National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rad radiation absorbed

  1. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  2. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Radiative Transfer, RAD-13 June 28, 2013, Kuadasi, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kuadasi, Turkey RAD-13-040 SPECTRAL RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF THREE-DIMENSIONALLY ORDERED MACROPOROUS CERIA

  3. RadTracker: Optical Imaging of High Energy Radiation Tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Comaskey, B J; Heebner, J E; Kallman, J S; Richards, J B

    2007-03-02

    This project examined the possibility of extending the recently demonstrated radoptic detection approach to gamma imaging. Model simulations of the light scattering process predicted that expected signal levels were small and likely below the detection limit of large area, room-temperature detectors. A series of experiments using pulsed x-ray excitation, modulated gamma excitation and optical pump-probe methods confirmed those theoretical predictions. At present the technique does not appear to provide a viable approach to volumetric radiation detection; however, in principal, orders of magnitude improvement in the SNR can result by using designer materials to concentrate and localize the radiation-absorption induced charge, simultaneously confining the optical mode to increase 'fill' factor and overlap of the probe beam with the affected regions, and employing high speed gated imaging detectors to measure the scattered signal.

  4. MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeaw, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated.

  5. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  6. Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation of interest were drawn on compressed planar images of source organs that could be iden- tified. Radiation dose

  7. Influence of the radiation absorbed by micro particles on the flame propagation and combustion regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiation of the hot combustion products usually does not influence noticeably the flame propagating through gaseous mixture. the situation is changed drastically in the presence even small concentration of particles, which absorb radiation, transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of heat conduction, so that the gas phase temperature in front of the advancing flame lags that of the particles. It is shown that radiative preheating of unreacted mixture ahead of the flame results in a modest increase of the advancing flame velocity for a highly reactive gaseous fuel, or to considerable increase of the flame velocity in the case of a slow reactive mixture. The effects of radiation preheating as stronger as smaller the normal flame velocity. The radiation heat transfer can become a dominant mechanism compared with molecular heat conduction, determining the structure and the speed of combustion wave in the case of a small enough velocity of the advancing flame. It is shown tha...

  8. Calculation of the lesion radiation absorbed dose in canines treated with samarium-153 EDTMP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poston, John W

    1989-01-01

    . Schla p r Chair of Committee Dan ightower Member Jo n W. Poston, Sr. Mem er Milton E. McLain Member John W. Posto, Sr. Head of Department May 1989 ABSTRACT Calculation of the Lesion Radiation Absorbed Dose in Canines Treated With Samarium... the members of my graduate committee, Dr. Dan Hightower, who is always approachable and ready to help, and Dr. Milton E. McLain for their support during my graduate study. Special thanks to my friends, especially Dr. Tsz-yik Edmond Hui, for the help...

  9. RadBall Technology For Hot Cell Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new, non-electrical, remote radiation mapping device known as RadBall has been developed by the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) in the United Kingdom.

  10. RadBall Technology For Hot Cell Characterization

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    accurately characterize different radiation sources is ongoing along with development and building of the 3D visualization part of the technology to overlay RadBall data onto...

  11. Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

    1986-01-01

    calculational dose response. 25 9 Counts per minute of "'I as obtained using a 1" x 1" Nal external probe bioassay system as a function of '"I activity present. 26 INTRODUCTION The objective of this research is to measure the radiation absorbed dose from... dosimeter system, the energy imparted by radiation causes the ferrous ions present in the solution to be converted to ferric ions, so that the number of iona converted is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose (Gu78a). However in the FBX dosimeter...

  12. Microsoft Word - Rad_Hard_Assurance_Fact_Sheet_SAND2011-0937P...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hardenin Radiat Gamma The Rad includin of Sandi the phys semicon the parts low-dos radiation X-ray R The Rad Sandia a irradiato especiall one of th tube is lo irradiatio...

  13. The carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for subnuclear assembly of RAD51 after treatment with cisplatin but not ionizing radiation in human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Chenyi; Huang Peng; Liu Jinsong . E-mail: jliu@mdanderson.org

    2005-10-28

    BRCA1 plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability through its involvement in DNA repair. Although it is known that BRCA1 and RAD51 form distinct DNA repair subnuclear complexes, or foci, following environmental insults to the DNA, the role of BRCA1 in this process remains to be characterized. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the role of BRCA1 in the formation of RAD51 foci following treatment with cisplatin and ionizing radiation. We found that although a functional BRCA1 is required for the subnuclear assembly of BRCA1 foci following treatment with either ionizing radiation or cisplatin, a functional BRCA1 is required for RAD51 foci to form following treatment with cisplatin but not with ionizing radiation. Similar results were obtained in SKOV-3 cells when the level of BRCA1 expression was knocked down by stable expression of a retrovirus-mediated small-interfering RNA against BRCA1. We also found that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 contains uncharacterized phosphorylation sites that are responsive to cisplatin. The functional BRCA1 is also required for breast and ovarian cancer cells to mount resistance to cisplatin. These results suggest that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for the cisplatin-induced recruitment of RAD51 to the DNA-damage site, which may contribute to cisplatin resistance.

  14. RAD-NNET, a neural network based correlation developed for a realistic simulation of the non-gray radiative heat transfer effect in three-dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    of combustion gases (CO2 and H2O) and soot using numerical data generated by RADCAL. RAD-NNET is then applied with the current approximate approaches. RAD-NNET can be readily implemented in commercial CFD codes to greatly and the understanding of spectroscopic absorp- tion properties of different combustion gases [1,2]. Reasonably accurate

  15. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  16. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  17. Efficiency Factors and Radiation Characteristics of Spherical Scatterers in Absorbing Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Juan; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Howell, Thermal radiation heat transfer - Third Edition,properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer”, Journalradiation characteristics of fused quartz containing bubbles”, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, (

  18. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; KEYWORDS: CO2 flux, absorbed PAR, carbon cycle, remote sensing Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1640 Global Change: Remote sensing; 3307 Meteorology

  19. The RadAssessor manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Sharon L.

    2007-02-01

    THIS manual will describe the functions and capabilities that are available from the RadAssessor database and will demonstrate how to retrieve and view its information. You’ll learn how to start the database application, how to log in, how to use the common commands, and how to use the online help if you have a question or need extra guidance. RadAssessor can be viewed from any standard web browser. Therefore, you will not need to install any special software before using RadAssessor.

  20. Rad51C deficiency destabilizes XRCC3, impairs recombination and radiosensitizes S/G2-phase cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lio, Yi-Ching; Schild, David; Brenneman, Mark A.; Redpath, J. Leslie; Chen, David J.

    2004-05-01

    The highly conserved Rad51 protein plays an essential role in repairing DNA damage through homologous recombination. In vertebrates, five Rad51 paralogs (Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) are expressed in mitotically growing cells, and are thought to play mediating roles in homologous recombination, though their precise functions remain unclear. Here we report the use of RNA interference to deplete expression of Rad51C protein in human HT1080 and HeLa cells. In HT1080 cells, depletion of Rad51C by small interfering RNA caused a significant reduction of frequency in homologous recombination. The level of XRCC3 protein was also sharply reduced in Rad51C-depleted HeLa cells, suggesting that XRCC3 is dependent for its stability upon heterodimerization with Rad51C. In addition, Rad51C-depleted HeLa cells showed hypersensitivity to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C, and moderately increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Importantly, the radiosensitivity of Rad51C-deficient HeLa cells was evident in S and G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle but not in G{sub 1} phase. Together, these results provide direct cellular evidence for the importance of human Rad51C in homologous recombinational repair.

  1. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management...

  2. Rad Toolbox User's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckerman, Keith F.; Sjoreen, Andrea L.

    2013-05-01

    The Radiological Toolbox software developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is designed to provide electronic access to the vast and varied data that underlies the field of radiation protection. These data represent physical, chemical, anatomical, physiological, and mathematical parameters detailed in various handbooks which a health physicist might consult while in his office. The initial motivation for the software was to serve the needs of the health physicist away from his office and without access to his handbooks; e.g., NRC inspectors. The earlier releases of the software were widely used and accepted around the world by not only practicing health physicist but also those within educational programs. This release updates the software to accommodate changes in Windows operating systems and, in some aspects, radiation protection. This release has been tested on Windows 7 and 8 and on 32- and 64-bit machines. The nuclear decay data has been updated and thermal neutron capture cross sections and cancer risk coefficients have been included. This document and the software’s user’s guide provide further details and documentation of the information captured within the Radiological Toolbox.

  3. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K.

    1995-11-01

    The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

  4. Environmental Geochemistry of Rads | Environmental Radiation Protection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES October 27th, 2010Environment, Health,Environmental

  5. Genotoxicology of Rads | Environmental Radiation Protection Curriculum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunities NuclearlongGeneral Tables The

  6. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  7. ARM - Datastreams - goes7rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See EnergyCurrent : 0.0September4 Documentationirir8rad

  8. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr10rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you! SendDatastreamsaoscpcDatastreamsaossmpsDatastreamsassistch2ch2ch40rad

  9. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr12rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality Plots ARMlacnau2rad

  10. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr14rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality4rad Documentation XDC

  11. Radiation calculations for the ILC cryomodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakao, N.; Mokhov, N.V.; Klebaner, A.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    The MARS15 radiation simulations were performed for the ILC cryomodule. The model assumes a uniform beam loss intensity of 1 W/m of 750-MeV and 250-GeV electron along the inner surface of the beam pipe and the cavity iris of the 12-m cryomodule. Two-dimensional distributions of radiation dose in the module were obtained. Absorbed dose rate and energy spectra of electrons, photons, neutrons and protons were also obtained at the three cryogenic thermometers locations by filling with silicon material in the appropriate locations, and radiation hardness of the thermometers was discussed. From the obtained results, maximum absorbed dose of thermometers at the cooling pipe is 0.85mGy/sec (85 mRad/sec), that is 0.31 MGy (31 MRad) for 20 years.

  12. Prediction of proton and neutron absorbed-dose distributions in proton beam radiation therapy using Monte Carlo n-particle transport code (MCNPX) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massingill, Brian Edward

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this research was to develop a complex MCNPX model of the human head to predict absorbed dose distributions during proton therapy of ocular tumors. Absorbed dose distributions using the complex geometry ...

  13. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  14. What is the angular velocity of earth around the sun? Give in rad/s, rev/s and rpm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    1 example What is the angular velocity of earth around the sun? Give in rad/s, rev/s and rpm Answer.1 rad (=22400=6.2 rev) #12;3 examplea b 5m 6m The angular velocity of a is 2 rad/s. a) What is its tangential velocity? If b is keeping pace with a, b) What is its angular velocity? c) What is its linear

  15. Understanding Rad iation Energy and Its Use in the Preservation of Seafoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this are the transfers of light and heat, two different forms of energy, from the sun to the earth. The earth also receives other types of radiant energy from the sun as well as from other radiating bodies in outer spaceUnderstanding Rad iation Energy and Its Use in the Preservation of Seafoods Sunlight is the energy

  16. HiRadMat at CERN SPS: A dedicated inbeam test facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    HiRadMat at CERN SPS: A dedicated inbeam test facility http://cern.ch/hiradmat Adrian Fabich 5th accelerator studies and applications. HighRadiation to Materials · Dedicated facility · Moving away from adhoc. Fabich 8 #12;Facility services Provision of dedicated irradiation infrastructure · Preparation lab

  17. CRYOPUMP MEASUREMENTS RELATING TO SAFETY, PUMPING SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING* William G. Graham andspeeds, and to study outgassing such as might be produced byi w I C" Radiation Outgassing Rad:lation-induced outgassing

  18. Comment on "Stress induction in the bacteria Shewanella oneidensis and Deinococcus radiodurans in response to below-background ionizing radiation", Castillo, et al. Int. J. Rad. Biol., 2015; Early Online DOI:10.3109/09553002.2015.1062571

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, J I

    2015-01-01

    Castillo, et al. report hormesis by background levels of radiation, at which there is $< 10^{-3}$ ionization per bacterium in a replication time. This suggests radiation products accumulate in the growth medium over much longer times. Experiments are proposed to test this hypothesis.

  19. Modeling the variations of Dose Rate measured by RAD during the first MSL Martian year: 2012-2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Jingnan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Rafkin, Scot; Hassler, Donald M; Posner, Arik; Heber, Bernd; Koehler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Appel, Jan K; Boehm, Eckart; Boettcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Soenke; Brinza, David E; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Kahanpaeae, H; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the {energy spectra} of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with the radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. With these first-ever measurements on the Martian surface, RAD observed several effects influencing the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) induced surface radiation dose concurrently: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides, [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere, and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR flux by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activity and the rotation of the Sun. The RAD surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed and fitted to empirical models which quantitatively demonstrate} how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) are related to the measured dose rates. {Correspondingly we ...

  20. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  2. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, M. F. I.; Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  3. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Development and the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program.in vivo by low doses of gamma radiation. Rad Res 156, 324-7.

  4. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Longhurst, Glen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Porter, Douglas L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parry, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  5. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vincent, Ronald J. (Latham, NY)

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  6. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smolik, Galen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  7. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  8. Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    cost reductions in the manufacturing of solar mod- ules.1 Moreover, it is essential to identify newSemiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers Linyou Cao, Pengyu Fan, Alok P. Vasudev the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250

  9. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS? pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe?SiS? and Fe?GeS?, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS?. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  10. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  11. Modeling the variations of Dose Rate measured by RAD during the first MSL Martian year: 2012-2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jingnan Guo; Cary Zeitlin; Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber; Scot Rafkin; Donald M. Hassler; Arik Posner; Bernd Heber; Jan Koehler; Bent Ehresmann; Jan K. Appel; Eckart Boehm; Stephan Boettcher; Soenke Burmeister; David E. Brinza; Henning Lohf; Cesar Martin; H. Kahanpaeae; Guenther Reitz

    2015-07-13

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the {energy spectra} of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with the radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. With these first-ever measurements on the Martian surface, RAD observed several effects influencing the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) induced surface radiation dose concurrently: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides, [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere, and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR flux by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activity and the rotation of the Sun. The RAD surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed and fitted to empirical models which quantitatively demonstrate} how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) are related to the measured dose rates. {Correspondingly we can estimate dose rate and dose equivalents under different solar modulations and different atmospheric conditions, thus allowing empirical predictions of the Martian surface radiation environment.

  12. Modeling the variations of Dose Rate measured by RAD during the first MSL Martian year: 2012-2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jingnan Guo; Cary Zeitlin; Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber; Scot Rafkin; Donald M. Hassler; Arik Posner; Bernd Heber; Jan Koehler; Bent Ehresmann; Jan K. Appel; Eckart Boehm; Stephan Boettcher; Soenke Burmeister; David E. Brinza; Henning Lohf; Cesar Martin; H. Kahanpaeae; Guenther Reitz

    2015-09-21

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the {energy spectra} of both energetic charged and neutral particles along with the radiation dose rate at the surface of Mars. With these first-ever measurements on the Martian surface, RAD observed several effects influencing the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) induced surface radiation dose concurrently: [a] short-term diurnal variations of the Martian atmospheric pressure caused by daily thermal tides, [b] long-term seasonal pressure changes in the Martian atmosphere, and [c] the modulation of the primary GCR flux by the heliospheric magnetic field, which correlates with long-term solar activity and the rotation of the Sun. The RAD surface dose measurements, along with the surface pressure data and the solar modulation factor, are analysed and fitted to empirical models which quantitatively demonstrate} how the long-term influences ([b] and [c]) are related to the measured dose rates. {Correspondingly we can estimate dose rate and dose equivalents under different solar modulations and different atmospheric conditions, thus allowing empirical predictions of the Martian surface radiation environment.

  13. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  14. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  15. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  16. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  17. RadCat 3.0 user guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinojosa, Daniel; Penisten, Janelle J.; Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2009-05-01

    RADTRAN is an internationally accepted program and code for calculating the risks of transporting radioactive materials. The first versions of the program, RADTRAN I and II, were developed for NUREG-0170 (USNRC, 1977), the first environmental statement on transportation of radioactive materials. RADTRAN and its associated software have undergone a number of improvements and advances consistent with improvements in both available data and computer technology. The version of RADTRAN currently bundled with RadCat is RADTRAN 6.0. This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 3.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code. RadCat 3.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0 which includes an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.0.

