flow. Typically, added mass for particle scale interactions is negligible in gas-solid flows since the gas density is small compared to density of solid particles. However, for a mesoscale structure, such as a bubble, the surrounding media is the mixture of gas and particles. The surrounding fluid density experienced by the mesoscale structure is the density of the surrounding mixture. Therefore, the added mass of a mesoscale structure, such as bubbles, cannot be neglected. The property of this new force is studied based on the numerical simulation of a fluidized bed using high grid resolution. It is shown that this force is important in the region where the particle volume fraction is high. The effects of the inhomogeneity to the interphase drag are also studied.

  17. Force Generation by Cellular Polymers George Oster and Alex Mogilner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oster, George

    energy of monomer binding and/or nucleotide hydrolysis as their energy source. 2. Polymers can also store Polymers can convert the binding free energy of their constituent monomers into mechanical force to push as moving down on a free energy landscape, AG(x), as shown in Figure l(b) and (c), where the load is moving

  18. Flow Forcing Techniques for Numerical Simulation of Combustion Instabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Flow Forcing Techniques for Numerical Simulation of Combustion Instabilities A. KAUFMANN* and F of combustion instabilities in gas turbine combustors require the knowledge of flame transfer functions. Those flame) and for one case where a CFD code is necessary (a laminar Bunsen-type flame). © 2002

  19. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E. Girish; C. Radhakrishnan Nair

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in nature especially gravity. We show that the studies on retrograde motion and Chesta Bala of planets like Mars in the context of astrology lead to development of differential calculus and planetary dynamics in ancient India. The idea of instantaneous velocity was first developed during the 1st millennium BC and Indians could solve first order differential equations as early as 6th cent AD. Indian contributions to astrophysics and calculus during European dark ages can be considered as a land mark in the pre-renaissance history of physical sciences. Key words: physical forces, differential calculus, history of science, planetary dynamics, ancient India

  20. Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence David Stevenson aircraft NOx emissions in January, April, July and October of the 1st year. Figure 1 shows perturbations that the initial NOx anomaly mirrors the aircraft emissions distribution, with only limited transport and mixing

  1. Coulomb force effects in low-energy $?$-deuteron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2006-11-18

    The $\\alpha$-proton Coulomb interaction is included in the description of $\\alpha$-deuteron scattering using the screening and renormalization approach in the framework of momentum-space three-particle equations. The technical reliability of the method is demonstrated. Large Coulomb-force effects are found.

  2. Guide for Establishment of a Contingency Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-03-27

    The Guide was developed to provide assistance in ensuring continued safe and secure operation of DOE sites and facilities, protection of Departmental employees, and the public in the event of emergency situations involving the establishment and deployment of a contingency protective force and the conduct of sustained operations. Canceled by DOE N 251.80.

  3. Casimir and van der Waals forces: Advances and problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2015-07-09

    We review modern achievements and problems in physics of the van der Waals and Casimir forces which arise due to zero-point and thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between closely spaced material surfaces. This subject attracted great experimental and theoretical attention during the last few years because the fluctuation-induced forces find a lot of applications in both fundamental physics and nanotechnology. After a short introduction to the subject, we describe main experimental and theoretical results obtained in the field during the last fifteen years. In the following presentation, we discuss some of the recent results by the authors and their collaborators which are of high promise for future developments. Specifically, we consider new features of the Casimir force acting between a gold sphere and an indium tin oxide plate, present the experimental and theoretical results on measuring the Casimir interaction between two gold surfaces by means of dynamic atomic force microscope, and outline first measurements of the Casimir interaction between magnetic surfaces and related theory. Special attention is devoted to the Casimir effect for graphene, which is the prospective material for microelectromechanical devices of next generations.

  4. Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Computational Model for Forced Expiration from Asymmetric Normal Lungs ADAM G. POLAK 1 losses along the airway branches. Calculations done for succeeding lung volumes result in the semidynamic to the choke points, characteristic differences of lung regional pressures and volumes, and a shape

  5. Evolution of Force-Generating Equations for PSO using GP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poli, Riccardo

    Evolution of Force-Generating Equations for PSO using GP Cecilia Di Chio, Riccardo Poli- gramming (GP), can automatically generate new PSO algorithms that outperform standard PSOs designed Swarm Optimisation (PSO) [5]. PSOs use a population of "interacting particles" (i.e. candidate solutions

  6. Cysteine engineering of polyproteins for single-molecule force spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Hendrik

    polyprotein construction. The basic concept of cysteine engineering of polyproteins is out- lined in Figure 1Cysteine engineering of polyproteins for single- molecule force spectroscopy Hendrik Dietz, Morten. We describe in detail the method to construct polyproteins with precisely controlled linkage

  7. Stability of Adhesion Clusters under Constant Force T. Erdmann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Ulrich

    Stability of Adhesion Clusters under Constant Force T. Erdmann1 and U. S. Schwarz1,2 1 Max Planck. This effect might be used by cell-matrix adhesions to induce signaling events through cytoskeletal loading matrix and to each other through clusters of adhesion molecules. The number of receptors in adhesion

  8. Hamlet: Force/Position Controlled Hexapod Walker -Design and Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portland State University

    1 Hamlet: Force/Position Controlled Hexapod Walker - Design and Systems Michael R. Fielding , Christopher J. Damaren and Reg Dunlop Abstract--Hamlet is a hexapod walker constructed at the University. Keywords-- position-based compliance control, walking hexapod robot, gait generation I. Introduction

  9. Propulsive Forces on the Flagellum during Locomotion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pless, Robert

    and the flagellum were analyzed in the context of low-Reynolds-number fluid mechanics. Wild-type uniflagellate cellsPropulsive Forces on the Flagellum during Locomotion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. V. Bayly, * B. L. Lewis, E. C. Ranz, R. J. Okamoto, R. B. Pless,§ and S. K. Dutcher Department of Mechanical

  10. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced of either electron beam deposition and/or focused ion beam milling. Attachment/ growth of carbon nanotubes carbon nanotube MWNT capped with a magnetic catalyst particle onto the apex of a commercial Si cantilever

  11. 2014 Vermont State Fair Teen Task Force Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    2014 Vermont State Fair Teen Task Force Application After reviewing the descriptions of the Teen Avenue, Suite 55, Rutland, Vermont 05701-4457 ATTN: VSF Registration, or scanned and sent. University of Vermont Extension, Burlington, Vermont University of Vermont Extension, and U.S. Department

  12. The forces exerted by aquatic suction feeders on their prey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wainwright, Peter C.

    reaction and the pressure gradient force. The velocity of fluid moving relative to the prey item al. 2005), will also gene- rate an acceleration reaction. Finally, because fluid velocity will vary by the suction flow field: drag, acceleration reaction and the fluid pressure gradient. Using a mathematical

  13. Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water -oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water - oil systems Georg Ellila Chemical study. This is to my knowledge the first time the transport mechanisms in capillary oil-salt water and the Vista Program. 1 #12;Abstract This project looks at the capillary systems with salt water and oil

  14. Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA) Adam Coulon Princeton University Electric #12;LiLFA Thruster · Lithium vapor ionizes in the electric field · A current evolves in the plasma and Control System Position Sensing Detector #12;Lithium Reservoir Argon Flow Copper Water Flow Piston/Lithium

  15. On the study of force-balance percolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Jeng; J. M. Schwarz

    2008-06-10

    We study models of correlated percolation where there are constraints on the occupation of sites that mimic force-balance, i.e. for a site to be stable requires occupied neighboring sites in all four compass directions in two dimensions. We prove rigorously that $p_c<1$ for the two-dimensional models studied. Numerical data indicate that the force-balance percolation transition is discontinuous with a growing crossover length, with perhaps the same form as the jamming percolation models, suggesting the same underlying mechanism driving the transition in both cases. In other words, force-balance percolation and jamming percolation may indeed belong to the same universality class. We find a lower bound for the correlation length in the connected phase and that the correlation function does not appear to be a power law at the transition. Finally, we study the dynamics of the culling procedure invoked to obtain the force-balance configurations and find a dynamical exponent similar to that found in sandpile models.

  16. Memorandum, Protective Force Law Enforcement Authority- May 1, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigation allegations that contractor procetive force personnel at a DOE site exceeded their legistative ,regulatory, and policy-based authority by providing on-duty, armed off-site assistance to local law enforcement authorites during other than recapture/recovery operations, and by accessing the local law enforcement database for background checks during the course of on-site administrative traffic stops.

