Sample records for radar drop tests

  1. NNSA Completes its Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test for...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    its Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test for the W88 ALT 370 | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  2. Frictionally induced ignition processes in drop and skid tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Novak, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard LANL/Pantex drop and skid tests rely on subjective assessment of reaction violence to quantify the response of the charge, and completely miss nonpropagating hot-spot ignition sites. Additionally, large variations in test results have been observed, which we propose is due to a misunderstanding of the basic physical processes that lead to threshold ignition in these tests. The tests have been redesigned to provide control of these mechanisms and to permit direct observation of hot spots at the impact site, allowing us to follow the progression of the outcome as the drop height and ignition source density are varied. The results confirm that frictional interactions between high-melting-point solids are the dominant ignition mechanism, not just at the threshold, but in fact at all realistic drop heights.

  3. Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafner, R S; Mok, G C; Hagler, L G

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) contracted with the Packaging Review Group (PRG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a single, 30-ft shallow-angle drop test on the Combustion Engineering ABB-2901 drum-type shipping package. The purpose of the test was to determine if bolted-ring drum closures could fail during shallow-angle drops. The PRG at LLNL planned the test, and Defense Technologies Engineering Division (DTED) personnel from LLNL's Site-300 Test Group executed the plan. The test was conducted in November 2001 using the drop-tower facility at LLNL's Site 300. Two representatives from Westinghouse Electric Company in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-SC); two USNRC staff members; and three PRG members from LLNL witnessed the preliminary test runs and the final test. The single test clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of the bolted-ring drum closure to shallow-angle drops-the test package's drum closure was easily and totally separated from the drum package. The results of the preliminary test runs and the 30-ft shallow-angle drop test offer valuable qualitative understandings of the shallow-angle impact.

  4. Containment and Analysis Capability Insights Gained from Drop Testing Representative Spent Nuclear Fuel Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, Dana Keith; Snow, Spencer David; Rahl, Tommy Ervin; Ware, Arthur Gates

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), operating from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), developed the standardized Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister. This canister is designed to be loaded with DOE SNF (including other radioactive materials) and then be used during interim storage, during transportation to the nation’s repository, and for final disposal at the repository without having to be reopened. The canister has been fully designed and has completed significant testing that clearly demonstrates that it can safely achieve its intended design goals. During 1999, nine 457-mm diameter test canisters were fabricated at the INEEL to represent the standardized DOE SNF canister design. Various "worst case" internals were incorporated. Seven of the test canisters were 4.57 m long and weighed approximately 2721 kg, while two were 3.00 m long and weighed approximately 1360 kg and 1725 kg. Seven of the test canisters were dropped from 9 m onto an essentially unyielding flat surface and one of the test canisters was dropped from 1 m onto a 15-cm diameter puncture post. The final test canister was dropped from 61 cm onto a 50.8 mm thick vertically oriented steel plate, and then fell over to impact another 50.8 mm thick vertically oriented steel plate. This last test represented a canister dropping onto another larger container such as a repository disposal container or waste package. The 1999 drop testing was performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The nine test canisters experienced varying degrees of damage to their skirts, lifting rings, and pressure boundary components (heads and main body). However, all of the canisters were shown to have maintained their pressure boundary (through pressure testing). Four heavily damaged canisters were also shown to be leaktight via helium leak testing. Pre- and post-drop finite element (FE) analyses were also performed. The results clearly indicated that accurate predictions of canister responses to the drop tests were achieved. The results achieved for the standardized canister can also be applicable to other well-constructed containers (canisters, casks, cans, vessels, etc.) subjected to similar loads. Properly designed containers can maintain a containment system after being subjected to dynamically induced high strains and FE computer analyses can accurately predict the resulting responses.

  5. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Space Vehicle Water Drop Test and Vehicle Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Space Vehicle Water Drop Test and Vehicle Design Overview The team was tasked with modelling the accelerations and pressures of an impact of the scaled landing vehicle to reduce the accelerations and pressures of the vehicle. Objectives Provide

  6. Drop-in capsule testing of plutonium-based fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Terry, W.K.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Palmer, A.J.; Roesener, R.A.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most attractive way to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is to use it as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PuO[sub 2]) mixed with urania (UO[sub 2]). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. The proposed weapons-grade MOX fuel is unusual, even relative to ongoing foreign experience with reactor-grade MOX power reactor fuel. Some demonstration of the in- reactor thermal, mechanical, and fission gas release behavior of the prototype fuel will most likely be required in a limited number of test reactor irradiations. The application to license operation with MOX fuel must be amply supported by experimental data. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is capable of playing a key role in the irradiation, development, and licensing of these new fuel types. The ATR is a 250- MW (thermal) LWR designed to study the effects of intense radiation on reactor fuels and materials. For 25 years, the primary role of the ATR has been to serve in experimental investigations for the development of advanced nuclear fuels. Both large- and small-volume test positions in the ATR could be used for MOX fuel irradiation. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. Furthermore, these data can be obtained more quickly by using ATR instead of testing in a commercial LWR. Our previous work in this area has demonstrated that it is technically feasible to perform MOX fuel testing in the ATR. This report documents our analyses of sealed drop-in capsules containing plutonium-based test specimens placed in various ATR positions.

  7. IFT&E Industry Report Wind Turbine-Radar Interference Test Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlson, Benjamin; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Minster, David G; Estill, Milford; Miller, Bryan Edward; Busse, Franz (MIT LL); Keck, Chris (MIT LL); Sullivan, Jonathan (MIT LL); Brigada, David (MIT LL); Parker, Lorri (MIT LL); Younger, Richard (MIT LL); Biddle, Jason (MIT LL)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind turbines have grown in size and capacity with today's average turbine having a power capacity of around 1.9 MW, reaching to heights of over 495 feet from ground to blade tip, and operating with speeds at the tip of the blade up to 200 knots. When these machines are installed within the line-of-sight of a radar system, they can cause significant clutter and interference, detrimentally impacting the primary surveillance radar (PSR) performance. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) were co-funded to conduct field tests and evaluations over two years in order to: I. Characterize the impact of wind turbines on existing Program-of-Record (POR) air surveillance radars; II. Assess near-term technologies proposed by industry that have the potential to mitigate the interference from wind turbines on radar systems; and III. Collect data and increase technical understanding of interference issues to advance development of long-term mitigation strategies. MIT LL and SNL managed the tests and evaluated resulting data from three flight campaigns to test eight mitigation technologies on terminal (short) and long-range (60 nmi and 250 nmi) radar systems. Combined across the three flight campaigns, more than 460 of hours of flight time were logged. This paper summarizes the Interagency Field Test & Evaluation (IFT&E) program and publicly- available results from the tests. It will also discuss the current wind turbine-radar interference evaluation process within the government and a proposed process to deploy mitigation technologies.

  8. B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTubahq.na.gov Office of the Administrator| National

  9. Syracuse University Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in{sup 3} (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft{sup 3} (24.1 m{sup 3}). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can at a height of 8 feet from the bottom of the can to the impacting surface. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours and every 20 seconds thereafter. A test procedure was developed and a total of nine drop tests were performed. In most cases (seven tests), the can tipped over after dropping. The can in Test 1 stayed upright. The can in Test 7 showed a special behavior: after the rebound, it turned upside down and stayed upright. Major findings are summarized below: ? The amount of spilled powder varied from 0.12 g to 252.35 g and the non-recovered powder varied from 0.11 g to 1.18 g. The corresponding percentage of the spilled powder ranged from 0.01% to 13%. ? The peak value of particle number concentration after the dropping of the can occurred at approximately 0.9 ?m particle size per measured data of individual channels. The peak value of particle mass concentration occurred in the range of 4.3 - 10 ?m particle size per grouped data calculated from the measured data with the exception of Test 4 where a different batch powder with unexpectedly different bulk density and particle size distribution. ? After the dropping of the can, the total airborne mass concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.35 mg/m{sup 3}, while the total airborne number concentrations ranged from 2 to 125 #/cm{sup 3} except for Test 4. The number concentration in Test 4 was 1 or 2 orders of magnitude less than those of other tests because the powder was from a different batch. However, its mass concentration was comparable to that in Test 7 because relatively more big airborne particles were detected in Test 4. In general, tests with lid (Test 5, 6, 7 and 8) had smaller concentrations than tests without lid (Test 0, 1, 2, and 3). The influence of lid was not as prominent as the powder (Test 4). However, this needs more tests for verification. ? The ratio of airborne mass to non-recovered mass ranged from 0.1% to 2%. This means that it is challenging to use this method to check the mass balance, while the uptake factor and associated inhalation exposur

  10. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition (¼” lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and ¼” lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

  11. Fundamental limitations to tests of the universality of free fall by dropping atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobili, Anna M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests of the universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle probe the foundations of General Relativity. Evidence of a violation may lead to the discovery of a new force. The best torsion balance experiments have ruled it out to 10^-13[1]. Cold-atom tests[2-5] have reached 10^-7 and promise to do 7 to 10 orders of magnitude better[6-10] on ground or in space. As mass-dropping experiments[2-4] in a non uniform gravitational field they are sensitive to initial conditions. Errors in the relative position and velocity of the atom clouds at release give rise to a systematic effect which mimics a violation, and these offsets are never measured concurrently with the drop. At the current 10^-7 level they are not an issue. Here we show that when aiming at 2x10^-15 as in[9-10], a fundamental limitation arises. Heisenberg's principle does not allow the centre of mass of free atom clouds to be confined at will in both position and velocity space. The required confinement would be short of the position-momen...

  12. Standard test method for conducting drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility transition temperature of ferritic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature of ferritic steels, 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) and thicker. 1.2 This test method may be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the steels are subject to fracture toughness requirements as determined by the drop-weight test. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. A stochastic Monte Carlo computer simulation of the drop-weight test for the determination of nil-ductility transition temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Michael Andrew

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . Page 2. Elements of the Charpy V-notch test. . 3. Elements of the drop-weight NDIT test. . . . . . . 13 4. Generalized fracture analysis diagram (FAD). . . . . . . . . 18 5. Schematic of the one-pass and two-pass crack starter bead welding... of the six forgings. . . 24. Variation in Vicker's microhardness (VHN) with distance from the fusion boundary between the specimen and crack-starter weld bead . . 91 CHAPTER I OVERVIEW OF FRACTURE MECHANICS The drop-weight nil-ductility transition...

  14. Building Curiosity Landing System Drop Test [00:00:06]Hi, I'm Savannah McCoy and I'm the rover verification and validation lead.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Building Curiosity ­ Landing System Drop Test [00:00:06]Hi, I'm Savannah McCoy and I'm the rover verification and validation lead. [00:00:11]My job is to run system-level tests on the rover's structure build two rovers in parallel. One's the flight rover [00:00:22]and one's the test rover, or DTM

  15. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  16. Millimeter-wave radar sensor for automotive intelligent cruise control (ICC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.E.; Crain, A.; Curran, A.; Campbell, R.A.; Drubin, C.A.; Miccioli, W.F. [Raytheon, Tewksbury, MA (United States)] [Raytheon, Tewksbury, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If automotive intelligent cruise-control (ICC) systems are to be successful in the marketplace, they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by reduced performance during inclement weather, interrupted performance due to dropped tracks, and annoying nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by the consumer, and would likely result in the rejection of this technology in the marketplace. An all-weather automotive millimeter-wave (MMW) radar sensor is described that uses a frequency-modulation coplanar-wave (FMCW) radar design capable of acquiring and tracking all obstacles in its field of view. Design tradeoffs are discussed and radar-sensor test results are presented along with the applicability of the radar to collision-warning systems.

  17. DROP TESTS RESULTS OF REVISED CLOSURE BOLT CONFIGURATION OF THE STANDARD WASTE BOX, STANDARD LARGE BOX 2, AND TEN DRUM OVERPACK PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  18. Antarctic Mapping Project ACTIVE RADAR CALIBRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project ACTIVE RADAR CALIBRATOR INSTALLATION DOCUMENT October, 1999 ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MICHIGAN CENTER FOR EARTH SCIENCES ALASKA SAR FACILITY BYRD POLAR RESEARCH...................................................................................................................................................3 Active Radar Calibrator Testing

  19. Extreme Resistance of Superhydrophobic Surfaces to Impalement: Reversible Electrowetting Related to the Impacting/Bouncing Drop Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunet, Philippe

    Extreme Resistance of Superhydrophobic Surfaces to Impalement: Reversible Electrowetting Related reports on the comparison of the wetting properties of superhydrophobic silicon nanowires (NWs), usingPa, while most of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested so far have impalement thresholds smaller than 10 k

  20. Testing IWC Retrieval Methods using Radar and Ancillary Measurements with In-Situ Andrew J. Heymsfield1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    profiles of ice water content (IWC) can now be derived globally from spaceborne cloud radar (CloudSat) data energy to space. Because of their height in the atmosphere, ice clouds have a dominant effect on longwave (), and ice particle shape, significantly affect ice cloud radiative properties. CloudSat, with an onboard

  1. Analysis, comparison, and modeling of radar interferometry, date of surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Phase I: underground explosions, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, W; Vincent, P; Walter, W

    1999-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have previously presented simple elastic deformation modeling results for three classes of seismic events of concern in monitoring the CTBT--underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Those results explored the theoretical detectability of each event type using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) based on commercially available satellite data. In those studies we identified and compared the characteristics of synthetic interferograms that distinguish each event type, as well the ability of the interferograms to constrain source parameters. These idealized modeling results, together with preliminary analysis of InSAR data for the 1995 mb 5.2 Solvay mine collapse in southwestern Wyoming, suggested that InSAR data used in conjunction with regional seismic monitoring holds great potential for CTBT discrimination and seismic source analysis, as well as providing accurate ground truth parameters for regional calibration events. In this paper we further examine the detectability and ''discriminating'' power of InSAR by presenting results from InSAR data processing, analysis and modeling of the surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions. Specifically, we present results of a detailed study of coseismic and postseismic surface deformation signals associated with underground nuclear and chemical explosion tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Several interferograms were formed from raw ERS-1/2 radar data covering different time spans and epochs beginning just prior to the last U.S. nuclear tests in 1992 and ending in 1996. These interferograms have yielded information about the nature and duration of the source processes that produced the surface deformations associated with these events. A critical result of this study is that significant post-event surface deformation associated with underground nuclear explosions detonated at depths in excess of 600 meters can be detected using differential radar interferometry. An immediate implication of this finding is that underground nuclear explosions may not need to be captured coseismically by radar images acquired before and after an event in order to be detectable. This has obvious advantages in CTBT monitoring since suspect seismic events--which usually can be located within a 100 km by 100 km area of an ERS-1/2 satellite frame by established seismic methods-can be imaged after the event has been identified and located by existing regional seismic networks. Key Words: InSAR, SLC images, interferogram, synthetic interferogram, ERS-1/2 frame, phase unwrapping, DEM, coseismic, postseismic, source parameters.

  2. Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phillips, B.E. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

  3. Off-The-Grid X-band Weather Radar Network for the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    and target. CayeyNWS radar Mayaguez The Problem #12;Puerto Rico Test Bed · Multi-level Research Team · Low · Relay Stations #12;Network Node · Weather Radar · Processing Computer · Wireless Link #12;X-Band Weather cost · Better Merging algorithms · More Radars.... #12;PR Test Bed Team #12;Questions · ??? #12;Live

  4. Analysis of pressure drops under reversing flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.; Lottes, P.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines pressure-drop data from the Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The data comprise part of an initial series of measurements conducted with pressurized helium gas under reversing flow conditions. The characteristics of fluid pressure drops in compressible, reversing flows are discussed in the paper and compared with pressure-drop measurements for steady, incompressible flows. The methodology used to calculate instantaneous mass flows in the test section of the RFTF is summarized. The measured pressure drops are analyzed in terms of their frictional and inertial components. Pressure-drop data are presented for both tubes and wire mesh regenerators over a range of flow reversal frequencies. The results are discussed with reference to other experimental data and analytical models available in the literature. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Summary of Test Results for the Interagency Field Test &Evaluation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summary of Test Results for the Interagency Field Test &Evaluation of Wind Turbine - Radar Interference Mitigation Technologies Summary of Test Results for the Interagency Field...

  6. Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of High Quality Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, J. M.; Coffield, R. D.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase pressure drop across a straight test pipe was experimentally determined for high Reynolds (Re) number steam flow for a flow quality range of 0.995 to 1.0. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties associated with the effects of two-phase flow on pressure drop. Two-phase flow develops in steam piping because a small fraction of the steam flow condenses due to heat loss to the surroundings. There has been very limited two-phase pressure drop data in open literature for the tested flow quality range. The two-phase pressure drop data obtained in this test has enabled development of a correlation between friction factor, Reynolds number, and flow quality.

  7. Heat transfer and pressure drop in tape generated swirl flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopina, Robert F.

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of water in tape generated swirl flow were investigated. The test sections were electrically heated small diameter nickel tubes with tight fitting full length Inconel ...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Radar Friendly Blades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MitigationRadar Friendly Blades Radar Friendly Blades Some wind farms have the potential to cause interference with the normal operation of radar systems used for security, weather...

  9. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  10. A newsletter for non-scientists (and scientists) interested in MAGIC The last update discussed how an upward-pointing radar can utilize the Doppler effect to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    discussed how an upward-pointing radar can utilize the Doppler effect to determine the downdraft (or updraft the Doppler signal from a vertically pointing radar can be used to determine sizes and numbers of raindrops, the frequency shifts in the Doppler signal corresponds directly to speeds of the drops relative to the ground

  11. Automatic signal processing of front monitor radar for tunneling machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Toru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electronics and Communication] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electronics and Communication; Takeda, Kenya [NTT Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)] [NTT Co. Ltd., Chiba (Japan); Nagamatsu, Takashi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Wakayama, Toshio [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan); Kimura, Iwane [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Inst. of Tech., Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Shinbo, Tetsuya [Komatsu Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [Komatsu Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is planned to install a front monitoring impulse radar on the surface of the rotating drill of tunneling machines in order to detect obstacles such as casing pipes of vertical borings. The conventional aperture synthesis technique can no more be applied to such cases because the radar image of a pipe dies not constituent a hyperbola as is the case for linear scanning radars. The authors have developed a special purpose signal processing algorithm with the aid of the discrete model fitting method, which can be used for any pattern of scanning. The details of the algorithm are presented together with the results of numerical simulations and test site experiments.

  12. Sensitivity analysis for joint inversion of ground-penetrating radar and thermal-hydrological data from a large-scale underground heater test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, M.B.; Birkholzer, J.; Peterson, J.; Finsterle, S.; Mukhopadhya y, S.; Tsang, Y.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    first step toward comprehensive inversion of the heater testfirst step toward a full inversion of the heater test data,

  13. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  14. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfanner, Florian [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany)] [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Maier, Joscha [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany)] [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Kachelrieß, Marc [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany and Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the measurements of the test persons, there is a very good correlation (?= 0.917) between the respiratory motion phases received by the radar system and the external motion monitor. Our concept of using an array of transmitting antennas turned out to be widely insensitive to the positioning of the test persons. A time shift between the respiratory motion curves recorded with the radar system and the motion curves from the external respiratory monitor was observed which indicates a slight difference between internal organ motion and motion detected by the external respiratory monitor. The simulations were in good accordance with the measurements.Conclusions: A continuous wave radar operating in the near field of the antennas can be used to determine the respiratory motion of humans accurately. In contrast to trigger systems used today, the radar system is able to measure motion inside the body. If such a monitor was routinely available in clinical CT, it would be possible optimizing the scan start with respect to the respiratory state of the patient. Breathing commands would potentially widely be avoided, and as far as uncooperative patients or children are concerned, less sedation might be necessary. Further applications of the radar system could be in radiation therapy or interventional imaging for instance.

  15. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  16. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore »and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  17. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  18. Interagency Field Test Evaluates Co-operation of Turbines and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interagency Field Test Evaluates Co-operation of Turbines and Radar Interagency Field Test Evaluates Co-operation of Turbines and Radar May 1, 2012 - 2:56pm Addthis The Department...

  19. Radar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:b <RGS Development BV JumpRTEV IncRadar

  20. ARM Scanning Radar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new,Scanning Radar Azores Graciosa

  1. Dynamics of sliding drops on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Dupuis; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a free energy lattice Boltzmann approach to investigate numerically the dynamics of drops moving across superhydrophobic surfaces. The surfaces comprise a regular array of posts small compared to the drop size. For drops suspended on the posts the velocity increases as the number of posts decreases. We show that this is because the velocity is primarily determined by the contact angle which, in turn, depends on the area covered by posts. Collapsed drops, which fill the interstices between the posts, behave in a very different way. The posts now impede the drop behaviour and the velocity falls as their density increases.

  2. Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of Doppler Radar Data with a Compressible Nonhydrostatic Model: OSS Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of Doppler Radar Data with a Compressible Nonhydrostatic Model on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method and tested with simulated radar data from a supercell storm for at least 2 h. 1. Introduction Since its introduction by Evensen (1994), the en- semble Kalman filter (En

  3. Drop History? No! | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers69Christopher FeckoDraftDraft-8,Newest APStheDrop

  4. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  5. Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

  6. ARM Climate Research Facility Radar Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Roles, responsibilities, and processes associated with Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Radar Operations.

  7. Radar polarimetry for geoscience applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elachi, C.; Kuga, Y.; McDonald, K.; Sarabandi, K.; Ulaby, F.T.; Whitt, M.; Zebker, H.; van Zyl, J.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A source book for remote sensing and radar design engineers, this text covers wave polarization, polarization synthesis, scattering matrices, SAR polarization systems, and an array of applications It covers: an introduction to the different mathematical representations used to describe scattering properties, a review of scatterometer system design and calibration techniques for use in polarimetric measurements, a study of specific polarimetric radar systems, such as the shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C), that includes calibration and compression techniques, data processing guidelines, and design approaches.

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  9. Policy for Dropped/Excused Assignments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devlin, Patrick M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policy for Dropped and Excused Quizzes/Homework. • QUIZZES/HOMEWORK. On average, students can expect about 1 quiz and 3 homework assignments per

  10. Banner course drop/add instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    skorty

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To travel to a specific topic, please click its corresponding page number. How to Drop/Add a Class ................................................... 2. Getting Started .

  11. Pressure Drop in a Pebble Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Changwoo

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure drops over a packed bed of pebble bed reactor type are investigated. Measurement of porosity and pressure drop over the bed were carried out in a cylindrical packed bed facility. Air and water were used for working fluids. There are several...

  12. Drop dynamics on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Mognetti; H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of micron-scale drops pushed across a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface. The velocity profile across the drop varies from quadratic to linear with increasing height, indicating a crossover from a sliding to a rolling motion. We identify a mesoscopic slip capillary number which depends only on the motion of the contact line and the shape of the drop, and show that the angular velocity of the rolling increases with increasing viscosity. For drops on superhydrophobic surfaces we argue that a tank treading advance from post to post replaces the diffusive relaxation that allows the contact line to move on smooth surfaces. Hence drops move on superhydrophobic surfaces more quickly than on smooth geometries.