  18. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01

    Operational Vertical Sounder UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UVunmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Campaign (MAC) directlyUnmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Campaign (MAC) employed

  19. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01

    dust, volcanic pumice and fly ash, Appl. Opt . , 12, 564–DU is the sum of dust and fly ash, and Nabs is the sum ofwith sulfate (EC-SU), fly ash, potassium-biomass, organic

  20. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01

    using autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles, Atmos Chem Phys,Maldives Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle Campaign MACRVertical Sounder UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UV ultraviolet

  1. Global observations of UV-absorbing aerosols from ERS-2/GOME Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Absorbing Aerosol Index ­ Theory GOME AAI results Conclusions & Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol Index Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith

  2. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  3. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  4. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

  5. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (Boulder, CO); Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer.

  6. Perspectives of Decision-Making and Estimation of Risk in Populations Exposed to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Extrapolation to low doses. Radiation Res. 71: Upton, A.C.for high LET radiations at low doses, risk values may beof radiation-induced leukemia, fow'LET, low dose: 6/rad)

  7. Detection of UV-absorbing aerosols using GOME and SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    using GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12;Last step: Only positive residues are considered-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar

  8. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  9. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

  10. Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2015-01-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  11. Ejecta model development at pRad (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Dimonte, Guy; Terrones, Guillermo; Morris, Christopher; Bainbridge, J R; Hogan, Gary E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Holtkamp, David B.; Kwiathowski, Kris; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Merrill, Frank E; Nedrow, Paul; Saunders, Alexander; Schwartz, C L; Stone, B; Tupa, Dale; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy S

    2010-02-09

    In July 2009 we fielded three explosively (HE) driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments at the LANSCE Proton Radiography Facility (pRad), and in August of 2009 we fielded one flyer plate experiment on the pRad 40 mm powder gun. One HE experiment was done in vacuum, and the other two within four atmospheres of noble gasses: Xe and Ne. These two gases were chosen to study the viscous effects on ejecta formation. It is unexpected, but the viscosity {eta} of Ne is twice that of Xe, and, due to the atomic mass difference between the two, the kinematic viscosity ({eta}/{rho}) of Ne is about ten times that of Xe. The results showed that ejecta formation is sensitively linked to the gas density, which implies that the Weber number is more important in ejecta formation than the Reynolds number.

  12. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhai, Pengcheng [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7?mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple ?/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  13. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  14. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  15. Radiation damage issues for superconducting magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    and "RAL 71A", developed at RAL · What are the disadvantages? · Can have low radiation hardness so polymer dictates magnet lifetime #12;Known radiation dose limits for polymers Many factors influence rad ions and radicals Ideally we should consider more than just dose... Radiation types do have different

  16. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

    2012-05-01

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

  17. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    at scattering incoming solar radiation and results in lessabsorbs both incoming solar radiation and reflected SW ra-m absorb incoming solar radiation as well as SW radiation

  18. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakhno, Igor L; Tropin, Igor S

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system -- all with corresponding radiation shielding -- was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  19. Proton Radiography at Los Alamos National Laboratory (pRad)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | CenterPressthis siteProspectivepRad at LANL

  20. Proton Radiography at Los Alamos National Laboratory (pRad)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae model (JournalHearingsHumanPlasmapRad at LANL

  1. Fifth Annual RadWaste Summit - September 6-9

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmittedEcologist for a DayFifth Annual RadWaste

  2. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  3. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  4. Automatic classification of mammography reports by BI-RADS breast tissue composition class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    Automatic classification of mammography reports by BI-RADS breast tissue composition class Bethany tissue composition partially predicts breast cancer risk, classification of mammography reports by breast for using the unstructured text of mammography reports to classify them into BI-RADS breast tissue

  5. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shengqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, M. Laird

    2013-02-12

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum...

  6. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shenqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, Marcus Laird

    2013-02-01

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum...

  7. Energy deposition and radiological studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakhno, I L; Tropin, I S; Eidelman, Y I

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  8. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  9. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hamby, Jr., Clyde (Harriman, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  10. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  11. Radiation Characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorococcum littorale, and Chlorella sp. Used For CO2 Fixation and Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Gomez, Pedro; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    for absorbing solar radiation and generating electrons thatMicroorganisms Suspensions Solar radiation transfer withinocean optics [50, 54], solar radiation conversion to algae [

  12. Copy of Development of an Ultra Scalable Low Power Rad-Hard Nonvolatil...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Copy of Development of an Ultra Scalable Low Power Rad-Hard Nonvolatile Memory for Space Applications. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Copy of Development of an Ultra...

  13. Klutts 4/2004 Bio-Rad Protein Assay (Traditional Bradford)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doering, Tamara

    standards (typically IgG) of 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 µg/ml in water Bio-Rad assay reagent (catalog number 81694A), stored at 4 °C, typically in hall fridge 96-well plate (no lid needed) 1. Pipette 5 ul of water. 3. Dilute the Bio-Rad assay dye 1:4 with DI water, and add 200 µl to each well. 4. Allow color

  14. Overexpressed of RAD51 suppresses recombination defects: a possible mechanism to reverse genomic instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2009-10-15

    RAD51, a key protein in the homologous recombinational DNA repair (HRR) pathway, is the major strand-transferase required for mitotic recombination. An important early step in HRR is the formation of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) coated by RPA (a ss-DNA binding protein). Displacement of RPA by RAD51 is highly regulated and facilitated by a number of different proteins known as the 'recombination mediators'. To assist these recombination mediators, a second group of proteins also is required and we are defining these proteins here as 'recombination co-mediators'. Defects in either recombination mediators or comediators, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, lead to impaired HRR that can genetically be complemented for (i.e. suppressed) by overexpression of RAD51. Defects in HRR have long been known to contribute to genomic instability leading to tumor development. Since genomic instability also slows cell growth, precancerous cells presumably require genomic restabilization to gain a growth advantage. RAD51 is overexpressed in many tumors, and therefore, we hypothesize that the complementing ability of elevated levels of RAD51 in tumors with initial HRR defects limits genomic instability during carcinogenic progression. Of particular interest, this model may also help explain the high frequency of TP53 mutations in human cancers, since wild-type p53 represses RAD51.

  15. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  16. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  17. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Daniel C. (Aiken, SC)

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  18. Microwave absorbance properties of zirconium–manganese substituted cobalt nanoferrite as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Kishwar, E-mail: kknano@hotmail.com; Rehman, Sarish

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. • Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. • Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the Zr–Mn. • Higher the Zr–Mn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. • The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zr–Mn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2?2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1–0.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz–3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on Zr–Mn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of Zr–Mn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.

  19. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  20. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  1. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  2. St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RADIATION BASICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    , radiation is described as either non-ionizing (low energy) or ionizing (high energy). Non-ionizing radiation or concrete. WHAT IS DOSE? HOW IS RADIATION MEASURED? The dose is the quantity of radiation or energy received dose and takes into account the type of radiation absorbed into the body and the likelihood of damage

  3. Kinetic gating mechanism of DNA damage recognition by Rad4/XPC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xuejing; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Zheng, Guanqun; Park, Beomseok; Shim, Yoonjung; Kim, Youngchang; Liu, Lili; Van Houten, Bennett; He, Chuan; Ansari, Anjum; et al

    2015-01-06

    The xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) complex initiates nucleotide excision repair by recognizing DNA lesions before recruiting downstream factors. How XPC detects structurally diverse lesions embedded within normal DNA is unknown. Here we present a crystal structure that captures the yeast XPC orthologue (Rad4) on a single register of undamaged DNA. The structure shows that a disulphide-tethered Rad4 flips out normal nucleotides and adopts a conformations similar to that seen with damaged DNA. Contrary to many DNA repair enzymes that can directly reject non-target sites as structural misfits, our results suggest that Rad4/XPC uses a kinetic gating mechanism whereby lesion selectivitymore »arises from the kinetic competition between DNA opening and the residence time of Rad4/XPC per site. This mechanism is further supported by measurements of Rad4-induced lesion-opening times using temperature-jump pertubation spectroscopy. Kinetic gating may be a general mechanism used by site-specific DNA-binding proteins to minimize time-consuming interrogations of non-target sites.« less

  4. Numerical simulations of quasar absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns

    2005-07-25

    The physical state of the intergalactic medium can be probed in great detail with the intervening absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. The properties of the Hydrogen absorbers depend on many cosmological parameters, such as the matter-power spectrum, reionisation history, ionising background and the nature of the dark matter. The spectra also contain metal lines, which can be used to constrain the star formation history and the feedback processes acting in large and small galaxies. Simulations have been instrumental in investigating to what extent these parameters can be unambiguously constrained with current and future data. This paper is meant as an introduction to this subject, and reviews techniques and methods for simulating the intergalactic medium.

  5. Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Shao-Yi

    The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the ...

  6. Notes 10. The dynamic vibration absorber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    system should be such that: TUNED ABSORBER ? X ? np = also known as a For example, if zero amplitude vibration is desired for excitations at the natural frequency of the original system, the designer selects A vibration absorber is a mechanical device... stream_source_info Notes_Vibration_Absorber_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10660 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Notes_Vibration_Absorber_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...

  7. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Tracy A; Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  8. Proton Absorber Feasibility Study Chris Rogers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Proton Absorber ­ Feasibility Study Chris Rogers, ASTeC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 14 Sept 2010 #12;Overview We have a problem with secondary protons in the front end Deposit significant Need remote handling (ouch) One way to fix this is using a proton absorber Change in beam power

  9. Topic 4: Demand Response A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Topic 4: Demand Response A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department;Definition of Demand Response Dr. Hamed Mohsenian-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid · According to the U.S. Department of Energy: Demand response (DR) is defined as changes

  10. Topic 3: Smart Grid Communications A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Topic 3: Smart Grid Communications A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems Reference Model for Smart Grid Dr. Hamed Mohsenian-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 2 · Each domain involves its own actors and applications. · Interactions across 7 Smart Grid

  11. Structural and torsional properties of the RAD51-dsDNA nucleoprotein filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Nynke

    Structural and torsional properties of the RAD51-dsDNA nucleoprotein filament Mina Lee1 , Jan DNA, which induces changes in DNA structure, results in the formation of a nucleoprotein filament-dsDNA filaments. Our measurements use two recently developed magnetic tweezers assays, freely

  12. Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins C. Densham, A. Atherton, T. Davenne, P (FNAL) S. Roberts, V. Kuksenko (Oxford University) Motivation Beryllium is currently widely used, it is essential to understand the response and potential limits of beryllium in such extreme environments

  13. Yeast Rad17 Mec3 Ddc1: A sliding clamp for the DNA damage checkpoint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgers, Peter M.

    lead to inhibition of the cdk kinases that drive the cell cycle are relatively well understood to cell cycle arrest. Rad24 interacts with the four small subunits of replication factor C (RFC) to form of cellular responses which includes DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell- cycle arrest. The DNA damage checkpoint

  14. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a...

  15. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  16. Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

  17. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. (Punjabi Univ., Physics Dept., Patiala 147002 (IN))

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  18. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  19. Detection of coincident radiations in a single transducer by pulse shape analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2008-03-11

    Pulse shape analysis determines if two radiations are in coincidence. A transducer is provided that, when it absorbs the first radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a shorter time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed first radiation and, when it absorbs the second radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a longer time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed second radiation. When radiation is absorbed, the output pulse is detected and two integrals are formed, the first over a time period representative of the first time constant and the second over a time period representative of the second time constant. The values of the two integrals are examined to determine whether the first radiation, the second radiation, or both were absorbed in the transducer, the latter condition defining a coincident event.

  20. Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    13 Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for EMC Applications Marina al., 2008). Application of absorbing materials for the design of shielding enclosures, coatings to electronic products, the engineered absorbing materials would allow for compliance with requirements

  1. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  2. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in...

  3. Prompt radiation-induced conductivity in polyurethane foam and glass microballoons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2014-06-01

    We performed measurements and analyses of the prompt radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of polyurethane foam and glass microballoon foam at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. The RIC coefficient was non-linear with dose rate for polyurethane foam; however, typical values at 1E11 rad(si)/s dose rate was measured as 0.8E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 5 lb./cu ft. foam and 0.3E-11 mho/m/rad/s for 10 lb./cu ft. density polyurethane foam. For encapsulated glass microballoons (GMB) the RIC coefficient was approximately 1E-15 mho/m/rad/s and was not a strong function of dose rate.

  4. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-12-26

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  5. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  6. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  7. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  8. Application of RAD-BCG calculator to Hanford's 300 area shoreline characterization dataset

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Patton, Gene W.

    2003-07-01

    Abstract. In 2001, a multi-agency study was conducted to characterize potential environmental effects from radiological and chemical contaminants on the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. Historically, the 300 Area was the location of nuclear fuel fabrication and was the main location for research and development activities from the 1940s until the late 1980s. During past waste handling practices uranium, copper, and other heavy metals were routed to liquid waste streams and ponds near the Columbia River shoreline. The Washington State Department of Health and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project sampled various environmental components including river water, riverbank spring water, sediment, fishes, crustaceans, bivalve mollusks, aquatic insects, riparian vegetation, small mammals, and terrestrial invertebrates for analyses of radiological and chemical constituents. The radiological analysis results for water and sediment were used as initial input into the RAD-BCG Calculator. The RAD-BCG Calculator, a computer program that uses an Excel® spreadsheet and Visual Basic® software, showed that maximum radionuclide concentrations measured in water and sediment were lower than the initial screening criteria for concentrations to produce dose rates at existing or proposed limits. Radionuclide concentrations measured in biota samples were used to calculate site-specific bioaccumulation coefficients (Biv) to test the utility of the RAD-BCG-Calculator’s site-specific screening phase. To further evaluate site-specific effects, the default Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for internal alpha particle emissions was reduced by half and the program’s kinetic/allometric calculation approach was initiated. The subsequent calculations showed the initial RAD-BCG Calculator results to be conservative, which is appropriate for screening purposes.

  9. Aerosol-cloud radiative effects from passive satellite instruments Mar%n de Graaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite measurements of absorbing aerosols Reflectance Difference Method Cloud modelling Results Outlook Aerosol-Radiation Interac. Aerosol-Cloud Interac. Total anthropogenic Solar irradiance #12;Absorbing aerosols: SCIAMACHY Results Outlook #12;SCIAMACHY on ESA's Environmetal Satellite: ENVISAT Polar orbi

  10. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  11. Presence / Absence Marker Discovery in RAD Markers for Multiplexed Samples in the Context of Next-Generation Sequencing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikooienejad, Amir

    2013-07-24

    ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.2.5 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5. RESTRICTION SITE ASSOCIATED DNA (RAD) MARKERS AND RAD- Seq ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 5.1 Restriction Site Associated... decoding DNA of di erent species has always been essential for all branches of biological sciences and a major part of bioinformatics. The method of determining the order of four bases, Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T) in a strand...

  12. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  13. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  14. Resetting Virtual Absorbers for Vibration Control ROBERT T. BUPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Dennis S.

    of sensors and actuators as well as processors and power supplies. One advantage of virtual absorbers Journal the absorber into the plant. This behavior is also exhibited by a plant with an attached virtual absorberResetting Virtual Absorbers for Vibration Control ROBERT T. BUPP TRW S & EG Redondo Beach, CA 90278

  15. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  16. A Structural Hinge in Eukaryotic MutY Homologues Mediates Catalytic Activity and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 Checkpoint Complex Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P Luncsford; D Chang; G Shi; J Bernstein; A Madabushi; D Patterson; A Lu; E Toth

    2011-12-31

    The DNA glycosylase MutY homologue (MYH or MUTYH) removes adenines misincorporated opposite 8-oxoguanine as part of the base excision repair pathway. Importantly, defects in human MYH (hMYH) activity cause the inherited colorectal cancer syndrome MYH-associated polyposis. A key feature of MYH activity is its coordination with cell cycle checkpoint via interaction with the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex. The 9-1-1 complex facilitates cell cycle checkpoint activity and coordinates this activity with ongoing DNA repair. The interdomain connector (IDC, residues 295-350) between the catalytic domain and the 8-oxoguanine recognition domain of hMYH is a critical element that maintains interactions with the 9-1-1 complex. We report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic MutY protein, a fragment of hMYH (residues 65-350) that consists of the catalytic domain and the IDC. Our structure reveals that the IDC adopts a stabilized conformation projecting away from the catalytic domain to form a docking scaffold for 9-1-1. We further examined the role of the IDC using Schizosaccharomyces pombe MYH as model system. In vitro studies of S. pombe MYH identified residues I261 and E262 of the IDC (equivalent to V315 and E316 of the hMYH IDC) as critical for maintaining the MYH/9-1-1 interaction. We determined that the eukaryotic IDC is also required for DNA damage selection and robust enzymatic activity. Our studies also provide the first evidence that disruption of the MYH/9-1-1 interaction diminishes the repair of oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Thus, preserving the MYH/9-1-1 interaction contributes significantly to minimizing the mutagenic potential of oxidative DNA damage.