  17. Force measurements in magnetic bearings using fiber optic strain gauges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymer, Stephen Geoffrey

    2000-01-01

    The research presented here develops a new method for measuring forces in magnetic bearings. Fiber-optic strain gauges (FOSGs) mounted to the side of the magnet poles are used to detect the small levels of strain that the metal experiences...

  18. A Forced Sampled Execution Approach to Kernel Rootkit Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    }@symantec.com Abstract. Kernel rootkits are considered one of the most dangerous forms of malware because they reside a forced sampled execution approach to traverse the driver's control flow graph. Through a comprehensive, 11, 4] is a piece of binary code that a computer in- truder, after breaking into a machine, installs

  19. Cross-National Patterns of Labor Force Withdrawal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    stoppage mean receipt of retirement income, and vice versa? ° Does retirement mean full work stoppage, industrialized nations. Between 1950 and 1990, for example, the life expectancies for men and women in the United women) have been leaving the labor force earlier and earlier in these same countries (OECD 1995a, Table

  20. Sound radiation from a line forced perforated elastic sandwich panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Sound radiation from a line forced perforated elastic sandwich panel I. David Abrahams Department by altering the interior geometry, and perforations can be added to one or both sides. With perforations­399 1990 devised an effective boundary condition for a perforated sandwich plate structure, valid

  1. Design and construction of a magnetic force microscope 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer Sudhakar

    2005-08-29

    compared to the previous designs. Some of the anticipated system specifications are: 1) room temperature scanning range of 175?? 175 ??m, 2) low temperature scanning range between 35-50 ??m, 3) smallest detectable magnetic force in the range of one pN and 4...

  2. ELECTROMOTION 2009 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Co or NdFeB, the designers can use magnets owning a really rigid magnetization. They are the magnets whichELECTROMOTION 2009 1 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between Linear Halbach-Type Permanent Magnet Arrays H. Allag1,2 , J-P. Yonnet1 and M. E. H. Latreche2 1- Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de

  3. An Experimental Evaluation of the Force Requirements for Robotic Mastoidectomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Materials and Methods: We measured forces during bone re- moval for several surgical burr types, drill & Co. KG, Rastatt, Germany). Bone drilling and bone removal procedures are tasks for which robotics can in operating time and costs and potentially fewer complications (3). Furthermore, because the mastoidec- tomy

  4. Noncentral Forces in Crystals of Charged Colloids D. Reinke,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    Noncentral Forces in Crystals of Charged Colloids D. Reinke,1 H. Stark,2 H.-H. von Gru¨nberg,3 properties of fcc crystals consisting of charge stabilized colloidal particles are determined from real space, the question arises whether the elastic proper- ties of colloidal crystals are comparable to metals and whether

  5. Operation Ivy. Joint Task Force 132, 1952. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report covers the activities of the Joint Task Force 132 in Operation Ivy, in 1952 at Eniwetok Atoll. Shots Mike and King were detonated in conjunction with eleven experimental programs. This report describes the device, weapon, and experimental programs, giving as many preliminary conclusions as can be drawn from early analysis of the data.

  6. Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intercomparison of oceanic and atmospheric forced and coupled mesoscale simulations Part I: Surface Abstract. A mesoscale non-hydrostatic atmospheric model has been coupled with a mesoscale oceanic model current. In order to analyze the eect of mesoscale coupling, three simulations are compared: the ®rst one

  7. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  8. Normal and lateral Casimir forces between deformed plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emig, Thorsten; Hanke, Andreas; Golestanian, Ramin; Kardar, Mehran [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies depends strongly on their shape and orientation. To study this geometry dependence in the case of two deformed metal plates, we use a path-integral quantization of the electromagnetic field which properly treats the many-body nature of the interaction, going beyond the commonly used pairwise summation (PWS) of van der Waals forces. For arbitrary deformations we provide an analytical result for the deformation induced change in the Casimir energy, which is exact to second order in the deformation amplitude. For the specific case of sinusoidally corrugated plates, we calculate both the normal and the lateral Casimir forces. The deformation induced change in the Casimir interaction of a flat and a corrugated plate shows an interesting crossover as a function of the ratio of the mean plate distance H to the corrugation length {lambda}: For {lambda}<>H. The amplitude of the lateral force between two corrugated plates which are out of registry is shown to have a maximum at an optimal wavelength of {lambda}{approx_equal}2.5 H. With increasing H/{lambda} > or approx. 0.3 the PWS approach becomes a progressively worse description of the lateral force due to many-body effects. These results may be of relevance for the design and operation of novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other nanoscale devices.

  9. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  10. Gaussian Process Regression for Vessel Performance Monitoring Benjamin Pjedsted Pedersen, FORCE Technology, Copenhagen/Denmark, bpp@force.dk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on empirical methods and other available data as e.g. model tests. Two well-known and robust methodsGaussian Process Regression for Vessel Performance Monitoring Benjamin Pjedsted Pedersen, FORCE is tested with very different data quality, quantity and prediction horizon and shows that GPR is equally

  11. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindell, Drew; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Chin, Mian; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, Leon; Mahowald, N. M.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, Andrew; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, Xiaohong; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lo, Fiona

    2013-03-15

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models’ all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) ?0.26Wm?2; ?0.06 to ?0.49Wm?2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of ?0.42Wm?2; ?0.33 to ?0.50Wm?2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to ?58 %) to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is ?1.17Wm?2; ?0.71 to ?1.44Wm?2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF peaks in most models around 1980, declining thereafter with only weak sensitivity to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). One model, however, projects approximately stable RF levels, while two show increasingly negative RF due to nitrate (not included in most models). Aerosol ERF, in contrast, becomes more negative during 1980 to 2000. During this period, increased Asian emissions appear to have a larger impact on aerosol ERF than European and North American decreases due to their being upwind of the large, relatively pristine Pacific Ocean. There is no clear relationship between historical aerosol ERF and climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 subset of ACCMIP models. In the ACCMIP/CMIP5 models, historical aerosol ERF of about ?0.8 to ?1.5Wm?2 is most consistent with observed historical warming. Aerosol ERF masks a large portion of greenhouse forcing during the late 20th and early 21st century at the global scale. Regionally, aerosol ERF is so large that net forcing is negative over most industrialized and biomass burning regions through 1980, but remains strongly negative only over east and southeast Asia by 2000. Net forcing is strongly positive by 1980 over most deserts, the Arctic, Australia, and most tropical oceans. Both the magnitude of and area covered by positive forcing expand steadily thereafter.

  12. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

  13. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  14. The force on a body in active matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen Yan; John F. Brady

    2015-10-27

    We present a general theory for determining the force (and torque) exerted on a boundary (or body) in active matter. The theory extends the description of passive Brownian colloids to self-propelled active particles and applies for all ratios of the thermal energy $k_BT$ to the swimmer's activity $k_sT_s = \\zeta U_0^2\\tau_R/6$, where $\\zeta$ is the Stokes drag coefficient, $U_0$ is the swim speed and $\\tau_R$ is the reorientation time of the active particles. The theory has a natural microscopic length scale over which concentration and orientation distributions are confined near boundaries, but the microscopic length does not appear in the force. The swim pressure emerges naturally and dominates the behavior when the boundary size is large compared to the swimmer's run length $\\ell = U_0\\tau_R$. The theory is used to predict the motion of bodies of all sizes immersed in active matter.

  15. Mechanosensitive Channel Activation by Diffusio-Osmotic Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonthuis, Douwe Jan

    2014-01-01

    For ion channel gating, the appearance of two distinct conformational states and the discrete transitions between them is essential, and therefore of crucial importance to all living organisms. We show that the physical interplay between two structural elements that are commonly present in bacterial mechanosensitive channels, namely a charged vestibule and a hydrophobic constriction, creates two distinct conformational states, open and closed, as well as the gating between them. We solve the nonequilibrium Stokes-Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, extended to include a molecular potential of mean force, and show that a first order transition between the closed and open states arises naturally from the diffusio-osmotic stress caused by the ions and water inside the channel and the elastic restoring force from the membrane. Our proposed gating mechanism is likely to be important for a broad range of ion channels, as well as for biomimetic channels and ion channel-targeting therapeutics.