  13. Signal processing for airborne bistatic radar 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Kian P

    The major problem encountered by an airborne bistatic radar is the suppression of bistatic clutter. Unlike clutter echoes for a sidelooking airborne monostatic radar, bistatic clutter echoes are range dependent. Using ...

  14. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Carlos E. (Livermore, CA); Zumstein, James E. (Livermore, CA); Chang, John T. (Danville, CA); Leach, Jr.. Richard R. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  15. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  16. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  17. HumanWildlife Interactions 5(2):210217, Fall 2011 Using radar cross-section to enhance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D; Brand 2010a) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA; FAA 2010, Herricks et al. 2010). The testing, airfield management, alert, aviation safety, BASH, bird strike, human­ wildlife conflicts, radar, radar cross-section, situational awareness, wildlife hazard Birds pose a threat to aviation safety and cost

  18. Microwave emissions from police radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, John Michael

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject...: Industrial Hygiene MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE John P. Wag (Chair of Committee) Jero e J. C...

  19. MECHANICAL TEST LAB CAPABILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MECHANICAL TEST LAB CAPABILITIES · Static and cyclic testing (ASTM and non-standard) · Impact drop testing · Slow-cycle fatigue testing · High temperature testing to 2500°F · ASTM/ Boeing/ SACMA standard testing · Ability to design and fabricate non-standard test fixtures and perform non-standard tests

  20. Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roundtable - USDADOEDONDOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda May 18, 2012 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Jefferson Auditorium U.S. Department of Agriculture South Building...

  1. active drop counting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new stain morphologies left by drying drops. Julian Freed-Brown 2014-10-09 52 A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop Mathematical Physics (arXiv) Summary: Capacity drop...

  2. Assembly flow simulation of a radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherford, W.C.; Biggs, P.M.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discrete event simulation model has been developed to predict the assembly flow time of a new radar product. The simulation was the key tool employed to identify flow constraints. The radar, production facility, and equipment complement were designed, arranged, and selected to provide the most manufacturable assembly possible. A goal was to reduce the assembly and testing cycle time from twenty-six weeks to six weeks. A computer software simulation package (SLAM II) was utilized as the foundation a for simulating the assembly flow time. FORTRAN subroutines were incorporated into the software to deal with unique flow circumstances that were not accommodated by the software. Detailed information relating to the assembly operations was provided by a team selected from the engineering, manufacturing management, inspection, and production assembly staff. The simulation verified that it would be possible to achieve the cycle time goal of six weeks. Equipment and manpower constraints were identified during the simulation process and adjusted as required to achieve the flow with a given monthly production requirement. The simulation is being maintained as a planning tool to be used to identify constraints in the event that monthly output is increased. ``What-if`` studies have been conducted to identify the cost of reducing constraints caused by increases in output requirement.

  3. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  5. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

  6. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

  7. Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    tests were conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft by the Interphase Transport Phenomena (ITP) group from Texas A&M University. The two-phase flow pressure drops were measured across a single transparent test section 12.7 mm ID and 1.63 m long...

  8. Minimizing Biases in Radar Precipitation Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McRoberts, Douglas B

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................. 57 3.4 The same as Fig. 3.3b, but with HRAP grid cells detected by the flagging algorithm (gray diamonds) in the 90 km – 100 km annulus in the KABR radar domain .......................................................................... 62 3.5... ...................... 163 xiii FIGURE Page 5.1 Same as Fig. 3.1, but without radar locations or boundaries for radar domains ................................................................................................... 169 5.2 (a) Stage IV 1-month Po...

  9. A land based radar polarimeter processing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronke, Chester William

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assignments 4 Indicator Circuit Read Port Assignments. 5 Interpretation of Indicator Circuit Data . 6 RF Head Common Control Port Signal Assignments . 7 iSBC-80/24 Parallel I/O Summary. 8 iSBX-311 Analog Input Signal Assignments 9 Memory Map... Polarimeter Antennas 2 Azimuthal Angle of Radar Polarimeter Boom. 3 Block Diagram of the Radar Polarimeter System. 4 Block Diagram of Radar Hardware. 10 5 Microwave Transceiver Circuit Transfer Switches Controlled by RDADS. 12 6 Block Diagram...

  10. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  11. Radar network communication through sensing of frequency hopping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In one embodiment, a radar communication system includes a plurality of radars having a communication range and being capable of operating at a sensing frequency and a reporting frequency, wherein the reporting frequency is different than the sensing frequency, each radar is adapted for operating at the sensing frequency until an event is detected, each radar in the plurality of radars has an identification/location frequency for reporting information different from the sensing frequency, a first radar of the radars which senses the event sends a reporting frequency corresponding to its identification/location frequency when the event is detected, and all other radars in the plurality of radars switch their reporting frequencies to match the reporting frequency of the first radar upon detecting the reporting frequency switch of a radar within the communication range. In another embodiment, a method is presented for communicating information in a radar system.

  12. Sandia Energy - TTU Advanced Doppler Radar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radar technologies and techniques developed at TTU have the potential to revolutionize wind energy generation by providing comprehensive information about the modulated flows...

  13. Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hluchanek, James Andrew

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James... Andrew Hluchanek, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Robert R. Unterberger Radar probing through salt was accomplished at 17 radar stations established in the United Salt Company mine at Hockley, Texas. The top of the salt dom is mapped...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: TTU Advanced Doppler Radar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotor sweep. Doppler radar technologies and techniques developed at TTU have the potential to revolutionize wind energy generation by providing comprehensive information...

  15. A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Long Jin; Qi-Jian Gan; Jean-Patrick Lebacque

    2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity drop at active bottlenecks is one of the most puzzling traffic phenomena, but a thorough understanding is practically important for designing variable speed limit and ramp metering strategies. In this study, we attempt to develop a simple model of capacity drop within the framework of kinematic wave theory based on the observation that capacity drop occurs when an upstream queue forms at an active bottleneck. In addition, we assume that the fundamental diagrams are continuous in steady states. This assumption is consistent with observations and can avoid unrealistic infinite characteristic wave speeds in discontinuous fundamental diagrams. A core component of the new model is an entropy condition defined by a discontinuous boundary flux function. For a lane-drop area, we demonstrate that the model is well-defined, and its Riemann problem can be uniquely solved. We theoretically discuss traffic stability with this model subject to perturbations in density, upstream demand, and downstream supply. We clarify that discontinuous flow-density relations, or so-called "discontinuous" fundamental diagrams, are caused by incomplete observations of traffic states. Theoretical results are consistent with observations in the literature and are verified by numerical simulations and empirical observations. We finally discuss potential applications and future studies.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: National Air Space radar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Space radar system Sandia Develops Tool to Evaluate Wind-TurbineRadar Impacts On December 3, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News, News & Events,...

  17. Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers (Ligda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    (Ligda) Possibility of such observations was predicted by Ryde (1941) MIT Radiation Laboratory made in 1943 First operational weather radar, Panama, 1943 Science of radar meteorology born from WWII research fluctuations at 1/2 the wavelength of the incident radiation (a few meters in this case). Power returned from

  18. Heat transfer and pressure drop in square duct with two opposite repeated rib-roughened walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, Chiang-Kuo

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were on ribbed sur- faces. All thermocouples were constructed of 0. 05 cm copper-constantant wire. Five pressure taps along the test section were used for the static pressure drop measurements across the test duct. Three were on the smooth surface...HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP IN SQUARE DUCT WITH TWO OPPOSITE REPEATED RIB-ROUGHENED WALLS A Thesis CHIANG-KUO LEI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  19. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  20. Sandia Energy - Radar Friendly Blades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid IntegrationOffshoreLiveSustainablePriceRadar

  1. Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.E.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based on a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.

  2. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  3. Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Las Vegas, NV)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. As an exemplary arrangement, an ultra-wideband micropower impulse radar (MIR) is capable of being employed to provide superior materials penetration while providing range information. The magneto-radar may be applied to pre-screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients, landmine detection and finding hidden treasures.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmucker, Jason

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    aluminum (RA = 3.26 micrometers) floor of a tiltable wind tunnel and brought to critical conditions, when the drop begins to run downstream. Various combinations of drop size, inclination angle, and flow speed were employed. A measurement technique capable...

  6. Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, Manuel, Jr

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

  7. air drop: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Peter Titus Fill pipe Cold vent pipe 12;Flexible transfer line McDonald, Kirk 96 A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop Mathematical Physics (arXiv) Summary: Capacity drop...

  8. antioxidant eye drops: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Peter Titus Fill pipe Cold vent pipe 12;Flexible transfer line McDonald, Kirk 120 A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop Mathematical Physics (arXiv) Summary: Capacity drop...

  9. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops...

  10. Laser Ablation of Aluminium: Drops and Voids Johannes Roth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Johannes

    for aluminium and a complex metallic alloy. Here we will concentrate on how drops or clusters and voids canLaser Ablation of Aluminium: Drops and Voids Johannes Roth1 , Johannes Karlin1 , Christian Ulrich2

  11. Observations of colocated optical and radar aurora H. Bahcivan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Observations of colocated optical and radar aurora H. Bahcivan,1 D. L. Hysell,2 D. Lummerzheim,3 M of the E region radar aurora obtained with a 30 MHz imaging radar and the optical aurora (green line, the radar aurora in the vicinity of a stable evening auroral arc arises because of the arc's polarization

  12. MOTION OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westervelt, R.M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MOTION OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge R. M. Westervelt, J. C.MOTION OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge R. M. Westervelt, J. C.OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge R M Westervelt, J C Culbertson

  13. Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1 Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997 Administrative Policy DROP/ADD POLICY Approved: October 1997 Revised: 2002; 2004; June 8, 2011 Deans' Council. There is no automatic drop policy for nonattendance. PASSHE universities are expected to adhere to the System

  14. Supercooled Water Drops Impacting Superhydrophobic Textures Tanmoy Maitra,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Supercooled Water Drops Impacting Superhydrophobic Textures Tanmoy Maitra, Carlo Antonini, Manish K with superhydrophobic surface textures is of fundamental significance for unraveling the mechanisms of icing as well investigate the problem of supercooled water drops impacting superhydrophobic textures for drop supercooling

  15. Sensitivity analysis of a directional potential drop sensor for creep monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    an accelerated 400-hour creep test are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to monitorSensitivity analysis of a directional potential drop sensor for creep monitoring Elhoucine Madhi Accepted 1 August 2011 Available online 9 August 2011 Keywords: ACPD Creep monitoring Resistivity

  16. Development of the Solid State X-band Radar and the Phased Array Radar System in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Development of the Solid State X-band Radar and the Phased Array Radar System in Japan By DR. TOMOO array radar system have been developed. Toshiba has developed the latest model of weather radar of precipitation and to achieve drastic reduction of its size and life cycle cost. It is now well known

  17. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Jay D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Theodore J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  18. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  19. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Dynamics of Ferrofluidic Drops Impacting Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolleddula, D A; Alliseda, A; Bhosale, P; Berg, J C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a fluid dynamics video illustrating the impact of ferrofluidic droplets on surfaces of variable wettability. Surfaces studied include mica, teflon, and superhydrophobic. A magnet is placed beneath each surface, which modifies the behavior of the ferrofluid by applying additional downward force apart from gravity resulting in reduced droplet size and increased droplet velocity. For the superhydrophobic droplet a jetting phenomena is shown which only occurs in a limited range of impact speeds, higher than observed before, followed by amplified oscillation due to magnetic field as the drop stabilizes on the surface.

  1. Measuring soil moisture with imaging radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, P.C.; Zyl, J. van [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Engman, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture content and surface Root Mean Square (RMS) height from remotely sensed radar data was developed using scatterometer data. The algorithm is optimized for bare surfaces and requires two copolarized channels at a frequency between 1.5 and 11 GHz. It gives best results for kh {le} 2.5, {mu}{sub {upsilon}}{le}35%, and {theta}{ge}30{degree}. Omitting the usually weaker hv-polarized returns makes the algorithm less sensitive to system cross-talk and system noise, simplify the calibration process and adds robustness to the algorithm in the presence of vegetation. However, inversion results indicate that significant amounts of vegetation (NDVI>0.4) cause the algorithm to underestimate soil moisture and overestimate RMS height. A simple criteria based on the {sigma}{sub hv}{sup 0}/{sigma}{sub vv}{sup 0} ratio is developed to select the areas where the inversion is not impaired by the vegetation. The inversion accuracy is assessed on the original scatterometer data sets but also on several SAR data sets by comparing the derived soil moisture values with in-situ measurements collected over a variety of scenes between 1991 and 1994. Both spaceborne (SIR-C) and airborne (AIRSAR) data are used in the test. Over this large sample of conditions, the RMS error in the soil moisture estimate is found to be less than 4.2% soil moisture.

  2. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium shipping container subject to 30-foot drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, C.; Gupta, N.K.; Gromada, R.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The shipping container 5320 is a shipping package for radioactive materials. In order to maintain the component in this packaging within the sub-critical state when subjected to any kind of Hypothetical Accident conditions (HAC), this Type B packaging is designed with various impact limiters. The present study is to examine the energy absorbing capacity of the impact limiter design of this container subjected to a 30-foot drop onto a flat unyielding horizontal surface in each of the three critical dropping orientations. This paper presents the results of a three dimensional nonlinear dynamic impact analysis. This analysis shows the deformed configuration of the container caused by the impact and also determines the effects of different stress wave paths in three distinct drops on the stress states in the critical component. The solution to the problem was obtained using the ABAQUS (explicit) finite element computer code. The nonlinearity of this analysis involves large structural deformation, elasto-plastic materials with strain hardening as well as multiple contact interfaces. Three drop orientations were studied, namely, top down impact, bottom down impact and side impact. Results will be compared against actual drop test data.

  3. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  4. Radar echo signatures versus relative precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, Terry Alvin

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the relationship between cell-echo signatures and precipitation characteristics, and to support the hypothesis that, during the lifespan of any particular isolated convective cell, the relative rainfall rate, as determined by radar for a given volume scan... Cooperative Program) field experiment of 1979. Four isolated cases, two rainshowers and two thundershowers, were selected for study. Profiles from volume scans taken 10 minutes before, during, and 10 minutes after the maximum radar-determined rainfall rate...

  5. Bridge Deck Evaluation with Ground Penetrating Radar Dryver Huston, Jing Hu, Noel Pelczarski, and Brian Esser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huston, Dryver R.

    in a step-frequency mode. The system is used to test laboratory specimens and bridge decks in the field Health Monitoring Stanford University September 1999 ABSTRACT Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) uses electromagnetic (EM) waves to identify underlying features in solid structures. The typical technique uses

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by the soil electromagnetic properties and their spatial distribution. As the dielectric permittivity of water overwhelms the permittivity of other soil components, the presence of water in the soil principally governs GPR wave propagation. Therefore, GPR-derived dielectric permittivity is usually used as surrogate measure for soil water content. In the areas of unsaturated zone hydrology and water resources, GPR has been used to identify soil stratigraphy, to locate water tables, to follow wetting front movement, to estimate soil water content, to assist in subsurface hydraulic parameter identification, to assess soil salinity, and to support the monitoring of contaminants. The purpose of this special section of the Vadose Zone Journal is to present recent research advances and applications of GPR in hydrogeophysics, with a particular emphasis on vadose zone investigations. This special section includes contributions presented at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2006 (EGU 2006, Vienna, Austria) and the 11th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR 2006, Columbus, OH). The studies presented here deal with a wide range of surface and borehole GPR applications, including GPR sensitivity to contaminant plumes, new methods for soil water content determination, three-dimensional imaging of the subsurface, time-lapse monitoring of hydrodynamic events and inversion techniques for soil hydraulic properties estimation, and joint interpretation of GPR and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) data.

  7. Prediction of buried mine-like target radar signatures using wideband electromagnetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warrick, A.L.; Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.E.

    1998-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Current ground penetrating radars (GPR) have been tested for land mine detection, but they have generally been costly and have poor performance. Comprehensive modeling and experimentation must be done to predict the electromagnetic (EM) signatures of mines to access the effect of clutter on the EM signature of the mine, and to understand the merit and limitations of using radar for various mine detection scenarios. This modeling can provide a basis for advanced radar design and detection techniques leading to superior performance. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a radar technology that when combined with comprehensive modeling and detection methodologies could be the basis of an advanced mine detection system. Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology exhibits a combination of properties, including wideband operation, extremely low power consumption, extremely small size and low cost, array configurability, and noise encoded pulse generation. LLNL is in the process of developing an optimal processing algorithm to use with the MIR sensor. In this paper, we use classical numerical models to obtain the signature of mine-like targets and examine the effect of surface roughness on the reconstructed signals. These results are then qualitatively compared to experimental data.

  8. The Accuracy of Radar Estimates of Ice Terminal Fall Speed from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radar Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    The Accuracy of Radar Estimates of Ice Terminal Fall Speed from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radar and 2835 MHz) are used to characterize the terminal fall speed of hydrometeors and the vertical air motion air velocity in ice clouds is small on average, as is assumed in terminal fall speed retrieval methods

  9. High-frequency scannerless imaging laser radar for industrial inspection and measurement applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R.L.; Williams, R.J.; Matthews, J.D.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development and testing of a high-frequency scannerless imaging laser radar system to evaluate its viability as an industrial inspection and measurement sensor. We modified an existing 5.5-Mhz scannerless laser radar to operate at 150 Mhz, and measured its performance including its spatial resolution and range resolution. We also developed new algorithms that allow rapid data reduction with improved range resolution. The resulting 150-Mhz ladar system demonstrated a range resolution of better than 3 mm, which represents nearly a factor-of-100 improvement in range resolution over the existing scannerless laser radar system. Based on this work, we believe that a scannerless range imager with 1- to 2-mm range resolution is feasible. This work was performed as part of a small-business CRADA between Sandia National Laboratories and Perceptron, Inc.

  10. Reflectors for SAR performance testing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.

  11. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  12. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Ojai, CA); Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Lewallen, Tricia S. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamics of drop formation and pitch ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 3, 2012 ... A generic application is to use microfluidic devices to tune drop size distributions. In these multi-phase processes, immiscible components are ...

  14. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  15. Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northampton, University of

    Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar E. T. Cant1,*, A. D. Smith of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Keywords: butterfly flight; harmonic radar; linear landscape features; Aglais urticae; Inachis io 1

  16. Bias adjustment of radar-based 3-hour precipitation accumulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    projection of KNMI radar images 55 4 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction Since June 2003 a daily gauge is generated at 1400 UTC when the majority of the manual gauge observations have been reported. The radar-gaugeBias adjustment of radar-based 3-hour precipitation accumulations Iwan Holleman Technical Report

  17. Climatology of extreme rainfall from rain gauges and weather radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    by conventional rain gauge networks. A 10-year radar-based climatology of rainfall depths for durations of 15 minClimatology of extreme rainfall from rain gauges and weather radar Aart Overeem #12;Thesis:30 PM in the Aula #12;Aart Overeem Climatology of extreme rainfall from rain gauges and weather radar

  18. The effect of confinement on the deformation of microfluidic drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Camilo; Cordero, María Luisa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the deformation of drops squeezed between the floor and ceiling of a microchannel and subjected to a hyperbolic flow. We observe that the maximum deformation of drops depends on both the drop size and the rate of strain of the external flow and can be described with power laws with exponents 2.59 +/- 0.28 and 0.94 +/- 0.04 respectively. We develop a theoretical model to describe the deformation of squeezed drops based on the Darcy approximation for shallow geometries and the use of complex potentials. The model describes the steady-state deformation of the drops as a function of a non-dimensional parameter Ca d^2, where Ca is the capillary number (proportional to the strain rate and the drop size) and d is a confinement parameter equal to the drop size divided by the channel height. For small deformations, the theoretical model predicts a linear relationship between the deformation of drops and this parameter, in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Self-propelled jumping drops on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Self-propelled jumping drops on superhydrophobic surfaces Jonathan B. Boreyko and Chuan-Hua Chena-propelled jumping phenomenon for coa- lescing drops on superhydrophobic surfaces. The spontane- ous motion is powered by surface energy released upon coalescence.1,2 On a horizontal, chilled superhydrophobic surface

  20. Soil-penetrating synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boverie, B.; Brock, B.C.; Doerry, A.W.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results for the first year of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort. This effort included a system study, preliminary data acquisition, and preliminary algorithm development. The system study determined the optimum frequency and bandwidth, surveyed soil parameters and targets, and defined radar cross section in lossy media. The data acquisition imaged buried objects with a rail-SAR. Algorithm development included a radar echo model, three-dimensional processing, sidelobe optimization, phase history data interpolation, and clutter estimation/cancellation.

  1. USAGE OF RADARS FOR WIND ENERGY APPICATIONS Determine the benefit of using radar observations for wind energy applications by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USAGE OF RADARS FOR WIND ENERGY APPICATIONS TASK: Determine the benefit of using radar observations for wind energy applications by analyzing i) the resolution effects and ii) sensitivity effects of weather radar systems. MOTIVATION: Wind energy applications strongly focus high-resolution wind observations

  2. Some non-precipitation radar echoes as observed by CPS-9 radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luckenbach, Guenther Edward

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Solar Signal Lightning Metallic Objects Anomalous Propagation 23 23 25 25 1. 23 July 1958 5 August 1958 7 August 1958 13 August 1958 5. 8 September 1958. 9 September 1958 Cold Front 32 32 41 41 47 10. Lightning Layers - Radiosonde... artificially produced boundaries of temperature~ humidity, and turbulence but failed to detect angels on 3. 2 and 1. 25 cm radar. No means independent of the radar for measuring the inhomogenities was employed. In 1948, Baldwin [ 2 ] suggested that angels...

  3. Motion Measurement for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3 - D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  4. Doppler Radar Wind Profiles Iwan Holleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    ). The potential impact of a network of boundary layer wind profilers and sodars for mesoscale wind analysisDoppler Radar Wind Profiles Iwan Holleman Scientific Report, KNMI WR-2003-02, 2003 #12;2 #12 Strategy 18 3 Methods for Wind Profile Retrieval 25 3.1 Radial Velocity from Local Wind Model 25 3

  5. Micropower impulse radar technology and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, J., LLNL

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The LLNL-developed Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology has quickly gone from laboratory concept to embedded circuitry in numerous government and commercial systems in the last few years[l]. The main ideas behind MIR, invented by T. McEwan in the Laser Program, are the generation and detection systems for extremely low- power ultra-wideband pulses in the gigaHertz regime using low-cost components. These ideas, coupled with new antenna systems, timing and radio-frequency (RF) circuitry, computer interfaces, and signal processing, have provided the catalyst for a new generation of compact radar systems. Over the past several years we have concentrated on a number of applications of MIR which address a number of remote-sensing applications relevant to emerging programs in defense, transportation, medical, and environmental research. Some of the past commercial successes have been widely publicized [2] and are only now starting to become available for market. Over 30 patents have been filed and over 15 licenses have been signed on various aspects of the MIR technology. In addition, higher performance systems are under development for specific laboratory programs and government reimbursables. The MIR is an ultra- wideband, range-gated radar system that provides the enabling hardware technology used in the research areas mentioned above. It has numerous performance parameters that can be Selected by careful design to fit the requirements. We have improved the baseline, short- range, MIR system to demonstrate its effectiveness. The radar operates over the hand from approximately I to 4 GHz with pulse repetition frequencies up to 10 MHz. It provides a potential range resolution of I cm at ranges of greater than 20 m. We have developed a suite of algorithms for using MIR for image formation. These algorithms currently support Synthetic aperture and multistate array geometries. This baseline MIR radar imaging system has been used for several programmatic applications.

