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1

RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet`s flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems.

Rees, B.; Olson, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, M. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Comparing radiation tolerant materials and devices for ultra rad-hard tracking Mara Bruzzi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance. This report compares directly the data on the performance of rad-hard materials and devicesComparing radiation tolerant materials and devices for ultra rad-hard tracking detectors Mara experiments of the future generation can be satisfied either with materials which are inherently more

California at Santa Cruz, University of

3

RadTracker: Optical Imaging of High Energy Radiation Tracks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examined the possibility of extending the recently demonstrated radoptic detection approach to gamma imaging. Model simulations of the light scattering process predicted that expected signal levels were small and likely below the detection limit of large area, room-temperature detectors. A series of experiments using pulsed x-ray excitation, modulated gamma excitation and optical pump-probe methods confirmed those theoretical predictions. At present the technique does not appear to provide a viable approach to volumetric radiation detection; however, in principal, orders of magnitude improvement in the SNR can result by using designer materials to concentrate and localize the radiation-absorption induced charge, simultaneously confining the optical mode to increase 'fill' factor and overlap of the probe beam with the affected regions, and employing high speed gated imaging detectors to measure the scattered signal.

Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Comaskey, B J; Heebner, J E; Kallman, J S; Richards, J B

2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

RadRAT: a radiation risk assessment tool for lifetime cancer risk projection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Risk projection methods allow for timely assessment of the potential magnitude of radiation-related cancer risks following low-dose radiation exposures. The estimation of such risks directly through observational studies would generally require infeasibly large studies and long-term follow-up to achieve reasonable statistical power. We developed an online radiation risk assessment tool (RadRAT) which can be used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-related cancer with uncertainty intervals following a user-specified exposure history (https://irep.nci.nih.gov/radrat). The uncertainty intervals constitute a key component of the program because of the various assumptions that are involved in such calculations. The risk models used in RadRAT are broadly based on those developed by the BEIR VII committee for estimating lifetime risk following low-dose radiation exposure of the US population for eleven site-specific cancers. We developed new risk models for seven additional cancer sites, oral, oesophagus, gallbladder, pancreas, rectum, kidney and brain/central nervous system (CNS) cancers, using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The lifetime risk estimates are slightly higher for RadRAT than for BEIR VII across all exposure ages mostly because the weighting of the excess relative risk and excess absolute risk models was conducted on an arithmetic rather than a logarithmic scale. The calculator can be used to estimate lifetime cancer risk from both uniform and non-uniform doses that are acute or chronic. It is most appropriate for low-LET radiation doses

Amy Berrington de Gonzalez; A Iulian Apostoaei; Lene H S Veiga; Preetha Rajaraman; Brian A Thomas; F Owen Hoffman; Ethel Gilbert; Charles Land

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Influence of Absorbers on the Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenon of the electromagnetic absorption by arbitrarily distributed discrete absorbers is analyzed from the photon point of view. It is shown that apart from the decrease in the intensity of the signal the net effect of absorption includes a relative increase in the photon bunching.

Budko, Neil V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Influence of Absorbers on the Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenon of the electromagnetic absorption by arbitrarily distributed discrete absorbers is analyzed from the photon point of view. It is shown that apart from the decrease in the intensity of the signal the net effect of absorption includes a relative increase in the photon bunching.

Neil V. Budko

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

7

MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated.

Yeaw, C.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Standard Practice for Application of Thermoluminescence-Dosimetry (TLD) Systems for Determining Absorbed Dose in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This practice covers procedures for the use of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) to determine the absorbed dose in a material irradiated by ionizing radiation. Although some elements of the procedures have broader application, the specific area of concern is radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. This practice is applicable to the measurement of absorbed dose in materials irradiated by gamma rays, X rays, and electrons of energies from 12 to 60 MeV. Specific energy limits are covered in appropriate sections describing specific applications of the procedures. The range of absorbed dose covered is approximately from 10?2 to 104 Gy (1 to 106 rad), and the range of absorbed dose rates is approximately from 10?2 to 1010 Gy/s (1 to 1012 rad/s). Absorbed dose and absorbed dose-rate measurements in materials subjected to neutron irradiation are not covered in this practice. Further, the portion of these procedures that deal with electron irradiation are primarily intended for use in parts testin...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

European Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Project RISC-RAD Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations Laure Sabatier 1 , L.H.F Mullenders 2 , Mike Atkinson 3 , Simon Bouffler 4 , Herwig Paretzke 5 1 Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, CEA, 18 route du panorama BP6 92265 Fontenay-aux- Roses, France 2 LUMC, Department of Toxicogenetics, Postal Zone S-4-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 3 GSF- Institute of Pathology, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Germany 4 HPA Radiation Protection Division, Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, UK 5 GSF- Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg, D-85764 Germany In radiological protection, the risks of inducing stochastic health effects (largely cancer) by a

10

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor-SCH-23390 (6,7), and is highly reliable for PET quantification (7). Radiation-absorbed dose estimates of 11C and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation

Shen, Jun

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed radiation dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

know Summary: . Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing...

12

Amelioration of radiation-induced hematopoietic and gastrointestinal damage by Ex-RAD in mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......subsyndrome [5, 6]. Other radiation-countermeasure drugs...gamma-tocotrienol, a naturally occurring vitamin E analog, protected mice from radiation-induced pancytopenia...that protect against radiation-induced hematopoietic...30] in mouse model. Naturally occurring vitamin E......

Sanchita P. Ghosh; Shilpa Kulkarni; Michael W. Perkins; Kevin Hieber; Roli L. Pessu; Kristen Gambles; Manoj Maniar; Tzu-Cheg Kao; Thomas M. Seed; K. Sree Kumar

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

The assessment of the absorbed dose of radiation around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estimation of the absorbed dose of radiation by the public around a nuclear plant is a substantial issue for nuclear industries and serves as an essential factor in radiation protection. In this study, the absorbed dose of radiation by the individuals living around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant was calculated. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) code, which is the generalised version of the AIREM program manual a computer code for calculating doses, population doses, and ground depositions due to atmospheric emissions of radionuclides was used to investigate the following pathways: cloud immersion, ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The study was carried out in 16 geographical directions over an 80 km radius. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum dose is absorbed at 800 m distance from the nuclear plant stack in the east southeast (ESE) direction and is equal to 3.7 10 ?Sv, which is negligible in comparison with the background radiation.

Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri; Neda Bostani; Manuchehr Roshanzamir

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

ARM - Datastreams - rad  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Datastreamsrad Datastreamsrad Documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : RAD Radiation measurements at AMF/Niamey, Niger/S1 Active Dates 2006.01.13 - 2008.12.13 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Radiation Measurements at AMF (RAD) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by default. Show all measurements Measurement Units Variable Altitude above mean sea level m alt Base time in Epoch seconds since 1970-1-1 0:00:00 0:00 base_time Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance Downwelling Longwave Hemispheric Irradiance, Pyrgeometer W/m^2 down_long_hemisp ( time ) Downwelling Pyrgeometer Case Thermistor Resistance Kohms down_long_hemisp_case_resist ( time )

15

Hard synchroton radiation and gas desorption processes at a copper absorber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Developments with high energy synchrotron radiation machines such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) under construction at Grenoble present the particular problem of the absorption of radiation at localities in the region of bending magnets where the power density can attain levels of around 400 W/mm2 at a critical energy of about 20 keV. In the present article we describe an investigation of the gas desorption and of photocurrent generation in a test facility at the Wiggler beam line at LURE Orsay which was designed to simulate and explore the conditions of operation at the local absorber sites in the ESRF. The experiment allowed in particular for varying angles of incidence of the radiation on an absorber and for surveys of photocurrents both from the absorber and over the surface of the vacuum enclosure. The observations of gas desorption are shown to follow most closely a model of photon induced desorption in which a significant role is assigned to fluorescenceradiation from the absorber.

B. A. Trickett; D. Schmied; E. M. Williams

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Using hyperspectral vegetation indices to estimate the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by corn canopies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). 1. Introduction The fraction of incoming solar radiation (400-700 nm spectral range) absorbed the exchange of energy, mass, and momentum between the land surface and the atmosphere, and thus a key state several advantages ­ they are non-destructive, uniform, can be performed rapidly, and no complicated

Myneni, Ranga B.

17

JANUARY 1998 5L I Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JANUARY 1998 5L I Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget and Cloud Absorption ZHANQING LI Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada of absorbing aerosols on the retrieval of the solar surface radiation budget (SSRB) and on the inference

Li, Zhanqing

18

TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS LATEST REVISION DATE: 1/21/98 The material in this document is taken from the Master's thesis of Ms. Joy Russell (University of Tennessee, Master's Degree conferred August 1995). The data below, and the methods and assumptions used to derive them, are published in two documents in the Health Physics Journal (73(5):747-755, 1997 and 73(5):756-769, 1997) and also in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium. Please contact the center with any questions or comments about the data. Richard E. Toohey, 423-576-3448 phone, 423-576-8673 fax, tooheyr@orau.gov e-mail Audrey T. Stelson, 423-576-3450 phone, 423-576-8673 fax, stelsona@orau.gov e-mail

19

Heat efficiency of translucent cover-radiation absorbing heat-exchange panel system of flat solar collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic expression is proposed for determining the heat efficiency of the translucent cover-radiation absorbing heat-exchange panel system of flat solar collectors, and on its base the heat efficiency of th...

R. R. Avezov; N. R. Avezova

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

pRad | News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Focus on pRad.pdf Physics and technology of proton radiography pRad contributions to weapon physics Proton radiography: A tool for solving complex problems in dynamic physics...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

RadBall Technology For Hot Cell Characterization  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A new, non-electrical, remote radiation mapping device known as RadBall has been developed by the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) in the United Kingdom.

22

RTOG 0913: A Phase 1 Study of Daily Everolimus (RAD001) in Combination With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the safety of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) administered daily with concurrent radiation and temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. Methods and Materials: Everolimus was administered daily with concurrent radiation (60 Gy in 30 fractions) and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2} per day). Everolimus was escalated from 2.5 mg/d (dose level 1) to 5 mg/d (dose level 2) to 10 mg/d (dose level 3). Adjuvant temozolomide was delivered at 150 to 200 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 to 5, every 28 days, for up to 12 cycles, with concurrent everolimus at the previously established daily dose of 10 mg/d. Dose escalation continued if a dose level produced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in fewer than 3 of the first 6 evaluable patients. Results: Between October 28, 2010, and July 2, 2012, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0913 protocol initially registered a total of 35 patients, with 25 patients successfully meeting enrollment criteria receiving the drug and evaluable for toxicity. Everolimus was successfully escalated to the predetermined maximum tolerated dose of 10 mg/d. Two of the first 6 eligible patients had a DLT at each dose level. DLTs included gait disturbance, febrile neutropenia, rash, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, hypoxia, ear pain, headache, and mucositis. Other common toxicities were grade 1 or 2 hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. At the time of analysis, there was 1 death reported, which was attributed to tumor progression. Conclusions: Daily oral everolimus (10 mg) combined with both concurrent radiation and temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide is well tolerated, with an acceptable toxicity profile. A randomized phase 2 clinical trial with mandatory correlative biomarker analysis is currently under way, designed to both determine the efficacy of this regimen and identify molecular determinants of response.

Chinnaiyan, Prakash, E-mail: prakash.chinnaiyan@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Experimental Therapeutics and Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Won, Minhee [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wen, Patrick Y. [Center for Neuro-Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rojiani, Amyn M. [Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Wendland, Merideth [Radiation Oncology, US Oncology-Willamette Valley Cancer Institute, Eugene, Oregon (United States); Dipetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Corn, Benjamin W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internal Radiaion Dose Reports (MIRD) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The dosimeter exhibited a similar response to that. obtained in the research of Benedetto who also correlated his results to ca)culat)ons made using MIRD techniques (Beg4k... that would be able to assess the radiation absorbed dose produced by radioisotopes in both nuclear medicine and due to accidental internal deposition of radionuclides to radiation workers or to members of the general public would have many desirable...

Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiation-Absorbed Dose Estimation of 166Ho Microspheres in Liver Radioembolization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate assessment of the three-dimensional 166Ho activity distribution to estimate radiation-absorbed dose distributions in 166Ho-loaded poly (L-lactic acid) microsphere (166Ho-PLLA-MS) liver radioembolization. Methods and Materials MRI, computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) experiments were conducted on an anthropomorphic gel phantom with tumor-simulating gel samples and on an excised human tumor-bearing liver, both containing known amounts of 166Ho-PLLA-MS. Three-dimensional radiation-absorbed dose distributions were estimated at the voxel level by convolving the 166Ho activity distribution, derived from quantitative MRI data, with a 166Ho dose point-kernel generated by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) and from Medical Internal Radiation Dose Pamphlet 17. MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions were qualitatively compared with CT and autoradiography images and quantitatively compared with SPECT-based dose distributions. Both MRI- and SPECT-based activity estimations were validated against dose calibrator measurements. Results Evaluation on an anthropomorphic phantom showed that MRI enables accurate assessment of local 166Ho-PLLA-MS mass and activity distributions, as supported by a regression coefficient of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.99, relating local MRI-based mass and activity calculations to reference values obtained with a dose calibrator. Estimated MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions of 166Ho-PLLA-MS in an exvivo human liver visually showed high correspondence to SPECT-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions. Quantitative analysis revealed that the differences in local and total amounts of 166Ho-PLLA-MS estimated by MRI, SPECT, and the dose calibrator were within 10%. Excellent agreement was observed between MRI- and SPECT-based dosevolume histograms. Conclusions Quantitative MRI was demonstrated to provide accurate three-dimensional 166Ho-PLLA-MS activity distributions, enabling localized intrahepatic radiation-absorbed dose estimation by convolution with a 166Ho dose point-kernel for liver radioembolization treatment optimization and evaluation.

Peter R. Seevinck; Gerrit H. van de Maat; Tim C. de Wit; Maarten A.D. Vente; Johannes F.W. Nijsen; Chris J.G. Bakker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Rad-Release  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

None

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

26

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing cloud cover and increasing radiative emissions from higher temperatures. Instead the main warming in energy- related quantities provide a new perspective on issues important for climate change. As water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas, it results in a positive feedback and roughly doubles

Fasullo, John

27

Rad-APS Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on the Role of Synchrotron Radiation in Solving Scientific Challenges in Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems 27 to 28 January 2010 at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source 27 January...

28

Manhattan Project: "Rad Lab" Staff  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

"RAD LAB" STAFF "RAD LAB" STAFF University of California, Berkeley (1939) Resources > Photo Gallery Rad Lab Staff, 1939 Lawrence Radiation Laboratory caption: "Early Radiation Laboratory staff framed by the magnet for 60-inch cyclotron in 1939. Front row, left to right: John H. Lawrence, Robert Serber, Franz N. D. Kurie, Raymond T. Birge, Ernest O. Lawrence, Donald Cooksey, Arthur H. Snell, Luis W. Alvarez, Philip H. Abelson. Second Row: John Backus, Wilfred B. Mann, Paul C. Aebersold, Edwin M. McMillan, Ernest Lyman, Martin D. Kamen, D. C. Kalbfell, W. W. Salisbury. Last row: Alex S. Langsdorf, Jr., Sam Simmons, Joseph G. Hamilton, David H. Sloan, J. Robert Oppenheimer, William Brobeck, Robert Cornog, Robert R. Wilson, Eugene Viez, J. J. Livingood."

29

ARM - Campaign Instrument - rad-air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsrad-air govInstrumentsrad-air Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Airborne Radiometers (RAD-AIR) Instrument Categories Radiometric, Airborne Observations Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) [ Download Data ] North Slope Alaska, 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

30

Rad51C deficiency destabilizes XRCC3, impairs recombination and radiosensitizes S/G2-phase cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The highly conserved Rad51 protein plays an essential role in repairing DNA damage through homologous recombination. In vertebrates, five Rad51 paralogs (Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) are expressed in mitotically growing cells, and are thought to play mediating roles in homologous recombination, though their precise functions remain unclear. Here we report the use of RNA interference to deplete expression of Rad51C protein in human HT1080 and HeLa cells. In HT1080 cells, depletion of Rad51C by small interfering RNA caused a significant reduction of frequency in homologous recombination. The level of XRCC3 protein was also sharply reduced in Rad51C-depleted HeLa cells, suggesting that XRCC3 is dependent for its stability upon heterodimerization with Rad51C. In addition, Rad51C-depleted HeLa cells showed hypersensitivity to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C, and moderately increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Importantly, the radiosensitivity of Rad51C-deficient HeLa cells was evident in S and G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle but not in G{sub 1} phase. Together, these results provide direct cellular evidence for the importance of human Rad51C in homologous recombinational repair.

Lio, Yi-Ching; Schild, David; Brenneman, Mark A.; Redpath, J. Leslie; Chen, David J.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

BASE - Rad Effects - Cyclotron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects Effects About the BASE Facility The BASE Facility operates in conjunction with the 88-inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide beams of protons and heavy ions for radiation effects testing. When running, the facility is manned 24-hours a day with additional support on call. Assistance is available for shipping and receiving. Contact us for current hourly rates. Bragg curve plots, published papers, and other useful information are available here on our website. For information on the experiment approval process, beam time scheduling, or technical details on beamline setup and operation, contact Mike Johnson at (510) 486-4389 or MBJohnson@lbl.gov. More information is available here: Protons (Cave 4A) Heavy Ions (Cave 4B) Neutrons (Cave 0)

32

Internal absorber solar collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Environmental Geochemistry of Rads | Environmental Radiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& H-Area seepage basins, the deactivated pump-and-treat remediation system, the in situ pH adjustment remediation system, and the contaminated seepage outcrops (i.e., F- and...