  16. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  17. Giant osmotic pressure in the forced wetting of hydrophobic nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millán Michelin-Jamois; Cyril Picard; Gérard Vigier; Elisabeth Charlaix

    2015-07-02

    The forced intrusion of water in hydrophobic nanoporous pulverulent material is of interest for quick storage of energy. With nanometric pores the energy storage capacity is controlled by interfacial phenomena. With subnanometric pores, we demonstrate that a breakdown occurs with the emergence of molecular exclusion as a leading contribution. This bulk exclusion effect leads to an osmotic contribution to the pressure that can reach levels never previously sustained. We illustrate on various electrolytes and different microporous materials, that a simple osmotic pressure law accounts quantitatively for the enhancement of the intrusion and extrusion pressures governing the forced wetting and spontaneous drying of the nanopores. Using electrolyte solutions, energy storage and power capacities can be widely enhanced.

  18. Sensitive magnetic force detection with a carbon nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willick, Kyle; Haapamaki, Chris; Baugh, Jonathan

    2014-03-21

    We propose a technique for sensitive magnetic point force detection using a suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator combined with a magnetic field gradient generated by a ferromagnetic gate electrode. Numerical calculations of the mechanical resonance frequency show that single Bohr magneton changes in the magnetic state of an individual magnetic molecule grafted to the CNT can translate to detectable frequency shifts, on the order of a few kHz. The dependences of the resonator response to device parameters such as length, tension, CNT diameter, and gate voltage are explored and optimal operating conditions are identified. A signal-to-noise analysis shows that, in principle, magnetic switching at the level of a single Bohr magneton can be read out in a single shot on timescales as short as 10??s. This force sensor should enable new studies of spin dynamics in isolated single molecule magnets, free from the crystalline or ensemble settings typically studied.

  19. Exploration of technologies of use to civil security forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnum, E.H.; Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Current civilian security may be enhanced by the use of flexible tile technology. This project explored the use of such materials in three areas: bomb disposal containers, portable armor, and protective vests. In particular, there has been no evaluation of the use of flexible tiles, functional graded ceramics, and ballistic modeling codes in developing improved systems. The state of the art in these three areas was reviewed and potential collaborators were contacted. Civil security forces, both state and Laboratory, were interviewed to determine issues and needs. From a collaboration established with the New Mexico State Police, the authors now know that the technology has the potential to increase protection without adding undue weight and will be usable by civilian police forces for some applications.

  20. Spin-Flavor van der Waals Forces and NN interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvaro Calle Cordon, Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    2011-12-01

    A major goal in Nuclear Physics is the derivation of the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In QCD the fundamental degrees of freedom are colored quarks and gluons which are confined to form colorless strongly interacting hadrons. Because of this the resulting nuclear forces at sufficiently large distances correspond to spin-flavor excitations, very much like the dipole excitations generating the van der Waals (vdW) forces acting between atoms. We study the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation at second order in perturbation theory including the Delta resonance as an intermediate state. The potential resembles strongly chiral potentials computed either via soliton models or chiral perturbation theory and has a van der Waals like singularity at short distances which is handled by means of renormalization techniques. Results for the deuteron are discussed.

  1. Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Emig, Thorsten [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Bat. 100, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Krueger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this nonequilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to ''dilution''. This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to submicron distances at realistic porosities.

  2. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Murphy, Bart L

    2014-05-20

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a first work-piece holding means for holding a first work-piece, the first work-piece holding means being disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla. The first work-piece holding means is further disposed in operable connection with a second work-piece holding means for holding a second work-piece so that, as the first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, the second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  3. Switched Dynamical Latent Force Models for Modelling Transcriptional Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Lopera, Andrés F

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop statistical approaches for transcription networks, statistical community has proposed several methods to infer activity levels of proteins, from time-series measurements of targets' expression levels. A few number of approaches have been proposed in order to outperform the representation of fast switching time instants, but computational overheads are significant due to complex inference algorithms. Using the theory related to latent force models (LFM), the development of this project provide a switched dynamical hybrid model based on Gaussian processes (GPs). To deal with discontinuities in dynamical systems (or latent driving force), an extension of the single input motif approach is introduced, that switches between different protein concentrations, and different dynamical systems. This creates a versatile representation for transcription networks that can capture discrete changes and non-linearities in the dynamics. The proposed method is evaluated on both simulated data and real data,...

  4. The Force of a Tsunami on a Wave Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on renewable energy resources, wave power technology is fast becoming a realistic solution. However, the recent tsunami in Japan was a harsh reminder of the ferocity of the ocean. It is known that tsunamis are nearly undetectable in the open ocean but as the wave approaches the shore its energy is compressed creating large destructive waves. The question posed here is whether a nearshore wave energy converter (WEC) could withstand the force of an incoming tsunami. The analytical 3D model of Renzi & Dias (2012) developed within the framework of a linear theory and applied to an array of fixed plates is used. The time derivative of the velocity potential allows the hydrodynamic force to be calculated.

  5. Temperature dependence of gravitational force:experiments, astrophysics, perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Dmitriev

    2006-11-17

    The consistency of the results of measuring the gravitational force temperature dependence obtained by Shaw and Davy in 1923 and by the author in 2003 was shown. Such dependence is observed in the laboratory experiments, it does not contradict the known facts of classical mechanics and agrees with astrophysics data. It was pointed out that experimental research into temperature influence on gravitation was needed and perspectives of developing that trend in gravitation physics was promising.

  6. Apparatus having reduced mechanical forces for supporting high magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of supporting extremely high magnetic fields suitable for plasma confinement, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements are significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by conventional techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

  7. Chiral nuclear dynamics with three-body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Holt; N. Kaiser; W. Weise

    2011-11-25

    We review recent progress in implementing high-precision chiral two- and three-body forces in nuclear many-body systems beyond light nuclei. We begin with applications to finite nuclei, which we study through the nuclear shell model and self-consistent mean field theory. We then turn our attention to infinite nuclear matter treated within the framework of Landau's theory of normal Fermi liquids.

  8. Four-nucleon force in chiral effective field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evgeny Epelbaum

    2005-10-25

    We derive the leading contribution to the four--nucleon force within the framework of chiral effective field theory. It is governed by the exchange of pions and the lowest--order nucleon--nucleon contact interaction and includes effects due to the nonlinear pion--nucleon couplings and the pion self interactions constrained by the chiral symmetry of QCD. The resulting 4NF does not contain any unknown parameters and can be tested in future few--and many--nucleon studies.

  9. Wave forces on monotower structures fitted with icebreaking cones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Michael Gerard

    1987-01-01

    with Various Icebreaking Cones Table 7. Increase in Damping Ratios Caused by the Addition of Icebreaking Cones 35 Table 8. Estimated Wave Forces on Deepwater Arctic Structures 37 Table 9. Estimated Structural Responses of Deepwater Arctic Structures 37... their search for oil and gas from the Arctic to the sub-Arctic regions, they will require new platform concepts to support exploration and drilling activities in these cold regions. The sub-Arctic areas are characterized by relatively thin first-year ice...

  10. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  11. Forced libration of tidally synchronized planets and moons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarov, Valeri V; Dorland, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Tidal dissipation of kinetic energy, when it is strong enough, tends to synchronize the rotation of planets and moons with the mean orbital motion, or drive it into long-term stable spin-orbit resonances. As the orbital motion undergoes periodic acceleration due to a finite orbital eccentricity, the spin rate oscillates around the equilibrium mean value too, giving rise to the forced, or eccentricity-driven, librations. Both the shape and amplitude of forced librations of synchronous viscoelastic planets and moons are defined by a combination of two different types of perturbative torque, the tidal torque and the triaxial torque. Consequently, forced librations can be tidally dominated (e.g., Io and possibly Titan) or deformation-dominated (e.g., the Moon) depending on a set of orbital, rheological, and other physical parameters. With small eccentricities, for the former kind, the largest term in the libration angle can be minus cosine of the mean anomaly, whereas for the latter kind, it is minus sine of the ...