  6. Self-ratcheting Stokes drops driven by oblique vibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin John; Uwe Thiele

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop and analyze a minimal hydrodynamic model in the overdamped limit to understand why a drop climbs a smooth homogeneous incline that is harmonically vibrated at an angle different from the substrate normal [Brunet, Eggers and Deegan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 144501 (2007)]. We find that the vibration component orthogonal to the substrate induces a nonlinear (anharmonic) response in the drop shape. This results in an asymmetric response of the drop to the parallel vibration and, in consequence, in the observed net motion. Beside establishing the basic mechanism, we identify scaling laws valid in a broad frequency range and a flow reversal at high frequencies.

  7. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  8. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  9. Stability issues in IC Low Drop Out voltage regulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chava, Krishna Chaitanya

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance issues of IC Low Drop Out (LDO) voltage regulators, with specific reference to stability, are discussed in this thesis. Evaluation of existing frequency compensation schemes and their performances across operating loads is presented...

  10. A quasi-static model of drop impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    We develop a conceptually simple theoretical model of non-wetting drop impact on a rigid surface at small Weber numbers. Flat and curved impactor surfaces are considered, and the influence of surface curvature is elucidated. ...

  11. Drop-in replacement biofuels : meeting the challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Alok (Alok Kishore)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a discussion on the challenges that must be met to fulfill the U.S. Navy's strategic imperatives for its energy vision. It provides an introduction to drop-in replacement biofuels, the options amongst ...

  12. Performance of Adaptive DualDropping ILUT Preconditioners in Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    Performance of Adaptive Dual­Dropping ILUT Preconditioners in Semiconductor Dopant Diffusion for iterative solution of sparse linear systems arising in semiconductor dopant diffusion modeling resolution, timestep in the adaptive ODE integrator and the problem physics. Key words: semiconductor TCAD

  13. Spontaneous Jumping of Coalescing Drops on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boreyko, Jonathan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When micrometric drops coalesce in-plane on a superhydrophobic surface, a surprising out-of-plane jumping motion was observed. Such jumping motion triggered by drop coalescence was reproduced on a Leidenfrost surface. High-speed imaging revealed that this jumping motion results from the elastic interaction of the bridged drops with the superhydrophobic/Leidenfrost surface. Experiments on both the superhydrophobic and Leidenfrost surfaces compare favorably to a simple scaling model relating the kinetic energy of the merged drop to the surface energy released upon coalescence. The spontaneous jumping motion on water repellent surfaces enables the autonomous removal of water condensate independently of gravity; this process is highly desirable for sustained dropwise condensation.

  14. The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coalescence of a drop with a liquid reservoir of a miscible but distinct fluid. Particular attention is given to elucidating the influence ...

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Discovering Drop-In Biofuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drop-in fuels that are compatible with existing engines and fuel distribution. Biomass feedstocks such as crop residues and algae are available on a scale that other renewable...

  16. Pressure drop across spined heat exchangers in crossflow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carranza, Richard Guy

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRESSURE DROP ACROSS SPINED HEAT EXCHANGERS IN CROSSFLOW A Thesis by R]CHARD GUY CARRANZA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AE M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PRESSURE DROP ACROSS SPINED HEAT EXCHANGERS IN CROSSFLOW A Thesis by RICHARD GUY CARRANZA Approved as to style and content by: M. T. pie (Chairman of Committee) C. Glover (Member) N. K. Anand (Member) R...

  17. Assessment of Solder Interconnect Integrity in Dismantled Electronic Components from N57 and B61 Tube-Type Radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejent, J.A.; Vianco, P.T.; Woodrum, R.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aging analyses were performed on solder joints from two radar units: (1) a laboratory, N57 tube-type radar unit and (2) a field-returned, B61-0, tube-type radar unit. The cumulative temperature environments experienced by the units during aging were calculated from the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the mean Pb-rich phase particle size metrics for solder joints in the units, assuming an aging time of 35 years for both radars. Baseline aging metrics were obtained from a laboratory test vehicle assembled at AS/FM and T; the aging kinetics of both metrics were calculated from isothermal aging experiments. The N57 radar unit interconnect board solder joints exhibited very little aging. The eyelet solder joints did show cracking that most likely occurred at the time of assembly. The eyelet, SA1126 connector solder joints, showed some delamination between the Cu pad and underlying laminate. The B61 field-returned radar solder joints showed a nominal degree of aging. Cracking of the eyelet solder joints was observed. The Pb-rich phase particle measurements indicated additional aging of the interconnects as a result of residual stresses. Cracking of the terminal pole connector, pin-to-pin solder joint was observed; but it was not believed to jeopardize the electrical functionality of the interconnect. Extending the stockpile lifetime of the B61 tube-type radar by an additional 20 years would not be impacted by the reliability of the solder joints with respect to further growth of the intermetallic compound layer. Additional coarsening of the Pb-rich phase will increase the joints' sensitivity to thermomechanical fatigue.

  18. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

  19. New directions for gravitational wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    "Millikan oil drops" are drops of superfluid helium coated with electrons, and levitated in a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field. When the temperature of the system becomes very low compared to the cyclotron gap energy, the system remains in its quantum ground state. Two such levitated charged drops can have their charge-to-mass ratio critically adjusted so that the forces of gravity and electricity between the drops are in balance. Then it is predicted that the amount of scattered electromagnetic and gravitational radiation from the drops are equalized, along with these two kinds of forces. The cross sections for the scattering of the two kinds of radiation can become large, hard-sphere cross-sections at the first Mie resonance, due to the hard-wall boundary conditions on the surfaces of the spheres for both kinds of radiations. An efficient quantum transduction process between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation by such a pair of drops is predicted at microwave frequencies, and a Hertz-like experiment is proposed. A more practical implementation of these ideas to use pairs of levitated, charged superconducting spheres is briefly discussed.

  20. Finite element analysis of axisymmetric oscillations of sessile liquid drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.; Benner, R.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inviscid oscillations of sessile liquid drops are simulated by the Galerkin finite element method in conjunction with the time integrator proposed by Gresho et al. Simulations are of drops in spherical containers which are subjected to imposed oscillations of specified frequency and amplitude. Five equations govern drop response: (1) Laplace's equation for velocity potential within the drop; (2) a kinematic condition at the free surface; (3) a Bernoulli equation augmented to include gravity and capillary pressure at the free surface; (4) a kinematic condition at the solid surface; and (5) either a condition for fixed contact line or fixed contact angle. Each of these equations is modified to account for an accelerating frame of reference which moves the container. Normalized drop volume, contact angle, and gravitational Bond number are dimensionless parameters which control drop response to an imposed oscillation. Given a set of fluid properties, such as those for mercury, gravitational Bond number is uniquely defined by the container radius. Resonant frequencies and mode interaction are detected by Fourier analysis of a transient signal, such as free surface position at the pole of a spherical coordinate system. Results, especially resonant frequencies, are found to depend strongly on contact line condition. Calculation of resonant frequencies by eigenanalysis with Stewart's method is also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  1. INTERAGENCY FIELD TEST & EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE - RADAR INTERFEREN...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Results of IFT&E More Documents & Publications Final Report DE-EE0005380 - Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems...

  2. INTERAGENCY FIELD TEST & EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE - RADAR INTERFERENCE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOralGovernment Vehicle Utilization atMITIGATION

  3. Development of a Drillrod/Telemetry Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raton Technology Research, Inc.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient extraction of deeply buried natural resources is dependent upon accurate geologic models. The model becomes the basis for developing plans for extraction of the resource. Geoscientists working in geothermal and hydrocarbon recovery have a great deal in common with fellow geoscientists working in the mining industry. They appreciate the intractable problem of increasing the depth of investigation to tens of meters from the wellbore. The goal of this project was to develop a borehole radar tool to acquire data within tens of meters from the wellbore. For geothermal and hydrocarbon applications, the tool was to acquire data for mapping fractures surrounding the wellbore. In mining of coal, the radar acquires data for determining coal seam thickness and detecting geologic anomalies ahead of mining.

  4. Tomographic data developed using the ABEM RAMAC borehole radar system at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLeod, G.A.; Barker, D.L.; Molnar, S. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The ABEM RAMAC borehole radar system was run as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration for Sandia National Laboratories at Kirtland AFB. Tomograms were created between three test boreholes-UCAP No. 1, UCAP No. 2, and UCAP No. 3. These tomograms clearly delineate areas of amplitude attenuation and residual time of arrival or slowness differences. Plots for slowness were made using both the maximum and minimum of the first arrival pulse. The data demonstrates that the ABEM RAMAC 60-MHz pulse sampling radar system can be used to collect usable data in a highly conductive environment.

  5. Digitized dual wavelength radar data from a Texas thunderstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radlein, Robin Ann

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIGITIZED DUAL WAVL'LENGTH RADAR DATA FROM A TEXAS THUNDERSTORM A Thesis ROBIN ANN RADLEIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ol MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977... Wavelength Radar Data from a Texas Thunderstorm. (December 1977) Robin Ann Radlein~ B. S , Texas ASN University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr Vance Noyer Nulti-tilt digitized dual wavelength radar data collected during a Texas thunderstorm were...

  6. Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615627 (2001) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology 615 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615­627 (2001) © EGS Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity­rain rate relationships for radar hydrology* Remko Uijlenhoet1 Sub-department Water Resources

  7. Applications of Radar Interferometry to Detect Surface Deformation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley in Southern California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Applications of Radar Interferometry to Detect Surface...

  8. Design and Development of Dual Polarized, Stacked Patch Antenna Element for S-Band Dual-Pol Weather Radar Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Weather Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for S-Band Weather Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual-polpatterns of polarimetric weather radars,” Journal of

  9. Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heubach, Silvia

    Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions Mansour Department of Mathematics, Haifa University, Israel #12;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 3 Definitions · A composition = 12 . . . m of n N

  10. Meso-scale controlled motion for a microfluidic drop ejector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Givler, Richard C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Czaplewski, David A.; Luck, David L.; Braithwaite, Mark J.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this LDRD was to develop a uniquely capable, novel droplet solution based manufacturing system built around a new MEMS drop ejector. The development all the working subsystems required was completed, leaving the integration of these subsystems into a working prototype still left to accomplish. This LDRD report will focus on the three main subsystems: (1) MEMS drop ejector--the MEMS ''sideshooter'' effectively ejected 0.25 pl drops at 10 m/s, (2) packaging--a compact ejector package based on a modified EMDIP (Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package--SAND2002-1941) was fabricated, and (3) a vision/stage system allowing precise ejector package positioning in 3 dimensions above a target was developed.

  11. Maximal air bubble entrainment at liquid drop impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Tran, Tuan; Keij, Diederik L; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; van der Meer, Devaraj; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At impact of a liquid drop on a solid surface an air bubble can be entrapped. Here we show that two competing effects minimize the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: For large drop impact velocity and large droplets the inertia of the liquid flattens the entrained bubble, whereas for small impact velocity and small droplets capillary forces minimize the entrained bubble. However, we demonstrate experimentally, theoretically, and numerically that in between there is an optimum, leading to maximal air bubble entrapment. Our results have a strong bearing on various applications in printing technology, microelectronics, immersion lithography, diagnostics, or agriculture.

  12. Slant visual range from drop-size distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrance, Edwin Stanley

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    YIci'Ai Ra', tq- DROP-SIZE DISTRIBU, ION A Thesi s EDWIN STANLEY ARPANCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial ful fi 1 lment of the requirement for the degree of M AS I . R 0 r S C I E I'I C E August I 9BO I...'laj or Subject: Mete orol oqy SLANT VISUAL RANGE FROM DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by EDWIN STANLEY ARRANCE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Vance E. Moyer; (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Geor L. Huebner, Jr. (Member) Dr. Glen N. Williams...

  13. 32nd Conf. Radar Meteorology Albuquerque, NM, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    32nd Conf. Radar Meteorology Albuquerque, NM, 2005 J1J.4 MULTIPLE DOPPLER WIND ANALYSIS and smoothness constraints by incorporating them into a cost function yielding the 3-D wind. In this study, this 3DVAR analysis method is adapted to perform multiple Doppler wind analysis for CASA radars, together

  14. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  15. Greenland snow accumulation estimates from satellite radar scatterometer data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Greenland snow accumulation estimates from satellite radar scatterometer data Mark R. Drinkwater accumulation on the Greenland ice sheet. Microwave radar backscatter images of Greenland are derived using (or decrease) in net snow accumulation on the polar ice caps. The net mass balance of the Greenland

  16. Weather Radar Control System Seidu Ibrahim; Advisor: Eric J. Knapp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Weather Radar Control System Seidu Ibrahim; Advisor: Eric J. Knapp Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Massachusetts, Amherst Abstract Weather radar is an important part of the national infrastructure that is used in producing forecasts and issuing hazardous weather warnings. Traditional weather

  17. Cassini Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR): Earth and Venus observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    of operation is as a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapper at Titan, with the fan-shaped beam dragged across of incidence angles. During all of the active modes, SAR, altimeter, and scat- terometer, the microwave power but rather was operated to obtain calibration data and rehearse instrument operations. 2. Venus The RADAR

  18. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

  19. Heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with downflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, F.X.; Crowley, C.J. (Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH (United States)); Qureshi, Z.H. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of a flow instability (OFI) determines the minimum flow rate for cooling in the flow channels of a nuclear fuel assembly. A test facility was constructed with full-scale models (length and diameter) of annular flow channels incorporating many instruments to measure heat transfer and pressure drop with downflow in the annulus. Tests were performed both with and without axial centering ribs at prototypical values of pressure, flow rate and uniform wall heat flux. The axial ribs have the effect of subdividing the annulus into quadrants, so the problem becomes one of parallel channel flow, unlike previous experiments in tubes (upflow and downflow). Other tests were performed to determine the effects if any of asymmetric and non-uniform circumferential wall heating, operating pressure level and dissolved gas concentration. Data from the tests are compared with models for channel heat transfer and pressure drop profiles in several regimes of wall heating from single-phase forced convection through partially and fully developed nucleate boiling. Minimum stable flow rates were experimentally determined as a function of wall heat flux and heat distribution and compared with the model for the transition to fully developed boiling which is a key criterion in determining the OFI condition in the channel. The heat transfer results in the channel without ribs are in excellent agreement with predictions from a computer model of the flow in the annulus and with empirical correlations developed from similar tests. The test results with centering ribs show that geometrical variations between the channels can lead to differences in subchannel behavior which can make the effect of the ribs and the geometry an important factor when assessing the power level at which the fuel assembly (and the reactor) can be operated to prevent overheating in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA).

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with downflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, F.X.; Crowley, C.J. [Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH (United States); Qureshi, Z.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of a flow instability (OFI) determines the minimum flow rate for cooling in the flow channels of a nuclear fuel assembly. A test facility was constructed with full-scale models (length and diameter) of annular flow channels incorporating many instruments to measure heat transfer and pressure drop with downflow in the annulus. Tests were performed both with and without axial centering ribs at prototypical values of pressure, flow rate and uniform wall heat flux. The axial ribs have the effect of subdividing the annulus into quadrants, so the problem becomes one of parallel channel flow, unlike previous experiments in tubes (upflow and downflow). Other tests were performed to determine the effects if any of asymmetric and non-uniform circumferential wall heating, operating pressure level and dissolved gas concentration. Data from the tests are compared with models for channel heat transfer and pressure drop profiles in several regimes of wall heating from single-phase forced convection through partially and fully developed nucleate boiling. Minimum stable flow rates were experimentally determined as a function of wall heat flux and heat distribution and compared with the model for the transition to fully developed boiling which is a key criterion in determining the OFI condition in the channel. The heat transfer results in the channel without ribs are in excellent agreement with predictions from a computer model of the flow in the annulus and with empirical correlations developed from similar tests. The test results with centering ribs show that geometrical variations between the channels can lead to differences in subchannel behavior which can make the effect of the ribs and the geometry an important factor when assessing the power level at which the fuel assembly (and the reactor) can be operated to prevent overheating in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA).

  1. Message Drop and Scheduling in DTNs: Theory and Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Message Drop and Scheduling in DTNs: Theory and Practice Amir Krifa, Chadi Barakat, Senior Member there may store a message in its buffer and carry it along for long periods of time, until an appropriate forwarding opportunity arises. This way, messages can traverse disconnected parts of the network. Multiple

  2. Drop Off & Parking Information Photo courtesy of Fowler Museum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    KIDSMUSE Drop Off & Parking Information Photo courtesy of Fowler Museum The Fowler Museum-up of campers is available near the Museum. Enter UCLA from Sunset Blvd. at the Westwood Plaza entrance. Take Museum. You must bring your child into the Museum on the first day of camp. The rest of the week you may

  3. Optimizing Controller Location in Networked Control Systems with Packet Drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimizing Controller Location in Networked Control Systems with Packet Drops C. L. Robinson1 and P in answering these two questions is that analysis of optimality in networked control systems subject to random mechanisms for wireless networked control systems [8, 6, 5]. In this paper we consider the issue of optimal

  4. OPTIMAL CONTROL WITH PACKET DROPS IN NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OPTIMAL CONTROL WITH PACKET DROPS IN NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEMS Flavia Felicioni*, François Simonot optimization 1. INTRODUCTION1 With the progress of networking technology, more and more control systems are now: The stability and performance of a networked control system are strongly influenced by the network delay

  5. Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Print Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor June 22 (Bloomberg) -- Japan fusion reactor, a decision that would end a standoff with France to site the 4.6 billion-euro ($5 the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor in return for assurances it will manage the project in France

  6. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sloan, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder's echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

  7. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna (10), so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive (24) and transmit cavities (22) by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling.

  8. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling. 25 figs.

  9. Calibration of the groundbased radars during CLARE'98 Robin J. Hogan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Calibration of the ground­based radars during CLARE'98 Robin J. Hogan Department of Meteorology. The approach used to calibrate the radars is to start with the absolute calibration provided by the Rabelais radar in Rayleigh­scattering light rain or cloud. Finally the W­band radars are calibrated

  10. A 10-year radar-based climatology of rainfall Aart Overeem, Iwan Holleman, Adri Buishand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    the derivation of a 10- year radar-based precipitation climatology for the Netherlands. Using rain gauges of the radar-based accumulations with an independent gauge network confirms the quality of the data set. Finally, the radar data are used to obtain exceedance probabilities and maximum rainfall depths. II. RADAR

  11. ELEVATION-DEPENDENT TRENDS IN PRECIPITATION OBSERVED BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    i THESIS ELEVATION-DEPENDENT TRENDS IN PRECIPITATION OBSERVED BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK Submitted BY ANGELA K. ROWE ENTITLED ELEVATION- DEPENDENT TRENDS IN PRECIPITATION OBSERVED BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK Radar data from the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) Enhanced Observing

  12. Considerations for the use of radar-derived precipitation estimates in determining return intervals for extreme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Robert J.

    to those based on traditional rain gauge networks. For both the radar and gauge data, increasing, considerable differences between radar ARF and gauge ARF exist. Radar ARF decays at a faster rate (with increasing area) than gauge ARF. For a basin size of 20,000 km2 , the percent difference between radar ARF

  13. Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.

  14. MA373 S14 Test 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jeffb_000

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Math 373. Test 2. Spring 2014. March 11, 2014. 1. Rendong is repaying a loan of 10,000 with monthly payments of 400 plus a smaller drop payment. Rendong is ...

  15. The effect of longitudinal spacer ribs on the minimum pressure drop in a heated annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, B.S.; Neff, J.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When evaluating a heated flow passage for vulnerability to static flow excursions, special note should be taken of flow restrictions which might allow premature vapor generation. In this study, measurements of steady state pressure drop were made for the downward flow of water in a vertical annulus. The outer wall was uniformly heated to allow subcooled boiling. Minima in the pressure drop characteristics were compared for test sections with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. For a given power and inlet temperature, the minimum occurred at a higher flow rate in the ribbed test section. This is attributed to vapor generation at the ribs. The work cited in this document show how a restriction in a heated channel can produce vapor which would not be observed in the absence of the restriction. In the present study, the effect of a flow restriction on the tendency to flow excursion is explored by finding demand curves for a heated annulus in subcooled boiling flow. The annulus is heated from the outside, and alternately equipped with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. These ribs separate the heated and unheated walls; in pressing against the heated wall they provide a means for premature vapor production.

  16. Radar echo, Doppler Effect and Radar detection in the uniformly accelerated reference frame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

    2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The uniformly accelerated reference frame described by Hamilton, Desloge and Philpott involves the observers who perform the hyperbolic motion with constant proper acceleration gi. They start to move from different distances measured from the origin O of the inertial reference frame K(XOY), along its OX axis with zero initial velocity. Equipped with clocks and light sources they are engaged with each other in Radar echo, Doppler Effect and Radar detection experiments. They are also engaged in the same experiments with an inertial observer at rest in K(XOY) and located at its origin O. We derive formulas that account for the experiments mentioned above. We study also the landing conditions of the accelerating observers on a uniformly moving platform.

  17. Development and characterization analysis of a radar polarimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bong, Soei Siang

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE RPS Assembling the RPS. Theoretical Calculations. Losses in the RF Heads. 1. The L-Band Radar Head (1. 6 GHz). 2. The C-Band Radar Head (4. 75 GHz) 3. The X-Band Radar Head (10. 003 GHz) RF Head Stability as Measured... of the Components in the IF Section. List of Components in the L-Band RF Head. List of Components in the C-Band RF Head. List of Components in the X-Band RF Head. Detail List of Components in the L-Band RF Head . Specifications of the Components in the L...

  18. Development and characterization analysis of a radar polarimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bong, Soei Siang

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE RPS Assembling the RPS. Theoretical Calculations. Losses in the RF Heads. 1. The L-Band Radar Head (1. 6 GHz). 2. The C-Band Radar Head (4. 75 GHz) 3. The X-Band Radar Head (10. 003 GHz) RF Head Stability as Measured... of the Components in the IF Section. List of Components in the L-Band RF Head. List of Components in the C-Band RF Head. List of Components in the X-Band RF Head. Detail List of Components in the L-Band RF Head . Specifications of the Components in the L...