34

Seagate Crystal Reports - RAD14  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Shipping and Receiving Summary by Shipping Site (RAD-14) Shipping and Receiving Summary by Shipping Site (RAD-14) 201 1 -70(P)* & Non Annualized Quantity (m 3 ) by Waste Type 1999(A)* 2000(A)* 2001(P)* 2002(P)* 2003(P)* 2009(P)* 2010(P)* Receiving Site 1998(A)* 2008(P)* 2004(P)* 2005(P)* 2006(P)* 2007(P)* SHIPPING SITE: Energy Technology Engineering Center WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste STATE: California 868.020 136.130 41.780 293.500 293.500 149.850 199.800 282.800 292.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Hanford 869.250 680.510 199.000 50.000 50.000 50.000 40.000 31.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Nevada Test Site Total: 1,737.270 816.640 240.780 343.500 343.500 199.850 239.800 313.800 292.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 201 1 -70(P)* & Non Annualized Quantity (m 3 ) by Waste Type 1999(A)* 2000(A)* 2001(P)* 2002(P)* 2003(P)* 2009(P)* 2010(P)* Receiving Site 1998(A)*

35

Seagate Crystal Reports - Rad35  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Management Activity Quantities by Date Range (RAD-3) Management Activity Quantities by Date Range (RAD-3) New Process Outputs Receipts On-Site Off-Site TBD-Site On-Site Off-Site TBD-Site Year TBD Dispositions (m3) Othe r** (m3) Ending Inventory (m3) Addition Quantity (m3)* Treatment Quantity (m3)* Disposal Quantity (m3)* Sta rting Inventory (m3)* SITE: General Atomics STATE: California WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste YEAR RANGE:Non-Annualized & All Years PROGRAM: Office of Environmental Management PHYSICAL FORM: All Physical Forms OPERATIONS OFFICE: Oakland Operations Office 1998 (A)* 900.000 1,029.960 0.000 210.242 0.000 0.000 0.000 991.118 0.000 0.000 980.000 251.400 0.000 1999 (A)* 1,637.000 1,637.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1,637.000 0.000 0.000 1,637.000 0.000 0.000 2000 (A)* 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

36

Seagate Crystal Reports - Rad94  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Annual Projections for Shipping and Receiving (RAD-9) Annual Projections for Shipping and Receiving (RAD-9) RECEIVING SITE: Hanford WASTE TYPE: Low Level Waste STATE: California Hanford - Low Level Waste - Offsite Cat 1 LLW from LEHR Non-Annualized 2016-20(P) 2008(P) 2009(P) 2010(P) 2061-65(P) 2066-70(P) 2056-60(P) 2007 (P) 2041-45(P) 2004 (P) 2005 (P) 2021-25(P) 2026-30(P) 2031-35(P) 2036-40(P) 2006 (P) 2011-15(P) 2003 (P) Shipped (m 3 ) Year 1998 (A) 1999 (A) 2000 (A) 2001 (P) 2002 (P) 2051-55(P) Year Shipped (m 3 ) Year 2046-50(P) Shipped (m 3 ) Shipped (m 3 ) Shipped (m 3 ) Year Year EnerHlthLb 0.640 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Hanford - Low Level Waste - Offsite Cat 1 LLW from ETEC Non-Annualized 2016-20(P) 2008(P) 2009(P) 2010(P) 2061-65(P) 2066-70(P)

37

Prediction of proton and neutron absorbed-dose distributions in proton beam radiation therapy using Monte Carlo n-particle transport code (MCNPX)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research was to develop a complex MCNPX model of the human head to predict absorbed dose distributions during proton therapy of ocular tumors. Absorbed dose distributions using the complex geometry were compared to a simple...

Massingill, Brian Edward

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

E-Print Network 3.0 - astronaut absorbed dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

units of radiation dose. Absorbed (or "physical") dose D is the energy absorbed... by unit mass of matter due to ionizing radiation. The SI unit of absorbed dose is the Gray...

39

Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

Strom, Daniel J.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Development and comparison of computational models for estimation of absorbed organ radiation dose in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from uptake of iodine-131  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study develops and compares different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the purpose of estimating organ absorbed radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake in multiple organs. The models considered are: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing additional organs with anatomically relevant size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion Factors (DCFs) for whole body as well as selected organs of O.mykiss were computed using Monte Carlo modeling, and combined with estimated activity concentrations, to approximate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (?Gy) to selected organs after several half-lives of 131I. The different computational models provided similar results, especially for source organs (less than 30% difference between estimated doses), and whole body \\{DCFs\\} for each model (?3נ10?3?Gyd?1perBqkg?1) were comparable to \\{DCFs\\} listed in ICRP 108 for 131I. The main benefit provided by the computational models developed here is the ability to accurately determine organ dose. A conservative mass-ratio approach may provide reasonable results for sufficiently large organs, but is only applicable to individual source organs. Although CSUTROUT is the more anatomically realistic phantom, it required much more resource dedication to develop and is less flexible than the stylized phantom for similar results. There may be instances where a detailed phantom such as CSUTROUT is appropriate, but generally the stylized phantom appears to be the best choice for an ideal balance between accuracy and resource requirements.

N.E. Martinez; T.E. Johnson; K. Capello; J.E. Pinder III

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ionizing radiation dosimetry in the absorbed dose range 0.0150 \\{MGy\\} based on resistance and ESR linewidth measurements of organic conducting crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The materials studied in the present work as high-dose dosimeters are members of a large class of molecular crystals which are organic conductors of electricity. Very different from each other in the details of their molecular and crystal structures, they all behave in the same way when subjected to increasing high doses of radiation, at least from the point of view of their electronic transport properties, because of the quasi-one-dimensional character of the conduction process. Their resistivities increase exponentially with the absorbed dose while their electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidths decrease exponentially. Very small single crystals less than 10 ?m thick can be used as dosimeters in the dose range 0.0150 \\{MGy\\} for ? rays as well as for electron irradiations, by applying four probe resistance measurements. Only a few compounds over a large number of candidates have been irradiated in the present work with ?-rays, low energy x-rays and electrons. In some favourable cases the energy and temperature dependences of the dosimeters have been checked experimentally. Their mass energy absorption coefficients and electron stopping powers have been also calculated. It is hoped to extend this kind of dosimetry to lower and higher doses by trying new compounds from the large family of organic conductors or by improving the resistivity and ESR measurement techniques.

L. Zuppiroli; S. Bouffard; J.J. Jacob

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Dynamics of the xanthophyll cycle and non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light energy during exposure of Norway spruce to high irradiance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary The response of Norway spruce saplings (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) was monitored continuously during short-term exposure (10 days) to high irradiance (HI; 1000?molm?2s?1). Compared with plants acclimated to low irradiance (100?molm?2s?1), plants after HI exposure were characterized by a significantly reduced CO2 assimilation rate throughout the light response curve. Pigment contents varied only slightly during HI exposure, but a rapid and strong response was observed in xanthophyll cycle activity, particularly within the first 3 days of the HI treatment. Both violaxanthin convertibility under HI and the amount of zeaxanthin pool sustained in darkness increased markedly under HI conditions. These changes were accompanied by an enhanced non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light energy (NRD) and the acceleration of induction of both NRD and de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. We found a strong negative linear correlation between the amount of sustained de-epoxidized xanthophylls and the photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (FV/FM), indicating photoprotective down-regulation of the PSII function. Recovery of FV/FM at the end of the HI treatment revealed that Norway spruce was able to cope with a 10-fold elevated irradiance due particularly to an efficient NRD within the PSII antenna that was associated with enhanced violaxanthin convertibility and a light-induced accumulation of zeaxanthin that persisted in darkness.

Michal troch; Kristina Kuldov; Ji? Kalina; Vladimr punda

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

ARM - Campaign Instrument - smart-rad  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govInstrumentssmart-rad govInstrumentssmart-rad Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Broadband Radiometers from NASA SMART Trailer (SMART-RAD) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Application of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Study the Aerosol Indirect Effects in China [ Download Data ] Shouxian, Anhui, China; Mobile Facility, 2008.05.15 - 2008.12.29 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers for the list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

44

Demonstration of Ignition Radiation Temperatures in Indirect-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Hohlraums  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the hohlraum radiation temperature and symmetry required for ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions. Cryogenic gas-filled hohlraums with 2.2 mm-diameter capsules are heated with unprecedented laser energies of 1.2 MJ delivered by 192 ultraviolet laser beams on the National Ignition Facility. Laser backscatter measurements show that these hohlraums absorb 87% to 91% of the incident laser power resulting in peak radiation temperatures of T{sub RAD}=300 eV and a symmetric implosion to a 100 {mu}m diameter hot core.

Glenzer, S. H.; MacGowan, B. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Adams, P. A.; Alfonso, J. B.; Alger, E. T.; Alherz, Z.; Alvarez, L. F.; Alvarez, S. S.; Amick, P. V.; Andersson, K. S.; Andrews, S. D.; Antonini, G. J.; Arnold, P. A.; Atkinson, D. P.; Auyang, L.; Azevedo, S. G.; Balaoing, B. N. M.; Baltz, J. A.; Barbosa, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

45

H:/fctshts/rad_fs.ppt U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District April, 1998  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be avoided. Exposures can be natural or man-made. Natural sources include cosmic rays and naturally-occurring radionuclides in the earth and air, and are consideredH:/fctshts/rad_fs.ppt Fact Sheet Radiation U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ·Buffalo District ·April

US Army Corps of Engineers

46

Microsoft PowerPoint - RadRope lTechBriefp1.ppt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

portable portable  easily used by one person  detects gamma and neutron radiation  quickly covers large area  U.S. patent 7,351,982 This lightweight, portable system can rapidly detect the presence of nuclear materials in sealed containers without the use of harmful x-rays. Using sensors arrayed linearly and encased in fabric, the RadRope TM system can be dangled in the 2 to 4 inch gap between stacked shipping containers on a cargo ship by a customs inspector. As the inspector walks along the top containers, a hand-held PDA shows an alarm when any sensor in the array detects radiation levels above background radiation. The RadRope TM system has been beta-tested for the U.S. Coast Guard on ships entering port in Charleston, SC. Background SRNL-L9100-2010-00212

47

The MIRD method of estimating absorbed dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimate of absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters provides the information required to assess the radiation risk associated with the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system of dose calculation provides a systematic approach to combining the biologic distribution data and clearance data of radiopharmaceuticals and the physical properties of radionuclides to obtain dose estimates. This tutorial presents a review of the MIRD schema, the derivation of the equations used to calculate absorbed dose, and shows how the MIRD schema can be applied to estimate dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine.

Weber, D.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

49

Effects of Substerilization Doses of Co60 Gamma Radiation on the Cold-Storage Life Extension of Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams and Haddock Fillets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless...indicate that in the dose range from 400,000...

E. B. Masurovsky; S. A. Goldblith; J. T. R. Nickerson

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

part of the MICE experiment is muon energy absorber.an absorbing material, muons lose energy due to ionization

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Externally tuned vibration absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

Vincent, Ronald J. (Latham, NY)

1987-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Alanine-EPR dosimetry for measurements of ionizing radiation absorbed doses in the range 0.5-10 kGy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine dosimeters (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosimeter from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) to radiation dose measurement in the range of 0.5-10 kGy, were investigated. In both cases, the result of the test was positive. The foil dosemeter from Gamma Service is recommended for dose distribution measurements in fantoms or products, ALANPOL - for routine measurements. The EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters can be successfully used, among others, in the technology of radiation protection of food.

Peimel-Stuglik, Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

ORI. RAD-1 IO IWX' ARTYENT OF HEALTX AIVD REKABILtTATIVt SERVICPS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ORI. RAD-1 IO ORI. RAD-1 IO , IWX' ARTYENT OF HEALTX AIVD REKABILtTATIVt SERVICPS IHVIRION OF HEALTR ?wt ow** m.. mo JDebnr.llh. Pwwu* a- , Pagi 1 of 2' Pa& RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS LlCENiEH** 396-2, MSUMmT IED. 4 k8o Pursuant to Chapter 290, Florida' Statutes, and Chapter IqD-56, Florida Administrative Code, Control of Radiation Hazards, an in reliance on statements and representations heretofore made by the licensee designated below, a license is hereby issued authorizin :uch licensee to transfer, receive, possess and use the radioactive material(s) designated below and to use such radioactive material (S for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below. This license is aubjcct to all applicable rules, regulations and orders of tl state of Florida, Department of health and Rchabilitetive Servicrc now or hereafter in effect and to any conditions specified belo)

55

Absorbance modulation optical lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the concept of absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) is described, and the feasibility experimentally verified. AMOL is an implementation of nodal lithography, which is not bounded by the diffraction ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intersecting Earth is S0 R2 · The global surface area of Earth is 4R2 · Divide the total energy rate, where R is the radius of the Earth Solar Radiation · The total energy rate for solar radiation7/20/10 1 The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy Incoming solar radiation

Russell, Lynn

57

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

58

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

NNSA participates in nationwide RadResponder drill | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

were able to see the progress live throughout the day. Periodic situation briefings were led by the DOE's Consequence Management Home Team while analyzing RadResponder data and...

60

RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Neutron Absorbing Alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

62

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbers comprising resistively Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: absorbers comprising resistively Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Detection of Ionizing Radiation Summary: collection,...

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed doses Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Cancer risks attributable to low doses ... Source:...

65

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose evaluation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Exposures. The epidemiological study with the highest...

66

E-Print Network 3.0 - average absorbed doses Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... points are placed at the mean of each ... Source:...

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose rate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... all the data in the dose range from 0 ... Source:...

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose computations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Biology; CT, computed tomography; LSS, ... Source:...

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber material standard Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ceiling of m i n g sites... of absorbing material. An effort to a d that confusion ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 16 Radiation...

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing structural material Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

absorbers is based on the use of Salisbury screens 1. ... Source: Sarabandi, Kamal - Radiation Laboratory & Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,...

71

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

72

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass combustion, organic carbonincomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning. BCof incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, black

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

74

Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

75

Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

76

Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Absorber coatings' degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is intended to document some of the Los Alamos efforts that have been carried out under the Department of Energy (DOE) Active Heating and Cooling Materials Reliability, Maintainability, and Exposure Testing program. Funding for these activities is obtained directly from DOE although they represent a variety of projects and coordination with other agencies. Major limitations to the use of solar energy are the uncertain reliability and lifetimes of solar systems. This program is aimed at determining material operating limitations, durabilities, and failure modes such that materials improvements can be made and lifetimes can be extended. Although many active and passive materials and systems are being studied at Los Alamos, this paper will concentrate on absorber coatings and degradation of these coatings.

Moore, S.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

Preston, Eric F. (ITT Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO); Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur (ITT Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Rec2 Interplay with both Brh2 and Rad51 Balances Recombinational Repair in Ustilago maydis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recombinational repair system powered by Rad51...recombinational repair system. Here, we have...in the vertebrate system, all five Rad51...catalytic muscle to power recombination...sensitivity and restoration of Rad51 focus formation...King (ed.), Handbook of genetics, vol...

Milorad Kojic; Qingwen Zhou; Michael Lisby; William K. Holloman

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thyroid absorbed dose for people at Rongelap, Utirik, and Sifo on March 1, 1954  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to reexamine thyroid absorbed dose estimates for people accidentally exposed to fallout at Rongelap, Sifo, and Utirik Islands from the Pacific weapon test known as Operation Castle BRAVO. The study included: (1) reevaluation of radiochemical analysis, to relate results from pooled urine to intake, retention, and excretion functions; (2) analysis of neutron-irradiation studies of archival soil samples, to estimate areal activities of the iodine isotopes; (3) analysis of source term, weather data, and meteorological functions used in predicting atmospheric diffusion and fallout deposition, to estimate airborne concentrations of the iodine isotopes; and (4) reevaluation of radioactive fallout, which contaminated a Japanese fishing vessel in the vicinity of Rongelap Island on March 1, 1954, to determine fallout components. The conclusions of the acute exposure study were that the population mean thyroid absorbed doses were 21 gray (2100 rad) at Rongelap, 6.7 gray (670 rad) at Sifo, and 2.8 gray (280 rad) at Utirik. The overall thyroid cancer risk we estimated was in agreement with results published on the Japanese exposed at Nagasaki and Hiroshima. We now postulate that the major route for intake of fallout was by direct ingestion of food prepared and consumed outdoors. 66 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

Lessard, E.T.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Conrad, R.A.; Musoline, S.V.; Naidu, J.R.; Moorthy, A.; Schopfer, C.J.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

84

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF). This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

Vernon, S. P.; Lowry, M. E.; Baker, K. L.; Bennett, C. V.; Celeste, J. R.; Cerjan, C.; Haynes, S.; Hernandez, V. J.; Hsing, W. W.; LaCaille, G. A.; London, R. A.; Moran, B.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Steele, P. T.; Stewart, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detectiona)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors radiation to optical converters that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductorsensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF). This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with ? ps resolution.

S. P. Vernon; M. E. Lowry; K. L. Baker; C. V. Bennett; J. R. Celeste; C. Cerjan; S. Haynes; V. J. Hernandez; W. W. Hsing; G. A. LaCaille; R. A. London; B. Moran; A. Schach von Wittenau; P. T. Steele; R. E. Stewart

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system -- all with corresponding radiation shielding -- was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

Rakhno, Igor L; Tropin, Igor S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

NNSA participates in cloud-based radiation data collection drill...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

were collected and validated during this one-day drill . The RadResponder Network is a mobile, cloud-based radiation data collection system that provides federal and state, local,...

90

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

Wilkinson, W.H.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

92

RadBall Technology For Hot Cell Characterization  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tech Fact Sheet Savannah River National Laboratory South Carolina RadBall Technology For Hot Cell Characterization Challenge Operations at various DOE sites have resulted in substantial radiological contamination of tools, equipment, and facilities. A critical step in planning and implementing Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of contaminated facilities involves the development of an accurate assessment of the radiological, chemical, and structural conditions inside the facilities. The use of remote technologies to gather this information is imperative to keep worker exposures as-low-as reasonably achievable (ALARA) in these highly contaminated environments, which are usually associated with extremely high radiological dose rates. Quantitative characterization data

93

SRNL Deploys Innovative Radiation Mapping Device | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SRNL Deploys Innovative Radiation Mapping Device SRNL Deploys Innovative Radiation Mapping Device SRNL Deploys Innovative Radiation Mapping Device November 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis The Savannah River National Laboratory completed successful deployments of the RadBall, a gamma radiation-mapping device. The Savannah River National Laboratory completed successful deployments of the RadBall, a gamma radiation-mapping device. AIKEN, S.C. - The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), EM's national lab, has made strides with remote technology designed to reduce worker exposure while measuring radiation in contaminated areas. uilding on a successful collaboration with the United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory, SRNL completed successful deployments of RadBall, a gamma radiation-mapping device, after testing the technology. The device

94

Mathematical Problems of Radiative Equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in turn with the cases of purely absorbing and grey material in local radiative equilibrium (Schwarzschild-Milne model) and that of monochromatic radiative equilibrium with scattering but zero emissivity (Schuster ...

1935-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

95

Thermal Effects Induced by High Energy Protons in Target and Absorber Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With proton energies and intensities of about 400 GeV/c...13 protons/pulse which are presently reached in high energy proton accelerators at FNAL and CERN, target and absorber materials which otherwise are radiat...

P. Sievers

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Damage tolerant light absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Perfectly Reflectionless Omnidirectional Electromagnetic Absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the existence of metamaterial blueprints describing, and fundamental limitations concerning, perfectly reflectionless omnidirectional electromagnetic absorbers (PR-OEMA). Previous attempts to define PR-OEMA blueprints have led to active (gain), rather than passive, media. We explain this fact and unveil new, distinct limitations of true PR-OEMA devices including the appearance of an "electromagnetic horizon" on physical solutions. As practical alternatives, we introduce two new OEMA blueprints. While these two blueprints do not correspond to reflectionless media, they are effective in absorbing incident waves in a manner robust to incident wave diversity.

Sainath, Kamalesh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States March 18, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The United States Government has an extensive network of radiation monitors around the country and no radiation levels of concern have been detected. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RadNet system is designed to protect the public by notifying scientists, in near real time, of elevated levels of radiation so they can determine whether protective action is required. The EPA's system has not detected any radiation levels of concern. In addition to EPA's RadNet system, the U.S. Department of Energy has

99

High-let radiation carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads.

Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

HiRadMat at CERN/SPS - A dedicated facility providing high intensity beam pulses to material samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials), constructed in 2011, is a facility at CERN designed to provide high?intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, high power beam targets, collimators) can be tested. The facility uses a 440 GeV proton beam extracted from the CERN SPS with a pulse length of up to 7.2 us, and with a maximum pulse energy of 3.4 MJ (3xE13 proton/pulse). In addition to protons, ion beams with energy of 440 GeV/charge and total pulse energy of 21 kJ can be provided. The beam parameters can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. HiRadMat is not an irradiation facility where large doses on equipment can be accumulated. It is rather a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high?intensity pulsed beams on materials or accelerator component assemblies in a controlled environment. The fa? cility is designed for a maximum of 1E16 protons per year, dist...

Charitonidis, N; Efthymiopoulos, I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Novel CO2 - Philic Absorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Novel Co Novel Co 2 - PhiliC AbsorbeNts Summary The ability to separate a high pressure mixture of CO 2 and H 2 such that a high pressure stream of CO 2 for sequestration and a high pressure stream of H 2 for energy are produced remains an elusive goal. This research has identified a class of compounds that melt in the presence of high pressure CO 2 , forming a liquid phase composed of roughly 50wt% CO 2 and 50wt% of the compound. Unlike conventional solvents that require substantial depressurization during regeneration to release a low pressure CO 2 stream, these novel compounds completely release the CO 2 at many hundreds of psia as the compound solidifies. This work will reveal whether one of more of these compounds can selectively remove CO 2 from a mixture

102

Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing...

Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Improving the laboratory monitoring of absorbent oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of absorbent coal tar oil is analyzed as a function of the constituent and group composition. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil that ensures the required absorbent properties is determined. Operative monitoring may be based on absorbent characteristics that permit regulation of the beginning and end of regeneration.

V.S. Shved; S.S. Sychev; I.V. Safina; S.A. Klykov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

N"I. L-S- Rad. Mat. DU  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N"I. L-S- N"I. L-S- Rad. Mat. DU DU (UF4) Enr. U. Norm. U Thorium 3/4 Ti Alloy Subtotals Commercial/ (1958-1971) TOTALS EXHIBIT 3 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PROCESSED AT NL-ALBANY PLANT, 1958-1982: GROSS SUMMARY OF INFORMATION FROM NUCLEAR MATERIAL TRANSACTION REPORTS (DOE/NRC Form 741 and Predecessor Forms) Material Net Weight (Pounds) DOE-Owned Canadian Supplied L/ Gov.-owned 5,660,914.3 0 2,469,268.2 100,686.l 7.7 57,358.Z 336,754 38,090.4 0 1,813 0 8,328,130.2 336,761.7 .8,328,130.2 336,761.7 2,603,763 11,268,654.9 77% Commercial (1971-1982) 1,300,339 235,636 0 0 0 1,535,975 Total 6,961,252.3 2,704,904.2 100,693.8 394,112.z 38,090.4 1,813 10,200,866.9 Gov. as % Of Total 21 81% 91 100 100 100 1,067,788 1,067,788 Z L/ Includes DOE, AEC, and ERDA. 2.1

105

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

106

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The purposes of this study were to estimate the radiation-absorbed doses of 18 F-SP203 in humans. Radiation-absorbed doses were estimated by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme. Results AfterORIGINAL ARTICLE Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of a positron emission tomographic ligand

Shen, Jun

107

Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology...Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge...enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple...balances the net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). In this...

Aaron Donohoe; Kyle C. Armour; Angeline G. Pendergrass; David S. Battisti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

Iverson, Daniel C. (Aiken, SC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

Iverson, D.C.

1987-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solid cancer incidence among the Chernobyl emergency workers residing in Russia: estimation of radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the method of radiation dose measurement, the dosimetric data for the studied... 1. Exposure or absorbed dose recorded...

V. K. Ivanov; A. I. Gorski; A. F. Tsyb

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

112

St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RADIATION BASICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Engineers, FUSRAP Project Office, 8945 Latty Avenue, Berkeley, Missouri 63134 #12;Rad Basics - 081202St. Louis Sites Fact Sheet RADIATION BASICS "Gateway to Excellence" U.S. Army Corps of Engineers St), St. Louis District, is conducting a radiological cleanup program for four Missouri sites (SLDS, SLAPS

US Army Corps of Engineers

113

Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the ...

Lee, Shao-Yi

114

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group: Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Who To Call Who To Call Rad Training Dosimetry Telemetry Laser Safety Radiation Safety Committee Pub-3000 Ch. 21 Forms RPG Procedures RPG Internal Radiation Safety Committee Charter Purpose The Berkeley Lab Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) is appointed by, and reports to, the Laboratory Director and is responsible for advising LBNL Management on all matters related to occupational and environmental radiation safety. The Radiation Safety Committee reviews and recommends approval of radiation safety policies and guides the Environment, Health and Safety Division and radiation user divisions in carrying out these programs. The scope of its actions will generally be in issues of broad institutional concern and impact, or areas of potential high consequence either in terms of safety or institutional needs.

115

Radionuclide absorbers development program overview.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or 'getter' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. 'Getter' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion 'getters' is presented. The benefits of the 'getter' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Jow, Hong-Nian

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Definition: Point Absorber | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Point Absorber Point Absorber Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Point Absorber Wave energy capture device, with principal dimension relatively small compared to the wavelength, and is able to capture energy from a wave front greater than the physical dimension of the device. There are floating and submerged models.[1] Related Terms Wave power; PowerBouy References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_power Poi LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ntabsorber.jpg Example of a Point Absorber A submerged pressure differential wave energy capturing device, which can be considered a fully submerged point absorber. A pressure differential is induced within the device as the wave passes, driving a fluid pump to create mechanical energy. Retrieved from

117

Thin film absorber for a solar collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Topic 2: Introduction to Smart Grid A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topic 2: Introduction to Smart Grid A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems Mohsenian-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 2 · Smart Grid: Definition · Smart Grid: Applications / Benefits · Smart Grid in the United States · Government and Industries

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

119

Topic 4: Demand Response A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topic 4: Demand Response A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department;Definition of Demand Response Dr. Hamed Mohsenian-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid · According to the U.S. Department of Energy: Demand response (DR) is defined as changes

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

120

Identification of rad27 Mutations That Confer Differential Defects in Mutation Avoidance, Repeat Tract Instability, and Flap Cleavage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...In chromosome stability assays, rad27-G67S...important for degrading bubble intermediates...the formation of a bubble. Reaction mixtures...properties in chromosome stability assays and in their...In chromosome stability assays, rad27-G67S...important for degrading bubble intermediates...

Yali Xie; Yuan Liu; Juan Lucas Argueso; Leigh A. Henricksen; Hui-I Kao; Robert A. Bambara; Eric Alani

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

122

Reconstructing a thin absorbing obstacle in a half-space of tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fokker­Planck approxima- tion to the radiative transport equation. The obstacle is an absorbing- diative transport equation is an integral­differential equation for the specific intensity in the transport equation accurately. However, it is just for forward-peaked scattering that the Fokker

Kim, Arnold D.

123

Porous absorber for solar air heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general discussion of the factors affecting solar collector performance is presented. Bench scale tests done to try to determine the heat transfer characteristics of various screen materials are explained. The design, performance, and evaluation of a crude collector with a simple screen stack absorber is treated. The more sophisticated absorber concept, and its first experimental approximation is examined. A short summary of future plans for the collector concept is included. (MHR)

Finch, J.A.

1980-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

Rad Monioring Subgroup Draft 1 Work Plan 020408  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 of 3 1 of 3 (Draft) Work Plan for the DOE TEC Rail Topic Group Radiation Monitoring Sub-Group Status: Active TEC Stakeholder Leads: Marty Vyenielo (PA/NE Task Force), Cort Richardson (CSG-NE) DOE Lead: Alex Thrower (OCRWM) Contractor Support: John Smegal (Legin) Start Date: October 4, 2007 Purpose: The Transportation External Coordinating (TEC) Working Group's Rail Topic Group (RTG) provides stakeholder perspectives and feedback to the Office of National Transportation (ONT) in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and Environmental Management (EM) regarding topics of common interest concerning operating practices, logistical constraints, and other rail-related issues affecting the development and deployment of a safe, secure, and efficient system for

125

Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

127

Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany). Physics Dept.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung, Munich (Germany)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

130

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract Abstract Title: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair (PNNL Project # 42699) Authors: Eric J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA We developed a functional assay to measure the effects of LDR on repair of many different lesions representative of those found in cells as consequences of normal oxidative metabolism, as well as those caused by radiation. Currently only 1/10th attomole =105 damaged molecules/cell and 3000 cells/measurement are required. We have found that even low doses (10 rad) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. Interestingly, the amount of DNA repair increases at 10-50 rads, plateaus, and then increases even further at higher doses well below doses where radiation-induced lethality

131

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Topic 1: Basics of Power Systems A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid 4 · Power Transmission: High Voltage (HV Locations Interface with Consumers / Metering Distribution Substations StepDown Transformers

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

133

Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air Vladlen G. Shvedov1-3, Anton S. Desyatnikov1124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au Abstract: We suggest a novel approach in all-optical trapping employing number of particles in a dual beam optical trap created by two counter-propagating and co

134

Development of a crash energy absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new energy absorbing cartridge, named the "Z-tube" was developed for use in a new conceptualized highway safety appurtenance. The Z-tube was developed to provide a low cost method of dissipating the kinetic energy of errant motor vehicles. The Z...

Bullard, Delbert Lance

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

135

Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...alter those natural frequencies more readily, and...fundamental sloshing frequency in the tank is lowered...fundamental sloshing frequency is located at an...over-topping absorber wave energy converter We develop...sloshing motions in response to wave forcing...is to control the storage of a head of water...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

Campisi, I.E.

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

140

Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

Duoss, Eric

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and {sup 137}Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Greenhouse, N.A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Compressed absorbing boundary conditions for the Helmholtz equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorbing layers are sometimes required to be impractically thick in order to offer an accurate approximation of an absorbing boundary condition for the Helmholtz equation in a heterogeneous medium. It is always possible ...

Blanger-Rioux, Rosalie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for absorbing an ion from a fluid by using dispersing an organic acid into an anion surfactant solution, mixing in a divalent-metal containing compound and a trivalent-metal containing compound and calcining the resulting solid layered double hydroxide product to form an absorbent material and then contacting the absorbent material with an aqueous solution of cations or anions to be absorbed.

Gao, Huizhen (Carlsbad, NM); Wang, Yifeng (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

147

Quantitative Photo-Acoustic Imaging of Small Absorbers Habib Ammari  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantitative Photo-Acoustic Imaging of Small Absorbers Habib Ammari Emmanuel Bossy Vincent Jugnon Hyeonbae Kang§ December 1, 2009 Abstract In photo-acoustic imaging, energy absorption causes thermo absorber from the absorbed density. AMS subject classifications. 31B20, 35B37,35L05 Key words. photo

Kang, Hyeonbae

148

Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC); Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in Six National Parks Stephen A. Diamond,1 ABSTRACT Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280­320-nm wave- lengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates

Knapp, Roland

151

Effects of High Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on Oxidative Stress and Bone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (15-weeks old, n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or high (650 mg Fe/kg diet) Fe diet for 4 weeks and either 3 Gy (8 fractions, 0.375 Gy each) of 137Cs radiation (?RAD) or sham exposure every other...

Yuen, Evelyn P

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

Whole-body radiation dosimetry of 2-[F-18]fluoro-A-85380 in human PET imaging studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R, Budinger T, Watson E. MIRD Primer for Absorbed DoseInternal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system [28]. To perform thesimplifications inherent in the MIRD phantom model, several

Obrzut, S L; Koren, A O; Mandelkern, M A; Brody, A L; Hoh, C K; London, E D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Radiation hardness of cerium-doped gadolinium silicate Gd2SiO5:Ce against high energy protons, fast and thermal neutrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Degradation of Gd2SiO5:Ce in optical transmittance due to proton irradiation was negligibly small below 106 rad, smaller than 2%/cm at 107 rad and large at 108 rad. The radiation hardness of 107 rad against protons is by two orders of magnitude smaller than against low energy ?-rays. Long term spontaneous recovery of the proton-induced damage is not large (1020% of the initial degradation in 84 days). Recovery upon exposure to UV light occurs to some extent. Degradation due to thermal neutrons was negligibly small for a fluence of 1014 n/cm2. No degradation was observed for exposure to fast neutrons of about 1013 n/cm2 during one year in the extracted beam tunnel of proton synchrotron.

Masaaki Kobayashi; Masaharu Ieiri; Kenjiro Kondo; Taichi Miura; Hiroyuki Noumi; Masaharu Numajiri; Yuichi Oki; Takenori Suzuki; Minoru Takasaki; Kazuhiro Tanaka; Yutaka Yamanoi; Mitsuru Ishii

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Optimal Demand Response in DC Distribution Networks Hamed Mohsenian-Rad, Member, IEEE and Ali Davoudi, Member, IEEE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Demand Response in DC Distribution Networks Hamed Mohsenian-Rad, Member, IEEE and Ali first present an optimization-based foundation for demand response in DC distribution networks. Then, we devise a pricing mechanism to enforce optimal demand response in a distributed fashion. Simulation

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

155

Colored solar-thermal absorbing coatings with high absorptance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It's difficult to obtain different color appearance and keep high absorptance simultaneously. We introduced AR films into solar-thermal absorbing coatings to tune the color appearance...

Wang, Shao-Wei; Chen, Feiliang; Liu, Xingxing; Wang, Xiaofang; Yu, Liming; Lu, Wei

156

Minimax design of parallel multi-mass dynamic vibration absorbers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This thesis discusses the design of multi-mass dynamic vibration absorbers in parallel configuration subject to uncertainties in the forcing frequency. A minimax parameter optimization (more)

Kee, Kerk Cheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

RCT#2-Instr for Prep of Rad Waste Disposal 7/00 Page 1 of 6 RADIATION CONTROL TECHNIQUE #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE FOR DISPOSAL I. PURPOSE: To establish a standard procedure for preparing Radioactive Waste and Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) to ensure it's efficient pick-up and disposal, labels, and pickup forms. III. PURPOSE: A. The goals of the radioactive waste program are to; - Minimize

Slatton, Clint

158

Experimental energy and exergy analysis of a double-flow solar air heater having different obstacles on absorber plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental energy and exergy analysis for a novel flat plate solar air heater (SAH) with several obstacles and without obstacles. For increasing the available heat-transfer area may be achieved if air is flowing simultaneously and separately over and under the different obstacle absorbing plates, instead of only flowing either over or under the different obstacle absorbing plates, leading to improved collector efficiency. The measured parameters were the inlet and outlet temperatures, the absorbing plate temperatures, the ambient temperature, and the solar radiation. Further, the measurements were performed at different values of mass flow rate of air and different levels of absorbing plates in flow channel duct. After the analysis of the results, the optimal value of efficiency is middle level of absorbing plate in flow channel duct for all operating conditions and the double-flow collector supplied with obstacles appears significantly better than that without obstacles. At the end of this study, the exergy relations are delivered for different SAHs. The results show that the largest irreversibility is occurring at the flat plate (without obstacles) collector in which collector efficiency is smallest.

Hikmet Esen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Analytical expression for circumferential and axial distribution of absorbed flux on a bent absorber tube of solar parabolic trough concentrator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A parabolic trough has a property to concentrate the incident rays at its focal line, when tracked appropriately. The flux distribution on the absorber tube is non-uniform. Part of the absorbers periphery facing the sun receives direct incident rays where as part of the other side receives concentrated rays resulting in circumferential non-uniform flux distribution. The intensity of flux also varies along the length of the absorber tube, especially at the sun facing end, depending upon the incidence angle of the sun rays and rim angle of the parabolic cylinder. Such non-uniformity in the flux distribution on the absorber tube leads to non-uniform temperature distribution. Thus the absorber experiences thermal stresses which may lead to bending of the tube thereby creating risk of glass cover damage. In order to estimate the extent of bending, study of the flux distribution is needed. In the present work, expression for the absorbed flux on a bent absorber tube accounting circumferential and axial variations is analytically derived. Optical errors and Gaussian sun shape have also been incorporated. Results have been plotted to study the effect of bending, optical errors and rim angle of the trough on flux distribution.

Sourav Khanna; Shireesh B. Kedare; Suneet Singh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Stars as resonant absorbers of gravitational waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quadrupole oscillation modes in stars can resonate with incident gravitational waves (GWs), and grow non-linear at the expense of GW energy. Stars near massive black hole binaries (MBHB) can act as GW-charged batteries, cooling radiatively. Mass-loss from these stars can prompt MBHB accretion at near-Eddington rates. GW opacity is independent of amplitude, so distant resonating stars can eclipse GW sources. Absorption by the Sun of GWs from Galactic white dwarf binaries may be detectable with second-generation space-based GW detectors as a shadow within a complex diffraction pattern.

B. McKernan; K. E. S. Ford; B. Kocsis; Z. Haiman

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ENERGY ABSORBER HEAT PUMP SYSTEM TO SUPPLEMENT HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS IN AN INDOOR SWIMMING POOL  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Compared with convontional indoor swimming pools with traditional plant engineering, the Schwalmtal indoor swimming pool has a final energy consumption of just 40%. This low consumption is achieved by improved insulation of the building's enveloping surface, through the operation of systems for the recovery of heat from drain water and waste air as well as by the operation of a heat pump system to gain ambient heat. The decentralised heat recovery systems met between 40 and 80% of the heat requirements in the supply areas where they were used. The electric heat pump system, which is operated in the bivalent mode in parallel to a heating boiler, could generate 75% of the heat provided by the central heating circuit to meet the residual heat requirements. The report illustrates the structure of the residual heat requirements of the central heating circuit. A description is given of the measured coefficients of performance of the brine/water heat pump connected by a brine circuit with two different energy absorber types - energy stack and energy roof. Finally, the ambient energy gained with the absorbers is broken down into the various kinds of heat gains from radiation, convection, condensation etc. KEYWORDS Energy absorber; energy stack; energy roof; heat pump; heat recovery systems; indoor swimming pool; energy engineering concept.

K. Leisen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

MHK Technologies/Trondheim Point Absorber | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trondheim Point Absorber Trondheim Point Absorber < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Trondheim Point Absorber.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Norwegian University of Science and Technology CONWEC AS Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description The floating buoy can oscillate along a strut that at its lower end is connected to a universal joint on an anchor on the sea bed The water depth which depends on the tide is in the range of 4 to 7 m On the top of the hull the latching mechanism and one of the guiding roller units are visible As the bottom of the hull is open sea water is flowing into and out from an inner chamber where the water surface acts as the piston of an air pump

163

MHK Technologies/Floating absorber | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

absorber absorber < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Floating absorber.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Euro Wave Energy Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Floating Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description The main module consists of Two drive wheels on each side of the vertical running rod which always move in the opposite direction A unique connection of two camclutches which operate such that at all time the correct rotating direction in one of the drive wheels run the generator Generator and buoyancy elements Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 27:29.6

164

Exergy analysis of absorber using water/lithium bromide solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is necessary to understand the heat and mass transfer processes and determine the variation of the exergy destruction in the absorber for improving the performance. In this study, the exergy analysis of a coil...