  12. On the nonlocal properties of relativistic ponderomotive force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, Natsumi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    A theory of relativistic ponderomotive force of transversely localized laser fields is presented by taking into account the nonlocal effects that correspond to higher order terms of the expansion parameter ??l/L, i.e., the ratio between particle excursion length and scale length of the field amplitude gradient, while the existing local theory is the first order of ?. As a method for preserving the Hamiltonian structure up to higher orders, we employ the variational principle in noncanonical phase space coordinates incorporated with the Lie transformation. By finding noncanonical coordinates and gauges, we obtain a new formula for the ponderomotive force that involves new terms in the third order represented by the second and third spatial derivatives. The force then depends not only on the local field gradient but also on the curvature and its variation which represent the effects of higher-order nonlocal particle motion. The higher-order terms are found to be subject to the symmetry of the field structure. The obtained formula is accessible to the regime in which the higher derivatives of the field amplitude regulate the interaction. We have applied the formula to laser fields exhibiting flat-top super Gaussian and concave hollow transverse structures which are effective in maintaining the long time scale interaction. The associated nonlocal effects are found to play a key role in determining the interactions. Comparison with the direct integration of the particle orbit demonstrates the validity of the derived formula.

  13. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, ?-helices, and ?-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin wasmore »determined as a function of ?-helix and ?-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards ?-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly ?-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable dynamic pathways that facilitate the formation of aggregates and, eventually, amyloid fibrils.« less

  14. Health status and the labor force participation decisions of married couples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Peng

    2009-05-15

    This thesis examines the labor force participation decisions of married couples, and special attention is paid to a spouse’s health conditions affecting their own and the spouse’s labor force participation decision. I used ...

  15. Forced-convection surface-boiling heat transfer and burnout in tubes of small diameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1962-01-01

    A basic heat-transfer apparatus was designed and constructed for the study of forced-convection boiling in small channels. The various regions of forced-convection surface boiling were studied experimentally and analytically. ...

  16. Generating Light Curves from Forced PSF-fit Photometry on PTFIDE Difference-images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    1 Generating Light Curves from Forced PSF-fit Photometry on PTFIDE ancillary forced Aperture Photometry 6 ­ Other quality checks for PSF-fit photometry ­ Putting it all together: conversion to magnitudes 9 ­ AC­to­DC Photometry

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of a self-excited thermoacoustic system subjected to acoustic forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balusamy, Saravanan; Li, Larry K. B.; Han, Zhiyi; Juniper, Matthew P.; Hochgreb, Simone

    2014-06-25

    We experimentally study the nonlinear dynamics of a self-excited thermoacoustic system subjected to acoustic forcing. Our aim is to relate these dynamics to the behavior of universal model oscillators subjected to external forcing. The self...

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a self-excited thermoacoustic system subjected to acoustic forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balusamy, Saravanan; Li, Larry K.B.; Han, Zhiyi; Juniper, Matthew P.; Hochgreb, Simone

    2014-06-25

    We experimentally study the nonlinear dynamics of a self-excited thermoacoustic system subjected to acoustic forcing. Our aim is to relate these dynamics to the behavior of universal model oscillators subjected to external forcing. The self...

  19. Development and testing of an application specific force sensor for snowpack assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittemore, Samuel Tileston

    2014-01-01

    Snow penetrometers create a specific application for a force sensor with specifications that are over achieved at great cost when using traditional load cells. A moderately priced, compact force sensor suitable for this ...

  20. Blackout 2003: U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Resources Canada, released the Final Report of the U.S. -Canada Power System Outage Task Force. U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report on Blackout of August 2003...

  1. A Reactive Force Field study of Li/C Systems for Electrical Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Reactive Force Field study of LiC Systems for Electrical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Reactive Force Field study of LiC Systems for Electrical...

  2. Time domain characteristics of human force control in rejection of transient disturbances during movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maneri, Erin, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Many tasks that humans successfully complete are more naturally represented in terms of their force requirements than their state (position or velocity) requirements. Yet the literature on force and timing is relatively ...

  3. Solar Community Comes Out in Full Force for SunShot Grand Challenge...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Community Comes Out in Full Force for SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Solar Community Comes Out in Full Force for SunShot Grand Challenge Summit May 22, 2014 - 9:58am Addthis...

  4. New York Network Members Join Forces to Create Green Jobs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    York Network Members Join Forces to Create Green Jobs New York Network Members Join Forces to Create Green Jobs Photo of a group of five people standing, looking at the camera....

  5. Force Tracking With Feed-Forward Motion Estimation for Beating Heart Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Shelten G.

    The manipulation of fast-moving, delicate tissues in beating heart procedures presents a considerable challenge to the surgeon. A robotic force tracking system can assist the surgeon by applying precise contact forces to ...

  6. COCATS 4 task force 7: Training in cardiovascular computed tomographic imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    COCATS 4 Task Force 7:Training in Cardiovascular ComputedCOCATS 4 Task Force 7:Training in Cardiovascular ComputedA fellow with Level II training should demonstrate a clear

  7. Force-mediated adhesion strengthening in endothelial cells at adherens junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kris, Anita S

    2007-01-01

    Cells respond to the application of force with a variety of biochemical responses modulating their shape, structure, function, and proliferation. Two force-responsive links between the inside and outside of a cell are ...

  8. Analytical results on Casimir forces for conductors with edges and tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emig, Thorsten

    Casimir forces between conductors at the submicron scale are paramount to the design and operation of microelectromechanical devices. However, these forces depend nontrivially on geometry, and existing analytical formulae ...

  9. Electrostatic Force Microscopy Characterization of Trioctylphosphine Oxide Self-assembled Monolayers on Graphite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    orientation of SAMs. The invention of the scanning probe microscope (SPM)12,13 has provided scientists resolution by SPM. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM),16 a variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM),13 can

  10. Blackout 2003: U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report onBlackout of August 2003 Blackout 2003: U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report onBlackout of August 2003 August 14, 2003,...

  11. Biological interactions and hydro-climatic forcing of Atlantic menhaden stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    Biological interactions and hydro-climatic forcing of Atlantic menhaden stock recruitment NOAA and Chesapeake Bay Program in: ·· Evaluating roles of biological interactions and hydroEvaluating roles of biological interactions and hydro--climaticclimatic forcing onforcing on forage

  12. Experimental Study on the Demolding Force in Micro Metal Injection Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tor, Shu Beng

    In this paper experimental study on the demolding force needed to eject micro structures in Micro Metal Injection

  13. Electron Diamagnetic Effect on Axial Force in an Expanding Plasma: Experiments and Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Kazunori [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-12-02

    The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding current-free plasma is directly measured for three different experimental configurations and compared with a two-dimensional fluid theory. The force component solely resulting from the expanding field is directly measured and identified as an axial force produced by the azimuthal current due to an electron diamagnetic drift and the radial component of the magnetic field. The experimentally measured forces are well described by the theory.

  14. Development of a quartz tuning-fork-based force sensor for measurements in the tens of nanoNewton force range during nanomanipulation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oiko, V. T. A. Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D.; Martins, B. V. C.; Silva, P. C.

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the mechanical properties of nanoscale systems requires new experimental and theoretical tools. In particular, force sensors compatible with nanomechanical testing experiments and with sensitivity in the nN range are required. Here, we report the development and testing of a tuning-fork-based force sensor for in situ nanomanipulation experiments inside a scanning electron microscope. The sensor uses a very simple design for the electronics and it allows the direct and quantitative force measurement in the 1–100 nN force range. The sensor response is initially calibrated against a nN range force standard, as, for example, a calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy cantilever; subsequently, applied force values can be directly derived using only the electric signals generated by the tuning fork. Using a homemade nanomanipulator, the quantitative force sensor has been used to analyze the mechanical deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles, where we analyzed forces in the 5–40 nN range, measured with an error bar of a few nN.