  19. Probability of Potential Multi-Canister Overpack Loading System Drop of Proof Load in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of a probabilistic analysis of the potential for load drop during the load test of the K West Basin South Loadout Pit Gantry. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject load test of the gantry. The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of the per lift potential for drop of a test load by the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Loading System (MLS) during load testing at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The MLS subproject needs to load test the MLS in the K West Basin south loadout pit. To perform this test, a basket mockup weighing approximately 4,500 lb (125% of a fully loaded MCO basket accounting for water displacement) needs to be used for one or more load tests. The test load will comprise a standard basket lifting attachment with several ring-shaped steel segments to provide the required weight. The test load will exceed the K Basin Safety Analysis Report (WHC-SD-WM-SAR-062) (SAR) allowances for load drop in the K West Basin south loadout pit. This probabilistic calculation will be used as part of the basis for seeking U.S. Department of Energy approval to use an MLS test weight that exceeds SAR allowances.

  20. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  1. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Gardner, Duane (Santa Maria, CA); Patrick, Douglas (Santa Maria, CA); Lewallen, Tricia A. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA); Painter, Kelly D. (Goleta, CA); Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Alexandria, VA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  2. Electrically modulated dynamic spreading of drops on soft surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranabir Dey; Ashish Daga; Sunando DasGupta; Suman Chakraborty

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The intricate interaction between the deformability of a substrate and the dynamic spreading of a liquid drop on the same, under the application of an electrical voltage, has remained far from being well understood. Here, we demonstrate that electrospreading dynamics on soft substrates is dictated by the combined interplay of electrocapillarity, the wetting line friction and the viscoelastic energy dissipation at the contact line. Our results reveal that during such electro-elastocapillarity mediated spreading of a sessile drop, the contact radius evolution exhibits a universal power law in a substrate elasticity based non-dimensional time, with an electric potential dependent spreading exponent. Simultaneously, the macroscopic dynamic contact angle variation follows a general power law in the contact line velocity, normalized by elasticity dependent characteristic velocity scale. Our results are likely to provide the foundation for the development of a plethora of new applications involving droplet manipulations by exploiting the interplay between electrically triggered spreading and substrate-compliance over interfacial scales.

  3. Evaluation of Cask Drop Criticality Issues at K Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GOLDMANN, L.H.

    2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of ability of Multi-canister Overpack (MCO) to withstand drops at K Basin without exceeding the criticality design requirements. Report concludes the MCO will function acceptably. The spent fuel currently residing in the 105 KE and 105 KW storage basins will be placed in fuel storage baskets which will be loaded into the MCO cask assembly. During the basket loading operations the MCO cask assembly will be positioned near the bottom of the south load out pit (SLOP). The loaded MCO cask will be lifted from the SLOP transferred to the transport trailer and delivered to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). In the wet condition there is a potential for criticality problems if significant changes in the designed fuel configurations occur. The purpose of this report is to address structural issues associated with criticality design features for MCO cask drop accidents in the 105 KE and 105 KW facilities.

  4. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Garrett, Henry E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  5. Drop fragment distributions under shear with inertia q Y. Renardy a,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renardy, Yuriko

    .55.Dz; 47.11.+j; 47.20.Gv Keywords: Drop breakup; VOF method 1. Introduction Drop breakup processes provide the mechanisms through which emulsions form, in devices such as rotor­stator mixers (Utracki

  6. Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud microphysical parameterizations and retrievals rely heavily on knowledge of the shape of drop size distributions (DSDs). Many investigations assume that DSDs in the entire or partial drop size range may be approximated ...

  7. 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 -...

  8. Coherent radar ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Braaten, David A.; Leuschen, C.; Legarsky, J.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Stiles, J.; Allen, C.; Jezek, K.; Akins, T.

    2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders for ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet. We developed one of these using connectorized components and the other using radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). Both...

  9. Sea surface wave reconstruction from marine radar images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Yusheng, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-band marine radar is one type of remote sensing technology which is being increasingly used to measure sea surface waves nowadays. In this thesis, how to reconstruct sea surface wave elevation maps from X-band marine ...

  10. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  11. Earth curvature and atmospheric refraction effects on radar signal propagation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth isn't flat, and radar beams don't travel straight. This becomes more noticeable as range increases, particularly at shallow depression/grazing angles. This report explores models for characterizing this behavior.

  12. Radar Vehicle Detection Within Four Quadrant Gate Crossings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    of the exit gate · Less delay between entry and exit gate descent · Extends the exit gate delay only) Methodology 4) Results 5) Conclusions 6) Acknowledgments Exit Gate Operating Modes (EGOM) Radar Vehicle

  13. A spatial display for Ground-Penetrating Radar change detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quimby, Paul W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) enables the exploration and mapping of subterranean volumes for applications such as construction, humanitarian demining, archeology, and environmental science. In each of these applications, ...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: evaluating wind-turbine/radar impacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Space (NAS) radar system, which has led to a blanket rejection of several wind-farm developments. To improve the siting and ... Last Updated: December 3, 2014 Go To...

  15. An airborne digital processor for radar scatterometer data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeadon, David Steven

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN AIRBORNE DIGITAL PROCESSOR FOR RADAR SCATTEROMETER DATA A Thesis by DAVID STEVEN YEADON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977... Major Subject: Electrical Engineering AN AIRBORNE DIGITAL PROCESSOR FOR RADAR SCATTEROMETER DATA A Thesis by DAVID STEVEN YEADON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o Committee) Head of epartment) ( (Member ) (Member) August 1977...

  16. Differences in radar derived rainfall amounts due to sampling intervals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdenek, David James

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIFFERENCES IN RADAR DERIVED RAINFALL AMOUNTS DUE TO SAMPLING INTERVALS A Thesis by DAVID JAMES ZDENEK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1986 Major Subject: Meteorology DIFFERENCES IN RADAR DERIVED RAINFALL AMOUNTS DUE TO SAMPLING INTERVALS A Thesis by DAVID JAMES ZDENEK Approved as to style and content by: eorge L. Huebner (Chairman of Committee) CP~ CG~& Robert C...

  17. Conventional and synthetic aperature processing for airborne ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, R.M. [Airborne Environmental Surveys, Santa Maria, CA (United States); Simkins, W.L.; Brown, R.D. [MSB Technologies, Inc., Rome, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past four years Airborne Environmental Surveys (AES), a Division of Era Aviation, Inc. has used unique and patented airborne Frequency-Modulated, Continuous Wave (FM-CW) radars and processes for detecting and mapping subsurface phenomena. Primary application has focused on the detection of man-made objects in landfills, hazardous waste sites (some of which contain unexploded ordinance), and subsurface plumes of refined free-floating hydrocarbons. Recently, MSB Technologies, Inc. (MSB) has developed a form of synthetic aperture radar processing (SAR), called GPSAR{trademark}, that is tailored especially for the AES radars. Used as an adjunct to more conventional airborne ground-penetrating radar data processing techniques, GPSAR takes advantage of the radars` coherent transmission and produces imagery that is better focused and more accurate in determining an object`s range and true depth. This paper describes the iterative stages of data processing and analysis used with the radars and shows the added advantages that GPSAR processing offers.

  18. Stretching and squeezing of sessile dielectric drops by the optical radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Stretching and squeezing of sessile dielectric drops by the optical radiation pressure Hamza Chra to the optical radiation pressure of a continuous Gaussian laser wave. Both drop stretching and drop squeezing are investigated at steady state where capillary effects balance the optical radiation pressure. A boundary

  19. ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1 , A. Mills1 , D. Youchison2/s. Based on these impressive performance results, a unique and scalable heat exchanger channel with ultra-low and ultra low-pressure drop short flow-path (SOFIT) concept was designed. Typical pressure drops through

  20. Ratchet-like motion of a shaken drop Xavier Noblin, Richard Kofman, and Franck Celestini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ratchet-like motion of a shaken drop Xavier Noblin, Richard Kofman, and Franck Celestini the underlying mechanism leading to this ratchet-like motion of the drop. Our model includes the particular case do not provide the ratchet- like asymmetry necessary to induce a net drop displace- ment. Brunet et

  1. RISES, LEVELS, DROPS AND "+" SIGNS IN COMPOSITIONS: EXTENSIONS OF A PAPER BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heubach, Silvia

    RISES, LEVELS, DROPS AND "+" SIGNS IN COMPOSITIONS: EXTENSIONS OF A PAPER BY ALLADI AND HOGGATT S, levels (a summand followed by itself), rises (a summand followed by a larger one), and drops (a summand of levels, rises and drops for compositions, as well as interesting connections between these quantities

  2. Vapor chambers with jumping-drop liquid return from superhydrophobic condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Vapor chambers with jumping-drop liquid return from superhydrophobic condensers Jonathan B. Boreyko January 2013 Accepted 28 January 2013 Keywords: Jumping drops Vapor chamber Superhydrophobicity Wick-propelled jumping drops on a superhydrophobic condenser offer a new mechanism to return the working fluid

  3. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993--September 22, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.

  4. Development of Radar Navigation and Radio Data Transmission for Microhole Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk; Gerald L. Stolarczyk; Larry Icerman; John Howard; Hooman Tehrani

    2007-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the research and development (R&D) work performed by Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract Number DE-FC26-04NT15477. This work involved the development of radar navigation and radio data transmission systems for integration with microhole coiled tubing bottom hole assemblies. Under this contract, Stolar designed, fabricated, and laboratory and field tested two advanced technologies of importance to the future growth of the U.S. oil and gas industry: (1) real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of coiled tubing drilling in hydrocarbon reservoirs and (2) two-way inductive radio data transmission on coiled tubing for real-time, subsurface-to-surface data transmission. The operating specifications for these technologies are compatible with 3.5-inch boreholes drilled to a true vertical depth (TVD) of 5,000 feet, which is typical of coiled tubing drilling applications. These two technologies (i.e., the Stolar Data Transmission System and Drill String Radar) were developed into pre-commercial prototypes and tested successfully in simulated coiled tubing drilling conditions. Integration of these two technologies provides a real-time geosteering capability with extremely quick response times. Stolar is conducting additional work required to transition the Drill String Radar into a true commercial product. The results of this advanced development work should be an important step in the expanded commercialization of advanced coiled tubing microhole drilling equipment for use in U.S. hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  5. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher resolution real-time model simulations possible, the need to obtain observations to both initialize numerical models and verify their output has become increasingly important. The assimilation of high resolution radar observations therefore provides a vital component in the development and utility of numerical model forecasts for both weather forecasting and contaminant transport, including future opportunities to improve wet deposition computations explicitly.

  6. Ab Initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. D. Potter; S. Fischer; P. Maris; J. P. Vary; S. Binder; A. Calci; J. Langhammer; R. Roth

    2014-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2 - 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8, 16, 20, 28, 40, 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparisons with Green's Function Monte Carlo results, where available, using Argonne v8' with three-nucleon interactions reveal important dependences on the chosen Hamiltonian.

  7. Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us Drew BittnerHome to aDrivingDrop

  8. Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartment ofEnergy TechnologyDrop-In

  9. Evidence for the role of fluctuations in the thermodynamics of nanoscale drops and the implications in computations of the surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose G. Sampayo; Alexandr Malijevsky; Erich A. Muller; E. de Miguel; G. Jackson

    2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Test area deformations are used to analyse vapour-liquid interfaces of Lennard-Jones particles by molecular dynamics simulation. For planar vapour-liquid interfaces the change in free energy is captured by the average of the corresponding change in energy, the leading-order contribution. This is consistent with the commonly used mechanical (pressure tensor) route for the surface tension. By contrast for liquid drops one finds a large second-order contribution associated with fluctuations in energy. Both the first- and second-order terms make comparable contributions, invalidating the mechanical relation for the surface tension of small drops. The latter is seen to increase above the planar value for drop radii of ~8 particle diameters, followed by an apparent weak maximum and slow decay to the planar limit, consistent with a small negative Tolman length.

  10. SMALL-SCALE IMPACT SENSITIVITY TESTING ON EDC37

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HSU, P C; HUST, G; MAIENSCHEIN, J L

    2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    EDC37 was tested at LLNL to determine its impact sensitivity in the LLNL's drop hammer system. The results showed that impact sensitivities of the samples were between 86 cm and 156 cm, depending on test methods. EDC37 is a plastic bonded explosive consisting of 90% HMX, 1% nitrocellulose and binder. We recently conducted impact sensitivity testing in our drop hammer system and the results are presented in this report.

  11. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  12. Incoherent scatter radar detection of enhanced plasma line in ionospheric E-region over Arecibo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradipta, Rezy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observation were conducted at the Arecibo Observatory from December 27, 2005 until January 3, 2006. From plasma line measurements that were taken during this radar campaign, we ...

  13. Focused synthetic aperture radar processing of ice-sounder data collected over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legarsky, J.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Akins, T. L.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing algorithm for airborne/spaceborne ice-sounding radar systems and applied it to data collected in Greenland. By using focused SAR (phase-corrected coherent averaging), we improved along...

  14. Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar topography mission data Bridget Smith and David Sandwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar topography mission data Bridget Smith and David Sandwell: General or miscellaneous. Citation: Smith, B., and D. Sandwell, Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar

  15. Near real-time runoff estimation using spatially distributed radar rainfall data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadley, Jennifer Lyn

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with rainfall. Radar networks, such as the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) of the National Weather Service (NWS), which are widely available and continue to improve in quality and resolution, can accomplish these tasks. In general, a...

  16. Near Real-Time Runoff Estimation Using Spatially Distributed Radar Rainfall Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadley, Jennifer Lynn

    associated with rainfall. Radar networks, such as the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) of the National Weather Service (NWS), which are widely available and continue to improve in quality and resolution, can accomplish these tasks. In general, a...

  17. Antarctica X-band MiniSAR crevasse detection radar : final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sander, Grant J.; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for the Antarctica Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Project. The project involved the modification of a Sandia National Laboratories MiniSAR system to operate at X-band in order to assess the feasibility of an airborne radar to detect crevasses in Antarctica. This radar successfully detected known crevasses at various geometries. The best results were obtained for synthetic aperture radar resolutions of at most one foot and finer. In addition to the main goal of detecting crevasses, the radar was used to assess conops for a future operational radar. The radar scanned large areas to identify potential safe landing zones. In addition, the radar was used to investigate looking at objects on the surface and below the surface of the ice. This document includes discussion of the hardware development, system capabilities, and results from data collections in Antarctica.

  18. Analog FIR Filter Used for Range-Optimal Pulsed Radar Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Eric Chen

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Matched filter is one of the most critical block in radar applications. With different measured range and relative velocity of a target we will need different bandwidth of the matched filter to maximize the radar signal to noise ratio (SNR...

  19. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumgartner, F.; Munk, J.; Jezek, K. C.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) ...

  20. Test Set Reordering Using the Gate Exhaustive Test Metric Kyoung Youn Cho and Edward J. McCluskey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Test Set Reordering Using the Gate Exhaustive Test Metric Kyoung Youn Cho and Edward J. Mc kycho@crc.stanford.edu Abstract When a test set size is larger than desired, some patterns must be dropped. This paper presents a systematic method to reduce test set size; the method reorders a test set

  1. Test plan/procedure for the shock limiting device of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator package mounting subsystem 145. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoh, J.A.

    1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines the procedure to be used in the 18 inch drop test to be used for design verification of the RTG Transportation System Package Mounting.

  2. FMCW radars for snow research Hans-Peter Marshall a,b,, Gary Koh a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    -available impulse radars are currently used operationally in Scandinavia's deep snow packs (e.g. Sand and Bruland

  3. Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    1 Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar Deanna A's Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone rainbands. Radar-echo statistics show that rainbands have a two-layered structure, with distinct modes separated by the melting layer

  4. Radar Network Scanning Coordination Based on Ensemble Transform Kalman Filtering Variance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Luther

    Radar Network Scanning Coordination Based on Ensemble Transform Kalman Filtering Variance an ensemble Kalman filter is used as a criterion with which to op- timize radar network scanning strategies, is a function of the retrieval scanning parameters. It is shown that the mapping from radar parameters

  5. SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS P. Kollias, I. Jo, A, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers

  6. ERAD 2008 -THE FIFTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON RADAR IN METEOROLOGYAND HYDROLOGY 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    , and the enhancement of the radar processing with capabilities found in modern radar equipment. In the European tender receivers and all data processing equipment in the radar sensor was replaced with modern equipment. The short pulse mode (0.8 microseconds) is used for PRFs up to 1200 Hz. To enhance reliability the thyratron

  7. A New Coherent Radar for Ice Sounding in Greenland A. Moussessian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    A New Coherent Radar for Ice Sounding in Greenland A. Moussessian 1 , R.L. Jordan 1 , E. Rodriguez of this radar on board a P-3 aircraft took place in May of 1999 over Greenland with successful results blanking. The first deployment of this radar took place in May of 1999 in Greenland. During this deployment

  8. 2 1 APPLICATION GALLERY 1.1 Tracking ``Fuzzy'' Storms in Doppler Radar Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, John

    and tornadoes. The Doppler radar generates intensity and radial velocity images, examples of which are shown Doppler radar radial and velocity image (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1.2: The storm tracks for the (a) 5 th , (b2 1 APPLICATION GALLERY 1.1 Tracking ``Fuzzy'' Storms in Doppler Radar Images J. L. Barron 1 , R. E

  9. Determining weather radar antenna pointing using signals detected from the sun at low antenna elevations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Determining weather radar antenna pointing using signals detected from the sun at low antenna radiation of the sun for checking of the antenna alignment and of the sensitivity of the receiver chain is a well established method in weather radar maintenance, and radar manufacturers offer sun calibration

  10. Resultados obtidos com a utilizao de imagens de RADAR do satlite ALOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resultados obtidos com a utilização de imagens de RADAR do satélite ALOS no combate ao desmatamento Documentos Indicativos de desmatamento com ALOS PALSAR #12;#12;INDICAR- Indicador de desmatamento por imagens de RADAR · Projeto desenvolvido pelo CSR/IBAMA · Utiliza imagens de RADAR do satélite Japonês ALOS

  11. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended

  12. Influence of small scale rainfall variability on standard comparison tools between radar and rain gauge data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in revised form 18 October 2013 Accepted 8 November 2013 Rain gauges and weather radars do not measure some usual practice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radar­rain gauge comparison are tipping bucket rain gauges, disdrometers, weather radars and (passive or active) sensors onboard

  13. Test Automation Test Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Test Automation Test Automation Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing 2013 Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Outline Test Automation Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Why? Challenges of Manual Testing Test-case design: Choosing inputs

  14. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravchuk, P A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  15. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

    2014-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  16. Drop impact upon micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Peichun; Pirat, Christophe; Lefferts, Leon; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally investigate drop impact dynamics onto different superhydrophobic surfaces, consisting of regular polymeric micropatterns and rough carbon nanofibers, with similar static contact angles. The main control parameters are the Weber number \\We and the roughness of the surface. At small \\We, i.e. small impact velocity, the impact evolutions are similar for both types of substrates, exhibiting Fakir state, complete bouncing, partial rebouncing, trapping of an air bubble, jetting, and sticky vibrating water balls. At large \\We, splashing impacts emerge forming several satellite droplets, which are more pronounced for the multiscale rough carbon nanofiber jungles. The results imply that the multiscale surface roughness at nanoscale plays a minor role in the impact events for small \\We~$\\apprle 120$ but an important one for large \\We~$\\apprge 120$. Finally, we find the effect of ambient air pressure to be negligible in the explored parameter regime \\We~$\\apprle 150$

  17. A radar study of the interaction between lightning and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, D.N.; Ulbrich, C.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar study was made of the interaction between lightning and precipitation with the 430 MHz Doppler radar at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. On one occasion, the spectral power at Doppler velocities near that corresponding to the updraft increased substantially within a fraction of a second after a discharge was detected in the beam. Calculations were made to simulate the effect of an electric field change on mean Doppler velocity for a distribution of droplets in a thunderstorm. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, T.W.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geophysical Technology Dept.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  19. El fenmeno pro-drop en portugus de Brasil y espaol peninsular Resumen: espaol y portugus son lenguas pro-drop. No obstante, diversos estudios indican que el

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El fenómeno pro-drop en portugués de Brasil y español peninsular Resumen: español y portugués son portugués de Brasil una lengua parcialmente pro-drop. En este trabajo se analiza el fenómeno pro-drop en portugués de Brasil a través de una comparación con el español peninsular, utilizando para ello corpus

  20. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fobel, Ryan [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada) [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 (Canada); Fobel, Christian [School of Computer Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)] [School of Computer Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Wheeler, Aaron R. [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada) [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  1. Fluid characterisation and drop impact in inkjet printing for organic semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Sungjune

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    process. The switching speed of a circuit relies on mobility and the ratio between channel length and channel width of the transistor. Commercial DoD inkjet printers can produce drops with a volume of some picoliters which correspond to a drop diameter... , and of my new-born baby Jisu. I love you both so much. iii List of symbols (Roman) A Area c Polymer concentration c* Critical concentration Ca Capillary number D Drop diameter Do Drop diameter at impact Dj Jet diameter...

  2. Dynamics of a drop trapped inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchesne, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A drop of moderate size deposited inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid remains trapped at the shock front and does not coalesce. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  3. Orbits and reversals of a drop rolling inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Duchesne; Clément Savaro; Luc Lebon; Christophe Pirat; Laurent Limat

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the complex dynamics of a non-coalescing drop of moderate size inside a circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid formed on a horizontal disk. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  4. HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

  5. Progress reports for October 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F.

    1994-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for each of the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis; modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Finally the budget status is given.

  6. MA373 S14 Test 2-1.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jeffb_000

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Math 373. Test 2. Spring 2014. March 11, 2014. 1. Rendong is repaying a loan of 10,000 with monthly payments of 400 plus a smaller drop payment. Rendong is ...

  7. UCRL-ID-119665 LLNL Small-Scale Drop-Hammer Impact Sensitivity Test

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The item youThe DiscoveryFuels and Power5727 U235:,.

  8. Assessment Of The Wind Farm Impact On The Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Evgeny D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study shows the means to evaluate the wind farm impact on the radar. It proposes the set of tools, which can be used to realise this objective. The big part of report covers the study of complex pattern propagation factor as the critical issue of the Advanced Propagation Model (APM). Finally, the reader can find here the implementation of this algorithm - the real scenario in Inverness airport (the United Kingdom), where the ATC radar STAR 2000, developed by Thales Air Systems, operates in the presence of several wind farms. Basically, the project is based on terms of the department "Strategy Technology & Innovation", where it has been done. Also you can find here how the radar industry can act with the problem engendered by wind farms. The current strategies in this area are presented, such as a wind turbine production, improvements of air traffic handling procedures and the collaboration between developers of radars and wind turbines. The possible strategy for Thales as a main pioneer was given as ...