O. Kaynakli

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Diagnostic beam absorber in Mu2e beam line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Star density, hadron flux, and residual dose distributions are calculated around the {mu}2e diagnostic beam absorber. Corresponding surface and ground water activation, and air activation are presented as well.

Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Design of Vibration Absorbers for Step Motions and Step Disturbances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of Vibration Absorbers for Step Motions and Step Disturbances Joel Fortgang William Singhose or from external disturbances. The technique of adding a vibration ab- sorber has proven useful at eliminating vibrations from external disturbances and rotational imbalances. Traditionally, vibration

Singhose, William

168

Energy loss of light ions in polypropylene absorber foils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy loss of Li, C and O ions in polypropylene absorber foils has been measured using 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The actual expe...

Vishal Sharma; P. K. Diwan; Pratibha; Tanu Sharma; Shyam Kumar

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (?) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had ? between 0.250.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had ? between 0.420.45. Two of these measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.95 (1.24, 3.09) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.42 (0.87, 2.32) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 2.13 (1.22, 3.72) for BR{sub vr}. The radiologist-reported measures from the patient records showed a similar association, OR = 1.49 (0.99, 2.24), although only borderline statistically significant.Conclusions: A general framework was developed and validated for converting calibrated mammograms and continuous measures of breast density to fully automated approximations for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. The techniques are general and suitable for a broad range of clinical and research applications.

Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Heine, J. J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Development of absorber coupled TES polarimeter at millimeter wavelengths.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report an absorber coupled TES bolometric polarimeter, consisting of an absorptive metal grid and a Mo/Au bi-layer TES on a suspended silicon nitride membrane disk. The electromagnetic design of the polarization sensitive absorbers, the heat transport modeling of the detector, the thermal response of the TES, and the micro-fabrication processes are presented. We also report the results of laboratory tests of a single pixel prototype detector, and compare with theoretical expectations.

Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Novosad, V.; Bleem, L.; Chang, C.; McMahon, J.; Datesman, A.; Pearson, J.; Divan, R.; Downes, T.; Crites, A. T.; Meyer, S. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Univ. of Chicago

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

RadEducationPosterPieChart_11-6-13_final_print-ready  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Use Shielding: Different types of materials provide shielding from * Use Shielding: Different types of materials provide shielding from radiation (depending on the type of radiation, protective materials include wax bricks, lead, concrete, plastic, paper, and aluminum). Protecting Against Radiation Exposure Additional Protection * Minimize Time: The less time exposed, the lower the dose received. * Maximize Distance: The further from the source, the lower the dose received (double the distance and it is ¼ the exposure rate). Putting Exposure into Perspective Consumer Products Medical Diagnostic Procedures Industrial Occupational Internal Terrestrial Cosmic Radon and Thoron <0.01% <0.01% <2% 48% 37% 5% 3% 5% Sources of Radiation Exposure for the Average Person in the U.S. Average Dose = 620 mrem/year Dose from

172

LHC Accelerator Design Studies on the Example of Passive Absorbers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accelerators / Special Issue on the 11th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and the 15th Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division (PART 3) / Radiation Protection

M. Brugger; F. Cerutti; A. Ferrari; L. Lari; M. Mauri; S. Roesler; L. Sarchiapone; V. Vlachoudis

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber test experiment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

test experiment Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: absorber test experiment Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Design of Vibration Absorbers...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed gamma dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unit used to measure a quantity... called absorbed dose. This relates to the amount of energy actually absorbed in some material... to derive a quantity called equivalent ......

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed doses received Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unit used to measure a quantity... called absorbed dose. This relates to the amount of energy actually absorbed in some material... to derive a quantity called equivalent dose....

176

E-Print Network 3.0 - air dose absorbed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unit used to measure a quantity... called absorbed dose. This relates to the amount of energy actually absorbed in some material... to derive a quantity called equivalent dose....

177

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose standard Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unit used to measure a quantity... called absorbed dose. This relates to the amount of energy actually absorbed in some material... to derive a quantity called equivalent dose....

178

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed doses distribution Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unit used to measure a quantity... called absorbed dose. This relates to the amount of energy actually absorbed in some material... to derive a quantity called equivalent dose....

179

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly woven into the fabric of high-dose System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology Volume 113 Number 2 March.g., radiochromic dosimetry). From the NMI's perspective, the broad absorbed- dose range of the alanine system

180

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

MHK Technologies/WEGA wave energy gravitational absorber | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WEGA wave energy gravitational absorber WEGA wave energy gravitational absorber < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage WEGA wave energy gravitational absorber.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Sea for Life Technology Type Click here Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The WEGA device is an articulated suspended body semi submerged attached to a mount structure that oscillates in an elliptical orbit with the passage of the waves The movement of the body drives an hydraulic cylinder which pushes high pressure fluid through an accumulator and an hydraulic motor driving the generator that produces energy The articulated body attaches to the mount structure through a rotary head which allows it to adapt to the direction wave propagation Multiple devices can be placed on a single mount structure according to the size and place of the structure

182

High power density test of PXIE MEBT absorber prototype  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the goals of the PXIE program at Fermilab is to demonstrate the capability to form an arbitrary bunch pattern from an initially CW 162.5 MHz H- bunch train coming out of an RFQ. The bunch-by-bunch selection will take place in the 2.1 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) by directing the undesired bunches onto an absorber that needs to withstand a beam power of up to 21 kW, focused onto a spot with a ~2 mm rms radius. Two prototypes of the absorber were manufactured from molybdenum alloy TZM and tested with a 28 keV DC electron beam up to the peak surface power density required for PXIE, 17W/mm2. Temperatures and flow parameters were measured and compared to analysis. This paper describes the absorber prototypes and key testing results.

Shemyakin, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Criticality safety analysis of a borated-concrete absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cycle facilities use slab tanks to store fissile solutions, because these tanks have both a high volume-to-floorspace efficiency and an easily verifiable, criticality control (thickness). The results of preliminary criticality analyses using a validated computer code and cross-section library, indicate that a slab tank designed without a solid neutron absorber is not economical in view of process requirements (inventory) and space limitations (layout). A subsequent calculational study assessed the possible increase in the thickness of a single, isolated slab tank using a solid neutron absorber. Finally, an analysis was performed to evaluate the maximum slab thickness for an array of tank/absorbers. The result of these studies showed the potential for expansion of slab tank thickness. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Funabashi, H.; Oka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Smolen, G.R. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Infrared radiation from hot cones on cool conifers attracts seed-feeding insects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...British Columbia, Canada V8M 1W4 3 British Columbia...British Columbia, Canada V1B 2C7 Foraging animals...conducive to absorbing solar radiation and heating...left empty, absorbed solar energy, heated up and...British Columbia, Canada. (c) Schematic of...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Human Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Tachykinin NK1 Antagonist Radioligand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with PET. The aims of this study were to estimate the radiation safety profile and relative risks of [18F wall, kidneys, and thyroid had the highest radiation-absorbed doses. Biexponential fitting of mean: Insofar as effective dose is an accurate measure of radiation risk, all 3 methods of analysis provided

Shen, Jun

186

Radiation of a neutral polarizable particle moving uniformly through a thermal radiation field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the properties of thermal electromagnetic radiation produced by a neutral polarizable nanoparticle moving with an arbitrary relativistic velocity in a heated vacuum background with a fixed temperature. We show that the particle in its own rest frame acquires the radiation temperature of vacuum, multiplied by a velocity-dependent factor, and then emits thermal photons predominantly in the forward direction. The intensity of radiation proves to be much higher than for the particle at rest. For metal particles with high energy, the ratio of emitted and absorbed radiation power is proportional to the Lorentz-factor squared.

G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

187

Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry in Humans of a New PET Ligand, 18F-PBR06,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at various time points. Radiation absorbed doses were estimated by the MIRD scheme. Results: Moderate to high and spleen may limit the amount of permissible injected radioactivity. Key Words: MIRD scheme; defluorination

Shen, Jun

188

Radiation dose profile in 125I brachytherapy: an 8-year review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......KFSHRC is well known in the Kingdom to specialise in cancer treatment using both radiation therapy and brachytherapy...using the IAEA rod phantom and an Eberline DNS-26 depleted uranium standard reference source with a known absorbed dose......

A. N. Al-Haj; A. M. Lobriguito; C. S. Lagarde

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Estimation of the committed radiation dose resulting from gamma radionuclides ingested with food  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of the study was to estimate the value of the radiation dose absorbed in consequence of consumption of popular food products for individual age groups. Potatoes, corn and sugar beet were selected...

Piotr Gody?; Agnieszka Do?ha?czuk-?rdka

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

191

RadEducationPosterTrucks_11-7-13_final_print-ready  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOT Maximum Dose Limit: Service Attendants DOT Maximum Dose Limit: Service Attendants U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Protecting Against Radiation Exposure All U.S. Department of Energy activities are performed in a manner that protects workers and the public from harmful exposure to radiation. In addition, packaging and transportation of all radioactive materials must be conducted in accordance with U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations.* *10 CFR Part 71 and 49 CFR 1910 DOT Maximum Dose Limits: "Closed" Exclusive-Use Vehicle At contact - Waste package inside trailer (Direct contact prohibited) 1,000 mrem/hour Driver in cab 2 mrem/hour At 2 meters (6.6 feet) 10 mrem/hour At contact - Truck 200 mrem/hour For 15 minutes of exposure

192

Controlling Nanoparticle Aggregation in Colloidal Microwave Absorbers via Interface Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlling Nanoparticle Aggregation in Colloidal Microwave Absorbers via Interface Chemistry Brian ABSTRACT Interface chemistry can be implemented to modulate the aggregation and dispersion of nanoparticles of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles in organic and aqueous solutions. With decrease in solution pH, individual

Stowell, Michael

193

Absorbed dose measurements during routine equine radiographic procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Absorbed doses were measured for one month at the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital using Li:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). All personnel present in the x-ray examination room during eqine radiography were monitored using TLDs...

Salinas, Leticia Lamar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering] [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)] [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

1995-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

195

About Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

196

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Glossary  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glossary Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z We welcome updates to the glossary. Please send them to Low Dose. A α=β Ratio: A measure of the curvature of the cell survival curve and a measure of the sensitivity of a tissue or tumor to dose fractionation. The dose at which the linear and quadratic components of cell killing are equal. Abscopal Effect: The radiation response in tissue at a distance from the irradiated site invoked by local irradiation. Absorbed Dose Rate: Absorbed dose divided by the time it takes to deliver that dose. High dose rates are usually more damaging to humans and animals than low-dose rates. This is because repair of damage is more efficient when the dose rate is low. Absorbed Dose: The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing

197

Mammalian Rad9 Plays a Role in Telomere Stability, S- and G2-Phase-Specific Cell Survival, and Homologous Recombinational Repair  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...independent experiments. Cells with a bubble-like appearance or micronuclei were...its inactivation influences telomere stability, we overexpressed wild-type hRad9...these cells has no influence on telomere stability. However, as shown in Table 1, in...

Raj K. Pandita; Girdhar G. Sharma; Andrei Laszlo; Kevin M. Hopkins; Scott Davey; Mikhail Chakhparonian; Arun Gupta; Raymund J. Wellinger; Junran Zhang; Simon N. Powell; Joseph L. Roti Roti; Howard B. Lieberman; Tej K. Pandita

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Bio-Rad Laboratories Q U A L I T Y C O N T R O L Discover the Importance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Registration of Medical Testing Laboratories in India, Quality Council of India 3.5.2 Quality Assurance "For; Laboratory Requirements Relating to Quality Systems and Certain Personnel Qualifications; Final Rule "The useBio-Rad Laboratories Q U A L I T Y C O N T R O L Discover the Importance of Third Party Quality

Rodriguez, Carlos

199

Determination of radiation absorbed dose to the kidneys of Rhesus monkeys from radiolabelled orthoiodohippuran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

determination of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow by ' Tc tagged DTPA and '"I labelled OIH, respectively. However. in the study reported here, only '"I OIH was used. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were exposed to external beam...), while "'I decays with both beta and gamma emission (Fig. 2). The radionuclide ' 'I also has a relatively short half life compared to that of '"I. However, the use of '-'I OIH is not appropriate in these studies, since " Tc tagged DTPA is being used...

Kleck, Jeffrey Howard

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Calculation of the lesion radiation absorbed dose in canines treated with samarium-153 EDTMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tissue was also low. The bone/muscle and bone/blood uptake ratios were higher with Sm-153 EDTMP than those observed with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Retention of the Sm-153 in the skeleton was measured over a 3-day period... and blood and a high uptake in the skeleton 3 hours postinjection in rabbits. Results also show that Sm-153 EDTMP clears the blood more rapidly than Tc-99m MDP or Tc-99m pyrophosphate. No significant nonosseous accumulation of Sm-153 was observed...

Poston, John W

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow (Preliminary analysis of 2008-2009 data) Outline * Receptor modeling overview * Results from 2007 data set * New goals arising from analysis of 2007 data * New data for 2008 * New data for 2009 * Tentative conclusions * Future analysis i Factor profiles from 2007 analysis Source attribution of Black Carbon from 2007 analysis Goals/Issues suggested by the analysis of the 2007 data set * Are there seasonal differences in the source strengths? * Are there other LAA chemical components besides black carbon. What are their sources? * Can the various data sets available (e.g., 2007, 2008, 2009) be combined in a single large PMF analysis 2008 Data Set For Receptor Analysis * 42 samples from Eastern Siberia including 4 depth profiles

202

MAGIICAT I. THE Mg II ABSORBER-GALAXY CATALOG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog, MAGIICAT, a compilation of 182 spectroscopically identified intermediate redshift (0.07 ? z ? 1.1) galaxies with measurements of Mg II ??2796, 2803 absorption from their circumgalactic medium within projected distances of 200 kpc from background quasars. In this work, we present 'isolated' galaxies, which are defined as having no spectroscopically identified galaxy within a projected distance of 100 kpc and a line of sight velocity separation of 500 km s{sup 1}. We standardized all galaxy properties to the ?CDM cosmology and galaxy luminosities, absolute magnitudes, and rest-frame colors to the B- and K-band on the AB system. We present galaxy properties and rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), versus galaxy redshift. The well-known anti-correlation between W{sub r} (2796) and quasar-galaxy impact parameter, D, is significant to the 8? level. The mean color of MAGIICAT galaxies is consistent with an Sbc galaxy for all redshifts. We also present B- and K-band luminosity functions for different W{sub r} (2796) and redshift subsamples: 'weak absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) < 0.3 ], 'strong absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) ? 0.3 ], low redshift (z < (z)), and high redshift (z ? (z)), where (z) = 0.359 is the median galaxy redshift. Rest-frame color B K correlates with M{sub K} at the 8? level for the whole sample but is driven by the strong absorbing, high-redshift subsample (6?). Using M{sub K} as a proxy for stellar mass and examining the luminosity functions, we infer that in lower stellar mass galaxies, Mg II absorption is preferentially detected in blue galaxies and the absorption is more likely to be weak.

Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Murphy, Michael T., E-mail: nnielsen@nmsu.edu [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Renewable Energy System < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Renewable Energy System.jpg Technology Profile Technology Description The benefits of the system developed and patented by AEEA are 1 exploitation of the greater wave energy density in the more remote off shore locations 2 usage of existing industrial fuel storage and distribution infrastructure 3 provision for a gradual transition to widespread electric vehicle use 4 avoidance of environmental destruction and visual impairment with minimal impact on commercial fishing and recreation uses 5 fostering the development of a new maritime and energy industry 6 avoidance of the high capital investment in mooring and anchoring seabed electrical cable installation and seabed restoration 7 development of flexibility by deployment of fleets of these vessels to supply widely separated market locations using coastal and national waterways and 8 provision for the addition of fleets without depletion of primary feed stocks as in nuclear energy systems 2 Fig 1 In summary the system converts wave energy from the nearly unlimited world wide

204

Experimental study on sound absorbing performance of rubber crumb  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper describes an experimental campaign aimed at the determination of acoustical properties of vulcanized rubber crumbs obtained by the shredding of used tires. In particular their performance as sound absorbing material in lined ducts was investigated. The most innovative aspect that is addressed in the study is the use of a waste material such as rubber tires reduced into small grains as a sound absorbing material: tires are in fact usually used at the end of their life cycle as fuel and burned in cement kilns in order to take advantage of their high heating value with all the problems of pollution that this solution produces. Two kinds of rubber crumbs have been investigated in terms of characteristic dimension of the grains porosity and sound absorbing coefficient while their "in situ" performance when used inside lined and parallel-baffle rectangular ducts has been evaluated measuring their insertion loss. The results of this research show that the acoustical behaviour of the tested rubber crumbs is the typical behaviour of the granular materials showing a noteworthy performance of the tested material in the low frequency range opening a scenery of possible applications where noise has relevant tonal components below 315 Hz.

Davide Borelli; Corrado Schenone; Ilaria Pittaluga

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Experimental study on sound absorbing performance of rubber crumb  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper describes an experimental campaign aimed at the determination of acoustical properties of vulcanized rubber crumbs obtained by the shredding of used tires. In particular their performance as sound absorbing material in lined ducts has been investigated. The most innovative aspect that is addressed in the study is the use of a waste material such as rubber tires reduced into small grains as a sound absorbing material: tires are in fact usually used at the end of their life cycle as fuel and burned in cement kilns in order to take advantage of their high heating value with all the problems of pollution that this solution produces. Two kinds of rubber crumbs have been investigated in terms of characteristic dimension of the grains porosity and sound absorbing coefficient while their in situ performance when used inside lined and parallel-baffle rectangular ducts has been evaluated measuring their insertion loss. The results of this research show that the acoustical behavior of the tested rubber crumbs is the typical behavior of the granular materials showing a noteworthy performance of the tested material in the low frequency range opening a scenery of possible applications where noise has relevant tonal components below 315 Hz.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Monte Carlo Simulation of Massive Absorbers for Cryogenic Calorimeters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in cryogenic calorimeters with macroscopic absorbers for applications such as dark matter direct detection and rare event search experiments. The physics of energy transport in calorimeters with absorber masses exceeding several grams is made complex by the anisotropic nature of the absorber crystals as well as the changing mean free paths as phonons decay to progressively lower energies. We present a Monte Carlo model capable of simulating anisotropic phonon transport in cryogenic crystals. We have initiated the validation process and discuss the level of agreement between our simulation and experimental results reported in the literature, focusing on heat pulse propagation in germanium. The simulation framework is implemented using Geant4, a toolkit originally developed for high-energy physics Monte Carlo simulations. Geant4 has also been used for nuclear and accelerator physics, and applications in medical and space sciences. We believe that our current work may open up new avenues for applications in material science and condensed matter physics.

Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U.; Silva, E.do Couto e; Kelsey, M.; /SLAC; Leman, S.W.; McArthy, K.; /MIT; Resch, R.; Wright, D.; /SLAC; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; /MIT

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

207

Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 7075 C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

M S M Azmi; M Y Othman; K Sopian; M H Ruslan; Z A A Majid; A Fudholi; J M Yasin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le confrencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrle des zones et les prcautions prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber element lifetime Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

) o - is the change in the ring-down lifetime without and with the absorber present... -water interface as a function of bulk pH by the direct measurement of the absorbance of...

210

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing galaxies mrk Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nearby ( 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly-absorbers. The absorbers are located along the sight lines towards Markarian 817, Markarian 509 and VII Zwicky 118. The Summary: from 3.2107...

211

Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) Format  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

MIRD is a database of evaluated nuclear decay data for over 2,100 radioactive nuclei. Data are extracted from ENSDF, processed by the program RadList, and used for medical internal radiation dose calculations. When using the MIRD interface, tables of nuclear and atomic radiations from nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the MIRD format from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for the specified nuclide. Output may be either HTML-formatted tables and JPEG drawings, PostScript tables and drawings, or PDF tables and drawings.

212

Literature Review of the Effects of Radiation and Temperature on the Aging of Concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The open literature and accessible United States Department of Energy-sponsored reports were reviewed for the effects of radiation and temperature on concrete. No effects of radiation were found for exposures less than 1010 neutron/cm2 or 1010 Gy gamma for periods less than 50 years. Reductions in compressive and tensile strength and a marked increase in volume are reported for exposures greater than 1020 neutron/cm2 or 1010 rads of gamma. There are conflicting reports of damage for doses in the middle ranges.

D. L. Fillmore

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Modification of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) sytem of radiation protection requirements and guidance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has undertaken a major modification of its system of radiation protection guidance and requirements. The objectives of this modification are to (1) eliminate unnecessary and redundant requirements, (2) clearly delineate requirements from guidance, (3) codify all radiation protection requirements, and (4) move from a compliance based approach towards a performance based approach. To achieve these objectives DOE has (1) canceled DOE Order 5480.11, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection for DOE Workers,{close_quotes} DOE Order 5480.15, {open_quotes}Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for Personnel Dosimetry,{close_quotes} and DOE Notice 5400.13, {open_quotes}Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability,{close_quotes} (2) converted the DOE Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual from mandatory to non mandatory status, and (3) issued DOE Notice 441.1 to maintain those requirements (not in 10 CFR 835) considered necessary for radiation protection of workers. DOE has initiated actions to (1) amend 10 CFR 835 (the Federal rule on occupational radiation protection in the DOE complex) to incorporate the requirements, or their equivalent, in DOE Notice 441.1, (2) issue a technical standard containing guidance on DOELAP, (3) reissue the DOE RadCon Manual as a non mandatory technical standard that reflects the amendments to 10 CFR 835, and (4) revise the implementation guides on radiation protection for consistency with 10 CFR 835 and the RadCon Manual. As a result of these modifications, the system of radiation protection in the DOE will become more comparable with the system of radiation protection used by commercial industry and with the system of protection applied to other areas of worker health and safety.

O`Connell, P.V.; Rabovsky, J.L.; Zobel, S.G. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Light propagation in biological tissues containing an absorbing plate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the forward direction, we replace the governing radiative transport equation with the Fokker­ Planck equation. Introduction Light propagation in biological tissue is governed by the radiative transport equation.1 approxima- tion to the transport equation.3­8 However, these results are limited by the fact

Kim, Arnold D.

215

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 3 METHODS DERIVATION MODULE 3: METHODS DERIVATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M3-1 1 Introduction and Basis for the Approach The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose limit of 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for the protection of aquatic organisms (DOE Order 5400.5), and has proposed dose limits for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. These limits are: 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for aquatic animals; 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for terrestrial plants; and 0.1 rad/d (1 mGy/d) for terrestrial animals. Because the biota protection limits are dose-based, a calculational method is needed to demonstrate compliance. In theory, derived radionuclide concentration limits for environmental media (e.g., Biota Concentration Guides, BCGs, for water, sediment, or soil) provide a relatively straightforward and simple means to do so. However, because of the

216

Solarabsorber antireflector on the eye of an Eocene fly (45 Ma)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

7 May 1998 research-article Solar-absorber antireflector on the eye of an Eocene fly...normal. A comparable antireflector is employed on solar absorbers. antireector|grating|solar absorber|y|eye|amber| georef;2013040204 2013-040204...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Order-Tuned Vibration Absorbers for a Rotating Flexible Structure with Cyclic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and a single vibration absorber is fitted to each blade. These absorbers exploit the centrifugal field arising vanes, etc., in addition to rotating components, such as fans, compressors, and turbines in its path for the use of centrifugally-driven, order-tuned vibration absorbers, yet their implementation to such systems

Shaw, Steven W.

218

Randomly accelerated particle in a box: Mean absorption time for partially absorbing and inelastic boundaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Randomly accelerated particle in a box: Mean absorption time for partially absorbing and inelastic which is randomly accelerated by Gaussian white noise on the line segment 0 x 1 and is absorbed as soon accelerated particle which moves on the half line x 0 with an absorbing boundary at x=0. The motion

219

Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh ? addresses the issue of design of a passive vibration absorber in the presence of uncertainties in the forcing frequency. A minimax problem is formulated to determine the parameters of a vibration absorber

Singh, Tarunraj

220

SU-FF-T-390: In-Vivo Prostate Brachytherapy Absorbed Dose Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In-vivo prostate brachytherapy absorbed dosimetrydetector using scintillating fibers. Method and Materials: Five pairs of 85.5 {+-} 0.05 cm long blue shifted scintillating fibers (model BCF-10) with 1 mm{sup 2} cross sectional area were placed in a mixture of gelatin (368.6 {+-} 0.5 grams) and water (3.78 {+-} 0.025 liters) to measured the absorbed dose delivered by a 12 Ci {sup 192}Ir HDR source. The fibers were held by a 7 x 7 cm{sup 2} template grid and optically connected to a 16-channel multianode photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, model H6568). Each pair consisted of one fiber 4 mm shorter than the other one to extract the dose by the subtraction method. A dose atlas was used for radiation delivered to the phantom. The plans followed delivered 5 and 7 Gy to a point located 2.0 centimeters away from the central dwelling positions. A total of 32 data points were acquired in a plan to assess the linearity and reproducibility of the measurements.Results: Reproducibility of the data was found to be within 5% and the overall accuracy of the system estimated to be {+-}5.5%. The linearity of the data for all 7 measureddose values (ranging from 0.6 to 7 Gy), gives a slope of 312 counts/Gy with a 1.4% relative deviation. Conclusion: This work indicates the possibility of measuring in real-time the dose effectively delivered to a biological system during prostate brachytherapy treatments. The availability of commercially thin (150 {micro}m) scintillating fibers opens the capability of using such system during clinical treatments (by embedding the fibers within the catheters) with the advantage of performing real-time adjustment of the dose delivery.

Gueye, Paul; Velasco, Carlos; Keppel, Cynthia; Murphy, B.; Sinesi, C.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Self-absorbed synchroton sources in active galactic nuclei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of compact, homogeneous self-absorbed synchroton sources in active galactic nuclei are explored, calculating the time evolution of such sources after an impulsive injection of relativistic electrons, and the steady state properties in the case of steady injection. The models include synchroton self-Compton losses in a self consistent way. The behavior of the models is determined mainly by the relative importance of synchroton and inverse Compton energy losses. It is found that pure self-absorbed synchroton self-Compton models always predict a continuum spectral slope which is flatter than observed. The problem can be resolved either by including another cooling mechanism for the relativistic electrons, which operates preferentially at low gamma, such as Coulomb collisions with thermal background electrons, or by assuming that there is an external source of primary photons with a luminosity greater than the energy injection rate in relativistic electrons, e.g., the 'UV bump'. The latter possibility, however, predicts an X-ray luminosity which is higher than observed. 30 references.

De kool, M.; Begelman, M.C.; Sikora, M.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Shock absorber mount assembly for motor vehicle suspension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mount assembly is described for mounting a shock absorber/coil assembly in a motor vehicle suspension, the shock absorber/coil assembly including a fluid cylinder, a piston rod movable into and out of the cylinder, a vibration isolator mounted on an end of the piston rod, and a coil spring disposed around the fluid cylinder and the piston rod. The mount assembly consists of: a retainer adapted to be mounted on the vibration isolator and having an attachment portion adapted for attachment to a motor vehicle frame; a spring seat adapted to engage an end of the coil spring; and a thrust bearing interposed between the attachment portion of the retainer and the spring seat and adapted to extend around the vibration isolator, the thrust bearing including a pair of first and second races and a plurality of balls rotatably disposed between the first and second races, the first race engaging the retainer and the second race engaging the spring seat.

Kubo, K.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

224

Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation dose around uranium microparticles in the human body  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photoelectrons. For most ionizing radiations, a large proportion...the absorbed dose is deposited...having a shorter range and being more strongly ionizing close to the...in high local doses, causing damage...enhancement of the radiation dose in volumes...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chromosome translocations and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline pilot biomarker study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline...are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, an efficient inducer...bone marrow absorbed dose in cGy from personal...SD; 46.7 5.3, range 37-55 vs. 45.8...

Lee Yong; Alice Sigurdson; Elizabeth Ward; Martha Waters; Elizabeth Whelan; Martin Petersen; Elaine Ron; Marilyn Ramsey; Parveen Bhatti; and James Tucker

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Use of the Tetrazolium Assay in Measuring the Response of Human Tumor Cells to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiation dose rate was...demonstrated a range of absorbance...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION with 1 mg...with graded doses of irradiation...each with a range of seeded...MGHU1 0 5 10 DOSE (Gy) RT112...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION 150000 FF...

Patricia Price and Trevor J. McMillan

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Simulation of the Earth's radiation budget by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the surface is likely to be good. Clear-sky absorbed solar radiation (ASR) and clear-sky OLR are overestimated by ERA40 over north Africa and high-latitude land regions. The observed interannual changes in low evaluated is the radiative energy budget. The benefit of such an assessment is twofold. First, the radi

Allan, Richard P.

228

Linking future aerosol radiative forcing to shifts in source activities Dorothy Koch,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of economic growth, or the desire to mitigate climate effects or improve air quality, affect all or 'black carbon' (BC) that also absorb incoming solar radiation, exert a positive radiative forcing depend upon fuels burned and technologies used in various energy- related activities. Actions that occur

229

New results on the exotic galaxy `Speca' and discovering many more Specas with RAD@home network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first report on an innovative new project named "RAD@home", a citizen-science research collaboratory built on free web-services like Facebook, Google, Skype, NASA Skyview, NED, TGSS etc.. This is the first of its kind in India, a zero-funded, zero-infrastructure, human-resource network to educate and directly involve in research, hundreds of science-educated under-graduate population of India, irrespective of their official employment and home-location with in the country. Professional international collaborators are involved in follow up observation and publication of the objects discovered by the collaboratory. We present here ten newly found candidate episodic radio galaxies, already proposed to GMRT, and ten more interesting cases which includes, bent-lobe radio galaxies located in new Mpc-scale filaments, likely tracing cosmological cluster accretion from the cosmic web. Two new Speca-like rare spiral-host large radio galaxies have also been been reported here. Early analyses from our foll...

Hota, Ananda; Ohyama, Youichi; Stalin, C S; Hardcastle, Martin J; Konar, Chiranjib; Aravind, R P; Agarwal, Sheena M; Bhoga, Sai Arun Dharmik; Dabhade, Pratik A; Kamble, Amit A; Mohanty, Pradeepta K; Mukherjee, Alok; Pandey, Akansha V; Patra, Alakananda; Pechetti, Renuka; Raut, Shrishail S; Sushma, V; Vaddi, Sravani; Verma, Nishchhal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with \\{TLDs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Protective curtain was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors. We simulated the experiment by the general purpose 3D Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS), as 10cm-thick water-filled panels housed in a model of the Zvezda module. External radiation environment was modeled using the AP8MIN and ISO-15390 standard models for the trapped proton (TP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectra, respectively. The absorbed doses were calculated for all detector packages used in the experiment. Comparison of calculated results with experimental data (TLDs) showed good agreement for the total (TP+GCR) absorbed doses. Further, we analyzed the systematic uncertainty introduced by differences in the detector thicknesses used in the simulations from the ones used in the measurements. The reducing effect of the Protective curtain was studied by comparing the calculated absorbed doses in shielded and unshielded detectors separately for the \\{TPs\\} and GCRs. In case of TPs, the reducing effect was larger than 60% and 40% for pairs of detectors located at aluminum wall and at crew cabin window, respectively. In case of GCRs, small shielding effect was observed for detectors located behind the window but for those located behind the aluminum wall, the effect was even opposite: the absorbed doses in the unshielded detectors were about 10% lower than in the shielded ones. This result was confirmed by the depth-dose analysis using rectangular source emitting broad parallel incident particles impinging on the simple geometry composed of aluminum/glass box and water box of variable thickness simulating the spacecraft wall/window and Protective curtain, respectively. The additional dose in the shielded detectors is related to the secondary fragments known as the wall effect. However, since GCR contributes by about 30% and 15% only to the total dose in water in shielded and unshielded detectors, respectively, the total shielding effect is high and the Protective curtain is very efficient when it is applied on a spacecraft at low-Earth orbits.

Ond?ej Ploc; Lembit Sihver; Dmitry Kartashov; Vyacheslav Shurshakov; Raisa Tolochek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Bio-Rad Laboratories q u a l i t y c o n t r o l Meter TraxTM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-Rad Laboratories q u a l i t y c o n t r o l Meter TraxTM Control #12;q u a l i t y c o n t r o l Meter TraxTM Control Quality Control Meter TraxTM is an ideal quality control for point-of-care meters. It is available in easy-to-use dropper bottles and has assigned values for many meters

Rodriguez, Carlos

232

Bio-Rad Laboratories C O A G U L AT I O N C O N T r O L s Coagulation Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-Rad Laboratories C O A G U L AT I O N C O N T r O L s Lyphochek® Coagulation Control #12;C O A G U L A T I O N C O N T r O L s A human plasma control for monitoring the precision of routine® , Instrumentation Laboratory ACL® and ELECTRATM , and Trinity Biotech AMAX Lyphochek® Coagulation Control Ordering

Rodriguez, Carlos

233

Plasma Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... JUST over ten years ago the first book on plasma physics as a subject in its own right appeared; in a gradually swelling stream ... been surprisingly few monographs. One topic which has had scant coverage in any form is plasma radiation (except for spectral-line radiation which has been dealt with very fully in ...

T. J. M. BOYD

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

235

Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

ht. 1. Han Mass 7h&r. Vol. 13, pp. 13494357. Pergamon Pra 1970. PhIed in Great Britain RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN A CONSERVATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involving radiative transport and wall temperature slip in a finite, absorbing, emitting gray medium, equation of transfer then equation (4) reduces to the simpler form where Z(z,Zl)is the radiation intensity, Zlis the In their work on radiative transport and wall direction cosine (as measured from the positive

Siewert, Charles E.

237

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 ?m wavelength [Invited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene saturable absorber mirror (SAM) was successfully fabricated by transferring large-size graphene flake on dielectric coating mirror. The graphene transferred on the mirror was...

Xie, G Q; Ma, J; Lv, P; Gao, W L; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Yu, H H; Zhang, H J; Wang, J Y; Tang, D Y

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - alterntive substrate absorber Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mathematics 46 LAYER TRANSFER OF LARGE AREA MACROPOROUS SILICON FOR MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Summary: separation layer underneath the low-porosity absorber layer....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Enhancing the Dynamic Range of Targeted Energy Transfer in Acoustics Using Several Nonlinear Membrane Absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane Absorbers R. Belleta , B. Cochelinb, , R. C^otec , P.-O. Matteia a CNRS-LMA, UPR 7051, F-13402

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing long-wavelength light Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

be achieved in a structure with long-wavelength... and Marin Soljacic Abstract Selective solar absorbers generally ... Source: Soljai, Marin - Research Laboratory of...

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing compounds called Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which readily collectsabsorbs compounds. Protective clothing (e.g. sleeves, impervious boots or PVC... with detergent and flush thoroughly with water. Absorb wash liquid and place...

244

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose optimization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

than 50 c... -Lambert principle 15 for increased total optical density change per unit absorbed dose. From previous work 4... -880, Jun. 2002. 11 International Atomic...

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose 3d Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unit absorbed dose. Conclusions Polymer gel dosimetry offers a method of acquiring 3D... -dimensional (3D) dose measurements can be produced by position- ing lm in multiple...

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose profiles Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

empirical models to estimate absorbed dose be- hind eye... . This factor is utilised when measuring profile doses under an eye shield. A Gulmay D3300 orthovoltage machine... . The...

247

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed doses profiles Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

empirical models to estimate absorbed dose be- hind eye... . This factor is utilised when measuring profile doses under an eye shield. A Gulmay D3300 orthovoltage machine... . The...

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbing boundary layers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C7, supplementau Journal de Physique 111, Volume 4,juillet 1994 Summary: beam across the pump beam cross section yields the acoustic power transmitted to the absorber......

249

Analysis of the heat transfer and airflow in solar chimney drying system with porous absorber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the chimney is assembled with porous absorber for the indirect-mode solar dryer. Local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) exists in the porous absorber, so the double energy equations and BrinkmanForchheimer extended Darcy model are employed to analyze the heat transfer and flow in the solar porous absorber, and the k-? turbulent model coupled with the above equations are also used to investigate the influences of the porous absorber inclination and the height of drying system on the heat transfer in the solar dryer. The specific heat capacities (?c) and thermal conductivity ks have remarkable effects on the average temperature of solar porous absorber in the drying system. The mean temperature of the higher (?c) Aluminous solar absorber is lower and the top temperature of porous absorber delays due to lower thermal conductivity ks. The inclined angle of porous absorber influences the airflow and temperature field in the solar dryer greatly. With the height of solar dryer changing from 1.41m to 1.81m, the higher airflow velocity and the lower temperature at chimney exit can be achieved. The simulations agree with the published experimental data. All these results should be taken into account for the promotion and application of the solar chimney dryer with porous absorber.

Wei Chen; Man Qu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed light energy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Composite Technologies Research Group Collection: Materials Science 15 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: the heat absorbed from the Sun with the heat...

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorber rod measurements Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In the microwave measurements, the rods were... to absorb outgoing waves, and the spatial grid size is 116a, where a is ... Source: Mojahedi, Mohammad - Department of Electrical...

252

Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

254

pRad Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

* Reduce proton beam energy to near end of range. * Use steep portion of transmission curve to enhance sensitivity to areal density variations. * Coulomb scattering at...