  15. Identification of Rational Functions using two-degree-of-freedom model by forced vibration method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Identification of Rational Functions using two-degree-of-freedom model by forced vibration method Functions Self-excited forces Two-degree-of-freedom model Forced vibration method Streamlined section model the Rational Functions from wind tunnel section model tests in free vibration. To overcome the limitations

  16. Lost at Sea: Hurricane Force Wind Fields and the North Pacific Ocean Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Businger, Steven

    Lost at Sea: Hurricane Force Wind Fields and the North Pacific Ocean Environment 1 Steven Businger and Selen Yildiz SOEST at University of Hawaii at Manoa This research is supported by ONR Lost at Sea: Hurricane Force Wind Fields and the North Pacific Ocean Environment 2 Hurricane Force (HF) Wind Fields

  17. USING CORIOLIS FORCE TO FACILITATE MOLECULAR TRANSPORTATION AND FLUID MIXING IN CD MICROFLUIDICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    e. USING CORIOLIS FORCE TO FACILITATE MOLECULAR TRANSPORTATION AND FLUID MIXING IN CD MICROFLUIDICS Coriolis Force to Facilitate Molecular Transportation and Fluid Mixing in CD Microfluidics Platform and Fluid mixing in compact disk (CD) microfluidic platform where centrifugal force is used as the driving

  18. 1. The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    on the path taken by the particle. 2. The net work done by a conservative force on a particle moving around rest on a hill side. The steeper the hill, the larger the net force on the ball. (a) 1. Left of center, near the dark red lines. 2. Right of center, near the dark blue lines. 3. The force has the same

  19. ACM TASK FORCE ON LICENSING OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS WORKING ON SAFETY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACM TASK FORCE ON LICENSING OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS WORKING ON SAFETY- CRITICAL SOFTWARE Draft Report Princeton University © 2000 Nancy Leveson and John Knight, all rights reserved. #12;ACM Task Force 1 ACM TASK FORCE ON LICENSING OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS WORKING ON SAFETY-CRITICAL SOFTWARE BACKGROUND

  20. The impulse response of a high-speed jet forced with localized arc filament plasma actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colonius, Tim

    The impulse response of a high-speed jet forced with localized arc filament plasma actuators arc filament plasma actuators Aniruddha Sinha,1 Hind Alkandry,2 Martin Kearney-Fischer,3 Mo Samimy,2,a to impulsive forcing with arc-filament-plasma actuators. The impulse response is obtained with forcing Strouhal

  1. Korteweg-de Vries equation with a forcing term Solitary waves of the Kawahara equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Korteweg-de Vries equation with a forcing term Solitary waves of the Kawahara equation Conclusion;Korteweg-de Vries equation with a forcing term Solitary waves of the Kawahara equation Conclusion Overview 1 Korteweg-de Vries equation with a forcing term Model Stationary solutions Stability 2 Solitary

  2. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces A.Y.M. Lin d,*, R reserved. Keywords: Abalone foot; Underwater adhesion; Van der Waals forces 1. Introduction Numerous and capillary forces gen- erated by nanoscaled fibrils on their feet [1­4]. Addition- ally, similar adhesive

  3. Physics/Mathematics double degree BSc project: Adhesive Force of Droplets with Increasingly Realistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Physics/Mathematics double degree BSc project: Adhesive Force of Droplets with Increasingly to predict how the adhesive force depends on the droplet properties. What is this project about? In this project you theoretically and numerically investigate how the adhesive force depends on two key parameters

  4. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  5. Proton-proton scattering without Coulomb force renormalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Skibinski; J. Golak; H. Witala; W. Glockle

    2009-03-06

    We demonstrate numerically that proton-proton (pp) scattering observables can be determined directly by standard short range methods using a screened pp Coulomb force without renormalization. In examples the appropriate screening radii are given. We also numerically investigate solutions of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for a screened Coulomb potential alone in the limit of large screening radii and confirm analytically predicted properties for off-shell, half-shell and on-shell Coulomb t-matrices. These 3-dimensional solutions will form a basis for a novel approach to include the pp Coulomb interaction into the 3N Faddeev framework.

  6. A forced baroclinic vortex around a hydorthermal plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speer, K.G. (Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer, Brest (France))

    1989-05-01

    A steady, frictional flow around a hydrothermal plume is described which is forced by the entrainment of water into the buoyant part of the plume as it rises above its source. The circulation is anticyclonic (clockwise in the northern hemisphere) near the equilibrium density level or spreading level of plume, and cyclonic below this level. The strength of this flow line is adequate to trap anomalous properties from the hydrothermal fluid near the source in the presence of weak background flow. Some observational support for such a flow is presented.

  7. Protein folding: A complex potential for the driving force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-01-01

    Using the Helmholtz decomposition of the vector field of folding fluxes in a reduced space of collective variables, a potential of the driving force for protein folding is determined. The potential has two components and can be written as a complex function. One component is responsible for the source and sink of the folding flows (representing, respectively, the unfolded states and the native state of the protein), and the other accounts for the vorticity of the flow that is produced at the boundaries of the main flow by the contact of the moving folding "fluid" with the quiescent surroundings. The theoretical consideration is illustrated by calculations for a model $\\beta$-hairpin protein.

  8. Notes 14. Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    . IDENTIFICATION OF BEARING FORCE COEFFICIENTS. ? Dr. Luis San Andr?s (2009) 13 Next, the Instrumental Variable Filter (IVF) method of Fritzen (1985), an extension of a least-squares estimation method, is used to simultaneously curve fit all four transfer... contains the stack of measured flexibility functions (at discrete frequencies ? k=1,2?,n ). Eq. (17) is an over determined set of equations, i.e. there are more equations than unknowns. Hence, its solution by least-squares aims to minimize the Euclidean...

  9. A Master equation for force distributions in polydisperse frictional particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyasu Saitoh; Vanessa Magnanimo; Stefan Luding

    2015-05-28

    An incremental evolution equation, i.e. a Master equation in statistical mechanics, is introduced for force distributions in polydisperse frictional particle packings. As basic ingredients of the Master equation, the conditional probability distributions of particle overlaps are determined by molecular dynamics simulations. Interestingly, tails of the distributions become much narrower in the case of frictional particles than frictionless particles, implying that correlations of overlaps are strongly reduced by microscopic friction. Comparing different size distributions, we find that the tails are wider for the wider distribution.

  10. Thinking anew causality problems for the radiation reaction force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we analyze a Lagrangian formalism recently proposed to approach the issue of the Abraham-Lorentz force. Instead of involving only position and velocity, as usual in Classical Mechanics, this Lagrangian involves the acceleration of the charge. We find the conserved momentum of the charge in the absence of any field and show that it contains an acceleration term. This enables us to re-visit the well-known pre-acceleration problem and show that, contrary to what has been widely believed, it is not related to any violation of causality.

  11. Thinking anew causality problems for the radiation reaction force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinaldo de Melo e Souza; J. A. Helayël Neto

    2015-04-18

    In this work, we analyze a Lagrangian formalism recently proposed to approach the issue of the Abraham-Lorentz force. Instead of involving only position and velocity, as usual in Classical Mechanics, this Lagrangian involves the acceleration of the charge. We find the conserved momentum of the charge in the absence of any field and show that it contains an acceleration term. This enables us to re-visit the well-known pre-acceleration problem and show that, contrary to what has been widely believed, it is not related to any violation of causality.

  12. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  13. CP violation and gravity as the weakest force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archil Kobakhidze

    2008-07-03

    We argue that CP violation has rather dramatic impact on the "gravity as the weakest force" conjecture. Namely we find that new ultraviolet scale must be $\\Lambda \\lesssim \\theta g^3 M_P$, where $\\theta$ is an effective parameter describing CP violation and $g$ is the gauge coupling constant. The bound implies that CP-conserving limit is discontinuous, and possibly indicates that the class of effective theories with strict CP conservation is inconsistent with a fundamental theory incorporating quantum gravity. At the same time, the mass hierarchy problem can be explained due to the smallness of the CP violation, $\\theta \\sim 10^{-15}$ or so.

  14. Hydropower Vision Task Force Charter | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,SecurityHome solarEnergyHughfuelRSSVision Task Force

  15. Nuclear Forces from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Martin J. Savage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer under pressure |CafésNuclear ExecutiveForces from

  16. ARM - PI Product - SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged andProductsSCM Forcing Data

  17. Single Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  18. Report of the Hubs+ Task Force | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  19. FORCE RECONSTRUCTION USING THE SUM OF WEIGHTED ACCELERATIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Projecti FORCE

  20. Casimir Forces On A Silicon Micromechanical Chip (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  1. September 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES Pursuant to theDepartmentWork Force Retention Work Group

  2. Design and characterization of a low cost dual differential proving ring force sensor utilizing Hall-effect sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Christopher W. (Christopher Warren)

    2006-01-01

    A novel dual differential hall-effect based proving ring force sensor has been designed, manufactured, and tested. Strain gauge based force sensors are among the most common methods of measuring static and dynamic forces, ...