  9. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  10. PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jie

    PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR) Dwayne Harris, M.Sc., PG University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 jshan@ecn.purdue.edu ABSTRACT Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement

  11. Automatic Radar Antenna Scan Type Recognition in Electronic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barshan, Billur

    Automatic Radar Antenna Scan Type Recognition in Electronic Warfare BILLUR BARSHAN BAHAEDDIN ERAVCI in electronic warfare (EW). The stages of the algorithm are scan period estimation, preprocessing (normalization Continuous-wave EW Electronic warfare EM Electromagnetic LFM Linear frequency modulation DTW Dynamic time

  12. RADAR OBSERVATIONS OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A. [Arecibo Observatory, National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612 (Puerto Rico); Giorgini, Jon D., E-mail: harmon@naic.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 301-150, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Comets rarely come close enough to be studied intensively with Earth-based radar. The most recent such occurrence was when Comet 103P/Hartley 2 passed within 0.12 AU in late 2010 October, less than two weeks before the EPOXI flyby. This offered a unique opportunity to improve pre-encounter trajectory knowledge and obtain complementary physical data for a spacecraft-targeted comet. 103P/Hartley 2 is only the fourth comet nucleus to be imaged with radar and already the second to be identified as an elongated, bilobate object based on its delay-Doppler signature. The images show the dominant spin mode to be a rotation about the short axis with a period of 18.2 hr. The nucleus has a low radar albedo consistent with a surface density of 0.5-1.0 g cm{sup -3}. A separate echo component was detected from large (>cm) grains ejected anisotropically with velocities of several to tens of meters per second. Radar shows that, in terms of large-grain production, 103P/Hartley 2 is an unusually active comet for its size.

  13. Automated Target Recognition Using Passive Radar and Coordinated Flight Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanterman, Aaron

    of altitude and range. The Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern, so Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA ABSTRACT Rather than emitting pulses, passive system is in the transmitter, whereas designers of "hitchhiking" or "parasitic" radars have high

  14. The use of composite radar photographs in synoptic weather analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, G. D.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ursa. Velooity of line, figure K3 Xn addition t* th? foregoing infornacion, the bases and tope of leyscs end tops of convective echoes oan be ruporced. With certain radar installations, end under certain conditions, tha height of thu freeaing...

  15. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging with Motion Estimation and Liliana Borcea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papanicolaou, George C.

    Callaghan George Papanicolaou Abstract We introduce from first principles a synthetic aperture radar (SAR calibrated small apertures, (b) preliminary motion estimation from the data using the Wigner transform-band persistent surveillance SAR is a specific application that is covered by our analysis. Detailed numerical

  16. Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

  17. Kinematical relations among radar-observed water concentrations, vertical motions, and liquid-water drop-size spectra in convective clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runnels, Robert Clayton

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of return settling are often cloudless or consist of cumulus clouds which have had their growth impeded. If conditions in the atmosphere are favorable, convection cells form and the updraft areas associated with these cells develop into cumulonimbus... and time, M & M(x, y, z, t). The x- and y-directions are horizontal and z-direction is positive toward the zenith. If the quantity M is conservative, the local rate of change at a fixed locality (the local change) can be represented by the following...

  18. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.

  19. Drop breakup in the flow through fixed fiber beds: An experimental and computational investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    Drop breakup in the flow through fixed fiber beds: An experimental and computational investigation; accepted 11 January 2003; published 2 April 2003 Dilute fixed fiber beds provide a model system. DOI: 10.1063/1.1557051 I. INTRODUCTION As drops are carried by a suspending fluid through a fixed bed

  20. Drop breakup in the flow through fixed beds via stochastic simulation in model Gaussian fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    Drop breakup in the flow through fixed beds via stochastic simulation in model Gaussian fields that the flow through a dilute disordered fixed bed of fibers produces large polymer conformation change beyond on the shape and breakup of viscous drops. Because the flow through a dilute fixed bed is equivalent

  1. ADSORPTION OF INTAN-100 AT THE BITUMEN/AQUEOUS SOLUTION INTERFACE STUDIED BY SPINNING DROP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    1 ADSORPTION OF INTAN-100 AT THE BITUMEN/AQUEOUS SOLUTION INTERFACE STUDIED BY SPINNING DROP an experimental study on the adsorption behaviour of Intan-100, a non- ionic surfactant, at the bitumen Spinning Drop Tensiometer, bitumen, heavy water, Intan-100, Gibbs adsorption isotherm. #12;2 Introduction

  2. Rate Shaping by Block Dropping for Transmission of MPEGprecoded Video over Channels of Dynamic Bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Wenjun "Kevin"

    ) and much better visual quality than conventional ap­ proaches. We also show that by jointly dropping blocksRate Shaping by Block Dropping for Transmission of MPEG­precoded Video over Channels of Dynamic of the compressed video in cases that the network capacity is reduced. This pa­ per proposes a novel block

  3. Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

  4. Spreading of Viscous Fluid Drops on a Solid Substrate Assisted by Thermal Fluctuations Benny Davidovitch,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moro, Esteban

    on a solid substrate, taking into account the effects of thermal fluctuations in the fluid momentum. A nonlinear stochastic lubrication equation is derived and studied using numerical simulations and scaling, 68.08.Bc, 68.15.+e Water drops spreading on a table and oil drops lubricat- ing a pan are two common

  5. APPLICATION OF BUTTERFLY VALVES FOR FREE DISCHARGE, MINIMUM PRESSURE DROP, AND FOR CHOKING CAVITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    CAVITATION Butterfly valves are commonly used as control valves in applications where the pressure drops and the use of a butterfly valve for flashing or choking cavitation service. Free discharge typically produces high pipe velocities at moderate pressure drops, and choking cavitation typically produces high

  6. Impact of job dropping on the schedulability of uniprocessor probabilistic real-time systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of job dropping on the schedulability of uniprocessor probabilistic real-time systems. For these systems the tasks have an associated probability of missing the deadline, i.e., some jobs may miss their deadlines without affecting the schedula- bility of the system. Therefore dropping these jobs does

  7. Buoyancy-driven motion and breakup of viscous drops in constricted capillaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muradoglu, Metin

    and breakup of deformable drops and bubbles through constant and variable cross-section capillaries applications, the individual pores or channels are tortuous with rapid changes in the local cross- sectional drops and gas bubbles through a vertical capillary with periodic constrictions in order to examine

  8. Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua) Department experimental results on the coalescence of two liquid drops driven by surface tension. Using a high speed that such scaling law is robust when using fluids of different viscosities and surface tensions. The prefactor

  9. CLEANING OF VISCOUS DROPS ON A FLAT INCLINED SURFACE USING GRAVITY-DRIVEN FILM FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalziel, Stuart

    then transports it away. To assess the impact of the drop on the velocity of the cleaning fluid, we have developed it is perturbed by a solid obstacle representing a very viscous drop. We find that at intermediate Reynolds number as in our daily life (Yeckel and Middleman, 1987), such as in a household dishwasher. In a full dishwasher

  10. Methods And System Suppressing Clutter In A Gain-Block, Radar-Responsive Tag System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems reduce clutter interference in a radar-responsive tag system. A radar transmits a series of linear-frequency-modulated pulses and receives echo pulses from nearby terrain and from radar-responsive tags that may be in the imaged scene. Tags in the vicinity of the radar are activated by the radar's pulses. The tags receive and remodulate the radar pulses. Tag processing reverses the direction, in time, of the received waveform's linear frequency modulation. The tag retransmits the remodulated pulses. The radar uses a reversed-chirp de-ramp pulse to process the tag's echo. The invention applies to radar systems compatible with coherent gain-block tags. The invention provides a marked reduction in the strength of residual clutter echoes on each and every echo pulse received by the radar. SAR receiver processing effectively whitens passive-clutter signatures across the range dimension. Clutter suppression of approximately 14 dB is achievable for a typical radar system.

  11. Radar and sonar probing of potash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez Aguilar, Luis Felipe

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , was able to detect reflections from acoustic discontinuities in salt located 8 to 325 m away. The piezoelectric acoustic transducer was coupled to the salt wall using castor oil. In the Kleer Salt Mine he was able to detect acoustic reflections from a... energy coupling into salt. He used the same linear sonar system developed by Butler (1977) to test castor oil, glycerin, UGL and some other commercial acoustic couplants as coupling fluids between the sonar transducer and the rock salt. He found...

  12. Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

  13. Electrohydrodynamic migration of a spherical drop in a general quadratic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the motion of a spherical drop in a general quadratic flow acted upon by an arbitrarily oriented externally applied uniform electric field. The drop and media are considered to be leaky dielectrics. The flow field affects the distribution of charges on the drop surface, which leads to alteration in the electric field, thereby affecting the velocity field through the Maxwell stress on the fluid-fluid interface. The two-way coupled electrohydrodynamics is central towards dictating the motion of the drop in the flow field. We analytically address the electric potential distribution and Stokesian flow field in and around the drop in a general quadratic flow for small electric Reynolds number (which is the ratio of the charge relaxation time scale to the convective time scale). As a special case, we consider a drop in an unbounded cylindrical Poiseuille flow and show that, an otherwise absent, cross-stream drop migration may be obtained in the presence of a uniform electric field. Depending on the d...

  14. Forensic Application of FM-CW and Pulse Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. K. Koppenjan; R. S. Freeland; M. L. Miller; R. E. Yoder

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has supplied vital assistance in criminal investigations. However, law enforcement personnel desire further developments such that the technology is rapidly deployable, and that it provides both a simple user interface and sophisticated target identification. To assist in the development of target identification algorithms, our efforts involve gathering background GPR data for the various site conditions and circumstances that often typify clandestine burials. For this study, forensic anthropologists established shallow-grave plots at The University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) that are specific to GPR research. These plots contain donated human cadavers lying in various configurations and depths, surrounded by assorted construction material and backfill debris. We scanned the plots using two GPR technologies: (1) a multi-frequency synthetic-aperture FM-CW radar (200-700 MHz) (GPR-X) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), Bechtel Nevada (Koppenjan et al., 2000), and (2) a commercial pulse radar (SIR-20) manufactured by Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (400 and 900 MHz)(GSSI). The sweep-frequency data show the large biological mass decomposing within the torso as encircled ''hot spots.'' The 400-MHz pulse radar exhibit major horizontal reflectors above the body, with shadow reflectors (horizontal multiples) occurring beneath the body at 60 cm depth. The 400-MHz antenna was able to discern the grave walls and folded tarp covering the lower body. Under these moist, clay-rich conditions, the 900-MHz antenna was able to penetrate slightly beyond 30 cm beneath the concrete layer. However, neither system was able to penetrate beyond a one meter depth in the moist, clay-rich soil (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalf). Example scans from each system are provided, along with a discussion of the survey protocol and general performance.

  15. Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

  16. Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal`s unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

  17. Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal's unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

  18. Drop Traffic in Microfluidic Ladder Networks with Fore-Aft Structural Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevan Maddala; William S. Wang; Siva A. Vanapalli; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of pairs of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with slanted bypasses, which break the fore-aft structural symmetry. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative drop spacing, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand, or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all these behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that while ladder networks containing several identical bypasses are limited to nearly linear transformation of input delay between drops, mixed combination of bypasses can cause significant non-linear transformation enabling coding and decoding of input delays.

  19. Proposed observations of gravity waves from the early Universe via "Millikan oil drops"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao

    2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Pairs of Planck-mass drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., ``Millikan oil drops''), when levitated in a superconducting magnetic trap, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. This leads to the possibility of a Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves. Detection of the gravity-wave analog of the cosmic microwave background using these drops can discriminate between various theories of the early Universe.

  20. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhitarev, V. E., E-mail: vejitarev@nnrd.kiae.su; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  1. Digital meteorological radar data compared with digital infrared data from a geostationary meteorological satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Rodney Stuart

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. DEDICATION . iv vi TABLE OF CONTENTS . vii LIST OF TABLES. IX LIST OF FIGURES . LIST OF ACRONYMS CHAPTER xii I. INTRODUCTION 1. The Need for This Investigation 2. Present Status of Research Relating... to This Investigation 3. Objectives of the Investigation 4. Techniques and Scope of the Investigation. II. METEOROLOGICAL RADAR DATA . 10 1. Basic Radar Theory . 2. Earth Curvature Correction . 3. The TAMU Weather Radar System. 4. Data Reduction and Display 10...

  2. Quantification of Liquid Holdup in the Dropping Zone of a Blast Furnace--A Cold Model Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. GUPTA and K. NAVEEN A two-dimensional cold model study, replicating an ironmaking blast furnace dropping

  3. Improving ISR Radar Utilization (How I quit blaming the user and made the radar easier to use).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In modern multi - sensor multi - mode Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) platforms, the plethora of options available to a sensor/payload operator are quite large, leading to an over - worked operator often down - selecting to favorite sensors an d modes. For example, Full Motion Video (FMV) is justifiably a favorite sensor at the expense of radar modes, even if radar modes can offer unique and advantageous information. The challenge is then to increase the utilization of the radar modes in a man ner attractive to the sensor/payload operator. We propose that this is best accomplished by combining sensor modes and displays into 'super - modes'. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia Natio nal Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL850 00.

  4. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  5. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  6. A Hollow Sphere Soft Lithography Approach for Long-Term Hanging Drop Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Gu

    In conventional hanging drop (HD) methods, embryonic stem cell aggregates or embryoid bodies (EBs) are often maintained in small inverted droplets. Gravity limits the volumes of these droplets to less than 50??L [mu L], ...

  7. HES Human Environmental Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    HES Human Environmental Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped SchoolofHumanEnvironmentalSciences HES 100 AN INTRODUCTION TO PROFESSIONS IN HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. (1) An orientation to human environmental sciences, its history, contemporary issues and philosophy

  8. ALFVEN-WAVE OSCILLATIONS IN A SPHERE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markiewicz, R.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rev. B 13,4626 (1976). For Ge(4:2) m is the average of thediscussed for EHD in unstressed Ge (B II )TO ELECI'RON-OOLE DROPS IN Ge R. S. Markiewicz January 1978

  9. Drop Formation and Breakup of Low Viscosity Elastic Fluids: Effects of Molecular Weight and Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirtaatmadja, Viyada

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. On initial approach ...

  10. An evaluation of pavement markings and raised pavement markers at left exit lane drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Marty Tina

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components; more drivers are affected, interactions in the traffic stream are more turbulent, and the potential for confusion and accidents is substantially greater. Exit-only signs and pavement markings are two methods used to communicate an exit lane drop...

  11. Positive pressure drop-on-demand printhead for Three-Dimensional Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleason, Blake Wilbur

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In drop-on-demand printing, wetting out of the binder fluid onto the orifice face typically has been prevented by some combination of the following: coatings on the orifice face, high surface energy fluids, and negative ...

  12. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  13. Heat transfer to impacting drops and post critical heat flux dispersed flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendall, Gail E.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer to drops impacting on a hot surface is examined in context of dispersions of flowing, boiling fluids. The liquid contribution to heat transfer from a hot tube to a two-phase dispersion is formulated in terms ...

  14. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  15. Rapid Deceleration-Driven Wetting Transition during Pendant Drop Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, HyukMin

    A hitherto unknown mechanism for wetting transition is reported. When a pendant drop settles upon deposition, there is a virtual “collision” where its center of gravity undergoes rapid deceleration. This induces a high ...

  16. Pressure drop and heat transfer distributions in three-pass rectangular channels with rib turbulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Peng

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRESSURE DROP AND HEAT TRANSFER DISTRIBUTIONS IN THREE-PASS RECTANGULAR CHANNELS WITH RIB TURBULATORS A THESIS by PENG ZHANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PRESSURE DROP AND HEAT TRANSFER DISTRIBUTIONS IN THREE-PASS RECTANGULAR CHANNELS WITH RIB TURBULATORS A THESIS by PENG ZHANG Approved as to style and content by: J. C. Han...

  17. Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

  18. Electron-Positron Plasma Drop Formed by Ultra-Intense Laser Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inga Kuznetsova; Johann Rafelski

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the initial properties and positron annihilation within a small electron-positron plasma drop formed by intense laser pulse. Such QED cascade initiated plasma is, in general, far below the chemical (particle yield) equilibrium. We find that the available electrons and positrons equilibrate kinetically, yet despite relatively high particle density, the electron-positron annihilation is very slow, suggesting a rather long lifespan of the plasma drop.

  19. Wing Mounted Ice Penetrating Radar Array for a Medium Altitude Long Endurance Remote Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grorud, Dustin

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................... 46 Table 21: Curvature Spar Critical Margins ................................................................................ 46 Table 22: Lower Skin Ply Drops from Pad Up...

  20. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux.

  1. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  2. Power Droop Testing Ilia Polian1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polian, Ilia

    Power Droop Testing Ilia Polian1 Alejandro Czutro1 Sandip Kundu2 Bernd Becker1 1 Albert sudden drop or rise in power supply voltage. This change is known as power droop and is an instance of power supply noise. Although power droop may cause an IC to fail, such failures cannot currently

  3. Incorporating WAAS Data Into an Ionospheric Model for Correcting Satellite Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toews, Carl

    at the Millstone Hill Satellite Tracking Radar. She currently holds a joint appointment with the Atmospheric corrections to radar measurements, incorporating data from a single receiver to generate TEC estimates that the GRIMS ionospheric model degenerates during times of sharp spatial TEC gradients, e.g. during geomagnetic

  4. Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar DEANNA A Measurement Mission satellite's Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone separated by the melting layer. The ice layer is a combination of particles imported from the eyewall

  5. Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    1 Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar Deanna A (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone rainbands. Radar-echo2 statistics show that rainbands have a two-layered structure, with distinct modes separated by the3 melting layer. The ice layer

  6. Operational Monitoring of Weather Radar Receiving Chain Using the Sun IWAN HOLLEMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Operational Monitoring of Weather Radar Receiving Chain Using the Sun IWAN HOLLEMAN Royal, is presented. The ``online'' method is entirely based on the analysis of sun signals in the polar volume data- termining the weather radar antenna pointing at low elevations using sun signals, and it is suited

  7. MECHANICAL VIBRATION SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING USING A MILLIMETER-WAVE DOPPLER RADAR SENSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MECHANICAL VIBRATION SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING USING A MILLIMETER-WAVE DOPPLER RADAR of structural health monitoring (SHM). In this paper, we report on a millimeter-wave Doppler radar sensor sensing, millimeter-waves, structural health monitoring. INTRODUCTION Structural health monitoring based

  8. Wind Profiling by Doppler Weather Radar Iwan Holleman (holleman@knmi.nl)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Wind Profiling by Doppler Weather Radar Iwan Holleman (holleman@knmi.nl) Royal Netherlands wind profiles at a high temporal resolution. Several algorithms and quality ensuring procedures for the extraction of wind profiles from radar volume data have been published. A comparison and verification

  9. ERAD 2008 -THE FIFTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON RADAR IN METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    , and the enhancement of the radar processing with capabilities found in modern radar equipment. In the European tender receivers and completely new data processing equipment. This modern equipment was integrated in the existing for PRFs up to 1200 Hz. To enhance reliability the thyratron powered switch unit, used to "fire

  10. Soil texture estimation over a semi-arid area using TERRASAR-X radar data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soil texture estimation over a semi-arid area using TERRASAR-X radar data M. Zribi1 , F. Kotti1 , Z Abstract In this paper, it is proposed to use TERRASAR-X data for analysis and estimation of soil surface. Simultaneously to TERRASAR-X radar acquisitions, ground measurements (texture, soil moisture and roughness) were

  11. Lagrangian Structures in Very High-Frequency Radar Data and Optimal Pollution Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsden, Jerrold

    Lagrangian Structures in Very High-Frequency Radar Data and Optimal Pollution Timing Francois radar-based pollution release scheme using the hidden flow structure reduces the effect of industrial pollution in the coastal environment. INTRODUCTION The release of pollution in coastal areas [1, 2, 3] can

  12. Optimal Pollution Mitigation in Monterey Bay Based on Coastal Radar Data and Nonlinear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsden, Jerrold

    Optimal Pollution Mitigation in Monterey Bay Based on Coastal Radar Data and Nonlinear Dynamics run-off which is a typical source of pollution in the bay. We show that a HF radar-based pollution release scheme using this flow structure reduces the impact of pollution on the coastal envi- ronment

  13. Radar Sounding of Glaciers in Greenland C. Allen, B, Wohletz, and S, Gogineni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Radar Sounding of Glaciers in Greenland C. Allen, B, Wohletz, and S, Gogineni The University on several flights over Greenland glaciers during the summer of 1995. The radar data were collected the theory and present results of the homomorphic deconvolution procedure. INTRODUCTION The Greenland

  14. FUSING MICROWAVE RADAR AND MICROWAVE-INDUCED THERMOACOUSTICS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUSING MICROWAVE RADAR AND MICROWAVE-INDUCED THERMOACOUSTICS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION Evgeny in the microwave range. Microwave-radar and microwave-induced thermoacoustic methods both struggle when-induced thermoacoustic (MIT) methods measure and process the acoustic signals induced by differential microwave heating

  15. Planning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Moghavvemi University ofMalaya INTRODUCTION The use of electronics in the automotive industry will reach (or the position and speed as with other components used in the automotive industry, radars will find widespreadPlanning of Low-Cost 77-GHz Radar Transceivers for Automotive Applications H. Ameri, A. Attaran & M

  16. High frequency radar and its application to fresh water Lorelle A. Meadows a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    ) at a Doppler shift corresponding very nearly to the phase velocity of the radially ad- vancing and receding frequency of the radar, c is the radial velocity of the Bragg resonant waves and cem is the speed of light average radiated powers, respectively. The effective offshore range for these radars was found to be 18 km

  17. Performance comparison of pulse-pair and wavelets methods for the pulse Doppler weather radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - eters. The radar reflectivity (Z), the radial velocity (Vr) and the spectral width of velocities (W). [1). Generally, the meteorological targets move with speeds lower than 50 m/secs. The Doppler Effect wouldPerformance comparison of pulse-pair and wavelets methods for the pulse Doppler weather radar

  18. "A Functional Design and System Architecture of a Control System for a Weather Radar"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    "A Functional Design and System Architecture of a Control System for a Weather Radar" Seidu Ibrahim Faculty Mentor: Eric Knapp Weather radars operate by transmitting pulses of very high microwave energy antenna scan, a three dimensional view of the surrounding atmosphere is created. Traditional weather

  19. Reflectivity retrieval in a networked radar environment: Demonstration from the CASA IP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayasumana, Anura P.

    using data from the first Integration Project (IP1) radar network in Oklahoma. Electromagnetic waves, the lowest coverage altitude gets higher with range due to earth curvature [1]. A networked radar environment is capable of high spatial coverage and temporal resolution. The Engineering Research Center for CASA

  20. Thunderstorm lightning and radar characteristics: insights on electrification and severe weather forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiger, Scott Michael

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    THUNDERSTORM LIGHTNING AND RADAR CHARACTERISTICS: INSIGHTS ON ELECTRIFICATION AND SEVERE WEATHER FORECASTING A Dissertation by SCOTT MICHAEL STEIGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2005 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences THUNDERSTORM LIGHTNING AND RADAR CHARACTERISTICS: INSIGHTS ON ELECTRIFICATION AND SEVERE WEATHER...