  17. Differential-Equation Based Absorbing Boundary Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    Chapter 6 Differential-Equation Based Absorbing Boundary Conditions 6.1 Introduction A simple in the analysis of a wide range of FDTD-related topics. 6.2 The Advection Equation The wave equation that governs.2) The second form represents the equation in terms of an operator operating on Ez where the operator

  18. Development of a crash energy absorber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullard, Delbert Lance

    1995-01-01

    A new energy absorbing cartridge, named the "Z-tube" was developed for use in a new conceptualized highway safety appurtenance. The Z-tube was developed to provide a low cost method of dissipating the kinetic energy of errant motor vehicles. The Z...

  19. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  20. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  1. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  2. RSSC GLOSSARY 8/99 GL-1 GLOSSARY OF BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    RSSC GLOSSARY 8/99 GL-1 GLOSSARY OF BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION TERMINOLOGY ABSORBED DOSE: The amount of energy absorbed, as a result of radiation passing through a material, per unit mass of material by which energy from radiation is transferred to matter by interactions with the constituents of the matter

  3. Molecular Mimicry of SUMO by Rad60 Helps Protect the Genome from Toxic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStress Molecular Mimicry of SUMO by Rad60 Helps

  4. February 2013 pRad RMI experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production at aSciTech Connect Fe Atomic DataFebruary 2013 pRad

  5. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  6. Radiation Safety Manual August 1999 UW Environmental Health and Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    principle of keeping radiation doses and releases of radioactive material to the environment as low as can - An acronym formed from the phrase "As Low as Reasonably Achievable." The phrase refers to a radiation safety it into another type of atom and resulting in the emission of radiation. dose (absorbed dose) - Radiation dose

  7. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Marhauser, Thomas Elliott, Robert Rimmer

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility?s (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variations from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.

  8. March 18, 2005 Page 1 of 6 Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Fact Sheet for Physicians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    caused by irradiation of the entire body (or most of the body) by a high dose of penetrating radiation. The required conditions for Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) are: · The radiation dose must be large (i.e., greater than 0.7 Gray (Gy)1,2 or 70 rads). o Mild symptoms may be observed with doses as low as 0.3 Gy

  9. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-07-15

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  10. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  11. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  12. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-06-17

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  13. Progress on solar absorber selective paint research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort has been expended by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial interests to develop solar absorber selective paints; the goal is to develop an inexpensive, durable selective coating that has moderately good optical properties. This report is intended to focus on those research programs monitored by Los Alamos, the research efforts in progress at Los Alamos, durability evaluations, and the progress that has been made toward commercialization.

  14. Effects of UVB Radiation & Herbivory on Induced Resistance Traits in Datura Wrightii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNamara, Sean

    2015-01-01

    absorbing UV radiation (Beggs et al. 1985, Li et al. 1993,project.org/package-lme4 Beggs, C.J. , Stolzer-Jehle, A. , &

  15. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  16. A review of cermet-based spectrally selective solar absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Feng

    Spectrally selective solar absorbers harvest solar energy in the form of heat. Solar absorbers using cermet-based coatings demonstrate a high absorptance of the solar spectrum and a low emittance in the infrared (IR) regime. ...

  17. Automated Synthesis of Mechanical Vibration Absorbers Using Genetic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianjun

    Automated Synthesis of Mechanical Vibration Absorbers Using Genetic Programming Jianjun Hu Program an automated methodology for open-ended synthesis of mechanical vibration absorbers based on genetic, 48824 Ronald Rosenberg Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

  18. Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenz, M.; Paltauf, G.; Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

    1996-05-01

    Conversion of energy from a heat pulse to acoustic stress is theoretically and experimentally studied in detail. The heat pulse was generated by laser radiation delivered via an optical fiber into an absorbing liquid. The experimental results indicate that tensile stress and cavitation are induced in front of the fiber tip at a distance far below the optical penetration depth of the laser radiation. The occurrence of tensile stress in the acoustic near fieldof a submerged fiber is explained by acoustic diffraction of the thermoelastic expansion wave. Good agreement between experimental results and theoretical calculations based on a three-dimensional model was found. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  20. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC); Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  1. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  2. Suzaku Observations of Four Heavily Absorbed HMXBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Morris; R. K. Smith; C. B. Markwardt; R. F. Mushotzky; J. Tueller; T. R. Kallman; K. S. Dhuga

    2008-08-22

    We report on Suzaku observations of four unidentified sources from the INTEGRAL and Swift BAT Galactic plane surveys. All the sources have a large neutral hydrogen column density and are likely members of an emerging class of heavily absorbed high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) first identified in INTEGRAL observations. Two of the sources in our sample are approximately constant flux sources, one source shows periodic variation and one source exhibited a short, bright X-ray outburst. The periodicity is transient, suggesting it is produced by a neutron star in an elliptical orbit around a stellar wind source. We analyze the flaring source in several segments to look for spectral variation and discuss the implications of the findings for the nature of the source. We conclude that all four sources in our sample can be identified with the emerging class of highly absorbed HMXBs, that one is a newly identified transient X-ray pulsar and that at least one is a newly identified supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT).

  3. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimm, Lars J., E-mail: Lars.grimm@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  4. Optimal Demand Response in DC Distribution Networks Hamed Mohsenian-Rad, Member, IEEE and Ali Davoudi, Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Demand Response in DC Distribution Networks Hamed Mohsenian-Rad, Member, IEEE and Ali first present an optimization-based foundation for demand response in DC distribution networks. Then, we devise a pricing mechanism to enforce optimal demand response in a distributed fashion. Simulation

  5. Insights into the mechanism of Rad51 recombinase from the structure and properties of a filament interface mutant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jianhong; Villanueva, Nicolas; Rould, Mark A.; Morrical, Scott W. (Vermont)

    2010-09-03

    Rad51 protein promotes homologous recombination in eukaryotes. Recombination activities are activated by Rad51 filament assembly on ssDNA. Previous studies of yeast Rad51 showed that His352 occupies an important position at the filament interface, where it could relay signals between subunits and active sites. To investigate, we characterized yeast Rad51 H352A and H352Y mutants, and solved the structure of H352Y. H352A forms catalytically competent but salt-labile complexes on ssDNA. In contrast, H352Y forms salt-resistant complexes on ssDNA, but is defective in nucleotide exchange, RPA displacement and strand exchange with full-length DNA substrates. The 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of H352Y reveals a right-handed helical filament in a high-pitch (130 {angstrom}) conformation with P61 symmetry. The catalytic core and dimer interface regions of H352Y closely resemble those of DNA-bound Escherichia coli RecA protein. The H352Y mutation stabilizes Phe187 from the adjacent subunit in a position that interferes with the {gamma}-phosphate-binding site of the Walker A motif/P-loop, potentially explaining the limited catalysis observed. Comparison of Rad51 H352Y, RecA-DNA and related structures reveals that the presence of bound DNA correlates with the isomerization of a conserved cis peptide near Walker B to the trans configuration, which appears to prime the catalytic glutamate residue for ATP hydrolysis.

  6. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, P. K. Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-15

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  7. CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation Version 1.0 Date March 2012 Status Final #12;#12;CLARIFI, by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and more importantly, by modifying cloud propertiesCLARIFI CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation M. de Graaf, L

  8. Strongly Self-Absorbing C -algebras which contain a nontrivial ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-05-01

    particularly well for those (separable, nuclear) C?-algebras that tensorially ... separable, nuclear, stable C?-algebras that absorb the Cuntz algebra O? are ...

  9. SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION L. G. Tilstra1- itoring the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) [1] measured by the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY [2]. We find. This we conclude from straightforward calculation of the effect of instrument degradation based

  10. Casting 12 BioRad Mini SDS PAGE Gels 1. Assemble multicasting chamber. Make sure ALL plates and spacers are flush with bottom. Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    120 Casting 12 BioRad Mini SDS PAGE Gels 1. Assemble multicasting chamber. Make sure ALL plates, disassemble casting chamber. Carefully separate gels. Rinse with ddH2O. Remove excess polyacrylamide. Place

  11. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B.; Heine, J. J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (?) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had ? between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had ? between 0.42–0.45. Two of these measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.95 (1.24, 3.09) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.42 (0.87, 2.32) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 2.13 (1.22, 3.72) for BR{sub vr}. The radiologist-reported measures from the patient records showed a similar association, OR = 1.49 (0.99, 2.24), although only borderline statistically significant.Conclusions: A general framework was developed and validated for converting calibrated mammograms and continuous measures of breast density to fully automated approximations for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. The techniques are general and suitable for a broad range of clinical and research applications.

  12. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  13. New HI 21-cm absorbers at low and intermediate redshifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwaan, M A; Péroux, C; Murphy, M T; Bouché, N; Curran, S J; Biggs, A D

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening HI 21-cm absorbers at intermediate and low redshift (0180 K. A subset of our systems were also searched for OH absorption, but no detections were made.

  14. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  15. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  16. Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

  17. Low Redshift Lyman Alpha absorbers and their Connection with Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon L. Morris; Buell Jannuzi; Ray Weymann

    2001-08-08

    We review the ongoing debate about the relationship between low redshift Lyman Alpha absorbers and luminous galaxies. In particular, we discuss the difficulty of `assigning' a particular absorber to a particular galaxy, and consider methods of circumventing this problem. We also provide a status report on an ongoing project collecting more data to address this issue, and show some results for a close together pair of QSOs providing two adjacent lines of sight through the inter-galactic medium.

  18. Microsoft Word - Rad_Hard_Assurance_Fact_Sheet_SAND2011-0937P_updated_format.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection of Hydrates onRHUBCAeronet Procedure 11 yesRad

  19. Design Issues for the Superconducting Magnet that Goes Around the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    THAT GOES AROUND THE LIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR THE MUONthat goes around a liquid hydrogen absorber for the Muonand magnet quench on the liquid hydrogen absorber is also

  20. Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, M.

    2010-01-01

    OF CHALCOPYRITE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL ABSORBERS DETERMINED BYchalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers significantlyof chalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers. excitation

  1. M10.6.4: Design and manufacturing of AMC radiation dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makowski, D

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines progress in the development of radiation monitoring module designed according to the AMC standard. We have designed gamma and neutron radiation monitoring module dedicated for xTCA-based LLRF control system. The research shows that SRAM memory chip can be used as a neutron fluence detector. For gamma measurement RadFET detector was applied. Triple modular redundancy was involved to enhance the reliability of the module firmware to SEEs. The detector provides measured gamma and neutron dose rate as typical IPMI sensors. The measured radiation doses can be read via PCIe or Serial interfaces and archived in external database.

  2. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  3. A synoptic-scale evaluation of cyclogenesis using satellite radiation data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Jerry Ray

    1976-01-01

    May 1976 Major Subject: Meteorology A SYNOPTIC-SCALE EVALUATION OF CYCLOGENESIS USING SATELLITE RADIATION DATA A Thesis by JERRY RAY MlLLS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) May 1976 440344... ABSTRACT A Synoptic-Scale Evaluation of Cyclogenesis Using Satellite Rad ia t ion Data. (May 1976) Jerry Ray Mills, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. A. H. Thompson Through the study and evaluation of the formation...

  4. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwank, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Marty R. (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Bruce L. (Albuquerque, NM); Dodd, Paul E. (Tijeras, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  5. X-Ray Data Booklet Section 5.4 RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dose in Sv = absorbed dose in grays × wR, where wR is the radiation weighting factor (formerly-3. The equivalent dose expresses the long-term risk (primarily due to cancer and leukemia) from low-level chronic-made radiation dose: The greatest contribution to man-made radiation dose has been from irradiation from x

  6. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. )

    1989-03-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

  7. High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

  8. R-SQUARE IMPEDANCES OF ERL FERRITE HOM ABSORBER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAHN, H.; BURRILL, A.; CALAGA,R.; KAYRAN, D.; ZHAO, Y.

    2005-07-10

    An R&D facility for an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) intended as part of an electron-cooling project for RHIC is, being constructed at this laboratory. The center piece of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac. Successful operation will depend on effective HOM damping. It is planned to achieve HOM damping exclusively with ferrite absorbers. The performance of a prototype absorber was measured by transforming it into a resonant cavity and alternatively by a conventional wire method. The results expressed as a surface or R-square impedance are presented in this paper.

  9. Exchanging Ohmic Losses in Metamaterial Absorbers with Useful Optical Absorption for Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; Pearce, Joshua M; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01

    Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%-95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and p...

  10. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Alexander P. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Kirk, Wiley P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  11. Published on Science 2.0 (http://www.science20.com) Home > Life Sciences > Genetics & Molecular Biology > News Articles > Rad51: Watching Single Strands Of DNA Being Prepped For Repair Could Help Fight Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Biology > News Articles > Rad51: Watching Single Strands Of DNA Being Prepped For Repair Could Help Fight Breast Cancer Rad51: Watching Single Strands Of DNA Being Prepped For Repair Could Help Fight Breast: Watching Single Strands Of DNA Being Prepped For Repair Could Help Fight Br... 6/17/2013http

  12. PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION SHIELDING by Arthur B. Chilton, J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    8 Feb 95 ERRATA PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION SHIELDING by Arthur B. Chilton, J. Kenneth Shultis of a fast reactor or for a thick slab of low-moderating, hig-absorbing material. p. 275, line 15 the terms

  13. PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION SHIELDING by Arthur B. Chilton, J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    8 Feb 95 ERRATA PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION SHIELDING by Arthur B. Chilton, J. Kenneth Shultis of a fast reactor or for a thick slab of low­moderating, hig­absorbing material. p. 275, line 15 the terms

  14. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  15. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  16. Effects of Burnable Absorbers on PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.M. O'Leary; Dr. M.L. Pitts

    2000-08-21

    Burnup credit is an ongoing issue in designing and licensing transportation and storage casks for spent nuclear fuel (SNF). To address this issue, in July 1999, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Spent Fuel Project Office, issued Interim Staff Guidance-8 (ISG-8), Revision 1 allowing limited burnup credit for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in transport and storage casks. However, one of the key limitations for a licensing basis analysis as stipulated in ISG-8, Revision 1 is that ''burnup credit is restricted to intact fuel assemblies that have not used burnable absorbers''. Because many PWR fuel designs have incorporated burnable-absorber rods for more than twenty years, this restriction places an unnecessary burden on the commercial nuclear power industry. This paper summarizes the effects of in-reactor irradiation on the isotopic inventory of PWR fuels containing different types of integral burnable absorbers (BAs). The work presented is illustrative and intended to represent typical magnitudes of the reactivity effects from depleting PWR fuel with different types of burnable absorbers.

  17. Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow (Preliminary analysis of 2008 Biomass/poll. Factor: all data Pollution factor: depth data #12;2009 Data set for receptor modeling with limited analytes Factor 1: biomass Factor 2: pollution Factor 3: marine Factor 4: biomass #12;Factor

  18. Fission life-time calculation using a complex absorbing potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Scamps; Kouichi Hagino

    2015-12-28

    A comparison between the semi-classical approximation and the full quantum calculation with a complex absorbing potential is made with a model of the fission of 258Fm. The potential barrier is obtained with the constrained Skyrme HF+BCS theory. The life-time obtained by the two calculations agree with each other the difference being only by 25%.

  19. Design of Vibration Absorbers for Step Motions and Step Disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhose, William

    Design of Vibration Absorbers for Step Motions and Step Disturbances Joel Fortgang William Singhose Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 Mechanical or from external disturbances. The technique of adding a vibration ab- sorber has proven useful

  20. Status report on solar-absorber-paint coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy has funded a number of programs that have investigated the stability and durability of solar absorber paint coatings. Some of the findings resulting from these programs are presented. Although the basic thrust of the programs has been to investigate changes in optical properties, other physical failures are described.

  1. Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation: A review of recent and precipitation: A review of recent progresses Chien Wang Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E19-439K, 77 atmospheric circulation, and hence clouds and precipitation. Recent studies have suggested that the changes

  2. Vendor Catalog # Description Bio-Rad 3450009 CriterionTM Tris-HCl Gel, 10%, 12+2 well, 45 l

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Scott

    Vendor Catalog # Description Bio-Rad 3450009 CriterionTM Tris-HCl Gel, 10%, 12+2 well, 45 l Bio PRESTAIN PROT LADDER 2 X 250 UL Life 15230162 DISTILLED WATER 500ML Life 11965092 DMEM 500ML Life 26140087

  3. Repair processes and radiation quality in neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, A.; Hill, C.K.; Elkind, M.M.