  3. Forces due to waves in the presence of currents on a submerged model structure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, David Ray

    1985-01-01

    /sec . 11. Dimensionless Horizontal Force vs Dimensionless Wave 41 44 49 60 61 Number for h/a = 4. 03 and U = 7. 62 cm/sec 63 12. Dimensionless Horizontal Force vs Dimensionless Wave Number for h/a = 4. 03 and U = 15. 24 cm/sec. 13. Dimensionless... Horizontal Force vs Dimensionless Wave Number for h/a = 4. 03 and U = 19. 81 cm/sec. 65 14. Dimensionless Horizontal Force vs Relative Size Parameter for h/a = 4. 03 and U 7. 62 cm/sec. 15. Dimensionless Horizontal Force vs Relative Size Parameter for h...

  4. Arbitrary axisymmetric steady streaming: Flow, force and propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spelman, Tamsin A

    2015-01-01

    A well-developed method to induce mixing on microscopic scales is to exploit flows generated by steady streaming. Steady streaming is a classical fluid dynamics phenomenon whereby a time-periodic forcing in the bulk or along a boundary is enhanced by inertia to induce a non-zero net flow. Building on classical work for simple geometrical forcing and motivated by the complex shape oscillations of elastic capsules and bubbles, we develop the mathematical framework to quantify the steady streaming of a spherical body with arbitrary axisymmetric time-periodic boundary conditions. We compute the flow asymptotically for small-amplitude oscillations of the boundary in the limit where the viscous penetration length scale is much smaller than the body. In that case, the flow has a boundary layer structure and the fluid motion is solved by asymptotic matching. Our results, presented in the case of no-slip boundary conditions and extended to include the motion of vibrating free surfaces, recovers classical work as parti...

  5. Feedback control of inertial microfluidics using axial control forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Prohm; Holger Stark

    2014-02-03

    Inertial microfluidics is a promising tool for many lab-on-a-chip applications. Particles in channel flows with Reynolds numbers above one undergo cross-streamline migration to a discrete set of equilibrium positions in square and rectangular channel cross sections. This effect has been used extensively for particle sorting and the analysis of particle properties. Using the lattice Boltzmann method, we determine equilibrium positions in square and rectangular cross sections and classify their types of stability for different Reynolds numbers, particle sizes, and channel aspect ratios. Our findings thereby help to design microfluidic channels for particle sorting. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an axial control force, which slows down the particles, shifts the stable equilibrium position towards the channel center. Ultimately, the particles then stay on the centerline for forces exceeding a threshold value. This effect is sensitive to particle size and channel Reynolds number and therefore suggests an efficient method for particle separation. In combination with a hysteretic feedback scheme, we can even increase particle throughput.

  6. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  7. Motor driven microtubule shape fluctuations - force from within the lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herve Mohrbach; Igor M. Kulic

    2007-04-15

    We develop a general theory of microtubule (MT) deformations by molecular motors generating internal force doublets within the MT lattice. We describe two basic internal excitations, the S and V shape, and compare them with experimental observations from literature. We explain the special role of tubulin vacancies and the dramatic deformation amplifying effect observed for katanin acting at positions of defects. Experimentally observed shapes are used to determine the ratio of MT shear and stretch moduli ($\\approx 6\\times10^{-5}$) and to estimate the forces induced in the MT lattice by katanin (10's of pN). For many motors acting on a single MT we derive expressions for the end-to-end distance reduction and provide criteria for dominance of this new effect over thermal fluctuations. We conclude that molecular motors if acting cooperatively can ''animate'' MTs from within the lattice and induce slack even without cross-bridging to other structures, a scenario very much reminiscent of the motor driven axoneme.

  8. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  9. Constraints on New Gravitylike Forces in the Nanometer Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamiya, Y; Tani, M; Kim, G N; Komamiya, S

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new constraint on gravitylike short-range forces, in which the interaction charge is mass, obtained by measuring the angular distribution of 5 A neutrons scattering off atomic xenon gas. Around 10^7 scattering events were collected at the 40 m small angle neutron scattering beam line located at the HANARO research reactor of the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute. The extracted coupling strengths of new forces in the Yukawa-type parametrization are g^2 = (0.2 \\pm 6.8 \\pm 2.0) \\times 10^-15 GeV^2 and g^2 = (-5.3 \\pm 9.0 + 2.7 -2.8) \\times 10^-17 GeV^2 for interaction ranges of 0.1 and 1.0 nm, respectively. These strengths correspond to 95% confidence level limits of g^2 < (1.4 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^-14 GeV^-2 and g^2 < (1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^-16 GeV^-2, improving the current limits for interaction ranges between 4 and 0.04 nm by a factor of up to 10.

  10. Constraints on New Gravitylike Forces in the Nanometer Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Kamiya; K. Itagami; M. Tani; G. N. Kim; S. Komamiya

    2015-04-09

    We report on a new constraint on gravitylike short-range forces, in which the interaction charge is mass, obtained by measuring the angular distribution of 5 A neutrons scattering off atomic xenon gas. Around 10^7 scattering events were collected at the 40 m small angle neutron scattering beam line located at the HANARO research reactor of the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute. The extracted coupling strengths of new forces in the Yukawa-type parametrization are g^2 = (0.2 \\pm 6.8 \\pm 2.0) \\times 10^-15 GeV^2 and g^2 = (-5.3 \\pm 9.0 + 2.7 -2.8) \\times 10^-17 GeV^2 for interaction ranges of 0.1 and 1.0 nm, respectively. These strengths correspond to 95% confidence level limits of g^2 < (1.4 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^-14 GeV^-2 and g^2 < (1.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^-16 GeV^-2, improving the current limits for interaction ranges between 4 and 0.04 nm by a factor of up to 10.

  11. Accounting for electronic polarization in nonpolarizable force fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leontyev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The issues of electronic polarizability in molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. We argue that the charges of ionized groups in proteins, and charges of ions in conventional non-polarizable force fields such as CHARMM, AMBER, GROMOS, etc should be scaled by a factor about 0.7. Our model explains why a neglect of electronic solvation energy, which typically amounts to about a half of total solvation energy, in non-polarizable simulations with un-scaled charges can produce a correct result; however, the correct solvation energy of ions does not guarantee the correctness of ion-ion pair interactions in many non-polarizable simulations. The inclusion of electronic screening for charged moieties is shown to result in significant changes in protein dynamics and can give rise to new qualitative results compared with the traditional non-polarizable force field simulations. The model also explains the striking difference between the value of water dipole $\\mu$~3D reported in recent ab initio and experimental s...

  12. Centrifugal force reversal from the perspective of rigidly rotating observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgi Dalakishvili

    2011-12-26

    In previous studies the dynamics of the relativistic particle moving along the rotating pipe was investigated. The simple gedanken experiment was considered. It was shown that at large enough velocities a centrifugal force acting on the bead changes its usual sign and attracts towards the rotation axis. The authors studied motion of the particle along the rotating straight pipe in the frame of the observer located in the center of rotation, also dynamics of centrifugally accelerated relativistic particle was studied in the laboratory frame. In the both cases it was shown that centrifugal force changes sign. Recently the problem was studied in the frame of stationary observers. It was argued that centrifugal acceleration reversal is not frame invariant effect. In the present paper we consider motion of particle along the rotating straight line in the frame of an arbitrary stationary observer located at certain distance form the center of rotation and rigidly rotating with constant angular velocity. It is shown that any stationary observer could detect reversal of centrifugal acceleration.

  13. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWall, Kevin George (Pocatello, ID); Garcia, Humberto Enrique (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael George (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  14. Forced Vibration Testing of a Four-Story Reinforced Concrete Building Utilizing the nees@UCLA Mobile Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Eunjong; Skolnik, Derek; Whang, Daniel H.; Wallace, John W.

    2008-01-01

    J. B. , 1972. Forced vibration of a tall steel- framebetween ambient and forced vibration experiments, Earth-systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A

  15. Laboratory measurement verification of laser hazard analysis for miles weapon simulators used in force on force exercises.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the change in the batteries used with the Small Arm Laser Transmitters (SALT) from 3-volts dc to 3.6-volts dc and changes to SNL MILES operating conditions, the associated laser hazards of these units required re-evaluation to ensure that the hazard classification of the laser emitters had not changed as well. The output laser emissions of the SNL MILES, weapon simulators and empire guns, used in Force-On-Force (FOF) training exercises, was measured in accordance to the ANSI Standard Z136.4-2005, ''Recommended Practice for Laser Safety Measurements for Hazard Evaluation''. The laser hazard class was evaluated in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, ''Safe Use of Lasers'', using ''worst'' case conditions associated with these MILES units. Laser safety assessment was conducted in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2005, ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The laser hazard evaluation of these MILES laser emitters was compared to and supersedes SAND Report SAND2002-0246, ''Laser Safety Evaluation of the MILES and Mini MILES Laser Emitting Components'', which used ''actual'' operating conditions of the laser emitters at the time of its issuance.