  1. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloudscale. Profiling, millimeterwavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three

  2. Design of X-Band FMCW Short Range Radar Dong-hun Shin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Seong-Ook

    Proposed radar system is bi-static radar type. It is adopted for increasing the isolation between Tx and Rx of a power divider. A portion of the swept signal is coupled to the mixer as reference signal. The final transmitted power of the system is under 0dBm. Received echo signal from the Rx antenna is injected to mixer

  3. Prospects of the WSR-88D Radar for Cloud Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnikov, Valery M.; Zrni?, Dusan S.; Doviak, Richard J.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Yefim L.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - flectivity field at 908 azimuth. APRIL 2011 M E L N I K O V E T A L . 863 compared measured solar radiation with model results. The Bird model (Bird and Hulstrom 1981) has been used to estimate the solar flux on the ground in the absence of clouds....S. Department of Commerce). REFERENCES Battan, L. J., 1973: Radar Observation of the Atmosphere. Uni- versity of Chicago, 324 pp. Bird, R. E., and R. L. Hulstrom, 1981: A simplified clear sky model for direct and diffuse insolation on horizontal surfaces. Solar...

  4. Compressive Radar with Off-Grid and Extended Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressed sensing (CS) schemes are proposed for monostatic as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging of sparse targets with chirps. In particular, a simple method is developed to improve performance with off-grid targets. Tomographic formulation of spotlight SAR is analyzed by CS methods with several bases and under various bandwidth constraints. Performance guarantees are established via coherence bound and the restricted isometry property. CS analysis provides a fresh and clear perspective on how to optimize temporal and angular samplings for spotlight SAR.

  5. Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Robert Donald

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME. Geology of the Cote Blanche Salt-Dome Azea. . Economic History of the Cote BLanche Salt-Dome Azea, Salt. . Oil and gas. III. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION. . . Radar Speed in Air and in Salt. . . Velocity...' zznd i'r. mzznz 1959) . The east, south, end west flanks are nearly vertical. However, the north side oi the dome is characterised by a massive overhang. A well drilled by Shell Oil Company, Caffrey No. 1, confirmed the presence of a minimum of 3300...

  6. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rignot, E.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gogineni, S.P. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Krabill, W.B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (United States)] [and others] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (United States); and others

    1997-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Mitigating Wind-Radar Interference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,Official FileEnergyAERMOD-PRIME, UnitsMitigating Wind-Radar

  8. THE REGIONAL AND DIURNAL VARIABILITY OF THE VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF PRECIPITATION SYSTEMS IN AFRICA, BASED ON TRMM PRECIPITATION RADAR DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geerts, Bart

    IN AFRICA, BASED ON TRMM PRECIPITATION RADAR DATA Bart Geerts1 and Teferi Dejene University of Wyoming 1 microwave radiances (e.g. Kummerow and Giglio 1994), and 14 GHz radar reflectivities (e.g. Ferreira et al-based techniques are much inferior to radar-based techniques, in principle at least, because the anvil of large

  9. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

    2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister (MPC) that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

  10. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

    2003-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister OLIIpC that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

  11. Loch Linnhe `94: Test operations description and on-site analysis, US activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field experiment named Loch Linnhe `94 (LL94) is described. This experiment was conducted in upper Loch Linnhe, Scotland, in September 1994, as an exercise involving UK and US investigators, under the Joint UK/US Radar Ocean Imaging Program. This experiment involved a dual-frequency, dual-polarization hillside real aperture radar operated by the UK, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) current meter array (CMA), in-water hydrodynamic sensors, and meteorological measurements. The primary measurements involved imaging ship-generated and ambient internal waves by the radar and the CMA. This report documents test operations from a US perspective and presents on-site analysis results derived by US investigators. The rationale underlying complementary radar and CMA measurements is described. Descriptions of the test site, platforms, and major US instrument systems are given. A summary of test operations and examples of radar, CMA, water column profile, and meteorological data are provided. A description of the rather extensive analysis of these data performed at the LL94 test site is presented. The products of this analysis are presented and some implications for further analysis and future experiments are discussed. All experimental objectives were either fully or partially met. Powerful on-site analysis capabilities generated many useful products and helped improve subsequent data collection. Significant further data analysis is planned.

  12. A 24GHz CMOS RF Transceiver for Car Radar Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Sangwook

    Design In the receiving front, low noise amplifier (LNA) has a role of deciding overall receiver's noise amplifier (PA). Also, two bandgap circuits, low drop-out regulators and a temperature sensor help. Overall simulated results were S21 of 18dB, NF of 4dB and IIP3 of -6.6dBm. For mixer design, low NF

  13. Merged and corrected 915 MHz Radar Wind Profiler moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Helmus,Virendra Ghate, Frederic Tridon

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The radar wind profiler (RWP) present at the SGP central facility operates at 915 MHz and was reconfigured in early 2011, to collect key sets of measurements for precipitation and boundary layer studies. The RWP is configured to run in two main operating modes: a precipitation (PR) mode with frequent vertical observations and a boundary layer (BL) mode that is similar to what has been traditionally applied to RWPs. To address issues regarding saturation of the radar signal, range resolution and maximum range, the RWP PR mode is set to operate with two different pulse lengths, termed as short pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP). Please refer to the RWP handbook (Coulter, 2012) for further information. Data from the RWP PR-SP and PR-LP modes have been extensively used to study deep precipitating clouds, especially their dynamical structure as the RWP data does not suffer from signal attenuation during these conditions (Giangrande et al., 2013). Tridon et al. (2013) used the data collected during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E) to improve the estimation of noise floor of the RWP recorded Doppler spectra.

  14. Merged and corrected 915 MHz Radar Wind Profiler moments

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jonathan Helmus,Virendra Ghate, Frederic Tridon

    The radar wind profiler (RWP) present at the SGP central facility operates at 915 MHz and was reconfigured in early 2011, to collect key sets of measurements for precipitation and boundary layer studies. The RWP is configured to run in two main operating modes: a precipitation (PR) mode with frequent vertical observations and a boundary layer (BL) mode that is similar to what has been traditionally applied to RWPs. To address issues regarding saturation of the radar signal, range resolution and maximum range, the RWP PR mode is set to operate with two different pulse lengths, termed as short pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP). Please refer to the RWP handbook (Coulter, 2012) for further information. Data from the RWP PR-SP and PR-LP modes have been extensively used to study deep precipitating clouds, especially their dynamical structure as the RWP data does not suffer from signal attenuation during these conditions (Giangrande et al., 2013). Tridon et al. (2013) used the data collected during the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E) to improve the estimation of noise floor of the RWP recorded Doppler spectra.

  15. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of tables of temperature measurements.

  16. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations.

  17. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists solely of tables of temperature measurements; minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations being measured.

  18. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements.

  19. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements.

  20. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  1. Joint inversion of crosshole radar and seismic traveltimes acquired at the South Oyster BacterialTransport Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linde, Niklas; Tryggvason, Ari; Peterson, John; Hubbard, Susan

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural approach to joint inversion, entailing common boundaries or gradients, offers a flexible way to invert diverse types of surface-based and/or crosshole geophysical data. The cross-gradients function has been introduced as a means to construct models in which spatial changes in two models are parallel or anti-parallel. Inversion methods that use such structural constraints also provide estimates of non-linear and non-unique field-scale relationships between model parameters. Here, we invert jointly crosshole radar and seismic traveltimes for structurally similar models using an iterative non-linear traveltime tomography algorithm. Application of the inversion scheme to synthetic data demonstrates that it better resolves lithological boundaries than the individual inversions. Tests of the scheme on observed radar and seismic data acquired within a shallow aquifer illustrate that the resultant models have improved correlations with flowmeter data than with models based on individual inversions. The highest correlation with the flowmeter data is obtained when the joint inversion is combined with a stochastic regularization operator, where the vertical integral scale is estimated from the flowmeter data. Point-spread functions shows that the most significant resolution improvements of the joint inversion is in the horizontal direction.

  2. Liquid drops on a surface: using density functional theory to calculate the binding potential and drop profiles and comparing with results from mesoscopic modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam P. Hughes; Uwe Thiele; Andrew J. Archer

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution to the free energy for a film of liquid of thickness $h$ on a solid surface, due to the interactions between the solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces is given by the binding potential, $g(h)$. The precise form of $g(h)$ determines whether or not the liquid wets the surface. Note that differentiating $g(h)$ gives the Derjaguin or disjoining pressure. We develop a microscopic density functional theory (DFT) based method for calculating $g(h)$, allowing us to relate the form of $g(h)$ to the nature of the molecular interactions in the system. We present results based on using a simple lattice gas model, to demonstrate the procedure. In order to describe the static and dynamic behaviour of non-uniform liquid films and drops on surfaces, a mesoscopic free energy based on $g(h)$ is often used. We calculate such equilibrium film height profiles and also directly calculate using DFT the corresponding density profiles for liquid drops on surfaces. Comparing quantities such as the contact angle and also the shape of the drops, we find good agreement between the two methods. We also study in detail the effect on $g(h)$ of truncating the range of the dispersion forces, both those between the fluid molecules and those between the fluid and wall. We find that truncating can have a significant effect on $g(h)$ and the associated wetting behaviour of the fluid.

  3. Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edo Waks; Jelena Vuckovic

    2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a waveguide that is normally opaque due to interaction with a drop-filter cavity can be made transparent when the drop filter is also coupled to a dipole. A transparency condition is derived between the cavity lifetime and vacuum Rabi frequency of the dipole. This condition is much weaker than strong coupling, and amounts to simply achieving large Purcell factors. Thus, we can observe transparency in the weak coupling regime. We describe how this effect can be useful for designing quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communication.

  4. Log of a young author's thinking: George W. Cable's "Drop Shot".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinitiere, Autry James

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . t 1974 Major Subject: English LOG OF A YOUNG AUTHOR'S THINKING: GEORGE W CABLE'S "DROP SHOT" A Thesis by AUTRY JAMES SINITIERE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committe Hea of Department M er ember) August 1974 & s ~~. )$, gg... APSTRACT Log of a Young Author's Thinking: George W. Cable's "Drop Shot" (August 1974) Autry James Sinitiere, B. A. , College of Santa Fe Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr Richard H. Ballinger In February 1870 George W. Cable began writing a * p p...

  5. CLEANING OF VISCOUS DROPS ON A FLAT INCLINED SURFACE USING GRAVITY-DRIVEN FILM FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landel, Julien R.; McEvoy, Harry; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    waves. Meas. Sc. Tech. 18, 533–547. Decré, M. M. J. and Baret, J.-C. (2003) Gravity-driven flows of viscous liquids over two- dimensional topographies, J. Fluid Mech. 487, 147–166. Dussan V., E. B. (1987) On the ability of drops to stick to surfaces... 63 64 65 Submitted to the IChemE Journal, Food and Bioproducts Processing. CLEANING OF VISCOUS DROPS ON A FLAT INCLINED SURFACE USING GRAVITY-DRIVEN FILM FLOWS Julien R. Landel*1, Harry McEvoy2 and Stuart B. Dalziel1 1Department of Applied...

  6. Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  7. The effect of particle shape on pressure drop in a turbulent gas-solid suspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughran, Mark Thomas

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON PRESSURE DROP IN A TURBULENT GAS-SOLID SUSPENSION A Thesis by MARK THOMAS COUGHRAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER.... Chan (Member) S. C. Lau (Member) P. Hopkins ead i Depart menr) May 1984 ABSTRACT The Effect of Particle Shape on Pressure Drop in a Turbulent Gas-Solid Suspension. ', (Nay 1984) Mark Thomas Coughran, B. S. , Texas AsM University Chairman...

  8. New directions for gravity-wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Pairs of Planck-mass--scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the CMB from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

  9. "Millikan oil drops" as quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2007-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Pairs of Planck-mass-scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

  10. Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruizenga, A. [Sandia National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO{sub 2} Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO{sub 2} flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

  11. Testing of the structural evaluation test unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the evaluation of the safety of radioactive material transportation it is important to consider the response of Type B packages to environments more severe than that prescribed by the hypothetical accident sequence in Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (NRC 1995). The impact event in this sequence is a 9-meter drop onto an essentially unyielding target, resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s. The behavior of 9 packages when subjected to impacts more severe than this is not well known. It is the purpose of this program to evaluate the structural response of a test package to these environments. Several types of structural response are considered. Of primary importance is the behavior of the package containment boundary, including the bolted closure and 0-rings. Other areas of concern are loss of shielding capability due to lead slump and the deceleration loading of package contents, that may cause damage to them. This type of information is essential for conducting accurate risk assessments on the transportation of radioactive materials. Currently very conservative estimates of the loss of package protection are used in these assessments. This paper will summarize the results of a regulatory impact test and three extra-regulatory impact tests on a sample package.

  12. Ratcheting Motion of Liquid Drops on Gradient Surfaces Susan Daniel, Sanjoy Sircar, Jill Gliem, and Manoj K. Chaudhury*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    Ratcheting Motion of Liquid Drops on Gradient Surfaces Susan Daniel, Sanjoy Sircar, Jill Gliem an interesting scenario when thedropissubjectedtoaperiodicforce.Likeaconventional ratchet, the periodic force

  13. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  14. 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, R

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.

  15. Digital hf radar observations of equatorial spread-F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argo, P.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern digital ionosondes, with both direction finding and doppler capabilities can provide large scale pictures of the Spread-F irregularity regions. A morphological framework has been developed that allows interpretation of the hf radar data. A large scale irregularity structure is found to be nightward of the dusk terminator, stationary in the solar reference frame. As the plasma moves through this foehn-wall-like structure it descends, and irregularities may be generated. Localized upwellings, or bubbles, may be produced, and they drift with the background plasma. The spread-F irregularity region is found to be best characterized as a partly cloudy sky, due to the patchiness of the substructures. 13 references, 16 figures.

  16. Iterative Self-Dual Reconstruction on Radar Image Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, Charles; Medeiros, Fatima; Ushizima, Daniela; Bezerra, Francisco; Marques, Regis; Mascarenhas, Nelson

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging systems as ultrasound, sonar, laser and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are subjected to speckle noise during image acquisition. Before analyzing these images, it is often necessary to remove the speckle noise using filters. We combine properties of two mathematical morphology filters with speckle statistics to propose a signal-dependent noise filter to multiplicative noise. We describe a multiscale scheme that preserves sharp edges while it smooths homogeneous areas, by combining local statistics with two mathematical morphology filters: the alternating sequential and the self-dual reconstruction algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is less sensitive to varying window sizes when applied to simulated and real SAR images in comparison with standard filters.

  17. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  18. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a ``IF homodyne`` receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses. 5 figs.

  20. Lightning and radar observations of hurricane Rita landfall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Bradley G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Suszcynsky, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamlin, Timothy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeffery, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Kyle C [TEXAS TECH U.; Orville, R E [TEXAS A& M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) owns and operates an array of Very-Low Frequency (VLF) sensors that measure the Radio-Frequency (RF) waveforms emitted by Cloud-to-Ground (CG) and InCloud (IC) lightning. This array, the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA), has approximately 15 sensors concentrated in the Great Plains and Florida, which detect electric field changes in a bandwidth from 200 Hz to 500 kHz (Smith et al., 2002). Recently, LANL has begun development of a new dual-band RF sensor array that includes the Very-High Frequency (VHF) band as well as the VLF. Whereas VLF lightning emissions can be used to deduce physical parameters such as lightning type and peak current, VHF emissions can be used to perform precise 3d mapping of individual radiation sources, which can number in the thousands for a typical CG flash. These new dual-band sensors will be used to monitor lightning activity in hurricanes in an effort to better predict intensification cycles. Although the new LANL dual-band array is not yet operational, we have begun initial work utilizing both VLF and VHF lightning data to monitor hurricane evolution. In this paper, we present the temporal evolution of Rita's landfall using VLF and VHF lightning data, and also WSR-88D radar. At landfall, Rita's northern eyewall experienced strong updrafts and significant lightning activity that appear to mark a transition between oceanic hurricane dynamics and continental thunderstorm dynamics. In section 2, we give a brief overview of Hurricane Rita, including its development as a hurricane and its lightning history. In the following section, we present WSR-88D data of Rita's landfall, including reflectivity images and temporal variation. In section 4, we present both VHF and VLF lightning data, overplotted on radar reflectivity images. Finally, we discuss our observations, including a comparison to previous studies and a brief conclusion.

  1. Phase coded, micro-power impulse radar motion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A motion sensing, micro-power impulse radar MIR impresses on the transmitted signal, or the received pulse timing signal, one or more frequencies lower than the pulse repetition frequency, that become intermediate frequencies in a "IF homodyne" receiver. Thus, many advantages of classical RF receivers can be thereby be realized with ultra-wide band radar. The sensor includes a transmitter which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal at a nominal pulse repetition frequency. A receiver samples echoes of the sequence of electromagnetic pulses from objects within the field with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The relative timing of the transmit timing signal and the receive timing signal is modulated between a first relative delay and a second relative delay at an intermediate frequency, causing the receiver to sample the echoes such that the time between transmissions of pulses in the sequence and samples by the receiver is modulated at the intermediate frequency. Modulation may be executed by modulating the pulse repetition frequency which drives the transmitter, by modulating the delay circuitry which controls the relative timing of the sample strobe, or by modulating amplitude of the transmitted pulses. The electromagnetic pulses will have a nominal center frequency related to pulse width, and the first relative delay and the second relative delay between which the timing signals are modulated, differ by less than the nominal pulse width, and preferably by about one-quarter wavelength at the nominal center frequency of the transmitted pulses.

  2. Dual Predictive Control of Electrically Stimulated Muscle using Biofeedback for Drop Foot Correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    artificially generate action potential in the place of central nervous system (CNS) for inducing muscle) is one of the solutions for drop foot correction. Conventional ES systems deliver prede- fined to adequately dorsiflex or lift the foot. It is associated with a variety of conditions such as stroke, spinal

  3. Time development of fieldaligned currents, potential drops, and plasma associated with an auroral poleward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fillingim, Matthew

    Click Here for Full Article Time development of fieldaligned currents, potential drops, and plasma study of the plasma and fields measured by the Cluster spacecraft fleet at the highaltitude auroral zone during quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp = 1+ , AE = 50 nT), is of particular interest in that Cluster

  4. Use of Drop-nets for Wild Pig Damage and Disease Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskamp, Joshua Alden

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of an 18.3 x 18.3 m drop-net and a traditional corral trap for trapping wild pigs. In spring 2010, treatment units were randomly selected and multiple trap sites were identified on 4,047 ha in Love County, Oklahoma. Trap sites were baited with whole corn...

  5. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  6. Potential drop mapping for the monitoring of corrosion or erosion Giuseppe Sposito a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    of the probe. Finite Element simulations show that the electrode array configuration commonly used in existing commercial setups can lead to an underestimation of the defect depth. The novel electrode arrangement on potential drop (PD) are well established as a tool for the non-destructive evaluation of material properties

  7. MISPAR: Mitigating Stealthy Packet Dropping in Locally-Monitored Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagchi, Saurabh

    partial neighborhood communication to detect misbehavior such as packet drop or delay. However, local-constrained, not only on energy but on bandwidth and computation as well. This limitation presents an additional loss of data or degradation of network functionality, say through disrupting network connectivity

  8. MAS Media Arts and Studies KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    MAS Media Arts and Studies KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University TO MEDIA AND CULTURE. (3) This course focuses on the study of electronic mass media. It surveys media, culture, and power. MAS 201 COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND SOCIETY. (3

  9. Sudden Lifetime Drop Phenomena and their Effective Cures in PF-ring and PF-AR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanimoto, Yasunori; Honda, Tohru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nogami, Takashi [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In PF-ring and PF-AR, sudden drops in the electron beam lifetime, which are attributed to dust trapping, were frequently observed after extensive renewals of the storage rings. The reduced-lifetime state sometimes lasts for a few hours, and the mitigation of this problem was strongly demanded for stable user operations. Since a major source of dust particles was thought to be a distributed ion pump (DIP), we attempted switching the DIPs off during user operations in both the rings. As a result, occurrence of the lifetime drops was almost completely suppressed during single-bunch mode in PF-ring, while the occurrence frequency was reduced by only 38% in PF-AR. We found that the lifetime drops were sometimes accompanied by a transient increase in the vacuum pressure at some discharge-prone devices. Based on the hypothesis that the harmful dust could be generated by an electric discharge in vacuum, we attempted the conditioning of these devices in PF-AR by storing 25% higher current than usual. By combination of the DIP-OFF operation and the high-current conditioning, the occurrence frequency of the lifetime drops in PF-AR was reduced by no less than 67%.

  10. Granular impact cratering by liquid drops: Understanding raindrop imprints through an analogy to asteroid strikes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runchen Zhao; Qianyun Zhang; Hendro Tjugito; Xiang Cheng

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well explored, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Here, by combining high-speed photography with high-precision laser profilometry, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surface and monitor the morphology of resulting impact craters. Surprisingly, we find that, despite the enormous energy and length difference, granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling and reproduces the same crater morphology as that of asteroid impact craters. Inspired by this similarity, we integrate the physical insight from planetary sciences, the liquid marble model from fluid mechanics and the concept of jamming transition from granular physics into a simple theoretical framework that quantitatively describes all the main features of liquid-drop imprints in granular media. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.

  11. Odd-even staggering in nuclear binding and the liquid-drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. A. Friedman

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The trends with mass number are examined for the odd-even-staggering (OES) in nuclear binding of neutrons and protons through the conventional measures $\\Delta^{(3)}$. The large differences previously observed between these trends for even and odd values of these measures is found to arise, in part, from the slow variation of binding energies with mass and charge which provides a background contribution. This background is estimated with the liquid-drop model, and accounts for the greater difference found in proton removal relative to neutron removal. The differences which persist after backgrounds are removed can not be treated in the conventional liquid-drop model but require the addition of a new term. Such a term is investigated, and its effect on specific values of the OES is calcutated. The liquid-drop fitting is also applied to a set of separation energies constrained to match the specific set of nuclei used to determine the observed values for the odd $\\Delta^{(3)}$. The resulting fit for the pairing term is compared to the average value of even and odd measures. The effect on this value of the new liquid-drop term is observed, and the change in background when the new term is included is also used as an alternate method for determining the difference between trends of the even and odd values of the OES.