    1984-08-01

    Appropriate in vitro mammalian cell systems facilitate the study of cellular mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis. C3H 10T1/2 cells derived from mouse embryo have been used to study the effects of protracted irradiation on cell killing and incidence of neoplastic transformation. Protracted exposures of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays or fission-spectrum neutrons (from the JANUS reactor at the Argonne National Laboratory) were given either at low dose rates or as multifractionated regimens using high dose rates. Dose protraction of ..gamma.. rays by multifractionation at a high dose rate (50 rad/min) results in appreciable reduction in cell killing and also significantly reduces the incidence of neoplastic transformation. Irradiation at a low dose rate has the same qualitative effect. In contrast, protracted exposures of fission-spectrum neutrons, given at a low dose rate (0.086 or 0.43 rad/min), result in significant enhancement of the frequency of transformation in the dose region of up to 80 rad. However, the survival of cells is essentially the same as that for the same single dose of neutrons given at a high dose rate. These observations are consistent with net ''error-free'' repair of transformational damage following protracted exposure of a low LET radiation and possibly a net ''error-prone'' repair of transformational damage after protracted irradiations with fission-spectrum neutrons.

  4. Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) Format

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    MIRD is a database of evaluated nuclear decay data for over 2,100 radioactive nuclei. Data are extracted from ENSDF, processed by the program RadList, and used for medical internal radiation dose calculations. When using the MIRD interface, tables of nuclear and atomic radiations from nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the MIRD format from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for the specified nuclide. Output may be either HTML-formatted tables and JPEG drawings, PostScript tables and drawings, or PDF tables and drawings.

  5. TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With LivermoreSustainable Landmimic keySystemssystemso TABLES OF

  6. A novel self-locked energy absorbing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuli Chen; Chuan Qiao; Shougen Zhao; Cairu Zhen; Bin Liu

    2015-06-29

    Metallic thin-walled round tubes are widely used as energy absorption elements. However, lateral splash of the round tubes under impact loadings reduces the energy absorption efficiency and may cause secondary damages. Therefore, it is necessary to assemble and fasten round tubes together by boundary constraints and/or fasteners between tubes, which increases the time and labor cost and affects the mechanical performance of round tubes. In an effort to break through this limitation, a novel self-locked energy-absorbing system has been proposed in this paper. The proposed system is made up of thin-walled tubes with dumbbell-shaped cross section, which are specially designed to interlock with each other and thus provide lateral constraint under impact loadings. Both finite element simulations and impact experiment demonstrated that without boundary constraints or fasteners between tubes, the proposed self-locked energy-absorbing system can still effectively attenuate impact loads while the round tube systems fail to carry load due to the lateral splashing of tubes. Furthermore, the optimal geometric design for a single dumbbell-shaped tube and the optimal stacking arrangement for the system are discussed, and a general guideline on the structural design of the proposed self-locked energy absorbing system is provided.

  7. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  8. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions ŕ prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  9. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties were observed to photobleach (i.e., lose their ability to absorb visible radiation) with an effective

  10. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  11. A multi-frequency induction heating system for a thermally triggered gel polymer dynamic vibration absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, John Israel, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Since its invention in the early part of the twentieth century, the dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) has played an important role in vibration suppression. In its simplest form, a dynamic vibration absorber is a mechanical ...

  12. THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TUNED IMPACT ABSORBERS FOR ROTATING FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Steven W.

    to predict absorber performance. The absorbers use centrifugally induced restoring forces so that their non as a method for handling vibrations in advanced- technology automotive engines [5]. In these applications

  13. Comparison of radiative accelerations obtained with atomic data from OP and OPAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Delahaye; Marc Pinsonneault

    2004-11-30

    Here, we compare radiative accelerations (g_rad) derived from the new Opacity Project (OP) data with those computed from OPAL and some previous data from OP. For the case where we have full data from OPAL, the differences in the Rosseland mean opacities between OPAL and the new OP data are within 12% and less than 30% between new OP and previous OP data (OP1 at CDS). The radiative accelerations g_rad differ at up to the 17% level when compared to OPAL and up to the 38% level when compared to OP1. The comparison with OP1 on a larger (rho-T) space gives a difference of up to 40% for g_rad(C). And it increases for heavier elements. The differences increase for heavier elements reaching 60% for Si and 65% for S and Fe. We also constructed four representative stellar models in order to compare the new OP accelerations with prior published results that used OPAL data. The Rosseland means overall agree better than 10% for all of our cases. For the accelerations, the comparisons with published values yield larger differences in general. The published OPAL accelerations for carbon are even larger relative to OP compare to what our direct comparisons would indicate. Potential reasons for this puzzling behavior are discussed. In light of the significant differences in the inferred acceleration rates, theoretical errors should be taken into account when comparing models with observations. The implications for stellar evolution are briefly discussed. The sensitivity of g_rad to the atomic physics may provide a useful test of different opacity sources.

  14. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the electroplating the finished absorber isa continuous foil the electroplating parameters have to be

  15. Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials using the Two-Source Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seybert, Andrew F.

    03NVC-200 Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials using the Two-Source Method Z. Tao thickness absorbing material or (2) layered material and (3) using bulk properties for a multi-absorbing materials and are sufficient for many applications. These properties can be measured using the two

  16. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory

  17. Wavelength monitor based on two single quantum well absorbers in a standing wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Wavelength monitor based on two single quantum well absorbers in a standing wave H.L. Kung, D-Perot resonator devices.[2] A class of devices based on thin absorbers in standing waves was proposed[1] and one. Here we demonstrate a novel standing wave device that contains two, thin-absorber photodetectors

  18. Wavelength monitor based on two single-quantum-well absorbers sampling a standing wave pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Wavelength monitor based on two single-quantum-well absorbers sampling a standing wave pattern H. L-quantum-well absorbers that sample a standing wave created by a distributed Bragg reflector. As a wavelength monitor, our for wavelength demultiplexing.3 A class of devices based on thin absorbers in standing waves was proposed4

  19. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  20. Radiative heat transfer in a parallelogram shaped cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dez, V Le

    2015-01-01

    An exact analytical description of the internal radiative field inside an emitting-absorbing gray semi-transparent medium enclosed in a two-dimensional parallelogram cavity is proposed. The expressions of the incident radiation and the radiative flux field are angularly and spatially discretized with a double Gauss quadrature, and the temperature field is obtained by using an iterative process. Some numerical solutions are tabulated and graphically presented as the benchmark solutions. Temperature and two components of the radiative flux are finally sketched on the whole domain. It is shown that the proposed method gives perfectly smooth results.

  1. Graphene-based perfect optical absorbers harnessing guided mode resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grande, M; Stomeo, T; Bianco, G V; de Ceglia, D; Akozbek, N; Petruzzelli, V; Bruno, G; De Vittorio, M; Scalora, M; Orazio, A D

    2015-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigate graphene-based optical absorbers that exploit guided mode resonances (GMRs) achieving perfect absorption over a bandwidth of few nanometers (over the visible and near-infrared ranges) with a 40-fold increase of the monolayer graphene absorption. We analyze the influence of the geometrical parameters on the absorption rate and the angular response for oblique incidence. Finally, we experimentally verify the theoretical predictions in a one-dimensional, dielectric grating and placing it near either a metallic or a dielectric mirror.

  2. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 10271030 Independence of calibration curves for EBT Gafchromic films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2006-01-01

    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 1027­1030 Independence of calibration curves for EBT for dosimetry in radiation therapy. Due to the weak dependence of its response on the photon energy (variations may be changing or unknown. In order to convert a map of optical densities into a map of absorbed

  3. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    that the dose-response of radiation in the low-dose regime deviated from the LNT model. A notable example radiation are linearly proportional to the absorbed dose, evidence accumulated in the past decades showed as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

  4. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    at high photon energies. · Water vapor, CO2, absorb in infra-red. ­ Clouds, other local variation its spectral irradiance ­ Calculate properties of black body radiation: Max temperature, total power · Outline ­ Properties of radiation: Summary of equations, terms, concepts ­ Solar Spectrum ­ Terrestrial

  5. Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

    2014-10-29

    This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

  6. RADIATION MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation Exposure due to a Boiling Water Reactor Plume fromIN THE VICINITY OF A BOILING WATER REACTOR EXPOSURE RATE

  7. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  8. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  9. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  10. The flat synchrotron spectra of partially self-absorbed jets revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian R. Kaiser

    2006-01-05

    Flat radio spectra with large brightness temperatures at the core of AGN and X-ray binaries are usually interpreted as the partially self-absorbed bases of jet flows emitting synchrotron radiation. Here we extend previous models of jets propagating at large angles to our line of sight to self-consistently include the effects of energy losses of the relativistic electrons due to the synchrotron process itself and the adiabatic expansion of the jet flow. We also take into account energy gains through self-absorption. Two model classes are presented. The ballistic jet flows, with the jet material travelling along straight trajectories, and adiabatic jets. Despite the energy losses, both scenarios can result in flat emission spectra, however, the adiabatic jets require a specific geometry. No re-acceleration process along the jet is needed for the electrons. We apply the models to observational data of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. Both models can be made consistent with the observations. The resulting ballistic jet is extremely narrow with a jet opening angle of only 5". Its energy transport rate is small compared to the time-averaged jet power and therefore suggests the presence of non-radiating protons in the jet flow. The adiabatic jets require a strong departure from energy equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electrons. These models also imply a jet power two orders of magnitude higher than the Eddington limiting luminosity of a 10 solar mass black hole. The models put strong constraints on the physical conditions in the jet flows on scales well below achievable resolution limits.

  11. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  12. Diffusion in the Presence of Scale-Free Absorbing Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir Alfasi; Yacov Kantor

    2015-04-26

    Scale-free surfaces, such as cones, remain unchanged under a simultaneous expansion of all coordinates by the same factor. Probability density of a particle diffusing near such absorbing surface at large time approaches a simple form that incorporates power-law dependencies on time and distance from a special point, such as apex of the cone, which are characterized by a single exponent $\\eta$. The same exponent is used to describe the number of spatial conformations of long ideal polymer attached to the special point of a repulsive surface of the same geometry and can be used in calculation of entropic forces between such polymers and surfaces. We use the solution of diffusion equation near such surfaces to find the numerical values of $\\eta$, as well as to provide some insight into the behavior of ideal polymers near such surfaces.

  13. Using Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, .Dake

    the climate through the penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp), a primary parameter on penetrative solar radiation in the tropical Pacific, demonstrating the dynamical implication of remotely in which incident solar radiation is absorbed in the mixed layer and the verti- cal penetration down

  14. Role of the H$_2^+$ channel in the primordial star formation under strong radiation field and the critical intensity for the supermassive star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Galli, Daniele; Palla, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of the H_2^+ channel on H_2 molecule formation during the collapse of primordial gas clouds immersed in strong radiation fields which are assumed to have the shape of a diluted black-body spectra with temperature T_rad. Since the photodissociation rate of H_2^+ depends on its level population, we take full account of the vibrationally-resolved H_2^+ kinetics. We find that in clouds under soft but intense radiation fields with spectral temperature T_rad 7000 K, the H^- channel takes over H_2^+ in the production of molecular hydrogen. We calculate the critical radiation intensity needed for supermassive star formation by direct collapse and examine its dependence on the H_2^+ level population. Under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) level population, the critical intensity is underestimated by a factor of a few for soft spectra with T_rad < 7000 K. For harder spectra, the value of the critical intensity is not affected by the level population of H_2^+. This resu...

  15. Performance predictions of alternative, low cost absorbents for open-cycle absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameel, T.A.; Gee, K.G.; Wood, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    To achieve solar fractions greater than 0.90 using the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system, considerable sorbent solution storage is necessary. Having identified the absorber as the system component whose performance is affected the most by a change in absorbent, an absorber model was selected from available literature pertaining to simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Low-cost absorbent candidates were selected and their physical properties were either located in the literature, measured, or estimated. The most promising of the absorbents considered was a mixture of two parts lithium chloride and one part zinc chloride. Both the lithium-zinc chloride mixture and lithium bromide solutions had estimated pumping powers of less than 0.1 kW. The solubility of the lithium-zinc chloride mixture at absorber conditions was improved over that of lithium bromide, reducing the risk of solidification of the solution. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A Simple Multi-Directional Absorbing Layer Method to Simulate Elastic Wave Propagation in Unbounded Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semblat, Jean-François; Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The numerical analysis of elastic wave propagation in unbounded media may be difficult due to spurious waves reflected at the model artificial boundaries. This point is critical for the analysis of wave propagation in heterogeneous or layered solids. Various techniques such as Absorbing Boundary Conditions, infinite elements or Absorbing Boundary Layers (e.g. Perfectly Matched Layers) lead to an important reduction of such spurious reflections. In this paper, a simple absorbing layer method is proposed: it is based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares. The principle of the Caughey Absorbing Layer Method is first presented (including a rheological interpretation). The efficiency of the method is then shown through 1D Finite Element simulations considering homogeneous and heterogeneous damping in the absorbing layer. 2D models are considered afterwards to assess the efficiency of the absorbing layer method for various wave types and inci...

  17. pRad | About

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named|Got Solitons? SUpdated: 04/20/10 Chief

  18. pRad | Movies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named|Got Solitons? SUpdated: 04/20/10 ChiefMovies Studies

  19. pRad | News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named|Got Solitons? SUpdated: 04/20/10 ChiefMovies

  20. ARM - Datastreams - rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We wouldDatastreamsnoaaradbrw Documentation XDC documentation DataDatastreamspws Documentation

  1. ARM - Instrument - rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrn Documentation NOAACRN : XDCgovInstrumentsptr-ms Documentation ARM Data

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us atgovInstrumentsrad Comments? We would

  3. pRad Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 r m m m m port m fm f m Tomega( ( ( ( (

  4. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  5. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  6. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  7. Report on the evaluation of the tritium producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the design and fabrication requirements for a tritium-producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly and evaluates the safety issues associated with tritium-producing burnable absorber rod irradiation on the operation of a commercial light water reactor. The report provides an evaluation of the tritium-producing burnable absorber rod design and concludes that irradiation can be performed within U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations applicable to a commercial pressurized light water reactor.

  8. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings". Proceedings of theSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, . Louis,'MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  9. Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

  10. PIN Photodiodes for Radiation Monitoring and Protection in the BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babar Collaboration; T. I. Meyer

    2000-10-23

    We discuss the design, implementation and performance of the radiation monitoring and protection system used by the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) in the BaBar detector. Using 12 reverse-biased PIN photodiodes mounted around the beampipe near the IP, we are able to provide instantaneous radiation dose rates, absorbed dose integrals, and active protection that aborts the circulating beams in the PEP-II storage ring when radiation levels exceed user-defined thresholds. The system has reliably protected the SVT from excessive radiation damage and has also served as a key diagnostic tool in understanding radiation backgrounds at PEP-II.

  11. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labbé, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2014-12-15

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  12. Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

    2013-09-01

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  13. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  14. Broadening of QSO Lyman-alpha forest absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns; Joop Schaye; Martin Haehnelt

    2000-06-13

    We investigate the dependence of QSO Lyman-alpha absorption features on the temperature of the absorbing gas and on the amplitude of the underlying dark matter fluctuations. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations in cold dark matter dominated cosmological models. In models with a hotter intergalactic medium (IGM), the increased temperature enhances the pressure gradients between low and high density regions and this changes the spatial distribution and the velocity field of the gas. Combined with more thermal broadening, this leads to significantly wider absorption features in hotter models. Cosmological models with little small scale power also have broader absorption features, because fluctuations on the scale of the Jeans length are still in the linear regime . Consequently, both the amplitude of dark matter fluctuations on small scales and thermal smoothing affect the flux decrement distribution in a similar way. However, the b-parameter distribution of Voigt profile fits, obtained by deblending the absorption features into a sum of thermally broadened lines, is largely independent of the amount of small scale power, but does depend strongly on the IGM temperature. The same is true for the two-point function of the flux and for the flux power spectrum on small scales. These three flux statistics are thus sensitive probes of the temperature of the IGM. We compare them computed for our models and obtained from a HIRES spectrum of the quasar Q1422+231 and conclude that the IGM temperature at z=3.25 is fairly high, T_0>= 15000K.