  16. Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2012-07-25

    A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

  17. First observations of Y(1S)->gamma pi(+)pi(-) and Y(1S)->gamma pi(0)pi(0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Darling, C.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhou, L.

    1999-01-01

    structure, the excess in the charged dipion mode is ap- parent in the region m p 1 p 2 ? 1.0 1.4 GeV. The most prominent resonance in this mass range observed in radia- tive Jyc decays is the f 2 s1270d [1], for which BfJyc ! gf 2 s1270dg ? s1.38 6 0.14d 3... 10 23 . If we assume that the excess in this interval is due to Ys1Sd ! gf 2 s1270d, and neglecting any possible interference effects with other processes producing the gp 1 p 2 final state, we can perform a fit to the background-subtracted on...

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of methane hydrate using polarizable force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, H.N.; Jordan, K.D.; Taylor, C.E.

    2007-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of methane hydrate have been carried out using the AMOEBA and COS/G2 polarizable force fields. Properties examined include the temperature dependence of the lattice constant, the OC and OO radial distribution functions and the vibrational spectra. Both the AMOEBA and COS/G2 models are found to successfully account for the available experimental data, with overall slightly better agreement with experiment being found for the AMOEBA model. Several properties calculated using the AMOEBA and COS/G2 models differ appreciable from the corresponding results obtained previously using the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. This appears to be due to the inadequacy of the treatment of polarization, especially, the restriction of polarization to in-plane only, in the TIP4P-FQ model.

  19. Capillary suspensions: Particle networks formed through the capillary force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erin Koos

    2014-11-18

    The addition of small amounts of a secondary fluid to a suspension can, through the attractive capillary force, lead to particle bridging and network formation. The capillary bridging phenomenon can be used to stabilize particle suspensions and precisely tune their rheological properties. This effect can even occur when the secondary fluid wets the particles less well than the bulk fluid. These materials, so-called capillary suspensions, have been the subject of recent research studying the mechanism for network formation, the properties of these suspensions, and how the material properties can be modified. Recent work in colloidal clusters is summarized and the relationship to capillary suspensions is discussed. Capillary suspensions can also be used as a pathway for new material design and some of these applications are highlighted. Results obtained to date are summarized and central questions that remain to be answered are proposed in this review.

  20. The centrifugal force reversal and X-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Abramowicz; W. Kluzniak; J. -P. Lasota

    2001-06-15

    Heyl (2000) made an interesting suggestion that the observed shifts in QPO frequency in type I X-ray bursts could be influenced by the same geometrical effect of strong gravity as the one that causes centrifugal force reversal discovered by Abramowicz and Lasota (1974). However, his main result contains a sign error. Here we derive the correct formula and conclude that constraints on the M(R) relation for neutron stars deduced from the rotational-modulation model of QPO frequency shifts are of no practical interest because the correct formula implies a weak condition R* > 1.3 Rs, where Rs is the Schwarzschild radius. We also argue against the relevance of the rotational-modulation model to the observed frequency modulations.

  1. Annual training manual for security training: Protective force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Westinghouse is committed to high quality training relevant to the need of the Protective Forces at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The training programs at WIPP are designed to qualify Security personnel to perform WIPP security missions in a professional and responsible manner. The program consists of basic as well as sustainment training, as further described in this plan. This plan documents the WIPP Security training program for security personnel for calendar year 1990. The programs detailed in this plan are designed to adequately train persons to ensure the uninterrupted continuity of Department of Energy (DOE)/Westinghouse operations. The Security Training Program consists of four basic elements. These elements are (1) basic level training; (2) on-the-job training; (3) refresher training; and (4) in-service training.

  2. Technology requirements for high-power Lithium Lorentz Force accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J.; Frisbee, R.; Krauthamer, S.; Tikhonov, V.; Semenikhin, S.; Kim, V.

    1997-01-01

    Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LFA{close_quote}s) are capable of processing very high power levels and are therefore applicable to a wide range of challenging missions. An analysis of a reusable orbit transfer vehicle with a solar or nuclear electric power source was performed to assess the applicability of high-power LFA{close_quote}s to this mission and to define engine performance and lifetime goals to help guide the technology development program. For this class of missions, the emphasis must be on achieving high efficiency at an Isp of 4000{endash}5000 s at power levels of 200{endash}250 kWe. The engines must demonstrate very reliable operation for a service life of about 3000 hours. These goals appear to be achievable with engine technologies currently under development. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. An Electromotive Force Measurement System for Alloy Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changhu Xing; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban; Robert Mariani; J. Rory Kennedy

    2010-11-01

    The development of advanced nuclear fuels requires a better understanding of the transmutation and micro-structural evolution of the materials. Alloy fuels have the advantage of high thermal conductivity and improved characteristics in fuel-cladding chemical reaction. However, information on thermodynamic and thermophysical properties is limited. The objective of this project is to design and build an experimental system to measure the thermodynamic properties of solid materials from which the understanding of their phase change can be determined. The apparatus was used to measure the electromotive force (EMF) of several materials in order to calibrate and test the system. The EMF of chromel was measured from 100°C to 800°C and compared with theoretical values. Additionally, the EMF measurement of Ni-Fe alloy was performed and compared with the Ni-Fe phase diagram. The prototype system is to be modified eventually and used in a radioactive hot-cell in the future.

  4. 21st century change in ocean response to climate forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mar?elja, Stjepan

    2015-01-01

    Modeling globally averaged information on climate forcing from the land surface temperature data, the sea surface temperatures (SST) and the empirically determined relationship between the changes in SST and the turbulent diffusion of heat into the upper ocean demonstrates a consistent link. The modeling is accurate throughout the 20th century despite the different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) or the strong divergence between land and ocean surface warming. It only fails during the last 15 years when SST drops well below the trend. The finding reinforces the view that slower global warming over the previous 15 years is not a caused by a negative phase of the IPO or by the variations in the upper ocean (top 700 m) warming but results from a change in the ocean behavior leading to increased heat transfer into the deeper ocean.

  5. Lieb-Liniger gas in a constant-force potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jukic, D.; Galic, S.; Buljan, H.; Pezer, R.

    2010-08-15

    We use Gaudin's Fermi-Bose mapping operator to calculate exact solutions for the Lieb-Liniger model in a linear (constant-force) potential (the constructed exact stationary solutions are referred to as the Lieb-Liniger-Airy wave functions). The ground-state properties of the gas in the wedgelike trapping potential are calculated in the strongly interacting regime by using Girardeau's Fermi-Bose mapping and the pseudopotential approach in the 1/c approximation (c denotes the strength of the interaction). We point out that quantum dynamics of Lieb-Liniger wave packets in the linear potential can be calculated by employing an N-dimensional Fourier transform as in the case of free expansion.

  6. Layering Transitions and Solvation Forces in an Asymmetrically Confined Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria C. Stewart; Robert Evans

    2014-08-29

    We consider a simple fluid confined between two parallel walls (substrates), separated by a distance L. The walls exert competing surface fields so that one wall is attractive and may be completely wet by liquid (it is solvophilic) while the other is solvophobic. Such asymmetric confinement is sometimes termed a `Janus Interface'. The second wall is: (i) purely repulsive and therefore completely dry (contact angle 180 degrees) or (ii) weakly attractive and partially dry (the contact angle is typically in the range 160-170 degrees). At low temperatures, but above the bulk triple point, we find using classical density functional theory (DFT) that the fluid is highly structured in the liquid part of the density profile. In case (i) a sequence of layering transitions occurs: as L is increased at fixed chemical potential (mu) close to bulk gas--liquid coexistence, new layers of liquid-like density develop discontinuously. In contrast to confinement between identical walls, the solvation force is repulsive for all wall separations and jumps discontinuously at each layering transition and the excess grand potential exhibits many metastable minima as a function of the adsorption. For a fixed temperature T=0.56Tc, where Tc is the bulk critical temperature, we determine the transition lines in the L, mu plane. In case (ii) we do not find layering transitions and the solvation force oscillates about zero. We discuss how our mean-field DFT results might be altered by including effects of fluctuations and comment on how the phenomenology we have revealed might be relevant for experimental and simulation studies of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, emphasizing it is important to distinguish between cases (i) and (ii).