  12. Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more Photo Credit: Zachary Strain | Daily six years, UT has worked to decrease its water usage, but the University still has a ways to go if it the University was using one billion gallons of water per year. Across buildings, irrigation, chilling stations

  13. Designing for Dabblers and Deterring Drop-Outs in Citizen Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sriram

    Designing for Dabblers and Deterring Drop-Outs in Citizen Science Alexandra Eveleigh1 , Charlene on the quality and value of these contributions. Author Keywords Citizen science; motivation; engagement in popularity due to the innovative use of web and mobile technologies [12]. Examples of online citizen science

  14. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1 H. F. Zhang,1 and G. Royer) The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of proton are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within

  15. Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

  16. Fig. 1: Journal Articles Tab on library homepage Fig. 2 Drop down menu Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -campus, you will be prompted to enter your myWSU ID and password as soon as you click the "search" button allows you to separate several search terms or phrases in various fields with the drop-down menu (figure search terms and list the databases it is searching (fig. 8). When the search is completed, the window

  17. Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    and simultaneous transportation of oil and natural gas from remote extraction locations to the processing units#12;Chapter 4 Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in gas-liquid two phase flow. The flow structure of different flow patterns observed in gas-liquid two

  18. Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material properties such as dielectric constants, resistivities, and surface tension coefficients. The analysis energy storage in the liquid, will lead to 1/R ``line-tension''-type terms if and only if the energy

  19. Aerosol--cloud drop concentration closure in warm cumulus W. C. Conant,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    layer aerosol's effect on cloud microphysics throughout the lowest 1 km of cloud depth. Onboard the radiation balance and hydrological cycle, they are called indirect effects of aerosol on climate, or 4Aerosol--cloud drop concentration closure in warm cumulus W. C. Conant,1 T. M. VanReken,2 T. A

  20. The Design and Development of a Hybrid RF/Laser Radar System for Measuring Changes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    transmit power and higher PRF. RF pulse compression is used to improve system performance further. Receiver compression. Compared to laser radars like GLAS and MOLA, this sensor requires a lower peak transmit power Compression .......................................................... 14 2.6 Coherent Integration

  1. Joint anisotropy characterization and image formation in wide-angle synthetic aperture radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varshney, Kush R. (Kush Raj)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imagery formed from wide-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements has fine cross-range resolution in principle. However, conventional SAR image formation techniques assume isotropic scattering, which is not valid ...

  2. Ground penetrating radar technique to locate coal mining related features: case studies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Save, Neelambari R

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research project is to identify the efficacy of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique in locating underground coal mine related subsidence features at Malakoff and Bastrop, Texas. The work at Malakoff ...

  3. Assessing and Analyzing Near-Surface Radar Snow Accumulation Layers at Summit, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overly, Thomas Buckmaster

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    depth are compared to physical properties, age-depth relationships, and accumulation rates from ice cores near Summit. Having established the radar horizons as annual accumulation markers, a 350-year record of accumulation rate is derived and analyzed...

  4. A census of precipitation features in the tropics using TRMM: radar, ice scattering, and lightning observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesbitt, Stephen William

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and two ocean regions during August, September and October 1998, this study used radar retrievals and 85 GHz Polarization Corrected Temperatures (PCTs, which passively measure relative concentrations of precipitation-sized ice particles within a cloud...

  5. Radar signal pre-processing to suppress surface bounce and multipath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Mast, Jeffrey E; Beer, N. Reginald

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes that return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  6. Development of an electronically tunable ultra-wideband radar imaging sensor and its components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jeongwoo

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel microwave transmitter and receiver circuits have been developed for implementing UWB (Ultra-Wideband) impulse radar imaging sensor operating in frequency band 0.2 to 4 GHz. with tunable operating frequency band. The fundamental system design...

  7. Weather Radar and Hydrology 1 Influence of rainfall spatial variability on hydrological modelling: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Weather Radar and Hydrology 1 Influence of rainfall spatial variability on hydrological modelling variability as well as characteristics and hydrological behavior of catchments, we have proceeded simulator and a distributed hydrological model (with four production functions and a distributed transfer

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - acquisition regime radar Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    except the data acquisition system and the controller unit... A New Coherent Radar for Ice Sounding in Greenland A. Moussessian 1 , R.L. Jordan 1 , E. Rodriguez... : (818)...

  9. Radar-Based Vehicle Detection for Four-Quadrant Gate Crossing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    · Work Crew Safety · Maximize Coverage · Longer Life · Immunity to Elements · Reliability · Potential Implementation #12;AREMA Compliance per Class C Equipment Environmental - Temperature, Humidity, Mechanical, EMI (Trackers) to Configuration Application Add Dual Radar Tracking Metrics Reliability Enhancements Accelerate

  10. 12B.4 2010 PHASEDARRAY RADAR INNOVATIVE SENSING EXPERIMENT Pam Heinselman 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sensing Experiment (PARISE) via two components: radar data collection and National Weather Service (NWS." This sampling approach provides denser sampling at low altitudes, where it is needed most. In PARISE 2010

  11. EFFICIENT ASSIMILATION OF RADAR DATA AT HIGH RESOLUTION FOR SHORT-RANGE NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    system must assimilate Doppler radar data including radial velocity and reflectivity, and combine and also con- tain the hydrometeors and latent heating effects that eliminate the need for spinning up

  12. On the Feasibility of Precisely Measuring the Properties of a Precipitating Cloud with a Weather Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runnels, R.C.

    In this paper the results of an investigation are presented that are concerned with the feasibility of employing a weather radar to make precise measurements of the properties of a precipitating cloud. A schematic cloud is proposed as a model...

  13. Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

  14. A model for forming airborne synthetic aperture radar images of underground targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from an airborne platform has been proposed for imaging targets beneath the earth`s surface. The propagation of the radar`s energy within the ground, however, is much different than in the earth`s atmosphere. The result is signal refraction, echo delay, propagation losses, dispersion, and volumetric scattering. These all combine to make SAR image formation from an airborne platform much more challenging than a surface imaging counterpart. This report treats the ground as a lossy dispersive half-space, and presents a model for the radar echo based on measurable parameters. The model is then used to explore various imaging schemes, and image properties. Dynamic range is discussed, as is the impact of loss on dynamic range. Modified window functions are proposed to mitigate effects of sidelobes of shallow targets overwhelming deeper targets.

  15. Radar and lightning analyses of gigantic jet-producing storms Tiffany C. Meyer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    Radar and lightning analyses of gigantic jet-producing storms Tiffany C. Meyer,1,2 Timothy J. Lang of gigantic jets, similar to prior modeling studies. Citation: Meyer, T. C., T. J. Lang, S. A. Rutledge, W. A

  16. Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review Alessandro Battaglia a,b,, Simone Tanelli c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Review Multiple-scattering in radar systems: A review Alessandro Battaglia a,b,Ã, Simone Tanelli c. Tel.: +44 116 2709859. E-mail address: a.battaglia@le.ac.uk (A. Battaglia). Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer ] (

  17. Ground penetrating radar technique to locate coal mining related features: case studies in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Save, Neelambari R

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research project is to identify the efficacy of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique in locating underground coal mine related subsidence features at Malakoff and Bastrop, Texas. The work at Malakoff has been done...

  18. Real-time 3-d localization using radar and passive surface acoustic wave transponders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaPenta, Jason Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis covers ongoing work into the design, fabrication, implementation, and characterization of novel passive transponders that allow range measurements at short range and at high update rates. Multiple RADAR measurement ...

  19. Operational Arome New Arome version in test Radar observation Report 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    , a new version of our Earth-System model has been prepared to guarantee our contributions to the upcoming 5th IPCC report. Consultations with IPSL have started to share a larger part of the Earth System modelling infrastructure. Re- search has largely contributed to the gro- wing offer of Météo

  20. Interagency Field Test Evaluates Co-operation of Turbines and Radar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartmentEnergyDemonstration DomesticEnergy Management

  1. Thickness estimation of subsurface layers in asphalt pavement using monstatic ground penetrating radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Chun Lok

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Approved as to style and content by... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. LIST OF FIGURES. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. 1. 1 Importance of pavement profile data. 1. 2 Principle of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) . . . 1. 3 Subsurface layer thickness measurement method. . . . . . II GPR ANTENNA AND SYSTEM CALIBRATION...

  2. Laser radar VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23-25, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becherer, R.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics presented include lidar wind shear detection for commercial aircraft, centroid tracking of range-Doppler images, an analytic approach to centroid performance analysis, simultaneous active/passive IR vehicle detection, and resolution limits for high-resolution imaging lidar. Also presented are laser velocimetry applications, the application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing, 3D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing, and ground based CW atmospheric Doppler lidar performamce modeling.

  3. The effect of smoothing the Doppler radar derived wind field on perturbation pressure retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosser, George Philip

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SMOOTHING THE DOPPLER RADAR DERIVED WIND FIELD ON PERTURBATION PRESSURE RETRIEVAL A Thesis by GEORGE PHILIP ROSSER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Meteorology THE EFFECT OF SMOOTHING THE DOPPLER RADAR DERIVED WIND FIELD ON PERTURBATION PRESSURE RETRIEVAL A Thesis by GEORGE PHILIP ROSSER, JR. Approved as to style and content by...

  4. Assessing the capabilities of ground penetrating radar for applications in geologic and engineering subsurface studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Servos, Stacia Lynn

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of different display parameters from GSSI's RADAN software package . . . 21 (a) Unfiltered radar profile over an underground storage tank. (b) Profile (a) has been filtered wdth a horizontal high pass boxcar filter, removing the long horizontal reflector... and processed in the laboratory using RADAN, interpretation software developed by GSSI. The radar profile (or radargram) seen on the computer screen is a composition of paraUel series of amplitude versus time. The darkness or color displayed is proportional...

  5. IFP V4.0:a polar-reformatting image formation processor for synthetic aperture radar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IFP V4.0 is the fourth generation of an extraordinarily powerful and flexible image formation processor for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar. It has been successfully utilized in processing phase histories from numerous radars and has been instrumental in the development of many new capabilities for spotlight mode SAR. This document provides a brief history of the development of IFP, a full exposition of the signal processing steps involved, and a short user's manual for the software implementing this latest iteration.

  6. Radar cross section of triangular trihedral reflector with extended bottom plate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Billy C.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trihedral corner reflectors are the preferred canonical target for SAR performance evaluation for many radar development programs. The conventional trihedrals have problems with substantially reduced Radar Cross Section (RCS) at low grazing angles, unless they are tilted forward, but in which case other problems arise. Consequently there is a need for better low grazing angle performance for trihedrals. This is facilitated by extending the bottom plate. A relevant analysis of RCS for an infinite ground plate is presented. Practical aspects are also discussed.

  7. Some effects of range upon AN/CPS-9 radar reflectivities in thunderstorms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanford, Tom E

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOMB BFFBCTS OF RANGE UPON AN/CPS-9 RADAR RBFLECTIVITIBS IN THUNDBRSTORMS A Thesis Tommy Eugene Sanford Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1961 Major Subject: Meteorology SOME EFFECI'S OF RANGE UPON AN/CPS-9 RADAR REFLECTIVITIES IN THUNDERSTORMS A Thesis Tommy Eugene Sanford Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe ) 4~4 (Head...

  8. Faculty of Arts OASIS Drop-in Advising Schedule Weekdays from Tuesday, October 14, 2014 to Friday, December 19, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    Faculty of Arts OASIS ­ Drop-in Advising Schedule Weekdays from Tuesday, October 14, 2014 to Friday a drop-in space from the Arts OASIS counter (ground floor of Dawson Hall, room 110) during our regular, please contact Arts OASIS right away so that the spot can be given to another student. For more

  9. VOLUME 78, NUMBER 5 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 3 FEBRUARY 1997 Multifrequency Doppler Radar Observations of Electron Gyroharmonic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppler Radar Observations of Electron Gyroharmonic Effects during Electromagnetic Pumping the first detailed mul- tifrequency HF Doppler radar (MDR) studies of elec- tron gyroharmonic effects) Experimental results of multifrequency HF Doppler radar studies during electromagnetic pumping

  10. Levitating Drop in a Tilted Rotating Tank - Gallery of Fluid Motion Entry V044

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew; Ward, Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical acrylic tank with inner diameter D = 4 in. is mounted such that its axis of symmetry is at some angle measured from the vertical plane. The mixing tank is identical to that described in [1] The tank is filled with 200 mL of 1000 cSt silicone oil and a 5 mL drop of de-ionized water is placed in the oil volume. The water drop is allowed to come to rest and then a motor rotates the tank about its axis of symmetry at a fixed frequency = 0.3 Hz. Therefore the Reynolds number is ?xed at about Re ~ 5 yielding laminar flow conditions. A CCD camera (PixeLink) is used to capture video of each experiment.

  11. Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh.seris@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven; Binder, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv [The School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It is investigated how potential drop sheet resistance measurements of areas formed by laser-assisted doping in crystalline Si wafers are affected by typically occurring experimental factors like sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, or coatings. Measurements are obtained with a collinear four point probe setup and a modified transfer length measurement setup to measure sheet resistances of laser-doped lines. Inhomogeneities in doping depth are observed from scanning electron microscope images and electron beam induced current measurements. It is observed that influences from sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, and coatings can be neglected if certain preconditions are met. Guidelines are given on how to obtain accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped regions.

  12. Drop Simulation of 6M Drum with Locking-Ring Closure and Liquid Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, T

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the dynamic simulation of the 6M drum with a locking-ring type closure subjected to a 4.9-foot drop. The drum is filled with water to 98 percent of overflow capacity. A three dimensional finite-element model consisting of metallic, liquid and rubber gasket components is used in the simulation. The water is represented by a hydrodynamic material model in which the material's volume strength is determined by an equation of state. The explicit numerical method based on the theory of wave propagation is used to determine the combined structural response to the torque load for tightening the locking-ring closure and to the impact load due to the drop.

  13. Von K\\'arm\\'an Vortex Street within an Impacting Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Etoh, Takeharu Goji; Popinet, Stephane; Ray, Pascal; Josserand, Christophe; Zaleski, Stephane; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The splashing of a drop impacting onto a liquid pool produces a range of different sized micro-droplets. At high impact velocities, the most significant source of these droplets is a thin liquid jet emerging at the start of the impact from the neck that connects the drop to the pool. We use ultra-high-speed video imaging in combination with high-resolution numerical simulations to show how the ejecta gives way to irregular splashing. At higher Reynolds number, its base becomes unstable, shedding vortex rings into the liquid from the free surface in an axisymmetric von K\\'arm\\'an vortex street, thus breaking the ejecta sheet as it forms.

  14. Ultra-High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry on Drop-on-Demand Jetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hoath, S.D.; Castrejon-Pita, A.A.; Morrison, N.F.; Hsiao, W.-K.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Applied Mathematics Hsiao, Wen-Kai; University of Cambridge, Engineering Hutchings, Ian; University of Cambridge, Engineering Ultra-High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry on Drop-on- Demand Jetting José R. Castrejón-Pita, Stephen D. Hoath... ). The velocity response extracted from this point is shown in Fig. 3. Figure 3. Time variation of the fluid velocity as measured by PIV. See Figure 2. Numerical method The simulations were performed using computational methods similar to those reported...

  15. Local heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in a wavy channel with and without flow disturbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, S.; Kmelius, D. [Western New England College, Springfield, MA (United States); Saniei, N. [Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed to measure local heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop in a wavy channel for Reynolds numbers of 2,900 and 7,000. Additionally, the effect of flow disturbers mounted on the first two peaks on one surface was investigated. The transient method and liquid crystals were used for the local heat transfer measurements. Initial experimental results indicate that addition of ribs into the passage stimulates flow instabilities which enhance the heat transfer performance with moderate effect on pressure drop. Measurements were conducted on a 6 in x 3/8 in x 12 in wavy channel with a wave length of one inch. The highest local heat transfer was detected on the second, followed by the third and fourth peaks at Re = 7000; wheras for Re = 2900 the highest heat transfer was along the next peak detected immediately after the disturbers. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that ribbed passages would yield higher heat transfer with moderate change in pressure drop compared with non-ribbed channels.

  16. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  17. The simulation and improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6?m{sup 2}; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ?{sub r}?0.4, ?{sub r} and ?{sub r}+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  18. Solar System tests of Ho?ava-Lifshitz black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco S. N. Lobo; Tiberiu Harko; Zoltán Kovács

    2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity at the scale of the Solar System, by considering the classical tests of general relativity (perihelion precession of the planet Mercury, deflection of light by the Sun and the radar echo delay) for the Kehagias-Sfetsos asymptotically flat black hole solution of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. All these gravitational effects can be fully explained in the framework of the vacuum solution of Horava gravity, and it is shown that the analysis of the classical general relativistic tests severely constrain the free parameter of the solution.

  19. Long-term variation of radar-auroral backscatter and the interplanetary sector structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeoman, T.K.; Burrage, M.D.; Lester, M.; Robinson, T.R.; Jones, T.B. (Univ. of Leicester (England))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recurrent variation of geomagnetic activity at the {approximately}27-day solar rotation period and higher harmonics is a well-documented phenomenon. Auroral radar backscatter data from the Sweden and Britain Radar-Auroral Experiment (SABRE) radar provide a continuous time series from 1981 to the present which is a highly sensitive monitor of geomagnetic activity. In this study, Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) dynamic power spectra of SABRE backscatter data from 1981 to 1989, concurrent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind parameters from 1981 to 1987, and the Kp index since 1932 are examined. Data since 1977 are compared with previously published heliospheric current sheet measurements mapped out from the solar photosphere. Stong periodic behavior is observed in the radar backscatter during the declining phase of solar cycle 21, but this periodicity disappears at the start of solar cycle 22. Similar behavior is observed in earlier solar cycles in the Kp spectra. Details of the radar backscatter, IMF, and solar wind spectra indicate that the solar wind momentum density is the dominant parameter in determining the backscatter periodicity. The temporal evolution of two- and four-sector structures, as predicted by SABRE backscatter spectra, throughout solar cycle 21 generally still agree well with heliospheric current sheet measurements. For one interval, however, there is evidence that evolution of the current sheet has occurred between the photospheric source surface and the Earth.

  20. IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL-2008), Poitiers, June 30-July 4, 2008 Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by a High Field Pulse P. Atten, A. Ouiguini, J. Raisin of a small drop electrically neutral. The experimental results of water drops extraction in oil are presented, France Abstract- As a part of a study of electrocoalescence of water droplets in oil, the controlled

  1. 13A.1 ASSIMILATION OF SIMULATED NETWORK RADAR DATA OF VARIED STORM TYPES USING ENSRF FOR CONVECTIVE STORM ANALYSES AND FORECASTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    installation costs down, the CASA radars will be placed on cell phone towers or other existing infras- tructure with large data transmission capabilities. Unlike the existing pre-programmed radar network, the collabo

  2. ARM: Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), replaces mmcrcal and mmcrmoments datastreams following C-40 processor upgrade of 2003.09.09

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Widener, Kevin; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Johnson, Karen

    Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), replaces mmcrcal and mmcrmoments datastreams following C-40 processor upgrade of 2003.09.09

  3. A Capacitor-Less Wide-Band Power Supply Rejection Low Drop-Out Voltage Regulator with Capacitance Multiplier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengde

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A Low Drop-Out (LDO) voltage regulator with both capacitor-less and high power supply rejection (PSR) bandwidth attributes is highly admired for an integrated power management system of mobile electronics. The capacitor-less feature is demanded...

  4. Dryline Characteristics near Lubbock, Texas, Based on Radar and West Texas Mesonet Data for May 2005 and May 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geerts, Bart

    Dryline Characteristics near Lubbock, Texas, Based on Radar and West Texas Mesonet Data for May, in final form 14 November 2007) ABSTRACT Two months of Lubbock, Texas, radar reflectivity data and West the spring" (Hane et al. 1993). Thus, forecasters from southwest Texas to west- ern Kansas routinely examine

  5. 500 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006 ELF Radar System Proposed for Localized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Jamesina J.

    500 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006 ELF Radar System frequency (ELF), finite difference time domain (FDTD), ionospheric disturbances, radar, remote sensing. I to be of sufficiently low power to have negligible heating or any other effects upon the ionospheric anomaly.) Employing

  6. J1.10 FAA SURVEILLANCE RADAR DATA AS A COMPLEMENT TO THE WSR-88D NETWORK *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    .S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) operates over 400 C- to L-band surveillance radars-- Airport realization of these benefits. This work was sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration under Air ForceJ1.10 FAA SURVEILLANCE RADAR DATA AS A COMPLEMENT TO THE WSR-88D NETWORK * Mark E. Weber

  7. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  8. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Measurement for Square Channels with V-shape Ribs at High Reynolds Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhamis, Nawaf Yahya

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FOR SQUARE CHANNELS WITH V-SHAPE RIBS AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS A Thesis by NAWAF YAHYA ALKHAMIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FOR SQUARE CHANNELS WITH V-SHAPE RIBS AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS A Thesis...

  9. An experimental and analytical study of annular two phase flow friction pressure drop in a reduced acceleration field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Montgomery

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the same mass fluxes and mass qualities. The reduced acceleration pressure drops were found to be 45% greater overall than the 1-g pressure drops. In addition, the reduced acceleration flows were modeled using a universal velocity profile integral... approach to determine the liquid film thickness and the interfacial friction factor. The reduced acceleration annular flow interfacial friction factors were compared with current models for vertical up-flow in a 1-g environment. The reduced acceleration...

  10. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore »design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  11. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abbasi, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Allen, C. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Beard, L. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Belz, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Besson, D. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Moscow Engineering and Physics Inst. (Russian Federation); Byrne, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Abou Bakr Othman, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Farhang-Boroujeny, B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gardner, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gillman, W.H. [Gillman and Associates, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hanlon, W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hanson, J. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Jayanthmurthy, C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kunwar, S. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Larson, S. L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Myers, I. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Prohira, S. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ratzlaff, K. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Sokolsky, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thomson, G. B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Von Maluski, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  12. Radar imagery interpretation to assess the hydrocarbon potential of four sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nationwide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential petroleum and geothermal prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 29 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  14. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  15. A newsletter for non-scientists (and scientists) interested in MAGIC The last two updates discussed how the Doppler effect can be used by radars to provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    updates discussed how the Doppler effect can be used by radars to provide information on the sizes-pointing radar using the Doppler effect is equal to the speed of the surrounding air, i.e., the speed of raindrops falling in still air: an upward-pointing radar measures the Doppler shifts from falling raindrops

  16. Impacts of Beam Broadening and Earth Curvature on Storm-Scale 3D Variational Data Assimilation of Radial Velocity with Two Doppler Radars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jidong

    of Radial Velocity with Two Doppler Radars GUOQING GE Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms assimilation. This study examines the effects of simplifying ray path and ray broadening calculations. Introduction The operational Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) Next Generation Weather Radar

  17. Liquid Phases in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: Drops of Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid & Ordinary Chiral Heavy Nuclear Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan W. Lynn

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Chiral SU(3) Perturbation Theory (SU3XPT) identifies hadrons as the building blocks of strongly interacting matter at low densities and temperatures. We show that it admits two co-existing chiral nucleon liquid phases at zero external pressure with well-defined surfaces: 1) ordinary microscopic chiral heavy nuclear liquid drops (XNL) and 2) a new Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid (SXNL) phase with both microscopic and macroscopic drop sizes. Liquid drops of both XNL and SXNL are simultaneously solutions to the SU3XPT semi-classical equations of motion and obey all relevant CVC and PCAC equations. Axial-vector currents are conserved inside macroscopic drops of SXNL, a new form of baryonic matter with zero electric charge density, which is by nature "dark". The numerical values of all SU3XPT coefficients are used to fit current scattering experiments and ordinary XNL drops (identified with the ground state of ordinary even-even spin-zero spherical closed-shell nuclei). SXNL then also emerges (i.e. without new adjustable parameters). For certain SU3XPT coefficients, finite microscopic and macroscopic drops of SXNL may be the ground state of a collection of nucleons: ordinary heavy nuclei may be meta-stable, while oceans of SXNL may force qualitative and experimentally observable changes to the neutron star equation of state.