  15. File: ProbeRad as of December 27, 2007 12:39 am W. Kahan Page 1/4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    and a cylinder head. This kind of leak can allow pressurized coolant to escape into the motor's lubricating oil, or high-pressure exhaust gas to escape into the coolant. Coolant that gets into the oil combines is Low in a Car's Radiator Besides a temperature gauge, the instrument panel of a car has an "Idiot Light

  16. Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Tarunraj

    Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh Ă Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY addresses the issue of design of a passive vibration absorber in the presence of uncertainties

  17. Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY M. de Graaf,1 of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02206, doi aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space

  18. Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa related to monsoon of aerosol emissions from the wet surface. 1. Introduction The main aerosol types occurring over Africa Africa can be characterized using Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from Global Ozone Monitoring

  19. Wave Energy Converter Design Tool for Point Absorbers with Arbitrary Device Geometry Kelley Ruehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    Wave Energy Converter Design Tool for Point Absorbers with Arbitrary Device Geometry Kelley Ruehl University Corvallis, OR, USA ABSTRACT In order to promote and support the wave energy industry, a Wave strategies. KEY WORDS: wave energy; point absorber; time-domain; design tool. INTRODUCTION Wave Energy

  20. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E. (San Antonio, TX); Broerman, III, Eugene L. (San Antonio, TX); Bourn, Gary D. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  1. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  2. Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non-uniform assembly type successfully addresses the concerns of reduced control rod worth within advanced MOX assemblies because the Am/MOX hybrid fuel rods are on the periphery of the assembly. The radiotoxicity of the high level waste that must be managed from a single use of an Am/MOX hybrid batch is reduced for the first 1000 years in comparison to a regular UO{sub 2} batch. However, there is no heat-load advantage without multi-recycling the Am/MOX hybrid assemblies. As shown through numerous studies, the heterogeneous assembly model used as the basis for this research is capable of multiple recycles while still maintaining negative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity. Multi-recycling would provide an even greater reduction to the radiotoxicity of the high level waste as well as provide a heat-load advantage compared to a once through UO{sub 2} fuel cycle. (authors)

  3. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert. S. Whitney; Rafael Sánchez; Federica Haupt; Janine Splettstoesser

    2015-09-28

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  4. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert. S. Whitney; Rafael Sánchez; Federica Haupt; Janine Splettstoesser

    2015-08-18

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  5. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  6. Rad-hard vertical JFET switch for the HV-MUX system of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez-Martinez, Pablo; Flores, David; Hidalgo, Salvador; Quirion, David; Lynn, David

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new silicon vertical JFET (V-JFET) device, based on the trenched 3D-detector technology developed at IMB-CNM, to be used as switches for the High-Voltage powering scheme of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker. The optimization of the device characteristics is performed by 2D and 3D TCAD simulations. Special attention has been paid to the on-resistance and the switch-off and breakdown voltages to meet the specific requirements of the system. In addition, a set of parameter values has been extracted from the simulated curves to implement a SPICE model of the proposed V-JFET transistor. As these devices are expected to operate under very high radiation conditions during the whole experiment life-time, a study of the radiation damage effects and the expected degradation on the device performance is also presented at the end of the paper.

  7. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  8. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01

    I. Applications of Radiation Detectors 1) X-Rays, Gammaof the Conference DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY VictorT E D LBL9651 DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY - DISCLAIM*

  9. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobrescu, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase of the annual collective dose. High doses of radiation are cumulated from Computed Tomography investigations. An integrated system for radiation safety of the patients investigated by radiological imaging methods, based on smart cards and Public Key Infrastructure allow radiation absorbed dose data storage.

  10. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore »density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  11. Diesel NO{sub x} reduction by plasma-regenerated absorbent beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallman, P.H.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1998-02-10

    Reduction of NO{sub x} from diesel engine exhaust by use of plasma-regenerated absorbent beds is described. This involves a process for the reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates from diesel engines by first absorbing NO{sub x} onto a solid absorbent bed that simultaneously acts as a physical trap for the particulate matter, and second regenerating said solid absorbent by pulsed plasma decomposition of absorbed NO{sub x} followed by air oxidation of trapped particulate matter. The absorbent bed may utilize all metal oxides, but the capacity and the kinetics of absorption and desorption vary between different materials, and thus the composition of the absorbent bed is preferably a material which enables the combination of NO{sub x} absorption capability with catalytic activity for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Thus, naturally occurring or synthetically prepared materials may be utilized, particularly those having NO{sub x} absorption properties up to temperatures around 400 C which is in the area of diesel engine exhaust temperatures. 1 fig.

  12. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-02-10

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

  13. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  14. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleiman, Norman Jay

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

  15. The effect of recombination radiation on the temperature and ionization state of partially ionized gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rai?evi?, Milan; Schaye, Joop; Rahmati, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    A substantial fraction of all ionizing photons originate from radiative recombinations. However, in radiative transfer calculations this recombination radiation is often assumed to be absorbed 'on-the-spot' because for most methods the computational cost associated with the inclusion of gas elements as sources is prohibitive. We present a new, CPU and memory efficient implementation for the transport of ionizing recombination radiation in the TRAPHIC radiative transfer scheme. TRAPHIC solves the radiative transfer equation by tracing photon packets at the speed of light and in a photon-conserving manner in spatially adaptive smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Our new implementation uses existing features of the TRAPHIC scheme to add recombination radiation at no additional cost in the limit in which the fraction of the simulation box filled with radiation approaches 1. We test the implementation by simulating an HII region in photoionization equilibrium and comparing to reference solutions presented...

  16. PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water NEW is highly effective at absorbing crude oil spills. The study, published in the most recent issue of low-micronaire cotton can absorb more than 30 pounds of dense crude oil. In addition, the natural

  17. 1998 SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Conf. Paper #332919/332742 High bandwidth tunability in a smart vibration absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatau, Alison B.

    in a smart vibration absorber Alison B. Flatau, + Marcelo J. Dapino ++ and Frederick T. Calkins Terfenol­D vibration absorber is developed in this paper. An overview of magnetostriction including to achieve high bandwidth tunability in the performance of a Terfenol­D vibration absorber. Keywords

  18. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  19. Measurements of photon absorbed fractions and dose profiles using a gelatin-based volumetric dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Scottie Wayne

    1995-01-01

    suffer from inherent statistical errors. Therefore, Monte Carlo estimates of absorbed dose should always, whenever possible, be compared to actual measurements to verify their accuracy. This study concentrated on the use of a gelatin-based volumetric...

  20. Development and application of saturable absorbers to femtosecond solid-state laser mode-locking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasankumar, Rohit Prativadi, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor saturable absorbers have had a major impact on the field of ultrashort pulse generation by increasing the stability and reliability of ultrashort pulse lasers, making them more useful in many applications. ...

  1. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)sub 2 and Cusub 2ZnSn(Se,S)sub 4...

  2. Stabilization techniques and silicon-germanium saturable absorbers for high repetition rate mode-locked lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grawert, Felix Jan

    2005-01-01

    The monolithic integration of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers at highest repetition rates has been prevented by Q-switching instabilities and the lack of integrable saturable absorbers to date. In this thesis we ...

  3. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Coating Applied to Collector Design, Proceedings North American Solarsolar test collector was designed for the testing of thermally absorbing coatingssolar test collector was designed so that certain collector parameters could be held constant or controlled and yet different coatings

  4. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i • Proceedings ofSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  5. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    solar best collector was designed for the testing of thermally absorbing coatingssolar test collector was designed so that certain collector parameters could be held constant or controlled and yet different coatings

  6. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Symposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  7. Enhanced drug delivery capabilities from stents coated with absorbable polymer and crystalline drug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlyle, Wenda C.

    Current drug eluting stent (DES) technology is not optimized with regard to the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery. A novel, absorbable-coating sirolimus-eluting stent (AC-SES) was evaluated for its capacity to deliver drug ...

  8. Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogl, O.; Li, S.

    1983-10-06

    This invention relates to novel ultraviolet light absorbers having two chromophors in the same molecule, and more particularly to benzotriazole substituted dihydroxybenzophenones and acetophenones. More particularly, this invention relates to 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone which are particularly useful as an ultraviolet light absorbers.

  9. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  10. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, department Technische Natuurkunde, working group for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  11. Enhanced Thermal Stability of W-Ni-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] Cermet-Based Spectrally Selective Solar Absorbers with W Infrared Reflectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Feng

    Solar thermal technologies such as solar hot water and concentrated solar power trough systems rely on spectrally selective solar absorbers. These solar absorbers are designed to efficiently absorb the sunlight while ...

  12. The Environment of Lyman a Absorbers in the Sightline toward 3C273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. L. Morris; R. J. Weymann; Alan Dressler; P. J. McCarthy; B. A. Smith; R. J. Terrile; R. Gionvanelli; M. Irwin

    1993-07-05

    We present new ground-based data following up on the HST discovery of low-redshift Lya absorption in the sight-line to the quasar 3C273. Narrow-band filter observations show that there are no H II regions within a 12 kpc radius of the line-of-sight to the quasar, at the velocities of three of the absorbers. Broad-band imaging shows that there are no dwarf galaxies at Virgo distances with absolute magnitude above MB~-13.5 and within a radius of 40 kpc. We present fiber spectroscopy of galaxies within a radius of 1 deg, down to an apparent magnitude of B~19. We show that the absorbers are definitely not distributed at random with respect to the galaxies, but also that the absorber-galaxy correlation function is not as strong as the galaxy-galaxy correlation function on large scales. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that all galaxies more luminous than 1/10 L* have effective cross-sections (for association with absorbers with Log(NH)>13.0), of between 0.5 and 1 Mpc. We also show a clear case of a Lya absorber which has no galaxy brighter than MB=-18 within a projected distance of 4.8 Mpc, and discuss the possibility that Lya absorbers are destroyed in a rich galaxy environment.

  13. Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocer, Hasan; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray; Banar, Berker; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Tongay, Sefaatttin

    2015-04-20

    Resonant absorbers based on plasmonic materials, metamaterials, and thin films enable spectrally selective absorption filters, where absorption is maximized at the resonance wavelength. By controlling the geometrical parameters of nano/microstructures and materials' refractive indices, resonant absorbers are designed to operate at wide range of wavelengths for applications including absorption filters, thermal emitters, thermophotovoltaic devices, and sensors. However, once resonant absorbers are fabricated, it is rather challenging to control and tune the spectral absorption response. Here, we propose and demonstrate thermally tunable infrared resonant absorbers using hybrid gold-vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructure arrays. Absorption intensity is tuned from 90% to 20% and 96% to 32% using hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanowire and nanodisc arrays, respectively, by heating up the absorbers above the phase transition temperature of VO{sub 2} (68?°C). Phase change materials such as VO{sub 2} deliver useful means of altering optical properties as a function of temperature. Absorbers with tunable spectral response can find applications in sensor and detector applications, in which external stimulus such as heat, electrical signal, or light results in a change in the absorption spectrum and intensity.

  14. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  15. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  16. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiation DrySafety Home

  17. Simulated performance of a position sensitive radiation detecting system (COCAE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Karafasoulis; K. Zachariadou; S. Seferlis; I. Kaissas; C. Lambropoulos; D. Loukas; C. Poritiriadis

    2011-01-20

    Extensive simulations of a portable radiation detecting system have been performed in order to explore important performance parameters. The instrument consists of a stack of ten detecting layers made of pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) crystals. Its aim is to localize and identify radiation sources, by exploiting the Compton imaging technique. In this paper we present performance parameters based on simulation studies. Specifically the ratio of incompletely absorbed photons, the detector's absolute efficiency as well as its energy and angular resolution are evaluated in a wide range of incident photon energies.

  18. An investigation of the use of semiconductors as detectors of nuclear radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Edward Weber

    1960-01-01

    elec- trons which are emitted from nuclei in radioactive decay. Because these beta particles are light, they are easily deflected as they traverse a thickness of an absorber. For this reason it is convenient to express the range of beta particles... unwanted light, cosmic radiation, and other extraneous inter- ferences present in the laboratory. A cylindrical lead shield was constructed for this purpose with provisions made for placing the radiation sources at various distances from the diode being...

  19. Solar2014: The 52nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council 1 Open cavity receiver geometry influence on radiative losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems, the receiver, placed at the focus of the light-concentrator, absorbs concentrated solar radiation at high temperatures. Using ray-tracing and a stochastic optimisation method with comparable radiative performances. 1 - Open cavity receivers losses in concentrated solar applications

  20. A Multisensor satellite-based assessment of biomass burning aerosol radiative impact over Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    ]. While most of the biomass burning (BB) activities occur in Africa, South America is responsible [Christopher et al., 2000] by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Since biomass burning has a strong projections. Robust observational constraints on the response of a climate model [Stott and Kettleborough

  1. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Donald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parker, DeRay (Idaho Falls, ID); Boren, Paul R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  2. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  3. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  4. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  5. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively in situ at 467 and 530 nm. Closure modeling with the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) refractive index model was able to capture the increasing absorption trend with RH indicating that the droplets were heterogeneously mixed while containing dispersed insoluble absorbing material within those droplets. Seven other refractive index mixing models including LVA did not adequately describe the measurements for OC. Mixing the biomass OC aerosol with select mass fractions of ammonium sulfate ranging from 25 to 36% and sodium chloride ranging from 21 to 30% resulted in an increase in light scattering and extinction with RH and inorganic mass fraction. However, no detectable difference in light absorption behavior in comparison to pure biomass OC was observed. The main finding of this research is a measured increase in absorption with increasing RH, which is currently not represented in radiative transfer models even though biomass burning produces most of the primary OC aerosol in the atmosphere.

  6. Summary Crown structure, absorbed photosynthetically ac-tive radiation (APAR) and growth were analyzed in 300 repli-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    solid wood products (Bow- yer et al. 2002). The importance of crown structural traits is reflected stud- ied, and is seldom utilized in tree improvement programs (Martin et al. 2001). Quantitative

  7. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  8. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  9. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  10. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  11. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  12. RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Radiative and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin andof the Second Nation- al Passive Solar Conference (owned rights. ,I I RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING* LAIVRENCE

  13. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U.V. curing with development of U.V. absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKoy, Vincent B. (Flintridge, CA); Gupta, Amitava (Pasadena, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula: ##STR1## where R.sup.1 is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH.dbd.CH.sub.2.

  14. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  15. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  16. Radiation Protection and Licensing FNAL Radiation Physics Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    (ALARA). January 13, 2012 Radiation Protection and Licensing #12;4 Shielding for Prompt Radiation Protect

  17. Radiatively driven relativistic jets with variable adiabatic index equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vyas, Mukesh K; Mandal, Samir; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a relativistic fluid jet driven by radiation from a shocked accretion disc around a non-rotating black hole approximated by Paczy\\'nski-Wiita potential. The sub-Keplerian and Keplerian accretion rates control the shock location and therefore, the radiation field around the accretion disc. We compute the radiative moments with full special relativistic transformation. The effect of a fraction of radiation absorbed by the black hole has been approximated, over and above the special relativistic transformations. We show that the radiative moments around a super massive black hole are different compared to that around a stellar mass black hole. We show that the terminal speed of jets increases with the mass accretion rates,synchrotron emission of the accretion disc and reduction of proton fraction of the flow composition. To obtain relativistic terminal velocities of jets, both thermal and radiative driving are important. We show for very high accretion rates and pair dominated flow, jets around su...

  18. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01

    RPL) The interaction of radiation with matter in crystallineradiation. Some interactions with crystalline matter are

  19. Development of an optimal impact energy absorber for highway crash cushions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalec, Christopher Ryan

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new and efficient method of absorbing a vehicle??s kinetic energy for highway safety crash cushions. A vehicle that makes a direct impact with a rigid highway structure traveling at highway speeds can...

  20. ExperimentalVerification of Vibration Absorbers Combinedwith Input Shaping for Oscillatory Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhose, William

    ExperimentalVerification of Vibration Absorbers Combinedwith Input Shaping for Oscillatory Systems of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 ABSTRACT Systems that exhibit flexible dynamics are susceptible to vibration choice to deal with these vibrations, but in many cases, it is insufficient or difficult to implement

  1. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon, C. J. (Florida Solar Energy Center); Merrigan, T. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    2001-10-19

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

  2. Batteries put to test in PV plan The technology could help utilities absorb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batteries put to test in PV plan The technology could help utilities absorb more power and assist to see whether battery technology can be effectively used to open the utility's grid to greater amounts statewide, investigating how battery technology can be used to overcome limits on the amount of intermittent

  3. Identification and localization of absorbers of variable strength in nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazičre, Christophe

    Identification and localization of absorbers of variable strength in nuclear reactors C. Demazie evenly distrib- uted throughout the core of a commercial nuclear reactor. The novelty and ergodic in time, can be used for many diagnostic purposes in nuclear reactors. Many examples can be found

  4. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  5. Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljačić, Marin

    . Nakagawa, and H. Ohtsubo, "Solar thermophotovoltaic using Al2O3/Er3 Al5O12 eutectic composite selective. Sadchikov, and M. Z. Shvarts, "Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems," Sol. Energy Mater. Hane, "Solar selective absorbers based on two-dimensional W surface gratings with submicron periods

  6. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts With and Without from FBI and national public health experts, began irradiating mail to kill potentially present anthrax Formation in Irradiated Tubes High dose X ray Low dose X ray pH indicator wet dry D-BM wet dry D-BM wet dry

  7. Time-independent one-speed neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering in absorbing media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hangelbroek, R. J.