  7. Sufficient conditions for the additivity of stall forces generated by multiple filaments or motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tripti Bameta; Dipjyoti Das; Dibyendu Das; Ranjith Padinhateeri; Mandar M. Inamdar

    2015-03-23

    Molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments mostly work collectively under opposing forces. This opposing force may be due to cargo carried by motors, or resistance coming from cell membrane pressing against the cytoskeletal filaments. Certain recent studies have shown that the collective maximum force (stall force) generated by multiple cytoskeletal filaments or molecular motors may not always be just a simple sum of stall force for individual filaments or motors. To understand this phenomena of excess or deficit collective force generation, we study a broad class of models of both cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. We argue that the stall force generated by a group of filaments or motors is additive, i.e., the stall force of N filaments(motors) is N times the stall force of one filament (motor), when the system is in equilibrium at stall. Consequently, we show that this additivity typically does not hold when the system departs from equilibrium at stall. We thus present a novel and unified understanding of existing models exhibiting such non- addivity, and generalize our arguments by developing new models that demonstrate this phenomena. We also propose a quantity similar to thermodynamic efficiency to provide a simple understanding of deviation from stall-force additivity for filament and motor collectives.

  8. he goal of this article is to discuss the implementation of two coopera-tive protocols--decode-and-forward (DF) and estimate-and-forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erkip, Elza

    as a bit-pipe that conveys information reliably from one node to the next. Such a communication model the upper and achievable bounds [2]­[4]. A prominent work that helped to draw attention to user support a single antenna. With mul- tiple antennas, it is possible to send multiple copies of the same sig

  9. Giant Transverse Optical Forces in Nanoscale Slot Waveguides of Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yingran; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that giant transverse optical forces can be generated in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials, with more than two orders of magnitude stronger compared to the force created in conventional silicon slot waveguides, due to the nanoscale optical field enhancement and the extreme optical energy compression within the air slot region. Both numerical simulation and analytical treatment are carried out to study the dependence of the optical forces on the waveguide geometries and the metamaterial permittivity tensors, including the attractive optical forces for the symmetric modes and the repulsive optical forces for the anti-symmetric modes. The significantly enhanced transverse optical forces result from the strong optical mode coupling strength between two metamaterial waveguides, which can be explained with an explicit relation derived from the coupled mode theory. Moreover, the calculation on realistic metal-dielectric multilayer structures indicates that the predicted giant ...

  10. The parallel approach to force/position control of robotic manipulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.

    1993-08-01

    Force/position control strategies provide an effective framework to deal with tasks involving interaction with the environment. In this paper the parallel approach to force/position control of robotic manipulators is presented. It allows a complete use of the available sensor measurements by operating the control action in a full-dimensional space without using selection matrices. Conflicting situations between the position and force tasks are managed using a priority strategy: the force control loop is designed to prevail over the position control loop. This choice ensures limited deviations from the prescribed force trajectory in every situation, guaranteeing automatic recovery from unplanned collisions. A dynamic force/position parallel control law is presented and its performance in presence of an elastic environment is analyzed; simplification of the dynamic control law is also discussed leading to a PID-type parallel controller. Two case studies are worked out that show the effectiveness of the approach in application to an industrial robot.

  11. Axial force imparted by a current-free magnetically expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Kazunori [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding, current-free, radiofrequency plasma is directly measured. For an argon gas flow rate of 25 sccm and an effective rf input power of {approx}800W, a maximum force of {approx}6mN is obtained; {approx}3mN of which is transmitted via the expanding magnetic field. The measured forces are reasonably compared with a simple fluid model associated with the measured electron pressure. The model suggests that the total force is the sum of an electron pressure inside the source and a Lorentz force due to the electron diamagnetic drift current and the applied radial magnetic field. It is shown that the Lorentz force is greatest near the magnetic nozzle surface where the radial pressure gradient is largest.

  12. Bulk-Flow analysis for force and moment coefficients of a shrouded centrifugal compressor impeller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar

    2005-08-29

    and moments. The integral equations and the corresponding definitions for obtaining the reaction forces and moments are given in Childs? [8]. Rotordynamic coefficients are obtained by carrying out a least- square curve fit for the reaction forces and moments... ??????? 58 13 Damped eigenvalues with Wachel?s model????????????? 60 14 Damped eigenvalues with radially outward leakage on the back shroud for complete force and mo ment model????????????????. 63 15 Damped eigenvalues with radially inward...

  13. Study of dynamic effects in microparticle adhesion using Atomic force microscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaushik, Anshul

    2005-02-17

    and Atomic force Microscope etc. Some of them are described below. 9 JKR apparatus for force measurements in contact mechanics (20): This apparatus is used to measure the adhesion force between a particle and a surface in contact. The apparatus... computer to get commands and send displacement information measured by a displacement sensor. This apparatus can be sealed in a thermal and humidity control chamber. The contact diameter between the samples is measured by a camera placed on top...

  14. Marx's Thesis that the Forces of Production Determine the Relations of Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tollefson, Erik

    's Thesis that the Forces of Production Determine the Relations of Production ERIK TOLLEFSON University of Kansas A perennial objection against historical materi­ alism is that that which is determined seems capable of becoming independent....e. the forces of production, the relations of production, and the superstructure), rather than the usual two (i.e. the economic base and its superstructure). Distinguishing the forces of pro­ duction from relations of production is advantageous...

  15. Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces - principles | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier...

  16. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    wakefield for an electron beam. The same method can alsowakefields inside an electron beam using a modified densitywakefield forces in an electron beam Ji Qiang, Chad

  17. Connection between a possible fifth force and the direct detection of Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo Bovy; Glennys R. Farrar

    2008-08-12

    If there is a fifth force in the dark sector and dark sector particles interact non-gravitationally with ordinary matter, quantum corrections generically lead to a fifth force in the visible sector. We show how the strong experimental limits on fifth forces in the visible sector constrain the direct detection cross section, and the strength of the fifth force in the dark sector. If the latter is comparable to gravity, the spin-independent direct detection cross section must typically be <~ 10^{-55} cm^2. The anomalous acceleration of ordinary matter falling towards dark matter is also constrained: \\eta_{OM-DM} <~ 10^{-8}.

  18. Extraction of Force-Chain Network Architecture in Granular Materials Using Community Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danielle S. Bassett; Eli T. Owens; Mason A. Porter; M. Lisa Manning; Karen E. Daniels

    2015-04-23

    Force chains form heterogeneous physical structures that can constrain the mechanical stability and acoustic transmission of granular media. However, despite their relevance for predicting bulk properties of materials, there is no agreement on a quantitative description of force chains. Consequently, it is difficult to compare the force-chain structures in different materials or experimental conditions. To address this challenge, we treat granular materials as spatially-embedded networks in which the nodes (particles) are connected by weighted edges that represent contact forces. We use techniques from community detection, which is a type of clustering, to find sets of closely connected particles. By using a geographical null model that is constrained by the particles' contact network, we extract chain-like structures that are reminiscent of force chains. We propose three diagnostics to measure these chain-like structures, and we demonstrate the utility of these diagnostics for identifying and characterizing classes of force-chain network architectures in various materials. To illustrate our methods, we describe how force-chain architecture depends on pressure for two very different types of packings: (1) ones derived from laboratory experiments and (2) ones derived from idealized, numerically-generated frictionless packings. By resolving individual force chains, we quantify statistical properties of force-chain shape and strength, which are potentially crucial diagnostics of bulk properties (including material stability). These methods facilitate quantitative comparisons between different particulate systems, regardless of whether they are measured experimentally or numerically.

  19. WAPD-TM-1349 DOE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT FORCES IN BOLTED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT FORCES IN BOLTED JOINTS : ANALYSIS METHODS AND TEST RESULTS" UTILIZED FOR NUCLEAR- CORE APPLICATIONS (LWBR Devel

  20. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Stutz, Jordan H; Cunningham, Mark; Geraci, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.