  18. Meteorological significance of frontal thin-line angel echoes observed by CPS-9 radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Donald Bradford

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METEOROLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FRONTAL THIN-LINE ANGEL ECHOES OBSERVED BY CPS-9 RADAR A Thesis By DONAID B. MILLER I/Lt USAF Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1959 Ma]or Sub)ect Meteorology METEOROLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FRONTAL THIN-LINE ANGEL ECHOES OBSERVED BY CPS-9 RADAR A Thesi. s By DONALD B. MILLER I/Lt USAF Approved as to style and content by...

  19. X-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (X-SAPR) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N

    2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-band scanning ARM cloud radar (X-SAPR) is a full-hemispherical scanning polarimetric Doppler radar transmitting simultaneously in both H and V polarizations. With a 200 kW magnetron transmitter, this puts 100 kW of transmitted power for each polarization. The receiver for the X-SAPR is a Vaisala Sigmet RVP-900 operating in a coherent-on-receive mode. Three X-SAPRs are deployed around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility in a triangular array. A fourth X-SAPR is deployed near Barrow, Alaska on top of the Barrow Arctic Research Center.

  20. Performance limits for exo-clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to 'get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall GMTI radar system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the 'seek time'.

  1. KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Anne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the nomenclature list . 13 f @=0 079(gD P. (ttt j The frictional pressure gradient calculated from the Fanning equation for the total flow liquid plus vapor) assumed to flow as liquid is: (dP j ~2f G dz ra D Finally, combining equation (4) and (5), the two... be integrated to obtain the frictional pressure drop: hpze=L( ? )ze or dP dz m 2f G2L 24 p D Annular Flow Model Colli r In the case of annular flow with no entrainment and a "smooth" interface, Collier [11] shows that the friction pressure gradient can...

  2. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery (Singapore); Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics (Neurology Service) (Singapore); Mahadev, Arjandas, E-mail: arjandas.mahadev@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  3. Nuclear-deformation energies according to a liquid-drop model with a sharp surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blocki, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an atlas of 665 deformation-energy maps and 150 maps of other properties of interest, relevant for nuclear systems idealized as uniformly charged drops endowed with a surface tension. The nuclear shapes are parametrized in terms of two spheres modified by a smoothly fitted quadratic surface of revolution and are specified by three variables: asymmetry, sphere separation, and a neck variable (that goes over into a fragment-deformation variable after scission). The maps and related tables should be useful for the study of macroscopic aspects of nuclear fission and of collisions between any two nuclei in the periodic table.

  4. Transport of free surface liquid films and drops by external ratchets and self-ratcheting mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uwe Thiele; Karin John

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the usage of ratchet mechanisms to transport a continuous phase in several micro-fluidic settings. In particular, we study the transport of a dielectric liquid in a heterogeneous ratchet capacitor that is periodically switched on and off. The second system consists of drops on a solid substrate that are transported by different types of harmonic substrate vibrations. We argue that the latter can be seen as a self-ratcheting process and discuss analogies between the employed class of thin film equations and Fokker-Planck equations for transport of discrete objects in a 'particle ratchet'.

  5. automated radar terminal system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ioannou A, utomatic is todesign and test avehicle control system in order toachieve full vehicle automation in the longitudinal vehicle following isan important feature of a fully...

  6. RMOTC - Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sale of Equipment and Materials DOE to Sell NPR-3 Testing Tomorrow's Technology Today RMOTC - Testing - From Lab to Industry, Moving Your Ideas Forward RMOTC provides a neutral,...

  7. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  8. An evaluation of spot tests for boron and the development of a superior spot test for boron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Tuyl, Dixon Peacock

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    also to express his thanks to his wife, without whose help, understanding and en- couragement, this problem and thesis could not have been completed. COi& 2 nt) stract ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ * ~ * ~ ~ ~ lni;roduction e. 1 . iterature.... of concentxated. sulfuric acid is added to 1 or 2 drops of test solution followed by 1 or 2 dxops of the hydroxy- anthraquinone reagent, and the solution warmed. The color shift as described. above is the test for boron. Chromotro e 28& This reagent [ 4, 5...

  9. Structural testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container is a Type B packaging design currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to the normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this package design. This report documents the test program portion of the design verification, using several prototype packages. Four types of testing were performed: 30-foot hypothetical accident condition drop tests in three orientations, 40-inch hypothetical accident condition puncture tests in five orientations, a 21 psi external overpressure test, and a normal conditions of transport test consisting of a water spray and a 4 foot drop test. 18 refs., 104 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Nondestructive Test Methods for Rapid Assessment of Flexible Base Performance in Transportation Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahin, Hakan

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    7-9 A Family ODOT of Moisture Density Curves (after Joslin1959). .............. 146 Figure 7-10 A Family of Generated CCM Curve for All the Collected Aggregate Materials along with Degree of Saturations... ASTM American Society for Testing Materials CCM Compaction Curve Model CEC Cation Exchange Capacity FWD Falling Weight Deflectometer GPR Ground Penetrating Radar MEPDG Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide MBT Methylene Blue Test MBV...

  11. A study of the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate and cloud drop nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C. C..; Penner, J. E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document investigates the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosols and the condensationally produced cloud drops. The changes in aerosol size distribution associated with anthropogenic sulfur emissions may increase the number of cloud drops with subsequent influence on cloud albedo and climate. It has been suggested that the increase in CCN in industrial regions might explain why the Northern Hemisphere has not been warming as rapidly as the Southern Hemisphere over the last 50 Years (Wigley, 1989). In reality, the aerosol size distribution is the result of processes working simultaneously and continuously with such sources as sulfur, soot, particulate organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, etc. Instead of applying a complete aerosol model to investigate the effect of anthropogenic sulfur emissions on the aerosol size distribution, we simply derived the anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosol distribution by assuming that 75% of the anthropogenic was formed through aqueous-phase oxidation and the remaining 25% condensed onto a Prescribed preexisting particle distribution. Uncertainties may arise from the assumed fraction of sulfate produced by condensation and in cloud oxidation. In addition, new particle formation through homogeneous nucleation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O is ignored in this paper.

  12. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  13. Downburst-producing thunderstorms in southern Germany: Radar analysis and predictability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downburst-producing thunderstorms in southern Germany: Radar analysis and predictability Nikolai der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany b European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL), Münchner Str. 20, 82234 Wessling, Germany a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received

  14. An annual cycle of Arctic cloud characteristics observed by radar and lidar at SHEBA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    distribution of cloud boundary heights, and occurrence of liquid phase in clouds are determined from radar-observed clouds containing liquid was 73% for the year. The least amount of liquid water phase was observed during-detected clouds. Liquid was distributed in a combination of all-liquid and mixed phase clouds, and was detected

  15. Finland HF and Esrange MST radar observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkwood, Sheila

    , Neil F. Arnold2 , Sheila Kirkwood3 , Nozomu Nishitani1 , and Mark Lester2 1 Solar Ogawa1 , Neil F. Arnold2 , Sheila Kirkwood3 , Nozomu Nishitani1 , and Mark Lester2 1 Solar et al., 1997; Jenk- ins and Jarvis, 1999; Arnold et al., 2002). The first HF radar observations

  16. Improvement of radar ice-thickness measurements of Greenland outlet glaciers using SAR processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braaten, David A.; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Namburi, Saikiran; Paden, John; Gurumoorthy, Krishna K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive aircraft-based radar ice-thickness measurements over the interior and outlet-glacier regions of the Greenland ice sheet have been obtained by the University of Kansas since 1993, with the latest airborne surveys conducted in May 2001...

  17. ESTIMATING BEDROCK AND SURFACE LAYER BOUNDARIES AND CONFIDENCE INTERVALS IN ICE SHEET RADAR IMAGERY USING MCMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menczer, Filippo

    ESTIMATING BEDROCK AND SURFACE LAYER BOUNDARIES AND CONFIDENCE INTERVALS IN ICE SHEET RADAR IMAGERY and Computing Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana USA ABSTRACT Climate models that predict polar ice sheet behavior require accurate measurements of the bedrock-ice and ice-air bound- aries in ground

  18. Development of a 1319-nm Laser Radar Using Fiber Optics and RF Pulse Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Development of a 1319-nm Laser Radar Using Fiber Optics and RF Pulse Compression Christopher T of this concept. Our laboratory breadboard uses standard, single-mode optical fiber, off-the-shelf fiber-optic IMPLEMENTATION 3.1 Transmitter--Single-mode laser 3.2 Transmitter--Single-mode fiber 3.3 Transmitter--Optical

  19. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

  20. Dynamic thinning of Antarctic glaciers from along-track repeat radar altimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dynamic thinning of Antarctic glaciers from along-track repeat radar altimetry Thomas FLAMENT, Fre significantly accelerated thinning on any glacier elsewhere than on the coast of the Amundsen Sea. INTRODUCTION, Smith and Kohler glaciers. The latter three were reported to be accelerating, whereas the Thwaites

  1. UCSB helps develop massive coastal radar network GARRY WORMSER, NEWS-PRESS CORRESPONDENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    UCSB helps develop massive coastal radar network GARRY WORMSER, NEWS-PRESS CORRESPONDENT June 12, is experiencing a green resurgence in a massive mapping network of computerized systems that can save the lives., to Tijuana, Mexico. UCSB and other member institutions of the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing

  2. Meridian-scanning photometer, coherent HF radar, and magnetometer observations of the cusp: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the transport of mass, energy, and momentum from the solar wind into the near-Earth environment, is facilitated with the CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, a meridian-scanning photometer located at Ny AÃ? lesund, Svalbard on the scale of minutes, and which are believed to be related to the dynamic nature of energy and momentum

  3. OEP Terminal and CONUS Weather Radar Coverage Gap Identification Analysis for NextGen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, John Y. N.

    iii OEP Terminal and CONUS Weather Radar Coverage Gap Identification Analysis for NextGen April 2-density terminal airspace, we focused on this domain with the 35 Operational Evolution Plan (OEP) airports acting as proxy for the yet-to-be-determined list of super-density terminals. We also analyzed, to a lesser extent

  4. Radar Measurements of Ice Sheet Thickness of Outlet Glaciers in Greenland D. Braaten+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Radar Measurements of Ice Sheet Thickness of Outlet Glaciers in Greenland D. Braaten+ and S of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 U.S.A. Abstract ­ We have conducted airborne measurements over the Greenland the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, the University of Kansas has been operating an airborne radio

  5. Effects of magnetite on high-frequency ground-penetrating radar Remke L. Van Dam1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    Effects of magnetite on high-frequency ground-penetrating radar Remke L. Van Dam1 , Jan M. H, paleoclimatology (Maher and Thompson, 1995), soil development (Singer et al., 1996; Van Dam et al., 2008 et al., 2011), the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and land mines (Van Dam et al., 2005

  6. IEEE IGARSS 03, Toulouse, France, July 2003 Puerto Rico Deployable Radar Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    IEEE IGARSS 03, Toulouse, France, July 2003 Puerto Rico Deployable Radar Network Design; Site of Atmospheric Events (CLiMMATE) Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Puerto Rico (CLiMMATE) Laboratory at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez are collaborating to modify a MK2

  7. Winter Precipitation Microphysics Characterized by Polarimetric Radar and Video Disdrometer Observations in Central Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Observations in Central Oklahoma GUIFU ZHANG AND SEAN LUCHS School of Meteorology, and Atmospheric Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma ALEXANDER RYZHKOV Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, Oklahoma MING XUE School of Meteorology, and Center for Analysis

  8. Characterization of Doppler Effects in the Context of Over-the-Horizon Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterization of Doppler Effects in the Context of Over-the-Horizon Radar Cornel Ioana Grenoble addresses the problem of the characterization of Doppler effect of maneuvering targets in the context reveals the Doppler effects characterizing the target's trajectory. Analysis of such signals

  9. Evaluating radial component current measurements from CODAR high frequency radars and moored in situ current meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    error of 19o . The effects of bearing errors on total velocity vector estimates were evaluated usingEvaluating radial component current measurements from CODAR high frequency radars and moored of the moorings carried vector measuring current meters (VMCM's), the ninth an upward-looking acoustic Doppler

  10. Short-term forecasting through intermittent assimilation of data from Taiwan and mainland China coastal radars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    ; published 29 March 2012. [1] Radial velocity (Vr) and reflectivity (Z) data from eight coastal operational, but the benefit is mostly lost within the first hour of forecast. Assimilating data from a single Doppler radar with a good coverage of the typhoon inner core region is also quite effective, but it takes one more cycle

  11. FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL-POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collings, Iain B.

    FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL- POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA D.B. Hayman Fresnel-zone holographic technique was used to obtain the radiation pattern for the upgraded antenna in the measurement of this antenna and the analysis of the results. Keywords: Antenna measurements, Fresnel zone

  12. Basics of Polar-Format algorithm for processing Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a background to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation using the Polar Format (PFA) processing algorithm. This is meant to be an aid to those tasked to implement real-time image formation using the Polar Format processing algorithm.

  13. Weather Radar Monitoring using the Sun Iwan Holleman and Hans Beekhuis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Weather Radar Monitoring using the Sun Iwan Holleman and Hans Beekhuis Technical Report, KNMI TR and azimuthal averaging 13 2.5 Corrected solar power 15 3 Position of the sun 17 3.1 Celestial sphere and equatorial coordinates 17 3.2 Equatorial coordinates of the sun 18 3.3 Conversion to elevation and azimuth 20

  14. Through-the-wall Imaging Radar Students: Thang Bui and Joseph Rabig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghahramani, Zoubin

    radar (SAR) to image objects behind a wall, using a pair of horn antennas and a vector network analyser was used to calibrate out unknown cable and system delays · Objects are resolved at correct locations close to the SAR Focusing delay geometry Theory ­ Image Processing Electromagnetic distance between horn

  15. Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging with Motion Estimation and , T. Callaghan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borcea, Liliana

    principles a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and target motion estimation method that is combined of the data into properly calibrated small apertures, (b) motion or platform trajectory perturbation estimation process. X-band persistent surveillance SAR is a specific application that is covered by our

  16. HF radar in French Mediterranean Sea: an element of MOOSE Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Sea in the context of climate change and anthropogenic pressure and to supply and maintain longHF radar in French Mediterranean Sea: an element of MOOSE Mediterranean Ocean Observing System , Pascal Guterman2 , Karim Bernardet2 1 Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO, UM 110, USTV

  17. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loon, E. Emiel van

    migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar lines, wind farms or bridges (Harmata et al. 1999; Desholm & Kahlert 2005) and (iv) in the context). The potential increase in the construction of wind farms in the coming years is a serious concern for avian

  18. Probabilistic Conic Mixture Model and its Applications to Mining Spatial Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leeds, University of

    to image data is a basic task in pattern recognition and spatial data mining and also is an important a reliable report after the inspection. The patterns appearing in the B-scans [5] of GPR data have shapesProbabilistic Conic Mixture Model and its Applications to Mining Spatial Ground Penetrating Radar

  19. FMCW Radar with enhanced frequency estimation# Dong-hun Shin 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Seong-Ook

    is shown in Figure.1. Bi-static radar type is used for the isolation between Tx and Rx antennas. Isolators, and supplied with LO port of the mixer and the Tx antenna. Received signal from the Rx antenna is supplied to the RF port of the mixer. In the mixer, RF signal is mixed with LO signal and down #12;converted

  20. Test quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, R.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Keller, A.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test`s ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing.

  1. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  2. Test quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, R.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Keller, A.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing.

  3. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S. [Nuclear and Atomic Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Arya, A S. [Department of Physics, VIT University, Vellore, Tamilnadu 632014 (India)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  4. A compactness lemma and its application to the existence of minimizers for the liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert L. Frank; Elliott H. Lieb

    2015-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ancient Gamow liquid drop model of nuclear energies has had a renewed life as an interesting problem in the calculus of variations: Find a set $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb R^3$ with given volume A that minimizes the sum of its surface area and its Coulomb self energy. A ball minimizes the former and maximizes the latter, but the conjecture is that a ball is always a minimizer -- when there is a minimizer. Even the existence of minimizers for this interesting geometric problem has not been shown in general. We prove the existence of the absolute minimizer (over all $A$) of the energy divided by $A$ (the binding energy per particle). A second result of our work is a general method for showing the existence of optimal sets in geometric minimization problems, which we call the `method of the missing mass'. A third point is the extension of the pulling back compactness lemma from $W^{1,p}$ to $BV$.

  5. A statistical view on nuclear mass formula based on liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenxi Yuan

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical method can be used to verify whether a theory is improved or not. As an example, a statistical study is applied to the error of the nuclear binding energy between the observed values and the theoretical values from the mass formula based on the liquid drop model (LDM). A new shell correction term is introduced to the traditional LDM. With such improvement, the error shows smaller standard deviation, better normality, reduced systematic part, and less dependent on the shell effect. The inclusion of the shell effect can be concluded to be an improvement purely from a statistical view. The present eight-parameter mass formula including shell effect gives standard deviation $\\sigma=1.4$ MeV for $2350$ observed binding energies from AME2012.

  6. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  7. Test Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Test Images. I hope to have a set of test images for the course soon. Some images are available now; some will have to wait until I can find another 100-200

  8. Long-term Observations of the Convective Boundary Layer Using Insect Radar Returns at the SGP ARM Climate Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, A S; Kollias, P; Giangrande, S E; Klein, S A

    2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term study of the turbulent structure of the convective boundary layer (CBL) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility is presented. Doppler velocity measurements from insects occupying the lowest 2 km of the boundary layer during summer months are used to map the vertical velocity component in the CBL. The observations cover four summer periods (2004-08) and are classified into cloudy and clear boundary layer conditions. Profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and mass flux are estimated to study the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer during these conditions. A conditional sampling method is applied to the original Doppler velocity dataset to extract coherent vertical velocity structures and to examine plume dimension and contribution to the turbulent transport. Overall, the derived turbulent statistics are consistent with previous aircraft and lidar observations. The observations provide unique insight into the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer and the role of increased cloudiness in the turbulent budget of the subcloud layer. Coherent structures (plumes-thermals) are found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total turbulent transport resolved by the cloud radar system. The extended dataset is suitable for evaluating boundary layer parameterizations and testing large-eddy simulations (LESs) for a variety of surface and cloud conditions.

  9. 30 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE WI NTE R 2012 Whether processing radar signals in Norway or assessing rock properties in Nigeria, Calte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE WI NTE R 2012 Whether processing radar signals in Norway or assessing rock deeply into basic physics to solve problems. Oslo, Norway, José Navarro, PhD '94, Astronomy José Navarro

  10. Aircraft-protection radar for use with atmospheric lidars Thomas J. Duck, Bernard Firanski, Frank D. Lind, and Dwight Sipler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duck, Thomas J.

    . Lind, and Dwight Sipler A modified X-band radar system designed to detect aircraft during atmospheric, Dalhousie Univer- sity, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 3J5. F. D. Lind and D. Sipler are with Haystack

  11. Case studies in magnetics and ground penetrating radar, Shreveport Convention Center, Shreveport, LA and Yankee Boy Rock Glacier, Ouray, CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Carl J

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of geophysical tools such as magnetics and ground penetrating radar are becoming more prevalent in site characterization studies and other geologic research. Two case studies which illustrate this are described here. The first case study...

  12. The Retrieval of Ice Water Content from Radar Reflectivity Factor and Temperature and Its Use in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model ROBIN J. HOGAN, MARION P. MITTERMAIER,* AND ANTHONY J. ILLINGWORTH Department-GHz radar with the values held in the Met Office mesoscale forecast model, for eight precipitating

  13. IMPROVED CAPABILITIES FOR SITING WIND FARMS AND MITIGATING IMPACTS ON RADAR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S.

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of efficient wind energy production involves challenges in technology and interoperability with other systems critical to the national mission. Wind turbines impact radar measurements as a result of their large reflectivity cross section as well as through the Doppler phase shift of their rotating blades. Wind farms can interfere with operational radar in multiple contexts, with degradation impacts on: weather detection such as tornado location, wind shear, and precipitation monitoring; tracking of airplanes where air traffic control software can lose the tracks of aircraft; and in identification of other low flying targets where a wind farm located close to a border might create a dead zone for detecting intruding objects. Objects in the path of an electromagnetic wave affect its propagation characteristics. This includes actual blockage of wave propagation by large individual objects and interference in wave continuity due to diffraction of the beam by individual or multiple objects. As an evolving industry, and the fastest growing segment of the energy sector, wind power is poised to make significant contributions in future energy generation requirements. The ability to develop comprehensive strategies for designing wind turbine locations that are mutually beneficial to both the wind industry that is dependent on production, and radar sites which the nation relies on, is critical to establishing reliable and secure wind energy. The mission needs of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of Defense (DOD), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) dictate that the nation's radar systems remain uninhibited, to the maximum extent possible, by man-made obstructions; however, wind turbines can and do impact the surveillance footprint for monitoring airspace both for national defense as well as critical weather conditions which can impact life and property. As a result, a number of potential wind power locations have been contested on the basis of radar line of site. Radar line of site is dependent on local topography, and varies with atmospheric refractive index which is affected by weather and geographic conditions.

  14. Extra-regulatory impact tests and analyses of the structural evaluation test unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural evaluation test unit is roughly equivalent to a 1/3 scale model of a high level waste rail cask. The test unit was designed to just meet the requirements of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 when subjected to a 9 m (30 ft) free drop resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s (30 mph) onto an unyielding target in the end-on orientation. The test unit was then subjected to impacts with higher velocities to determine the amount of built-in conservatism in this design approach. Test impacts of 13.4, 20.1 and 26.8 m/s (30, 45, and 60 mph) were performed. This paper will describe the design, testing, and comparison of measured strains and deformations to the equivalent analytical predictions.

  15. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  16. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar Zenith Angle Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar 19 November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating at a variety of solar zenith angles ( o trajectories and is used to drive an offline microphysical model that includes the influence of radiation

  17. Drop impact of shear thickening liquids Francois Boyer, Jacco H. Snoeijer, J. Frits Dijksman, and Detlef Lohse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    pop- ular 3D-inkjet-printing [17], most drop impact studies have focused on Newtonian liquids. However, as is theoretically explained from a balance between the kinetic energy and the viscously-dissipated en- ergy, from) [2]. Impact is relevant for a large number of industrial processes (e.g. inkjet-printing [3], spray

  18. Scaling of pressure drop for oscillatory flow through a slot Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Rajat

    vec- toring, active control of separation, and drag reduction in a turbulent boundary layer.1Scaling of pressure drop for oscillatory flow through a slot Reni Raju Department of Mechanical to oscillatory flow through a slot. In this Brief Communication, we use numerical simulations and experiments

  19. Published in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY DESIGN TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a building's energy consumption, yet they are also the most tedious to describe. Therefore we developed this new graphic user interface (GUI) using intuitively simple "drag-and-drop" data input screens to make incorporates as its computation engine a whole-building hourly heat balance simulation program, Solar-5

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...