    1980-06-01

    This report treats the time-independent, one-speed neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering in absorbing media. For nuclear gain operators existence and uniqueness of solutions to the half-space and finite-slab problems are proved in L/sub 2/-space. The formulas needed for explicit calculations are derived by the use of perturbation theory techniques.

  8. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  9. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS Ivan that has shown a remarkable market success in thin film solar cells. It is well known that deposition and defects are addressed. 2 EXPERIMENTAL CdTe solar cells, in our laboratory, are usually prepared as follows

  10. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  11. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric perovskites (with ABO3 composition) is due to the fundamental characteristics of the metal­ oxygen A­O and B cations enable the perovskite oxide to exhibitferroelectricity12 . Owing to a large difference

  12. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  13. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  14. Metamaterial Perfect Absorber Based Hot Electron Photodetection Wei Li and Jason Valentine*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors, and photocatalysis systems. KEYWORDS: Plasmonics, metamaterial perfect absorber, hot electrons, infrared including photo- detection,11-20 photovoltaic devices,21,22 photocatalysis,23-26 and surface imaging.27

  15. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-31

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO{sub 3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­?to-­?center spacing of 20 ?m, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­?20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  16. Temporal shaping of nanosecond CO/sub 2/ laser pulses in multiphoton saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown that substantial temporal distortion of nanosecond 10.6 ..mu..m laser pulses occurs in traversing multiphoton saturable absorbers. The risetime and pulse delay effects appear to depend both on fluence and wavelength, and to be qualitatively consistent with predictions of a simple two-level absorption model.

  17. the carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today's concerns about human-driven climate change and the need to cut carbon emissions, itthe carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide to come for this process to come to equilibrium. Whenever the carbon dioxide amount is increasing an upper limit

  18. Black oxide nanoparticles as durable solar absorbing material for high-temperature concentrating solar power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Available online 8 January 2015 Keywords: Concentrating solar power Solar absorber Cobalt oxide Light trapping High temperature a b s t r a c t Concentrating solar power is becoming an increasingly important an increasingly urgent need for human society [1,2]. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems (or solar thermal sys

  19. Abstract Polymer beads have been used to absorb high concentrations of phenol from soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    and placed in a bioreactor, which was then inoculated with a phenol-degrading microbial consortium. All of the phenol contained within the polymer beads was shown to desorb from the polymer matrix and was degradedAbstract Polymer beads have been used to absorb high concentrations of phenol from soil decreasing

  20. A Study of Heat Transfer in a Composite Wall Collector System with Porous Absorber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, heat transfer and flow in a composite solar wall with porous absorber has been studied. The unsteady numerical simulation is employed to analyze the performance of the flow and temperature field in the composite solar wall. The excess...

  1. HIGH EFFICIENCY Cu(ln,Ga)SepBASED SOLAR CELLS: PROCESSING OF NOVEL ABSORBER STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    HIGH EFFICIENCY Cu(ln,Ga)SepBASED SOLAR CELLS: PROCESSING OF NOVEL ABSORBER STRUCTURES Miguel A conditions (ASTM E892-87, Global 1000 W/m'). The first attempts to translate this development to larger areas a device performance point of view. In terms of lightweight flexible substrate-for potential space

  2. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber without vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250 {Omega}/sq.). A thin electromagnetic absorber for incidence angles greater than 30deg. but less than 60deg. and both polarizations is computationally demonstrated. This absorber utilizes high-permittivity, low-loss microwave substrate in conjunction with an engineered lossy sheet impedance. The lossy sheet impedance is easily engineered with simple analytical approximations and can be manufactured from commercially available laminate materials on microwave substrate.

  3. We present HI observations of the environment of three nearby (~ 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly-absorbers. The absorbers are located along the sight lines towards Markarian 817, Markarian 509 and VII Zwicky 118. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbard, John

    ABSTRACT We present HI observations of the environment of three nearby (~ 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly. We thus find, by comparing to the HI mass function, that there is 4 to 5 times more HI around Ly- absorbers than on average in the sky. The HI Environment of Nearby Ly-alpha Absorbers INTRODUCTION Numerical

  4. Appl. Radiat. lsot. Vol.48, No. 7, pp. 985-990, 1997 ('J 1997ElsevierScienceLtd.Allrightsreserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    calculating the dose close to the wire source in a low energy range. '~) 1997Elsevier Science Ltd Introduction that of an unexposed film) versus the dose for radiation energy from 28 keV to 1.71 MeV is linear up to a dose of about absorbed dose is the same as that to gamma radiation within the estimated uncertainty of the measurements

  5. Absorbed Dose (Gy) 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Robert D.

    , School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 Research supported by the Low Dose Radiation of Ionizing Radiationat Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation V. A. Semenenko and R. D. Stewart Purdue University transformation is reversed, the model predicts that the response to low doses of low-LET radiation becomes supra

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair.

  7. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

    2013-01-02

    This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin �������¢���������������� Madison under Dr. Turner�������¢����������������s direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

  8. A Deep Search For Faint Galaxies Associated With Very Low-redshift C IV Absorbers: II. Program Design, Absorption-line Measurements, and Absorber Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burchett, Joseph N; Prochaska, J Xavier; Werk, Jessica K; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Meara, John M; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Katz, Neal; Willmer, C N A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of metal-enriched gas over recent cosmic epochs as well as to characterize the diffuse, ionized, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM), we have conducted a blind survey for C IV absorption systems in 89 QSO sightlines observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We have identified 42 absorbers at z < 0.16, comprising the largest uniform blind sample size to date in this redshift range. Our measurements indicate an increasing C IV absorber number density per comoving path length (dN/dX = 7.5 +/- 1.1) and modestly increasing mass density relative to the critical density of the Universe (Omega(C IV) = 10.0 +/- 1.5 x 10^-8 ) from z ~ 1.5 to the present epoch, consistent with predictions from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, the data support a functional form for the column density distribution function that deviates from a single power-law, also consistent with independent theoretical predictions. As the data also probe...

  9. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  10. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  11. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U. V. curing with development of U. V. absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKoy, V.B.; Gupta, A.

    1992-08-25

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula shown in a figure where R[sup 1] is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH[double bond]CH[sub 2]. 2 figs.

  12. EUV lithography reticles fabricated without the use of a patterned absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2006-05-23

    Absorber material used in conventional EUVL reticles is eliminated by introducing a direct modulation in the complex-valued reflectance of the multilayer. A spatially localized energy source such as a focused electron or ion beam directly writes a reticle pattern onto the reflective multilayer coating. Interdiffusion is activated within the film by an energy source that causes the multilayer period to contract in the exposed regions. The contraction is accurately determined by the energy dose. A controllable variation in the phase and amplitude of the reflected field in the reticle plane is produced by the spatial modulation of the multilayer period. This method for patterning an EUVL reticle has the advantages (1) avoiding the process steps associated with depositing and patterning an absorber layer and (2) providing control of the phase and amplitude of the reflected field with high spatial resolution.

  13. A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. B. Goldner; P. Zerigian; J. R. Hull

    2001-05-14

    Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.

  14. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Reference G. F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement,MI, 1985. G. F. Knoll, Radiation detection and measurement,applications in radiation detection. First, a brief review

  15. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilincarslan, S.; Akkurt, I.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F.

    2012-09-06

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  16. Real-time determination of free energy and losses in optical absorbing media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Broadbent; G. Hovhannisyan; J. Peatross; M. Clayton; S. Glasgow

    2002-07-30

    We introduce notions of free energy and loss in linear, absorbing dielectric media which are relevant to the regime in which the macroscopic Maxwell equations are themselves relevant. As such we solve a problem eluded to by Landau and Lifshitz in 1958, and later considered explicitly by Barash and Ginzburg, and Oughtsun and Sherman. As such we provide physically-relevant real-time notions of "energy" and "loss" in all analogous linear dissipative systems.

  17. A super-compact metamaterial absorber cell in L-band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Z. X. [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23666 (United States); Yuan, F. G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23666 (United States); Li, L. H. [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-05-14

    A super-compact metamaterial absorber (SMA) unit cell in L band (1–2?GHz) is proposed, which is composed of a pair of electric ring resonator (ERR) and its complementary ERR (CERR) with a high dielectric substrate sandwiched in between. The CERR has a cross sectional area where approximately the etched copper foil in ERR is now retained, and the remaining region is now etched. In contract with quarter-wavelength (?/4) thickness which is required for conventional absorbers, the largest in-plane dimension and thickness of the SMA cell are only ?/33 and ?/250, respectively, leading to a super compact cell volume. While traditionally the long straight wire is introduced in electric-LC resonators for increasing inductance, the CERR achieves similar inductance with much shorter lengths. Thus, its cell dimensions can be drastically reduced without compromising its performance. In addition, simulations together with an automated phase correction algorithm show that the SMA is a type of metamaterial possessing simultaneous negative electric permittivity (NEP) and negative magnetic permeability (NMP). Further the SMA has a very large imaginary part of the NEP and NMP, resulting in significantly large imaginary part of the refractive index at resonant frequency. These properties are well suited to design excellent absorbers. In addition, numerical results demonstrate that the maximum absorption coefficient of the SMA can reach greater than 99% at resonant frequency, and the full-width half-maximum is roughly 1% of the operating frequency, and a wide incident angle of ±49° over 90% absorption. Meanwhile, it is pointed out that this type of absorber is rather sensitive to polarization characteristic of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  18. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  19. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  20. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  1. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr17rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Datalacmanrad Documentation XDC

  2. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr18rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Datalacmanrad Documentation XDCrad

  3. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr9rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Datalacmanrad Documentation XDCradrad

  4. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr11rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data

  5. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr15rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality4radgacnau

  6. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr16rad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you!ch4 Documentation XDC documentation Datalacman Documentation

  7. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  8. X-Ray Wind Tomography of the highly absorbed HMXB IGR J17252-3616

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manousakis, A

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to understand the specificities of highly absorbed sgHMXB and in particular of the companion stellar wind, thought to be responsible for the strong absorption. We have monitored IGR J17252-3616, a highly absorbed system featuring eclipses, with XMM-Newton to study the vari- ability of the column density and of the Fe K{\\alpha} emission line along the orbit and during the eclipses. We also built a 3D model of the structure of the stellar wind to reproduce the observed variability. We first derived a refined orbital solution built from INTEGRAL, RXTE and XMM data. The XMM monitoring campaign revealed significant variation of intrinsic absorbing column density along the orbit and of the Fe K{\\alpha} line equivalent width around the eclipses. The origin of the soft X-ray absorption is modeled with an dense and extended hydrodynamical tail, trailing the neutron star. This structure extends along most of the orbit, indicating that the stellar wind is strongly disrupted by the neutron star. The variabili...

  9. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  10. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5??m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4?mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604?mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  11. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  12. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  13. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakhor, Avideh

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  14. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    eld radiative heat transfer dominates radiation transferstudy Far field radiation Heat transfer coefficient, h r (W/nanoscale radiation to enhance radiative heat transfer. The

  15. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  17. The radiative heat transfer between a rotating nanoparticle and a plane surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahid Ameri; Mehdi Shafei Aporvari; Fardin Kheirandish

    2015-06-03

    Based on a microscopic approach, we propose a Lagrangian for the combined system of a rotating dielectric nanoparticle above a plane surface in the presence of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. In the framework of canonical quantization, the electromagnetic vacuum field is quantized in the presence of dielectric fields describing the nanoparticle and a semi-infinite dielectric with planar interface. The radiative heat power absorbed by the rotating nanoparticle is obtained and the result is in agreement with previous results when the the rotational frequency of the nanoparticle is zero or much smaller than the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics. The well known near field effect is reexamined and discussed in terms of the rotational frequency. The radiative heat power absorbed by the nanoparticle for well-known peak frequencies, is plotted in terms of the rotational frequency showing an interesting effect resembling a phase transition around a critical frequency, determined by the relaxation frequency of the dielectrics.

  18. Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation and a unit of exposure 14 Biological effects of radiation and units of dose 19 ALARA policy

  19. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  20. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  1. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Principles of radiation interaction in matter and detection,Principles of radiation interaction in matter and detection,

  2. 1998 SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Conf. Paper #3329-19/3327-42 High bandwidth tunability in a smart vibration absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatau, Alison B.

    in a smart vibration absorber Alison B. Flatau, Marcelo J. Dapino and Frederick T. Calkinsŕ , Aerospace Engr, Phantom Works, Seattle WA 98124-2499 ABSTRACT The theory of an electrically tunable Terfenol-D vibration bandwidth tunability in the performance of a Terfenol-D vibration absorber. Keywords: vibration absorber

  3. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Bing, E-mail: ouyangbing.zj@foxmail.com; Xue, Jia-Dan, E-mail: jenniexue@126.com; Zheng, Xuming, E-mail: zhengxuming126@126.com, E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fang, Wei-Hai, E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn, E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A?), S{sub 6}(A?), and S{sub 7}(A?) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A?), S{sub 6}(A?), and S{sub 7}(A?) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A?) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} ? S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} ? S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  4. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI); Marsala, Joseph (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1994-11-29

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  5. Flowing plasmas and absorbing objects: analytic and numerical solutions culminating 80 years of ion-collection theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    Recent computational and theoretical progress in understanding and calculating ion collection by negatively charged absorbing objects in a flowing plasma is outlined. The results are placed in the context of key theoretical ...

  6. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  7. Complex absorbing potential based Lorentzian fitting scheme and time dependent quantum transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Hang Kwok, Yanho; Chen, GuanHua; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, Xiao

    2014-10-28

    Based on the complex absorbing potential (CAP) method, a Lorentzian expansion scheme is developed to express the self-energy. The CAP-based Lorentzian expansion of self-energy is employed to solve efficiently the Liouville-von Neumann equation of one-electron density matrix. The resulting method is applicable for both tight-binding and first-principles models and is used to simulate the transient currents through graphene nanoribbons and a benzene molecule sandwiched between two carbon-atom chains.

  8. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  9. MHK Technologies/Multi Absorbing Wave Energy Converter MAWEC | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHKHydroInformation Multi Absorbing

  10. Fervent: Chemistry-coupled, ionising and non-ionising radiative feedback in magnetohydrodynamical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baczynski, C; Klessen, R S

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a radiative transfer code module for the magnetohydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH 4. It is coupled to an efficient chemical network which explicitly tracks the three hydrogen species H, H_2, H+ as well as C+ and CO. The module is geared towards modeling all relevant thermal feedback processes of massive stars, and is able to follow the non-equilibrium time-dependent thermal and chemical state of the present-day interstellar medium as well as that of dense molecular clouds. We describe in detail the implementation of all relevant thermal stellar feedback mechanisms, i.e. photoelectric, photoionization and H_2 dissociation heating as well as pumping of molecular hydrogen by UV photons. All included radiative feedback processes are extensively tested. We also compare our module to dedicated photon-dominated region (PDR) codes and find good agreement in our modeled hydrogen species once our radiative transfer solution reaches equilibrium. In addition, we show that the implemented rad...

  11. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  12. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-31

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS’s requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time and reach back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron’s identiFINDER™, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18-cm x 2.54-cm cylinders) as gamma detector, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack™ that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity (comparable to that of a 7.62-cm x 7.62-cm sodium iodide crystal at low gamma energy ranging from 30 keV to 3,000 keV), better resolution (< 3.0 percent at 662 keV), faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system auto triggers saving of relevant spectral data and software-triggers the digital camera to take a snapshot. The spectral data including in situ analysis and the imagery data will be packaged in a suitable format and sent to a command post using an imbedded cell phone.

  13. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant spectral data and software-triggers the digital camera to take a snapshot. The spectral data including in situ analysis and the imagery data will be packaged in a suitable format and sent to a command post using an imbedded cell phone.