255

Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...water-assisted CVD SuperGrowth...26). All optical components, the...solar absorber coatings for high-efficiency...nanotube black coating in the infrared...graphite black-coating for cryogenic...nickel-phosphorus alloy optical absorber . IEEE...thermometric applications at low temperatures...2007 ) Optical thin-film materials with low...

Kohei Mizuno; Juntaro Ishii; Hideo Kishida; Yuhei Hayamizu; Satoshi Yasuda; Don N. Futaba; Motoo Yumura; Kenji Hata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Journal of Computational Acoustics, Vol. 8, No. 1 (2000) 139156 CONTINUED-FRACTION ABSORBING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Engquist-Majda boundary conditions, their practical success is limited by the difficulties posed-FRACTION ABSORBING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR THE WAVE EQUATION MURTHY N. GUDDATI Department of Civil Engineering, North Revised 1 October 1999 Absorbing boundary conditions are generally required for numerical modeling of wave

Guddati, Murthy N.

259

A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2002 ) Deposition of PVD solar absorber coatings for high-efficiency thermal collectors...depositon of black nickel solar absorber coatings on stainless steel AISI316L for thermal...Solar selective black nickel-cobalt coatings on aluminum alloys . Sol Energy Mater Sol...

Kohei Mizuno; Juntaro Ishii; Hideo Kishida; Yuhei Hayamizu; Satoshi Yasuda; Don N. Futaba; Motoo Yumura; Kenji Hata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Cascadability and reshaping properties of a saturable absorber inserted inside a RZ transmission line for future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

absorber component cascaded into a 100-km SMF RZ transmission line in order to annihilate the ghost paid to transmission lines working at higher bit-rates, such as 160 Gbit/s [1]. However, many studies Absorber device cascaded inside a 100-km Single Mode Fiber (SMF)- based RZ transmission line cadenced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Frequencies of micronuclei in bank voles from zones of high radiation at Chernobyl, Ukraine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A population of Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) from a highly radioactive area within the Chernobyl, Ukraine exclusion zone was sampled in June 1997 and in June and October 1998. Internal radiation doses from radiocesium were estimated to be as high as 8 rads/d. Total dose, which takes into account the internal dose form radiostrontium and the surrounding environment, was estimated to be 15 to 20 rads/d. In contrast, individuals from a reference population lying outside of the exclusion zone registered negligible levels of contamination. The authors used the micronucleus test in a double-blind study to analyze blood samples from 58 individuals. They scored more than 600,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) but could not reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of micronucleated PCEs in voles exposed to radiation was equal to the frequency in unexposed voles. Results of their study stand in sharp contrast to earlier reports of increased frequencies of micronuclei in rodents exposed to fallout of the Chernobyl accident, but with radiation doses that were orders of magnitude lower than those reported here. Radio resistance and experimental methods are possible explanations for these differences in the results.

Rodgers, B.E.; Baker, R.J.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non-uniform assembly type successfully addresses the concerns of reduced control rod worth within advanced MOX assemblies because the Am/MOX hybrid fuel rods are on the periphery of the assembly. The radiotoxicity of the high level waste that must be managed from a single use of an Am/MOX hybrid batch is reduced for the first 1000 years in comparison to a regular UO{sub 2} batch. However, there is no heat-load advantage without multi-recycling the Am/MOX hybrid assemblies. As shown through numerous studies, the heterogeneous assembly model used as the basis for this research is capable of multiple recycles while still maintaining negative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity. Multi-recycling would provide an even greater reduction to the radiotoxicity of the high level waste as well as provide a heat-load advantage compared to a once through UO{sub 2} fuel cycle. (authors)

Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

266

Non-absorbable gas effect on the wavy film absorption process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the performance of the absorber determines the COP of the absorption chiller, it is important to study the heat and mass transfer characteristics for the absorber. This paper deals with the heat and mass transfer characteristics for a falling film type of absorber when non-absorbable gas (air) is present in the gas side. Since the presence of air is detrimental to the mass absorption rate, it is desired to understand its effect on the performance of the absorber for design purposes. The study is based on a mathematical model which describes the heat and mass transport for the absorption process taking place in a falling wavy film flow. The solutions are compared with the results of smooth film absorption as well as the results of wavy film absorption without the presence of non-absorbables. It is shown that waves enhance the absorption rates while the non-absorbables depress the absorption rates significantly. The present solution is found to be in good agreement with previous experimental results. The correlations for heat and mass transfer coefficients are also given.

Yang, R.; Jou, D. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

268

Radiation protection: Natural radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... radiation to which humans are exposed consists of four components - cosmic, gamma, internal, radon. The relative contribution that each makes to the sum is shown in the chart. ... but exposure of the whole body to terrestrial gamma rays and of the lungs to radon daughters are influenced by the nature and location of housing. Gamma rays are emitted ...

M. C. O'Riordan

1983-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

269

ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Patient Treatment Algorithm  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Incident Victim Incident Victim Life Threatening Problem? External Contamination External Exposure Dosimetry Internal Contamination Stabilize Medical & Incident History Admit to Controlled Area Remove Clothing (Contain) Assess & Treat Medical Condition Admit to Regular Emergency Department Evaluate for ARS & Local Radiation Injury Persistent Vomiting? Document Time to Emesis Serial CBCs with diff; Amylase/CRP qd X3d Medical Evaluation & Treatment Document with Color Photos Collect Samples & Count (Nasal/Mouth Swabs) Minimize Uptake & Facilitate Excretion ID Contaminant ID Contaminant Transfer/Discharge ID Radionuclide Call REAC/TS Call REAC/TS Call REAC/TS Assess Intake* Survey Whole Body Survey Collect samples (Nasal/Mouth Swabs) Rad Survey and Document (Priorities: 1) Wounds,

270

Waste Package Neutron Absorber, Thermal Shunt, and Fill Gas Selection Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials for neutron absorber, thermal shunt, and fill gas for use in the waste package were selected using a qualitative approach. For each component, selection criteria were identified; candidate materials were selected; and candidates were evaluated against these criteria. The neutron absorber materials evaluated were essentially boron-containing stainless steels. Two candidates were evaluated for the thermal shunt material. The fill gas candidates were common gases such as helium, argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and dry air. Based on the performance of each candidate against the criteria, the following selections were made: Neutron absorber--Neutronit A978; Thermal shunt--Aluminum 6061 or 6063; and Fill gas--Helium.

V. Pasupathi

2000-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microwave absorptions of ultrathin conductive films and designs of frequency-independent ultrathin absorbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the absorption properties of ultrathin conductive films in the microwave regime, and find a moderate absorption effect which gives rise to maximal absorbance 50% if the sheet (square) resistance of the film meets an impedance matching condition. The maximal absorption exhibits a frequency-independent feature and takes place on an extremely subwavelength scale, the film thickness. As a realistic instance, ?5 nm thick Au film is predicted to achieve the optimal absorption. In addition, a methodology based on metallic mesh structure is proposed to design the frequency-independent ultrathin absorbers. We perform a design of such absorbers with 50% absorption, which is verified by numerical simulations.

Li, Sucheng; Anwar, Shahzad; Lu, Weixin; Hang, Zhi Hong; Hou, Bo, E-mail: houbo@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: phyhoubo@gmail.com; Shen, Mingrong [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China)] [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Chin-Hua [Institute of Modern Optical Technologies and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China)] [Institute of Modern Optical Technologies and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

ZnO/Sn:In2O3 and ZnO/CdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ZnOSn:In2O3 and ZnOCdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber photovoltaics . ZnOSn:In2O3 and ZnOCdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber photovoltaics . Abstract: Band...

274

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

1998 SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Conf. Paper #332919/332742 High bandwidth tunability in a smart vibration absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a smart vibration absorber Alison B. Flatau, + Marcelo J. Dapino ++ and Frederick T. Calkins Terfenol­D vibration absorber is developed in this paper. An overview of magnetostriction including to achieve high bandwidth tunability in the performance of a Terfenol­D vibration absorber. Keywords

Flatau, Alison B.

276

Microcrystalline SiGe Absorber Layers in Thin-film Silicon Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report on physical properties of microcrystalline silicon-germanium (?c-SiGe:H) absorber layers for the use as a bottom structure in silicon based multijunction thin-film solar cells. Due to incorporation of Ge the absorption of the film is enhanced compared to pure ?c-Si:H films. This provides the opportunity to significantly reduce the absorber layer thickness. The experiments were carried out in a 13.56MHz PECVD reactor using germane, silane and hydrogen as process gases. Single layers were characterized for their optical and electrical properties. Results from single and multijunction solar cells using a ?c- SiGe:H absorbers will be shown. In tandem solar cells a reduction of about 60% of the absorber layer thickness could be reached by using SiGe alloys compared to pristine silicon tandem cells.

K.V. Maydell; K. Grunewald; M. Kellermann; O. Sergeev; P. Klement; N. Reininghaus; T. Kilper

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Stabilization techniques and silicon-germanium saturable absorbers for high repetition rate mode-locked lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The monolithic integration of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers at highest repetition rates has been prevented by Q-switching instabilities and the lack of integrable saturable absorbers to date. In this thesis we ...

Grawert, Felix Jan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate a novel in-line saturable absorber based on hollow optical fiber (HOF) filled with graphene composite for high power operation of mode-locked fiber laser. Evanescent...

Choi, Sun Young; Cho, Dae Kun; Song, Yong-Won; Oh, Kyunghwan; Kim, Kihong; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Hand-sewn gastrojejunostomy using knotless unidirectional barbed absorbable suture during laparoscopic gastric bypass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report describes the authors institutional experience using knotless unidirectional barbed absorbable suture to close the common enterotomy of the jejunojejunostomy (JJ) and to create a hand-sewn gastroj...

Ryan P. Tyner; G. Travis Clifton; Stephen J. Fenton

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.

Chojnacki, Eric P. (Woodridge, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer. 9 figs.

Chojnacki, E.P.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorb 2-year outcomes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structural Vibrations (3-0-3) Summary: of 2-DOF systems (impedance matrix, dynamic vibration absorber) 6. Multi-DOF systems (symmetry of mass... on strings, vibration of rods,...

283

Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to novel ultraviolet light absorbers having two chromophors in the same molecule, and more particularly to benzotriazole substituted dihydroxybenzophenones and acetophenones. More particularly, this invention relates to 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone which are particularly useful as an ultraviolet light absorbers.

Vogl, O.; Li, S.

1983-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

284

Laser instability and chaotic pulsation in CO/sub 2/ laser with intracavity saturable absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A CO/sub 2/ laser with a gaseous saturable absorber shows a variety of periodic self-pulsation (passive Q switching (PQS)), depending on the lasing conditions and the characteristics of the absorbing molecules. We present a novel rate-equation model that comprehensively describes the transient pulse structures of PQS in the CO/sub 2/ laser system. The numerical calculation based on the present model predicts that a chaotic PQS pulsation also is realized in a limited parameter region.

Tachikawa, M.; Tanii, K.; Shimizu, T.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Study of Flue Gas Desulfurization Absorbent Prepared from Coal Fly Ash:? Effects of the Composition of the Absorbent on the Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of calcium silicate is suggested to be predominant in a high concentration of silica, while the formation of ettringite was observed by the XRD only for the absorbent containing silica below 30%. ... ettringite ... With sample 1 containing no silica, the formation of ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12) was obvious. ...

Hiroaki Tsuchiai; Tomohiro Ishizuka; Hideki Nakamura; Tsutomu Ueno; Hideshi Hattori

1996-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi [Sumitomo Light Metal Industry, Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Ora, Gunma (Japan). Commercial Air-Conditioning Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Generic Studies of Radioactivity Induced by High-Energy Beams in Different Absorber Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accelerators / Special Issue on the 11th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and the 15th Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division (PART 3) / Radiation Protection

M. Brugger; D. Forkel-Wirth; S. Roesler

288

Radiating gravastars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considering a Vaidya exterior spacetime, we study dynamical models of prototype gravastars, made of an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = ?, enclosing an interior de Sitter spacetime. We show explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, an unstable gravastar, a stable gravastar or a 'bounded excursion' gravastar, depending on how the mass of the shell evolves in time, the cosmological constant and the initial position of the dynamical shell. This work presents, for the first time in the literature, a gravastar that emits radiation.

Chan, R. [Coordenao de Astronomia e Astrofsica, Observatrio Nacional, Rua General Jos Cristino, 77, So Cristvo 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.F.A. da [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Instituto de Fsica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua So Francisco Xavier 524, Maracan 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da [Instituto de Biocincias, Departamento de Cincias Naturais, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 458, Urca, CEP 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: jfvroch@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

Berdahl, P.H.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

291

Backscattering from dental restorations and splint materials during therapeutic radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models were constructed to simulate as closely as possible the human oral cavity. Radiation absorbed doses were determined for controls and various test situations involving the presence of dental restorative and splint materials during cobalt-60 irradiation of the models. Adjacent gold full crowns and adjacent solid dental silver amalgam cores both increased the dose to the interproximal gingivae by 20%. Use of orthodontic full bands for splinting the jaws increased the dose to the buccal tissues by an average of 10%. Augmentation of dose through backscatter radiation was determined to be only slight for intracoronal amalgam fillings and stainless steel or plastic bracket splints.

Farman, A.G.; Sharma, S.; George, D.I.; Wilson, D.; Dodd, D.; Figa, R.; Haskell, B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

9.01 - Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this chapter is to give an overview and try to show how the different interaction probabilities will influence the transport of ionizing radiation through matter. This knowledge is important in different aspects of medical applications of radiation. It has an impact in designing an optimal treatment gantry, in the choice of radiation quality, and of course when determining the absorbed dose distribution in the body. It is also important in diagnostic radiology when optimizing the image quality. Knowledge of the interaction of radiation with matter is also fundamental for understanding the biological effect of radiation and its variation with ionization density. The focus will not be on the basic physics and deriving the different cross sections but on the impact of these cross sections on imaging and therapy in medical physics applications. Ionizing radiation is normally divided into charged particles (previously called directly ionizing radiation) such as leptons, ?-particles, protons and other light ions, and uncharged particles (previously called indirectly ionizing radiation) such as photons (x-rays or ?-rays) and neutrons. This chapter will concentrate on radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, and the main part will be dedicated to electrons and photons with energies up to around 50MeV and light ions with energies up to 900MeV per nucleon. The presentation is divided into two main sections, charged particles and photons.

B. Nilsson; A. Brahme

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Natural and Radiation Carcinogenesis in Man. III. Radiation Carcinogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mice. NATURAL AND RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN. 3. RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS. | Journal Article | Japan Neoplasms etiology Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced Radiation Genetics | JAPAN NEOPLASM ETIOLOGY NEOPLASMS, RADIATION-INDUCED RADIATION...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern Zhanqing Li,1,2,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and may also affect the hydrologic cycle. By scattering and absorbing solar radiative energy, aerosols regions. The East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE on climate over China. This study presents some preliminary results using continuous high-quality

Dickerson, Russell R.

295

Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs and the EPR lithium formate dosimeters was, however, statistically significant and in agreement with the difference in relative detector responses found for the two detector systems by Carlsson Tedgren et al. [Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] and by Adolfsson et al.[Med. Phys. 37, 4946-4959 (2010)]. Conclusions: When calibrated in {sup 60}Co or MV photon beams, correction for the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of LiF:Mg,Ti detector response will be needed as to measure absorbed doses to water in a {sup 192}Ir beam with highest accuracy. Such corrections will depend on the manufacturing process (MTS-N Poland or Harshaw TLD-100) and details of the annealing and read-out schemes used.

Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun [Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

297

Radiation Safety  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

298

Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [18F]-5-fluorouracil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To estimate the radiation dose and biodistribution of 18F-5-fluorouracil ([18F]-5-FU) from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) data, and to extrapolate mouse data to human data in order to evaluate cross-species consistency. Methods Fifteen cancer patients (head and neck cancer (n=11), colon cancer (n=4)) were enrolled. Sequential PET/CT images were acquired for 2h after intravenous administration of [18F]-5-FU, and the percent of the injected dose delivered to each organ was derived. For comparison, [18F]-5-FU was administered to female BALB/cAJcl-nu/nu nude mice (n=19), and the percent of the injected dose delivered to mouse organs was extrapolated to the human model. Absorbed radiation dose was calculated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software. Results In human subjects, high [18F]-5-FU uptake was seen in the liver, gallbladder and kidneys. The absorbed dose was highest in the gallbladder wall. In mice, the biodistribution of [18F]-5-FU corresponded to that of humans. Estimated absorbed radiation doses for all organs were moderately correlated, and doses to organs (except the gallbladder and urinary bladder) were significantly correlated between mice and humans. The mean effective [18F]-5-FU dose was higher in humans (0.0124mSv/MBq) than in mice (0.0058mSv/MBq). Conclusion Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [18F]-5-FU were compared between humans and mice: biodistribution in mice and humans was similar. Data from mice underestimated the effective dose in humans, suggesting that clinical measurements are needed for more detailed dose estimation in order to ensure radiation safety. The observed effective doses suggest the feasibility of [18F]-5-FU PET/CT for human studies.

Ayako Hino-Shishikura; Akiko Suzuki; Ryogo Minamimoto; Kazuya Shizukuishi; Takashi Oka; Ukihide Tateishi; Sadatoshi Sugae; Yasushi Ichikawa; Choichi Horiuchi; Tomio Inoue

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Soil radioactivity and radiation absorbed dose rates at roadsides in high-traffic density areas in Ibadan metropolis, southwestern Nigeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......under the spectrum of the radionuclide in the standard reference sample. The standard reference soil sample prepared from Rocketdyne Laboratories (CA) is traceable to a mixed standard gamma source (Ref. No. 48722-356) by Analytic Inc. (Atlanta......

N. N. Jibiri; O. S. Bankole

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A MODEL STUDY ON THE ABSORBED DOSE OF RADIATION FOLLOWING RESPIRATORY INTAKE OF 238U3O8 AEROSOLS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......A review of depleted uranium biological effects...Forces: no evidence of depleted uranium absorption in combat...Hamdan M., Ariabi E. Cancer, infant mortality and...and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview......

Carlo Canepa

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A MODEL STUDY ON THE ABSORBED DOSE OF RADIATION FOLLOWING RESPIRATORY INTAKE OF 238U3O8 AEROSOLS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......A review of depleted uranium biological effects...Rev. Environ. Health (2007) 22...Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general...Environmental and health consequences of depleted uranium use in the 1991......

Carlo Canepa

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Design of compact micro-perforated membrane absorbers for polycarbonate pane in automobile  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycarbonate (PC) laminate is gradually substituted for the glass as window pane in automobile. Absorption performance of PC pane is poor using resin membrane between two folders of pane because of the low acoustic impedance of membrane. Micro-perforated absorbers can provide high absorption coefficients. However, the depths of air cavity were all over the 50mm in past studies. In this paper, a compact and efficient micro-perforated membrane (MPM) absorber is designed as a combination of baffle-resonator and Helmholtz-resonator with sub-millimeter holes backed by an air space. Absorption coefficients of MPM absorbers are predicted by equivalent electric-acoustic circuit analysis method. This paper presents three different MPM materials of polypropylene, polyethylene, and carbon polyester respectively. The numerical results shows that absorption performance of PC pane can be improved using double layer MPM absorber and the whole thickness of MPM absorber is not exceed 10mm to meet the structural requirement of PC pane application in automobile.