  14. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  15. Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi (Los Alamos, NM); Vaughn, Worth E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  16. Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

  17. Atomic Radiation (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  19. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  20. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber – Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  1. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    p-c = convective heat transfer coefficient pipe to cover hr2= (h radiative heat transfer coefficient pipe to cover 2. -R3 (h _ + \\2)-1 pipe to cover heat transfer where p c2

  2. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

  3. SU-D-19A-02: Electron and Photon Absorbed Fractions for Tumors of Varying Sizes and Compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olguin, E; Bolch, W [UniversityFlorida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To calculate absorbed fractions for mono-energetic photons and electrons in tumors of varying compositions using Monte Carlo simulations in MCNPX. Although tumor dosimetry has been previously investigated, these studies are very limited as they only consider absorbed fractions for soft-tissue tumors. Methods: The tumors were modeled as spheres with radii ranging from 0.10 cm to 6.0 cm and with compositions varying from 100% soft tissue to 100% bone. The energies of both the photons and electrons were varied from 10 keV to 10 MeV and were homogenously distributed throughout the tumor volume. Furthermore, this investigation addresses the issue of spherical versus elliptical tumors. Both prolate and oblate spheroid tumors of different compositions were modeled, and absorbed fractions were calculated for various electron and photon energies. Results: The data clearly shows an absorbed fraction dependence on tumor composition. For example, a soft-tissue model for a 3 MeV electron emitted in a 1 cm diameter bone tumor would have an 83% error, and this same assumption for a 500 keV photon would yield a 74% error. Ultimately, empirical fits were created for each of the five material compositions in order to facilitate the absorbed fraction calculation, requiring only the tumor size and particle energy. Furthermore, the data shows that absorbed fractions for moderate spheroids can be well approximated by spherical tumors of equal mass to within 8%, but in the extreme cases where the spheroid resembles more of a disk, the errors can be as high as 30%. Conclusion: This comprehensive data set is most valuable for nuclear medicine dosimetry because it incorporates particle type, particle energy, tumor size, and tumor composition. Although mono-energetic particles were modeled, absorbed fractions and S-values may be calculated for any radionuclide via linear interpolation, as long as the particle energies or spectra are known.

  4. ON THE JITTER RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelner, S. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-6917 Heidelberg (Germany); Aharonian, F. A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Khangulyan, D., E-mail: skelner@rambler.ru, E-mail: Felix.Aharonian@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    In a small-scale turbulent medium, when the nonrelativistic Larmor radius R{sub L} = mc {sup 2}/eB exceeds the correlation length {lambda} of the magnetic field, the magnetic Bremsstrahlung radiation of charged relativistic particles unavoidably proceeds to the so-called jitter radiation regime. The cooling timescale of parent particles is identical to the synchrotron cooling time, thus this radiation regime can be produced with very high efficiency in different astrophysical sources characterized by high turbulence. The jitter radiation has distinct spectral features shifted toward high energies, compared to synchrotron radiation. This effect makes the jitter mechanism an attractive broad-band gamma-ray production channel, which, in highly magnetized and turbulent environments, can compete or even dominate over other high-energy radiation mechanisms. In this paper, we present a novel study of the spectral properties of the jitter radiation performed within the framework of perturbation theory. The derived general expression for the spectral power of radiation is presented in a compact and convenient form for numerical calculations.

  5. Radiative Flux Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Chuck

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  6. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  7. Photochemistry Radiation and Photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    energy is done (i.e. energy per unit time) #12;Sample Problem: A microwave oven puts out radiation at 50? How does a microwave oven heat food anyway? First note that 50 GHz is a frequency (Hz = s-1) E = hn, as a function of l · Amount of solar radiation, as a function of

  8. Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    energy, is energy in the form of waves or particles moving through space. Visi- ble light, heat, radio in the form of electromagnetic waves. Examples include gamma rays, ultraviolet light, and radio waves waves, and alpha particles are examples of radiation. When people feel warmth from sunlight

  9. Ignition of Deflagration and Detonation Ahead of the Flame due to Radiative Preheating of Suspended Micro Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2014-01-01

    We study a flame propagating in the gaseous combustible mixture with suspended inert solid micro particles. The gaseous mixture is assumed to be transparent for thermal radiation emitted by the hot combustion products, while particles absorb and reemit the radiation. Thermal radiation heats the particles, which in turn transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of thermal heat transfer. Different scenarios are possible depending on the spatial distribution of the particles, their size and the number density. In the case of uniform spatial distribution the radiation absorption ahead of the flame causes a modest increase of the combustion wave velocity. On the contrary, in the case of non-uniform distribution of the particles, such that the particles number density increases far ahead of the flame, the preheating caused by the thermal radiation may trigger additional source of ignition. Far enough ahead of the flame, where number density of particles is higher, the temperature due to...

  10. Scalar potential model of the CMB radiation temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John C. Hodge

    2006-03-06

    A derivation of a theoretical, time average, cosmic microwave background (CMB), Planckian temperature V of the universe remains a challenge. A scalar potential model (SPM) that resulted from considerations of galaxy cells is applied to deriving a value for V. The heat equation is solved for a cell with the boundary conditions of SPM Source and Sink characteristics, with simplified cell characteristics, and with zero initial temperature. The universe is a collection of cells. The CMB radiation is black body radiation with the cells acting as radiators and absorbers. Conventional thermodynamics is applied to calculate V = 2.718 K. The temperature and matter content of cells are finely controlled by a feedback mechanism. Because time is required for matter to flow from Sources to Sinks, the radiation temperature of cells cycles about V after an initial growth phase. If the universe is like an ideal gas in free expansion and is not in thermal equilibrium, then the pressure and volume follow the measured CMB temperature vm = 2.725 K. Therefore, increasing vm >V equates to an expansion pressure on matter and expanding volume.

  11. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    occurring within the detector, radiation may also change theLBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS Richard H.LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS* Richard H.

  12. Cotton absorbent non-woven mat that collects 50 times its own weight in Oil | www.commodityonline.com | 3 http://www.commodityonline.com/news/cotton-absorbent-non-woven-mat-that-collects-50-times-its-own-weight-in-oil-59474-3-59475.html[8/27/2014 4:56:54

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Cotton absorbent non-woven mat that collects 50 times its own weight in Oil | www.commodityonline.com | 3 http://www.commodityonline.com/news/cotton-absorbent-non-woven-mat-that-collects-50-times-its-own-weight-in-oil the new picker-upper for oil spills. 0 1 Cotton absorbent non-woven mat that collects 50 times its own

  13. Bifacial solar cell with SnS absorber by vapor transport deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangperawong, Artit; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yee, Yesheng; Herron, Steven M.; Clemens, Bruce M.; Cui, Yi; Bent, Stacey F.

    2014-10-27

    The SnS absorber layer in solar cell devices was produced by vapor transport deposition (VTD), which is a low-cost manufacturing method for solar modules. The performance of solar cells consisting of Si/Mo/SnS/ZnO/indium tin oxide (ITO) was limited by the SnS layer's surface texture and field-dependent carrier collection. For improved performance, a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate was used in place of the Mo to smooth the topography of the VTD SnS and to make bifacial solar cells, which are potentially useful for multijunction applications. A bifacial SnS solar cell consisting of glass/FTO/SnS/CdS/ZnO/ITO demonstrated front- and back-side power conversion efficiencies of 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively.

  14. Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2009-02-03

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  15. Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xu-De [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Hao; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping, E-mail: luoaiping@scnu.edu.cn; Xu, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: xuwch@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-10-20

    We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ?887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.

  16. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Doughty, David C.; Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Hill, Hanna H.

    2015-02-02

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are aminomore »acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr-1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap.« less

  17. Scientists Identify New Quaternary Materials for Solar Cell Absorbers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Research provides insight for exploring use of earth-abundant quaternary semiconductors for large-scale solar cell applications. For large-scale solar electricity generation, it is critical to find new material that is Earth abundant and easily manufactured. Previous experimental studies suggest that Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} could be a strong candidate absorber materials for large-scale thin-film solar cells due to its optimal bandgap, high adsorption coefficient, and ease of synthesis. However, due to the complicated nature of the quaternary compound, it is unclear whether other quaternary compounds have physical properties suitable for solar cell application. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Fudan University, and University College London have performed systematic searches of quaternary semiconductors using a sequential cation mutation method in which the material properties of the quaternary compounds can be derived and understood through the evolution from the binary, to ternary, and to quaternary compounds. The searches revealed that in addition to Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} are also suitable quaternary materials for solar cell absorbers. Through the extensive study of defect and alloy properties of these materials, the researchers propose that to maximize solar cell performance, growth of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions will be optimal and the formation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} alloy will be beneficial in improving solar cell performance.

  18. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Doughty, David C.; Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Hill, Hanna H.

    2015-02-02

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are amino acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr-1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap.

  19. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade...

  20. Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

  1. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  2. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  3. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  4. RADBALLTECHNOLOGY TESTING AND MCNP MODELING OF THE TUNGSTEN COLLIMATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.

    2010-07-08

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall{trademark}, which can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. RadBall{trademark} consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly more opaque, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner, which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation matrix provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBall{trademark} has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach locations. The RadBall{trademark} technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This study focuses on the RadBall{trademark} testing and modeling accomplished at SRNL.

  5. The radiation chemistry of CCD-PEG, a solvent-extraction process for Cs and Sr from dissolved nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, B.J.; Herbst, R.S.; Tillotson, R.D.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2008-07-01

    Cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol in phenyl-trifluoromethyl sulfone (HCCD/PEG in FS- 13) is currently under consideration for use in the process-scale selective extraction of fission- product cesium and strontium from dissolved nuclear fuel. This solvent will be exposed to high radiation doses during use and has not been adequately investigated for radiation stability. Here, HCCD/PEG was y-irradiated to various absorbed doses, to a maximum of 432 kGy, using {sup 60}Co. Irradiations were performed for the neat organic phase and also for the organic phase in contact with 1 M-nitric acid mixed by air sparging. Post-irradiation solvent-extraction measurements showed that Cs distribution ratios were unaffected; however, Sr extraction efficiency decreased with absorbed dose under both conditions and was greater when in contact with the aqueous phase. Stripping performance was not affected. A mechanism, initiated by direct radiolysis of the sulfone diluent, is proposed. (authors)

  6. An investigation of the effects of progressive waves on an oil slick retained by an absorber beach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yau-Ming Kennith

    1973-01-01

    AN INVESTIGAT10N OF THE EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE HAVES ON AN OIL SI. ICE RETAINED BY AN ABSORBER BEACH A Thesis by t)'l l' YAU-MING HUANG Submitted to the Graduate Colleg of Texas A&M Uniuersity in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: C''oil Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE WAVES ON AN OIL SLICK RETAINED BY AN ABSORBER BEACH A Thesis by YAU-MING HUANG Approved as to style and content by...

  7. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  8. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  9. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  10. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  11. Radiative-convective instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Allison A.

    Radiative-moist-convective equilibrium (RCE) is a simple paradigm for the statistical equilibrium the earth's climate would exhibit in the absence of lateral energy transport. It has generally been assumed that for a given ...

  12. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  13. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  14. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  15. Handbook of radiation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes-Siedle, A. (ed.) (Radiation Experiments and Monitors, Oxford (United Kingdom) Univ. of West London (United Kingdom)); Adams, L. (ed.) (European Space Agency-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Radiation Effects and Analysis Techniques Unit)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book.

  16. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  17. Numerical simulation of deuterium loading profile in palladium and palladium alloy plates from experimental data of absorbed mole rate obtained using $\\mu$s pulsed electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celani, F; Tripodi, P; Petrocchi, A; Nakamura, M; Di Gioacchino, D; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Preparata, Giuliano; Verpelli, M

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulation of deuterium loading profile in palladium and palladium alloy plates from experimental data of absorbed mole rate obtained using $\\mu$s pulsed electrolysis

  18. 131I-Tositumomab Myeloablative Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Radiation Dose to the Testes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattori, Naoya; Gopal, Ajay K.; Shields, Andrew T.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Pagel, John M.; Press, Oliver W.; Rajendran, Joseph G.

    2012-12-01

    To investigate radiation dose to testes delivered by radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels. METHODS: We evaluated dosimetry results for 67 male patients (54 ± 11 years old) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and one year after the therapy. RESULTS: Absorbed dose to testes showed greater variability (range = 4.4 to 70.2 Gy) than did dose to lungs (9.5 to 28.4 Gy, p < 0.0001) or liver (6.5 to 27.2 Gy, p < 0.0001). Absorbed dose to the testes per 131I administered (1.18 ± 0.59 mGy/MBq) was not significantly different from that to the liver (1.03 ± 0.29 mGy/MBq, p = 0.08), or to the lungs (1.19 ± 0.50 mGy/MBq, p = 0.889). Pre-therapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction (4.6 ± 1.8 nmol/L (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8 ± 2.9 nmol/L (post-RIT), p < 0.05). Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (? 25 Gy) showed a greater reduction (4.7 ± 1.6 nmol/L (pre RIT) vs. 3.3 ± 2.7 nmol/L (post-RIT), p < 0.05) than did patients receiving lower doses (< 25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels. CONCLUSION: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Patients receiving higher doses to testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels. Key Words: 131I-tositumomab, follicular lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy, radiation dosimetry, male sex hormones. ?

  19. Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal absorbers and emitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljačić, Marin

    Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems with two-dimensional tantalum photonic crystal) systems convert solar energy into electricity via thermally radiated photons at tailored wavelengths highly scalable for a wide range of power capacities, have no moving parts, and allow solar energy

  20. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    this form to Radiation Safety's Dosimetry Program.) ___ Yes ___ No 1. Was the Dosimeter placed or stored

  1. Radiation oncogenesis in cell culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    This review article examines the oncogenic effects of radiation with emphasis on ionizing radiations. Cell transformation in vitro is examined with respect to culture systems currently used in these studies, initiation and phenotypic expression of transformation and criteria for transformation. The section of radiation oncogenesis in vitro includes ionizing and nonionizing radiation studies and cocarcinogens and modulators of radiogenic transformations.

  2. REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

  3. Radiation Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Gaseous Flame: Flame Acceleration and Triggering Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine influence of the radiation heat transfer on the combustion regimes in the mixture, formed by suspension of fine inert particles in hydrogen gas. The gaseous phase is assumed to be transparent for the thermal radiation, while the radiant heat absorbed by the particles is then lost by conduction to the surrounding gas. The particles and gas ahead of the flame is assumed to be heated by radiation from the original flame. It is shown that the maximum temperature increase due to the radiation preheating becomes larger for a flame with lower velocity. For a flame with small enough velocity temperature of the radiation preheating may exceed the crossover temperature, so that the radiation heat transfer may become a dominant mechanism of the flame propagation. In the case of non-uniform distribution of particles, the temperature gradient formed due to the radiation preheating can initiate either deflagration or detonation ahead of the original flame via the Zel'dovich's gradient mechanism. Th...

  4. Si3AlP: A New Promising Material for Solar Cell Absorber Ji-Hui Yang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    the existing solar cell technologies, first-generation crystalline silicon-based solar cells are still one such as tandem solar cells. However, only a few of these alloys have been studied and applied in practice. OneSi3AlP: A New Promising Material for Solar Cell Absorber Ji-Hui Yang, Yingteng Zhai, Hengrui Liu

  5. Moving beyond the limits of mass transport in liquid absorbent microfilms through the implementation of surface-induced vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, S; Yu, DZ; Chugh, D; Moghaddam, S

    2014-02-01

    The slow diffusion of an absorbate molecule into an absorbent often makes the absorption process a rate-limiting step in many applications. In cases involving an absorbate with a high heat of phase change, such as water absorption into a LiBr (lithium bromide) solution, the absorption rate is further slowed due to significant heating of the absorbent. Recently, it has been demonstrated that constraining a LiBr solution film by a hydrophobic porous structure enables manipulation of the solution flow thermohydraulic characteristics. Here, it is shown that mass transport mode in a constrained laminar solution flow can be changed from diffusive to advective. This change in mode is accomplished through stretching and folding the laminar streamlines within the solution film via the implementation of micro-scale features on the flow channel surface. The process induces vortices within the solution film, which continuously bring concentrated solution from the bottom and middle of the solution channel to its interface with the vapor phase, thus leading to a significant enhancement in the absorption rate. The detailed physics of the involved transport processes is elucidated using the LBM (Lattice Boltzmann Method). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian Kuang, and George Luhrs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Lei

    ]. Vehicles exhaust causes more air pollution than anything else [2]. Considering only 10-16% of fuel energy and Zhang [5] estimated that 100-400 Watts of energy harvesting potential exist in the suspension1 Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Rectifier Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian

  7. Energy absorbent natural materials and bioinspired design strategies: A review J. McKittrick a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Review Energy absorbent natural materials and bioinspired design strategies: A review J. Mc Keywords: Structural biological materials Energy absorption Bioinspired design Some of the most remarkable materials in terms of energy absorption and impact resistance are not found through human processing

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 045207 (2015) Wurtzite silicon as a potential absorber in photovoltaics: Tailoring the optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 045207 (2015) Wurtzite silicon as a potential absorber in photovoltaics European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) 4 Institute for Research and Development of Photovoltaic range which is relevant for photovoltaic applications. High biaxial tensile strains (>4%) even transform

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 47, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2011 317 Systematic Analysis and Engineering of Absorbing Materials Containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    A methodology to efficiently design novel products based on magneto-dielectric materials containing ferrite and Engineering of Absorbing Materials Containing Magnetic Inclusions for EMC Applications Marina Y. Koledintseva1 for solving numerous problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and improving immunity of electronic

  10. Application of burnable absorbers in an accelerator driven system Jan Wallenius, Kamil Tucek, Johan Carlsson, Waclaw Gudowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application of burnable absorbers in an accelerator driven system Jan Wallenius, Kamil Tucek, Johan with the minor actinides in accelerator driven systems (ADS) has also been proposed [8, 9, 10]. Since) for minimization of power peaking, reactivity loss and capture to fission probabilities in an accelerator driven

  11. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  12. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  13. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  14. Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing Aerosol Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing. Colours represent the smoke plume on the indicated days. 3. Detection of volcanic ash In April 2010, the GOME-2 AAI was able to follow the transport of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjalljokull volcano

  15. ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXCESS NUMBER OF STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS OBSERVED TOWARD GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapoport, Sharon; Onken, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Brian P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia); Wyithe, J. Stuart B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Thygesen, Anders O. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    The number of strong (equivalent width >1 A) Mg II absorbers observed toward gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been found to be statistically larger than the number of strong absorbers toward quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). We formalize this 'Mg II problem' and present a detailed explanation of the statistical tools required to assess the significance of the discrepancy. We find that the problem exists at the 4{sigma} level for GRBs with high-resolution spectra. It has been suggested that the discrepancy can be resolved by the combination of a dust obscuration bias toward QSOs, and a strong gravitational lensing bias toward GRBs. We investigate one of the two most probable lensed GRBs that we presented in our previous work (GRB020405) and find that it is not strongly gravitationally lensed, constraining the percentage of lensed GRBs to be <35% (2{sigma}). Dust obscuration of QSOs has been estimated to be a significant effect with dusty Mg II systems removing {approx}20% of absorbed objects from flux-limited QSO samples. We find that if {approx}30% of the strong Mg II systems toward QSOs are missing from the observed samples, then GRBs and QSOs would have comparable numbers of absorbers per unit redshift. Thus, strong gravitational lensing bias is likely to make only a modest contribution to solving the Mg II problem. However, if the dust obscuration bias has been slightly underestimated, the Mg II problem would no longer persist.

  16. Analysis of a Novel Proton Absorber Geometry for the Mu2e Experiment Daniel Persheya,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollin, George

    Alsterdaa , Grace Bluhma,c , George Gollina, , Tim Hea , Guangyong Koha , Matthew McHugha a Department is based on two Contact person: George Gollin, g-gollin@illinois.edu, +1 (217) 333-4451 #12;asymmetries looking upstream (bottom middle), and the absorber with the detector (bottom). Calculations2 show

  17. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  18. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

  19. Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-06-21

    Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

  20. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  1. Updated models for the creation of a low-Z QSO absorber by a dwarf galaxy wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, Brian A.; Joeris, Peter; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2014-11-01

    We present new GALEX images and optical spectroscopy of J1229+02, a dwarf post-starburst galaxy located 81 kpc from the 1585 km s{sup ?1} absorber in the 3C 273 sight line. The absence of H? emission and the faint GALEX UV fluxes confirm that the galaxy's recent star formation rate is <10{sup ?3} M{sub ?} yr{sup ?1}. Absorption-line strengths and the UV?optical SED give similar estimates of the acceptable model parameters for its youngest stellar population where f{sub m}<60% of its total stars (by mass) formed in a burst t{sub sb}=0.7–3.4 Gyr ago with a stellar metallicity of ?1.7<[Fe/H]<+0.2; we also estimate the stellar mass of J1229+02 to be 7.3absorber. But, using new data, we find a significantly higher galaxy/absorber velocity difference, a younger starburst age, and a smaller starburst mass than previously reported. Simple energy-conserving wind models for J1229+02 using fiducial values of f{sub m}?0.1, t{sub sb}?2 Gyr, and log(M{sub ?}/M{sub ?})?7.5 allow us to conclude that the galaxy alone cannot produce the observed QSO absorber; i.e., any putative ejecta must interact with ambient gas from outside J1229+02. Because J1229+02 is located in the southern extension of the Virgo cluster ample potential sources of this ambient gas exist. Based on the two nearest examples of strong metal-line absorbers discovered serendipitously (the current one and the 1700 km s{sup ?1} metal-line absorber in the nearby Q1230 + 0115 sight line), we conclude that absorbers with 10{sup 14}

  2. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  3. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  4. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  5. OBSERVATIONS OF OUTFLOWING ULTRAVIOLET ABSORBERS IN NGC 4051 WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Crenshaw, D. M.; Fischer, T. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dunn, J. P. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta State University, 2500 Walton Way, Augusta, GA 30904 (United States); Turner, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lobban, A. P.; Reeves, J. N. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Miller, L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Braito, V., E-mail: steven.b.kraemer@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. These data were obtained as part of a coordinated observing program including X-ray observations with the Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectrometer and Suzaku. We detected nine kinematic components of UV absorption, which were previously identified using the HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). None of the absorption components showed evidence for changes in column density or profile within the {approx}10 yr between the STIS and COS observations, which we interpret as evidence of (1) saturation, for the stronger components, or (2) very low densities, i.e., n{sub H} < 1 cm{sup -3}, for the weaker components. After applying a +200 km s{sup -1} offset to the HETG spectrum, we found that the radial velocities of the UV absorbers lay within the O VII profile. Based on photoionization models, we suggest that, while UV components 2, 5, and 7 produce significant O VII absorption, the bulk of the X-ray absorption detected in the HETG analysis occurs in more highly ionized gas. Moreover, the mass-loss rate is dominated by high-ionization gas which lacks a significant UV footprint.

  6. Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Guo, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Yu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP), as the most alluring graphene analogue owing to its similar structure as graphene and thickness dependent direct band-gap, has now triggered a new wave of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials based photonics and optoelectronics. However, a major obstacle of practical applications for few-layer BPs comes from their instabilities of laser-induced optical damage. Herein, we demonstrate that, few-layer BPs, fabricated through the liquid exfoliation approach, can be developed as a new and practical saturable absorber (SA) by depositing few-layer BPs with microfiber. The saturable absorption property of few-layer BPs had been verified through an open-aperture z-scan measurement at the telecommunication band and the microfiber-based BP device had been found to show a saturable average power of ~4.5 mW and a modulation depth of 10.9%, which is further confirmed through a balanced twin detection measurement. By further integrating this optical SA device into an erbium-doped fiber...

  7. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore »of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  8. An X-ray variable absorber within the Broad Line Region in Fairall 51

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoboda, Jiri; Guainazzi, Matteo; Longinotti, Anna Lia; Piconcelli, Enrico; Wilms, Joern

    2015-01-01

    Fairall 51 is a polar-scattered Seyfert 1 galaxy, a type of active galaxies believed to represent a bridge between unobscured type-1 and obscured type-2 objects. Fairall 51 has shown complex and variable X-ray absorption but only little is known about its origin. In our research, we observed Fairall 51 with the X-ray satellite Suzaku in order to constrain a characteristic time-scale of its variability. We performed timing and spectral analysis of four observations separated by 1.5, 2 and 5.5 day intervals. We found that the 0.5-50 keV broadband X-ray spectra are dominated by a primary power-law emission (with the photon index ~ 2). This emission is affected by at least three absorbers with different ionisations (log(xi) ~ 1-4). The spectrum is further shaped by a reprocessed emission, possibly coming from two regions -- the accretion disc and a more distant scattering region. The accretion disc emission is smeared by the relativistic effects, from which we measured the spin of the black hole as a ~ 0.8 (+-0.2...

  9. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  10. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  11. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  12. Radiative Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A

    2015-01-01

    I review a new rapidly growing area of high-energy plasma astrophysics --- radiative magnetic reconnection, i.e., a reconnection regime where radiation reaction influences reconnection dynamics, energetics, and nonthermal particle acceleration. This influence be may be manifested via a number of astrophysically important radiative effects, such as radiation-reaction limits on particle acceleration, radiative cooling, radiative resistivity, braking of reconnection outflows by radiation drag, radiation pressure, viscosity, and even pair creation at highest energy densities. Self-consistent inclusion of these effects in magnetic reconnection theory and modeling calls for serious modifications to our overall theoretical approach to the problem. In addition, prompt reconnection-powered radiation often represents our only observational diagnostic tool for studying remote astrophysical systems; this underscores the importance of developing predictive modeling capabilities to connect the underlying physical condition...

  13. Crystal and electronic band structure of Cu2ZnSnX4 ,,X=S and Se... photovoltaic absorbers: First-principles insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    components, and the band gap is usually not optimal for high efficiency CIGS solar cells. Currently, designing and synthesizing novel, high-efficiency, and low cost solar cell absorbers to replace CIGS has.1063/1.3074499 An ideal thin-film solar cell absorber material should have a direct band gap around 1.3­1.5 e

  14. ATHENA radiation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shumway, R.W.

    1987-10-01

    The ATHENA computer program has many features that make it desirable to use as a space reactor evaluation tool. One of the missing features was a surface-to-surface thermal radiation model. A model was developed that allows any of the regular ATHENA heat slabs to radiate to any other heat slab. The view factors and surface emissivities must be specified by the user. To verify that the model was properly accounting for radiant energy transfer, two different types of test calculations were performed. Both calculations have excellent results. The updates have been used on both the INEL CDC-176 and the Livermore Cray. 7 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  16. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  17. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  18. Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, Tuwaitha, Baghdad, (Iraq))

    1992-05-01

    The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

  19. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the differences in cellular defense mechanisms between low and high doses of low LET radiation and to define the radiation doses where the cellular DNA damage signaling and repair mechanisms tend to shift. This information is critically important to address and advance some of the low dose research program objectives of DOE. The results of this proposed study will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms for the cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation. Further, systematic analysis of the role of PIKK signaling pathways as a function of radiation dose in tissue microenvironment will provide useful mechanistic information for improving the accuracy of radiation risk assessment for low doses. Knowledge of radiation responses in tissue microenvironment is important for the accurate prediction of ionizing radiation risks associated with cancer and tissue degeneration in humans.

  20. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  1. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  2. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  3. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Ĺbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  4. Three Dimensional Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel

    2000-05-09

    Radiative Transfer (RT) effects play a crucial role in the thermal history of the intergalactic medium. Here I discuss recent advances in the development of numerical methods that introduce RT to cosmological hydrodynamics. These methods can also readily be applied to time dependent problems on interstellar and galactic scales.

  5. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  6. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  7. Damped Lyman alpha Absorbing Galaxies At Low Redshifts z<1 From Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsuya Okoshi; Masahiro Nagashima

    2004-12-21

    We investigate Damped Ly-alpha absorbing galaxies (DLA galaxies) at low redshifts z<1 in the hierarchical structure formation scenario to clarify the nature of DLA galaxies because observational data of such galaxies mainly at low redshifts are currently available. We find that our model well reproduces distributions of fundamental properties of DLA galaxies such as luminosities, column densities, impact parameters obtained by optical and near-infrared imagings. Our results suggest that DLA systems primarily consist of low luminosity galaxies with small impact parameters (typical radius about 3 kpc, surface brightness from 22 to 27 mag arcsec^{-2}) similar to low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In addition, we investigate selection biases arising from the faintness and from the masking effect which prevents us from identifying a DLA galaxy hidden or contaminated by a point spread function of a background quasar. We find that the latter affects the distributions of DLA properties more seriously rather than the former, and that the observational data are well reproduced only when taking into account the masking effect. The missing rate of DLA galaxies by the masking effect attains 60-90 % in the sample at redshift 0

  8. Absorbing Phase Transitions and Dynamic Freezing in Running Active Matter Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Reichhardt; C. J. Olson Reichhardt

    2014-06-12

    We examine a two-dimensional system of sterically repulsive interacting disks where each particle runs in a random direction. This system is equivalent to a run-and-tumble dynamics system in the limit where the run time is infinite. At low densities, we find a strongly fluctuating state composed of transient clusters. Above a critical density that is well below the density at which non-active particles would crystallize, the system can organize into a drifting quiescent or frozen state where the fluctuations are lost and large crystallites form surrounded by a small density of individual particles. Although all the particles are still moving, their paths form closed orbits. The average transient time to organize into the quiescent state diverges as a power law upon approaching the critical density from above. We compare our results to the random organization observed for periodically sheared systems that can undergo an absorbing transition from a fluctuating state to a dynamical non-fluctuating state. In the random organization studies, the system organizes to a state in which the particles no longer interact; in contrast, we find that the randomly running active matter organizes to a strongly interacting dynamically jammed state. We show that the transition to the frozen state is robust against a certain range of stochastic fluctuations. We also examine the effects of adding a small number of pinned particles to the system and find that the transition to the frozen state shifts to significantly lower densities and arises via the nucleation of faceted crystals centered at the obstacles.

  9. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2011-10-20

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  10. Radiation Chemistry Radiation causes changes in molecules by both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    Module 4 Radiation Chemistry · Radiation causes changes in molecules by both direct and indirect radiation on the target molecules · Indirect Action - energy transported by chemical species to cause damage or Pyrimidene. · Loss of Purine or Pyrimidine · Free radical transfer causing the loss of base and chain

  11. Radiation Safety Manual March 21, 2015 RADIATION SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Veronica P.

    . Radioactive Drug Research Committee D. Radiation Safety Officers E. Authorized Users Chapter II: Radiation. Clinical Applications C. Loans and Transfers of Radioactive Materials Chapter VI: Occupational Exposure of Packages Containing Radioactive Materials A. Packages Delivered to the Radiation Safety Office B. Packages

  12. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 Protocol Title: Training for Sealed Source Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

  13. CONTROL TESTING OF THE UK NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY'S RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-23

    The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. To date, the RadBall has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK. The trials have demonstrated the successful ability of the RadBall technology to be deployed and retrieved from active areas. The positive results from these initial deployment trials and the anticipated future potential of RadBall have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further underpin and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. RadBall consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. It has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach places. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly less transparent, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation maps provides information on the spatial distribution and strength of the sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. This study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of this part of the testing was to characterize a hot cell with unknown radiation sources. The RadBall calibration experiments and hot cell deployment completed at SRNL were successful in that for each trial, the technology was able to locate the radiation sources. The NNL believe that the ability of RadBall to be remotely deployed with no electrical supplies into difficult to access areas of plant and locate and quantify radiation hazards is a unique radiation mapping service. The NNL consider there to be significant business potential associated with this innovative technology.

  14. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    the high-energy proton damage than was the planar detector.as far as radiation damage is concerned. Unfortunately, some28-29, 1978 LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

  15. TIME DOMAIN SIMULATIONS OF RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Introduction Fan Noise Forward Radiation Fan Noise Aft Radiation Jet Noise (separate LES Code)Traditional CFD a 16-processor machine yourself : 8 dual-processor workstations 800 MHz Pentium III processors 1 GB RAM

  16. Joint Reconstruction of Absorbed Optical Energy Density and Sound Speed Distribution in Photoacoustic Computed Tomography: A numerical Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Chao; Schoonover, Robert W; Wang, Lihong V; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a rapidly emerging bioimaging modality that seeks to reconstruct an estimate of the absorbed optical energy density within an object. Conventional PACT image reconstruction methods assume a constant speed-of-sound (SOS), which can result in image artifacts when acoustic aberrations are significant. It has been demonstrated that incorporating knowledge of an object's SOS distribution into a PACT image reconstruction method can improve image quality. However, in many cases, the SOS distribution cannot be accurately and/or conveniently estimated prior to the PACT experiment. Because variations in the SOS distribution induce aberrations in the measured photoacoustic wavefields, certain information regarding an object's SOS distribution is encoded in the PACT measurement data. Based on this observation, a joint reconstruction (JR) problem has been proposed in which the SOS distribution is concurrently estimated along with the sought-after absorbed optical energy density ...

  17. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  18. DOE Radiation Records Contacts List

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

  19. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  20. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.