Shen Min; Kazuteru Nagamura; Noritoshi Nakagawa; Masaharu Okamura

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy and exergy analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater having different obstacles on absorber plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study experimentally investigates performance analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater (SAH) with several obstacles (Type I, Type II, Type III) and without obstacles (Type IV). Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.0074 and 0.0052kg/s. The first and second laws of efficiencies were determined for \\{SAHs\\} and comparisons were made among them. The values of first law efficiency varied between 20% and 82%. The values of second law efficiency changed from 8.32% to 44.00%. The highest efficiency were determined for the SAH with Type II absorbent plate in flow channel duct for all operating conditions, whereas the lowest values were obtained for the SAH without obstacles (Type IV). The results showed that the efficiency of the solar air collectors depends significantly on the solar radiation, surface geometry of the collectors and extension of the air flow line. The largest irreversibility was occurring at the SAH without obstacles (Type IV) collector in which collector efficiency is smallest. At the end of this study, the energy and exergy relationships are delivered for different SAHs.

Ebru Kavak Akpinar; Fatih Koyi?it

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dependence of the efficiency of a CdS/CdTe solar cell on the absorbing layer's thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of the continuity equation, the spatial distribution of photogenerated excess electrons in the neutral region of the CdTe layer in a CdS/CdTe heterostructure is analyzed taking into account recombination at the rear surface of the layer. It is demonstrated that, owing to diffusion, excess electrons penetrate deep into the CdTe layer at distances far exceeding the effective penetration length for solar radiation. Calculations of the short-circuit current indicate that, for electron lifetimes of 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9} s, typical of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells, recombination losses are insignificant if the CdTe layer's thickness amounts to 3-4 {mu}m but increase dramatically if the thickness is below 1-1.5 {mu}m. In order to eliminate recombination losses in more efficient solar cells where the electron lifetime is {>=}10{sup -8} s the absorbing CdTe layer needs to be much thicker.

Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Savchuk, A. I.; Grushko, E. V. [Chernivtsi National University (Ukraine)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light | U.S. DOE Office of Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Semiconductors Absorb Light How Semiconductors Absorb Light Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) News & Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846 E: sc.ascr@science.doe.gov More Information » March 2013 Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light Advances in how we calculate optical properties of semiconductors shorten the path to improved solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo

306

Testing Results of the Prototype Beam Absorber for the PXIE MEBT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the goals of the PXIE program at Fermilab is to demonstrate the capability to form an arbitrary bunch pattern from an initially CW 162.5 MHz H^{-} bunch train coming out of an RFQ. The bunch-by-bunch selection will take place in the 2.1 MeV Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) by directing the undesired bunches onto an absorber that needs to withstand a beam power of up to 21 kW, focused onto a spot with a ~2 mm rms radius. A prototype of the absorber was manufactured from molybdenum alloy TZM, and tested with an electron beam up to the peak surface power density required for PXIE, 17W/mm2. Temperatures and flow parameters were measured and compared to analysis. This paper describes the absorber prototype and key testing results.

Baffes, Curtis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Time-Domain Absorbing Boundary Terminations for Waveguide Ports Based on State-Space Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorbing boundary conditions for waveguide ports in time domain are important elements of transient approaches to treat RF structures. A successful way to implement these termination conditions is the decomposition of the transient fields in the absorbing plane in terms of modal field patterns. The absorbing condition is then accomplished by transferring the wave impedances (or admittances) of the modes to time domain, which leads to convolution operations involving Bessel functions and integrals of Bessel functions. This paper presents a new alternative approach: the convolution operations are approximated by appropriate state-space models whose system responses can be conveniently computed by standard integration schemes. These schemes are indispensable for transient simulations anyhow. Sufficiently far away from the cutoff frequency, a wideband match is achieved.

Flisgen, T; van Rienen, U

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Graphene-based absorber exploiting guided mode resonances in one-dimensional gratings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-dimensional dielectric grating, based on a simple geometry, is proposed and investigated to enhance light absorption in a monolayer graphene exploiting guided mode resonances. Numerical findings reveal that the optimized configuration is able to absorb up to 60% of the impinging light at normal incidence for both TE and TM polarizations resulting in a theoretical enhancement factor of about 26 with respect to the monolayer graphene absorption (about 2.3%). Experimental results confirm this behaviour showing CVD graphene absorbance peaks up to about 40% over narrow bands of few nanometers. The simple and flexible design paves the way for the realization of innovative, scalable and easy-to-fabricate graphene-based optical absorbers.

Grande, M; Stomeo, T; Bianco, G V; de Ceglia, D; Akozbek, N; Petruzzelli, V; Bruno, G; De Vittorio, M; Scalora, M; Orazio, A D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Highly-Efficient Selective Metamaterial Absorber for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, a metamaterial selective solar absorber made of nanostructured titanium gratings deposited on an ultrathin MgF2 spacer and a tungsten ground film is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Normal absorptance of the fabricated solar absorber is characterized to be higher than 90% in the UV, visible and, near infrared (IR) regime, while the mid-IR emittance is around 20%. The high broadband absorption in the solar spectrum is realized by the excitation of surface plasmon and magnetic polariton resonances, while the low mid-IR emittance is due to the highly reflective nature of the metallic components. Further directional and polarized reflectance measurements show wide-angle and polarization-insensitive high absorption within solar spectrum. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic characterization indicates that the optical properties barely change at elevated temperatures up to 350{\\deg}C. The solar-to-heat conversion efficiency with the fabricated metamaterial solar absorber is predicted to be 78%...

Wang, Hao; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary; Phelan, Patrick; Wang, Liping

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nuclear radiation electronic gear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear ... Examines the line of nuclear radiation instrumentation offered by Nuclear-Chicago Corporation and Victoreen Instrument Company. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

313

Computed phase equilibria for burnable neutron absorbing materials for advanced pressurized heavy water reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Burnable neutron absorbing materials are expected to be an integral part of the new fuel design for the Advanced CANDU[CANDU is as a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.] Reactor. The neutron absorbing material is composed of gadolinia and dysprosia dissolved in an inert cubic-fluorite yttria-stabilized zirconia matrix. A thermodynamic model based on Gibbs energy minimization has been created to provide estimated phase equilibria as a function of composition and temperature. This work includes some supporting experimental studies involving X-ray diffraction.

E.C. Corcoran; B.J. Lewis; W.T. Thompson; J. Hood; F. Akbari; Z. He; P. Reid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Studies on performance characteristics of a solar parabolic trough concentrator with a variable area absorber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design of a suitable absorber that incorporates an efficient heat transfer augmentation technique is one of the vital parameters that affect the performance of a solar parabolic trough concentrator (PTC). The variable area absorber discussed in this paper provides appreciable augmentation in heat transfer without increasing the pressure drop materially and thus helps in enhancing the performance efficiency of PTC significantly. A computer aided parametric study of this phenomena has been dealt in this paper. The performance of PTC of proposed design has been analysed mathematically and a rigorous simulation model has been developed. The mathematical analysis has been substantiated by elaborate experimental data.

C.M. Narayanan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

APPLICATION OF THE FIXED NEUTRON ABSORBER STANDARD ANSI/ANS-8.21  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The specific applications standard, ANSI/ANS-8.21, provides guidance and insight in the use of fixed neutron absorbers. Organizations involved with handling and processing fissionable material will benefit from the systematic guidance provided by the standard in implementing engineered criticality safety controls. Numerous applications have demonstrated the successful implementation of fixed neutron absorbers as engineered safety features replacing administrative controls and substantial increases in mass loading. Upgrading the scope and usefulness of the standard by expanding the appendices is in progress.

TOFFER, H.

2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

317

Deterministic chaos in passive Q-switching pulsation of a CO/sub 2/ laser with saturable absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-mode laser with a saturable absorber exhibits spontaneous pulsation in the output (passive Q switching). Period-doubling bifurcation and chaotic passive Q switching which are predicted on the basis of the recently proposed model of the laser system have been observed by use of a CO/sub 2/ laser with a formic acid absorber. This is the first experimental evidence of deterministic chaos in a single-mode laser system with a saturable absorber.

Tachikawa, M.; Hong, F.; Tanii, K.; Shimizu, T.

1988-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Study on separation of platinum group metals from high level liquid waste using macroporous (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P silica-based absorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by macroporous silica-based adsorbent, (MOTDGA-TOA)/SiO{sub 2}-P has been developed by impregnating two extractants of N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-n-octyl-thio-diglycolamide (MOTDGA) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) into a silica/polymer composite support (SiO{sub 2}-P). The adsorption of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II) have been investigated in simulated HLLW by batch method. The adsorbent has shown good uptake property for Pd(II). In addition, the combined use of MOTDGA and TOA improved the adsorption of Ru(III) and Rh(III) better than the individual use of them. The usability of adsorbent in radiation fields was further confirmed by irradiation experiments. The adsorbent remained to have the uptake capability for PGMs over the absorbed dose of 100 kGy, corresponding with one really adsorbed by the adsorbent, and showed good retention capability for Pd(II) even at the absorbed dose of 800 kGy. The chromatographic separation of metal ions was demonstrated with the adsorbent packed column, there is no influence of Re(VII) (instead of Tc) on the excellent separation behavior of Pd(II). (authors)

Ito, Tatsuya [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Xu, Yuanlai; Hitomi, Keitaro [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kimura, Takaumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibarak319-1195 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Task Task Description Sample calculations LBL-PMC Future Work High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems Jian Cai 1 Ricardo Marquez 1 Michael F. Modest 2 1 Postdoctoral Research Associate 2 Shaffer and George Professor of Engineering University of California Merced Merced, CA 95343, USA DE-FG26-10FE0003801 May 2012 - Pittsburgh 2/17 Introduction Task Description Sample calculations LBL-PMC Future Work Radiation Challenges in Multi-Phase Reacting Flows Radiative heat transfer in high temperature combustion systems Thermal radiation becomes very important at elevated temperatures Coal and hydrocarbon fuels C n H m → H 2 O, CO 2 , CO, NO x , soot, char, ash CO 2 , H 2 O, soot, char and ash strongly emit and absorb radiative energy (lower temperature levels) Radiative effects are conveniently ignored or treated with very crude models Neglecting

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Absorber processing issues in high-efficiency, thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three approaches to thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber fabrication are considered. They are generically described in terms of the sequential or concurrent nature of source material delivery, selenium delivery, and compound formation. A two-stage evaporation process successfully produced the absorber component of a world-record, 17.1{percent} efficient solar cell. Alternative approaches that reduce the requirements for high substrate temperatures are considered. The relationship between absorber process parameters, band gap profile, and device performance are examined. Engineering the [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) profile in the absorber has led to the reported advances. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Tuttle, J.R.; Gabor, A.M.; Contreras, M.A.; Tennant, A.L.; Ramanathan, K.R.; Franz, A.; Matson, R.; Noufi, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals for energy applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design and simulation of a wide angle, spectrally selective absorber/emitter metallic photonic crystal (MPhC) is presented. By using dielectric filled cavities, the angular,...

Chou, Jeffrey B; Yeng, Yi Xiang; Lenert, Andrej; Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Celanovic, Ivan; Solja?i?, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N; Kim, Sang-Gook

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

A Study of Heat Transfer in a Composite Wall Collector System with Porous Absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, heat transfer and flow in a composite solar wall with porous absorber has been studied. The unsteady numerical simulation is employed to analyze the performance of the flow and temperature field in the composite solar wall. The excess...

Chen, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Flow distribution in a solar collector panel with horizontally inclined absorber strips  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontally inclined strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5m2 solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured temperatures are compared to the temperatures determined by the CFD model and there is a good similarity between the measured and calculated results. Calculations with the CFD model elucidate the flow and temperature distribution in the collector. The influences of different operating conditions such as flow rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar collector fluid, and by increased collector tilt and inlet temperature, the flow distribution gets worse resulting in an increased risk of boiling in the upper part of the collector panel.

Jianhua Fan; Louise Jivan Shah; Simon Furbo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS Ivan (IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A - 43124 Parma, Italy ABSTRACT: The application of copper in the CdTe back contact is believed to be crucial to form an ohmic contact with CdTe. On the other hand it has

Romeo, Alessandro

326

Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates/fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates/fibers and fiber ends. We applied them to the mode-locked fiber lasers. #12;1. Introduction Carbon nanotubes and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers S. Yamashita(1) , S. Maruyama(2) , Y. Murakami(2) , Y. Inoue(1) , H

Maruyama, Shigeo

327

NREL Highlights SCIENCE Use of Earth-abundant materials in solar absorber films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NREL Highlights SCIENCE Use of Earth-abundant materials in solar absorber films is critical of these materials could open new opportunities for introducing thin-film solar technologies that combine both low near the FeS2 thin-film surfaces and grain boundaries that limit its open-circuit voltage, rather than

328

Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

329

Arain garden is a planted depression that is designed to absorb rainwater runoff from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rain gardens Arain garden is a planted depression that is designed to absorb rainwater runoff from research opportunities for students and faculty studying urban ecosystems. Campus stormwater projects to the campus environment. Cisterns collect rainfall from buildings and other impervious surfaces for reuse

Scott, Robert A.

330

Conceptual design of quadriso particles with europium burnable absorber in HTRS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In High Temperature Reactors, burnable absorbers are utilized to manage the excess reactivity at the early stage of the fuel cycle. In this study QUADRISO particles are proposed to manage the initial xcess reactivity of High Temperature Reactors. The QUADRISO concept synergistically couples the decrease of the burnable poison with the decrease of the fissile materials at the fuel particle level. This echanism is set up by introducing a burnable poison layer around the fuel kernel in ordinary TRISO particles or by mixing the burnable poison with any of the TRISO coated layers. At the beginning of life, the nitial excess reactivity is small because some neutrons are absorbed in the burnable poison and they are prevented from entering the fuel kernel. At the end of life, when the absorber is almost depleted, ore eutrons stream into the fuel kernel of QUADRISO particles causing fission reactions. The mechanism has been applied to a prismatic High Temperature Reactor with europium or erbium burnable absorbers, showing a significant reduction in the initial excess reactivity of the core.

Talamo, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

331

Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range Eden Rephaeli1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range Eden Rephaeli1,a of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2936997 In solar-thermal applications, one aims to convert sun- light to heat that displays near-complete absorptivity throughout the entire solar spectrum over a wide angular range

Fan, Shanhui

332

ENVISAT Symposium 2007 Montreux, 26 April 2007 The Relationship Between Absorbing Aerosols And Clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: aerosols over cloud #12;Solar irradiance I [W m-2 nm-1 ] Absorbed energy 25.6 Wm-2 Reflectance R I . 0E0 R aerosol / cloud layer #12; SCIAMACHY sees smoke in cloudy scene biomass burning in SW Africa, 09

Graaf, Martin de

333

Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Environmental Radioactivity 60 (2002) 293305 Absorbed dose delivered by alpha particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Received 5, and two different cases have been considered, namely the near- wall and far-wall cases. The total energy can be solved numerically. The absorbed dose is found to be independent of the diameter of the sphere

Yu, K.N.

335

ExperimentalVerification of Vibration Absorbers Combinedwith Input Shaping for Oscillatory Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ExperimentalVerification of Vibration Absorbers Combinedwith Input Shaping for Oscillatory Systems of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 ABSTRACT Systems that exhibit flexible dynamics are susceptible to vibration choice to deal with these vibrations, but in many cases, it is insufficient or difficult to implement

Singhose, William

336

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

337

Depth absorbed dose and LET distributions of therapeutic {sup 1}H, {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 12}C beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The depth absorbed dose and LET (linear energy transfer) distribution of different ions of clinical interest such as {sup 1}H, {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 12}C ions have been investigated using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT. The energies of the projectiles correspond to ranges in water and soft tissue of approximately 260 mm. The depth dose distributions of the primary particles and their secondaries have been calculated and separated with regard to their low and high LET components. A LET value below 10 eV/nm can generally be regarded as low LET and sparsely ionizing like electrons and photons. The high LET region may be assumed to start at 20 eV/nm where on average two double-strand breaks can be formed when crossing the periphery of a nucleosome, even though strictly speaking the LET limits are not sharp and ought to vary with the charge and mass of the ion. At the Bragg peak of a monoenergetic high energy proton beam, less than 3% of the total absorbed dose is comprised of high LET components above 20 eV/nm. The high LET contribution to the total absorbed dose in the Bragg peak is significantly larger with increasing ion charge as a natural result of higher stopping power and lower range straggling. The fact that the range straggling and multiple scattering are reduced by half from hydrogen to helium increases the possibility to accurately deposit only the high LET component in the tumor with negligible dose to organs at risk. Therefore, the lateral penumbra is significantly improved and the higher dose gradients of {sup 7}Li and {sup 12}C ions both longitudinally and laterally will be of major advantage in biological optimized radiation therapy. With increasing charge of the ion, the high LET absorbed dose in the beam entrance and the plateau regions where healthy normal tissues are generally located is also increased. The dose distribution of the high LET components in the {sup 7}Li beam is only located around the Bragg peak, characterized by a Gaussian-type distribution. Furthermore, the secondary particles produced by high energy {sup 7}Li ions in tissuelike media have mainly low LET character both in front of and beyond the Bragg peak.

Kempe, Johanna; Gudowska, Irena; Brahme, Anders [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

A HIGH RESOLUTION VIEW OF THE WARM ABSORBER IN THE QUASAR MR 2251-178  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the warm absorber in a nearby quasar, MR 2251-178 (z = 0.06398), is presented. The observations were carried out in 2011 using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer, with net exposure times of approximately 400 ks each. A multitude of absorption lines from C to Fe are detected, revealing at least three warm absorbing components ranging in ionization parameter from log (?/erg cm s{sup 1}) = 1-3 with outflow velocities ?< 500 km s{sup 1}. The lowest ionization absorber appears to vary between the Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, which implies a radial distance of between 9 and 17 pc from the black hole. Several broad soft X-ray emission lines are strongly detected, most notably from He-like oxygen, with FWHM velocity widths of up to 10,000 km s{sup 1}, consistent with an origin from broad-line region (BLR) clouds. In addition to the warm absorber, gas partially covering the line of sight to the quasar appears to be present, with a typical column density of N{sub H} = 10{sup 23} cm{sup 2}. We suggest that the partial covering absorber may arise from the same BLR clouds responsible for the broad soft X-ray emission lines. Finally, the presence of a highly ionized outflow in the iron K band from both the 2002 and 2011 Chandra HETG observations appears to be confirmed, which has an outflow velocity of 15600 2400 km s{sup 1}. However, a partial covering origin for the iron K absorption cannot be excluded, resulting from low ionization material with little or no outflow velocity.

Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Porquet, D. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universit, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Braito, V. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46 I-23807 Merate (Italy); Turner, T. J. [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Crenshaw, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Kraemer, S. B., E-mail: j.n.reeves@keele.ac.uk [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

339

Bio-Rad Laboratories D i a b e t e s / H e m o g l o b i n C o n t r o l s Meter TraxTM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-Rad Laboratories D i a b e t e s / H e m o g l o b i n C o n t r o l s Meter TraxTM Control #12;D i a b e t e s / H e m o g l o b i n C o n t r o l s Meter TraxTM Control Ordering Information Cat # Meter TraxTM Control Quantity 970 Trilevel(2ofeachlevel

Rodriguez, Carlos

340

Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin ???????¢???????????????? Madison under Dr. Turner???????¢????????????????s direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to marine biota and human consumers of seafood 10.1073/pnas.1221834110 Nicholas...radionuclides are in human food items such as seafood. Although statements were released by...or for human consumers of contaminated seafood. We have therefore calculated the radiation doses absorbed by diverse marine...

Nicholas S. Fisher; Karine Beaugelin-Seiller; Thomas G. Hinton; Zofia Baumann; Daniel J. Madigan; Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

343

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation emitted by the earth. This instrument is onboard a European Union geostationary weather satellite launched in December 2005; it is collecting data over Niamey and the...

344

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

345

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................... .. Dose Conversion Factors for Geometric Phantoms ............................ .. Dose Coefficients ....................................................................... Conversion of Fluence to Dose ............................................... . Local Dosimetric Quantities ....................................................... .. Energy Imparted and Absorbed Dose ............................................ .. Kerma

Shultis, J. Kenneth

346

Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

349

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

350

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Building the bridge between Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers and Lyman Break galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2000, we started the program ``Building the Bridge between Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers and Lyman-Break Galaxies: Ly-alpha Selection of Galaxies'' at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This project is an attempt to use Ly-alpha selection of high-z galaxies to bridge the gap between absorption- and emission-selected galaxies by creating a large database of z=3 galaxies belonging to the abundant population of faint (R>25.5) galaxies probed by the Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers (DLAs). Here we present the first results of our program, namely the results from a deep Ly-alpha study of the field of the z=2.85 DLA towards Q2138-4427.

J. P. U. Fynbo; C. Ledoux; P. Moller; B. Thomsen; I. Burud; B. Leibundgut

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Method for fabricating reticles for EUV lithography without the use of a patterned absorber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Absorber material used in conventional EUVL reticles is eliminated by introducing a direct modulation in the complex-valued reflectance of the multilayer. A spatially localized energy source such as a focused electron or ion beam directly writes a reticle pattern onto the reflective multilayer coating. Interdiffusion is activated within the film by an energy source that causes the multilayer period to contract in the exposed regions. The contraction is accurately determined by the energy dose. A controllable variation in the phase and amplitude of the reflected field in the reticle plane is produced by the spatial modulation of the multilayer period. This method for patterning an EUVL reticle has the advantages of (1) avoiding the process steps associated with depositing and patterning an absorber layer and (2) providing control of the phase and amplitude of the reflected field with high spatial resolution.

Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA)

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Use of eigenfunctions for solving radiation transfer in anisotropically scattering, plane?parallel media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiation transfer in an absorbing emitting gray anisotropicallyscattering plane?parallel medium is solved by using the naturally occurring eigenfunctions and expressions for the forward and backward radiation intensities the incident radiation and forward and backward radiation heat fluxes are presented. To illustrate the method of solution the situation involving an externally incident isotropic radiation at the boundary surfacex=0 and no energy sources in the medium is considered for the cases of four different scattering phase functions. It is shown that the convergence to the exact results is fast and that lower order approximations are accurate. In addition the present method of solution has an excellent potential for generalization to problems of plane?parallel media without azimuthal symmetry and to problems in cylindrical and spherical geometries.

S. T. Thynell; M. N. zi?ik

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

355

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

356

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

357

Ly-alpha Emission from a Lyman Limit Absorber at z=3.036  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep, 17.8 hours, narrow band imaging obtained at the ESO 3.5m New Technology Telescope has revealed extended (galaxy sized) Ly-alpha emission from a high redshift Lyman limit absorber. The absorber is a z(abs) approx. z(em) Lyman limit absorber seen in the spectrum of Q1205-30 at z(em)=3.036. The Ly-alpha luminosity of the emission line object is 12-14 x 10e41 h^-2 erg/s for Omega(matter)=1. The size and morphology of the Ly-alpha emitter are both near--identical to those of a previously reported emission line object associated with a DLA at z=1.934 (Fynbo et al. 1999a), suggesting a close connection between Lyman limit absorbers and DLAs. We also detect six candidate Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in the surrounding field at projected distances of 156-444 h^-1 kpc with Ly-alpha luminosities ranging from 3.3 to 9.5 x 10e41 h^-2 erg/s for Omega(matter)=1. Assuming no obscuration of Ly-alpha photons by dust this corresponds to star formation rates in the range 0.3-0.9 h^-2 M(sun)/yr. Comparing this to the the Lyman break galaxies in current ground based samples only make up the very bright end of the high redshift galaxy luminosity function. A significant, and possibly dominating, population of high redshift galaxies are not found in the ground based Lyman break surveys.

J. U. Fynbo; B. Thomsen; P. Moller

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

Real-time determination of free energy and losses in optical absorbing media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce notions of free energy and loss in linear, absorbing dielectric media which are relevant to the regime in which the macroscopic Maxwell equations are themselves relevant. As such we solve a problem eluded to by Landau and Lifshitz in 1958, and later considered explicitly by Barash and Ginzburg, and Oughtsun and Sherman. As such we provide physically-relevant real-time notions of "energy" and "loss" in all analogous linear dissipative systems.

C. Broadbent; G. Hovhannisyan; J. Peatross; M. Clayton; S. Glasgow

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

Discovery of a Metal-Line Absorber Associated with a Local Dwarf Starburst Galaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present optical and near-infrared images, H I 21 cm emission maps, optical spectroscopy, and Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ultraviolet spectroscopy of the QSO/galaxy pair SBS 1122+594/IC 691. The QSO sight line lies at a position angle of 27 degrees from the minor axis of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC 691 (cz_gal = 1204+-3 km/s, L_B ~ 0.09 L*, current star formation rate = 0.08-0.24 solar masses per year) and 33 kpc (6.6 arcmin) from its nucleus. We find that IC 691 has an H I mass of M_HI = (3.6+-0.1) x 10^8 solar masses and a dynamical mass of M_dyn = (3.1+-0.5) x 10^10 solar masses. The UV spectrum of SBS 1122+594 shows a metal-line (Ly-alpha + C IV) absorber near the redshift of IC 691 at cz_abs = 1110+-30 km/s. Since IC 691 is a dwarf starburst and the SBS 1122+594 sight line lies in the expected location for an outflowing wind, we propose that the best model for producing this metal-line absorber is a starburst wind from IC 691. We place consistent metallicity limits on IC 691 ([Z/Zsun] ~ -0.7) and the metal-line absorber ([Z/Zsun] velocity at the absorber location is v_esc = 80+-10 km/s and derive a wind velocity of v_w = 160+-50 km/s. Thus, the evidence suggests that IC 691 produces an unbound starburst wind that escapes from its gravitational potential to transport metals and energy to the surrounding intergalactic medium.

Brian A. Keeney; John T. Stocke; Jessica L. Rosenberg; Jason Tumlinson; Donald G. York

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

A determination of the power absorbed by flat disks rotating in a liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A DETERMINATION OF THE POWER ABSORBED BY FLAT DISKS ROTATING IN A LIQUID A Thesis JOHN ROBERT NASSEY Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee ~c, Pr. ~ ~a ~- Head of De@'artment of Mechanical Engineering A DETERMINATION... August l952 Ma)or Sub]ectt Mechanical Engineering AC KIOWLEDOWEKT The writer wishes to express appreciation for advice and enoouragement reoeived during the preparation of this thesis from Professors E, S. Holdredge and R. M. Wlngren, TABLF. OF CO...

Massey, John Robert

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser using semiconductor saturable absorber R. Fluck,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD grown InGaAsP/InP semiconductor saturable absorber mirror an InGaAsP/InP SESAM to obtain a higher modulation depth than for an InGaAs/GaAs SESAM.15 The InGaAsP coupler and the SESAM. The ytterbium codoping of the glass makes possible the efficient absorption

Keller, Ursula

362

Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

An overview of the development, testing, and application of composite absorbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although inorganic exchangers offer many advantages for removing selected elements from radioactive waste streams, few of these materials are suitable for use in packed-bed columns. We review various adaptations of inorganic exchangers for use in columns, which include granular forms of the intrinsic absorbers, absorber compounds supported on other materials, and composite absorbers that use organic or inorganic binders. An organic binding polymer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), developed at the Czech Technical University, has been demonstrated to offer advantages. We describe general methods for preparing inorganic exchange materials, which then are incorporated into PAN-based composites. Such PAN composites have been used to remove selected radionuclides from a variety of liquid waste streams. Sixteen different PAN composites were prepared for testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of an evaluation of potential partitioning agents for remediating the liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington. Our collaboration with LANL is expected to continue for another 2 years.

Sebesta, F. [Czech Technical Univ., Brehova (Czech Republic); John, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A DUSTY Mg II ABSORBER ASSOCIATED WITH THE QUASAR SDSS J003545.13+011441.2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a dusty Mg II absorber associated with the quasar SDSS J003545.13+011441.2 (hereafter J0035+0114) at z = 1.5501, the strongest of the three Mg II absorbers along the sight line of the quasar. The two low-redshift intervening absorbers are at z = 0.7436 and 0.5436. Based on the photometric and spectroscopic data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we infer that the rest-frame color excess E(B - V) due to the associated dust is more than 0.07 by assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) type extinction curve. Our follow-up moderate resolution spectroscopic observation with the ESI spectrometer at the 10 m Keck telescope enables us to reliably identify most of the important metal elements, such as Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Al, Si, Cr, and Ni, in the associated system. We measure the column density of each species and detect significant dust depletion. In addition, we develop a simulation technique to gauge the significance of a 2175 A dust absorption bump in the SDSS quasar spectra. By using this technique, we analyze the SDSS spectrum of J0035+0114 for the presence of an associated 2175 A extinction feature and report a tentative detection at a {approx}2{sigma} significant level.

Jiang, P.; Lu, H. L.; Zhou, H. Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Ge, J. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P. O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prochaska, J. X. [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kulkarni, V. P., E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Impact of strongly absorbing experiments in the HFIR reflector on control plate strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several improvements in the experimental irradiation facilities of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) were incorporated at the time of its restart in 1989 in order to enhance its capabilities for materials irradiations. One improvement that is of particular interest in regard to its impact on the reactor`s nuclear characteristics is the increase in number and size of the larger irradiation holes in the HFIR`s removable beryllium reflector (RB). A principal use for these larger-diameter holes has been to accommodate spectrally tailored materials irradiations where fast neutron reactions are of principal interest and the suppression of thermal neutron reactions is important to the interpretation of the results. Such experiments typically require thermal neutron-absorbing shrouds around the experimental capsules. Reactor operation with strong thermal neutron absorbers directly outboard of the control elements has significant impact on core power distribution, cycle length, control rod worths, and on other experimental facilities nearby. This paper specifically discusses the impacts on control rod strength due to the strong localized thermal neutron absorbers.

Rothrock, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

An active wave generatingabsorbing boundary condition for VOF type numerical model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of the present work is to discuss the implementation of an active wave generatingabsorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces. First an overview of the development of VOF type models with special emphasis in the field of coastal engineering is given. A new type of numerical boundary condition for combined wave generation and absorption in the numerical model \\{VOFbreak2\\} is presented. The numerical boundary condition is based on an active wave absorption system that was first developed in the context of physical wave flume experiments, using a wave paddle. The method applies to regular and irregular waves. Velocities are measured at one location inside the computational domain. The reflected wave train is separated from the incident wave field in front of a structure by means of digital filtering and subsequent superposition of the measured velocity signals. The incident wave signal is corrected, so that the reflected wave is effectively absorbed at the boundary. The digital filters are derived theoretically and their practical design is discussed. The practical use of this numerical boundary condition is compared to the use of the absorption system in a physical wave flume. The effectiveness of the active wave generatingabsorbing boundary condition finally is proved using analytical tests and numerical simulations with VOFbreak2.

Peter Troch; Julien De Rouck

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

MHK Technologies/Multi Absorbing Wave Energy Converter MAWEC | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Absorbing Wave Energy Converter MAWEC Absorbing Wave Energy Converter MAWEC < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Multi Absorbing Wave Energy Converter MAWEC.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Leancon Wave Energy Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Leancon Real Sea Test Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1-3: Discovery / Concept Definition / Early Stage Development & Design & Engineering Technology Description MAWEC is an OWC wave energy converter that works differently from other OWCs in that it concurrently utilizes pressure and suck. This gives the wanted effect that the vertical force on the WEC is zero when the WEC stretches over more than one wave length. The device is V-shaped and oriented perpendicular to wave direction. The device consists of a number of vertical air tubes, and when a wave passes, air is pushed into a pressure channel that sucks air out of the suck channel. During one wave period each tube (120 in total) goes through a sequence where air is first pushed into a pressure channel when the wave is rising and is later sucked from the pressure channel when the wave is falling. In this situation there is constant pressure in the pressure channel and the air flow through the turbines is constant.

369

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

370

RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

Crane, T.W.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

372

Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

Crane, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Sinusoidal self-modulation in the output of a CO/sub 2/ laser with an intracavity saturable absorber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conditions under which a sinusoidally modulated laser output occurs in a CO/sub 2/ laser with a saturable absorber were studied experimentally and theoretically for a wide range of laser operating parameters. A novel type of transition between stability and instability appears in the high-pressure range of the saturable absorber. Through the rate-equation analysis based on the three-level (the gain medium): two-level (the loss medium) model, the observed pulse shapes and the features of transitions in the phase diagram are reproducible. The conditions of saturable absorbers to obtain the sinusoidal are clarified from the analysis.

Tanii, K.; Tachikawa, M.; Kajita, M.; Shimizu, T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Radioactivity and Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

375

Radiation exposure during liver surgery after treatment with 90Y microspheres, evaluated with computer simulations and dosimeter measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose. Two patients with liver tumours were planned for a combined treatment, including surgery with preceding injections of ?? radiation emitting 90Y microspheres (SIRTEX). The aim of this paper is to present a method of pre-surgical computer simulations of the absorbed dose rate on the surface of tumour tissue, combined with measurements of the actual absorbed dose rate on resected tissue, in order to estimate the absorbed dose to a surgeon's fingers during such surgery procedures. Methods and Materials. The dose rates from ?? radiation on the surface of tumour tissue were simulated with the software VARSKINMod2. The activity concentrations in tumours were estimated, based on SPECT/CT distribution studies of 99mTc-MAA and confirmed by SPECT/CT bremsstrahlung studies of 90Y microspheres. The activity distributions were considered as homogeneous within the tumour regions. The absorbed dose rates at different tumour tissue spots were calculated based on measurements with thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD) fastened on resected tissue. Results. The simulations showed a good agreement with the averaged absorbed dose rates based on TLD measurements performed on resected tissue, differing by 13% and 4% respectively. The absorbed dose rates at the measured maximum hotspots were twice as high as the average dose rates for both patients. Conclusion. The data is not sufficient in order to draw any general conclusions about dose rates on tumour tissue during similar surgeries, neither about the influence of dose rate heterogeneities nor about average dose rates. However, the agreement between simulations and measurements on these limited data indicate that this approach is a promising method for estimations of the radiation exposure to the surgeons' fingers during this kind of surgery procedure. More data from similar surgeries are necessary in order to validate the method.

Jonas Hgberg; Magnus Rizell; Ragnar Hultborn; Johanna Svensson; Olof Henrikson; Peter Gjertsson; Peter Bernhardt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Processing RADS Data LAXMIKANT DHAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the free space speed of light c Rj, j=1,.... a;7 Introduction Altimetry is a technique for measuring height. Satellite altimetry measures the time taken. Combined with precise satellite location data, altimetry measurements yield sea-surface heights. Altimetry

Kurapov, Alexander

378

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

379

1998 SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Conf. Paper #3329-19/3327-42 High bandwidth tunability in a smart vibration absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a smart vibration absorber Alison B. Flatau, Marcelo J. Dapino and Frederick T. Calkinsà , Aerospace Engr, Phantom Works, Seattle WA 98124-2499 ABSTRACT The theory of an electrically tunable Terfenol-D vibration bandwidth tunability in the performance of a Terfenol-D vibration absorber. Keywords: vibration absorber

Flatau, Alison B.

380

Cancer incidence in areas with elevated levels of natural radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been reported that on reaching a certain level of cell damage the production of repair enzymes is triggered which decreases the chromosome aberrations. If this happens, prolonged exposure to high levels of natural radiation in areas with elevated levels of background radiation could decrease the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Recent epidemiological studies indicated that there is an increased risk of cancer in healthy individuals with high levels of chromosomal aberrations. Studies performed in Nordic countries as well as Italy, showed that increased levels of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes can be used to predict cancer risk in humans. One may conclude that a dose of ionising radiation sufficient to produce a certain level of cell damage increases production of antioxidants and repair enzymes that decrease either the frequency of chromosome aberrations or the cancer risk. People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation dose from background radiation that is more than five times higher than the 20 mSv. Yr-1 that is permitted for radiation workers. Inhabitants of Ramsar have lived for many generations in these high background areas. If an annual radiation dose of a few hundred mSv is detrimental to health, causing genetic abnormalities or an increased risk of cancer, it should be evident in these people. The absorbed dose rate in some high background radiation areas of Ramsar is approximately 55-200 times higher than that of the average global dose rate. It has been reported that 3??8% of all cancers are caused by current levels of ionising radiation. If this estimation were true, all the inhabitants of such an area with extraordinary elevated levels of natural radiation would have died of cancer. Our cytogenetic studies show no significant differences between people in the high background area compared to people in normal background areas. As there was no increased level of chromosome aberrations, it may be predicted that the cancer incidence is not higher than in the neighbouring areas with a normal background radiation level. Although there is not yet solid epidemiological information, most local physicians in Ramsar report anecdotally that there is no increase in the incidence rates of cancer or leukemia in their area. There are no data to indicate a significant increase of cancer incidence in other high background radiation areas (HBRAs). Furthermore, several studies show a significant decrease of cancer death rates in areas with high backgrounds. It can be concluded that prolonged exposure to high levels of natural radiation possibly triggers processes such as the production of antioxidants and repair enzymes, which decreases the frequency of chromosome aberrations and the cancer incidence rate.

S.M.J. Mortazavi; M. Ghiassi-Nejad; P.A. Karam; T. Ikushima; A. Niroomand-Rad; J.R. Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Identification and measurement of neutron-absorbing elements on Mercury's David J. Lawrence a,*, William C. Feldman b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification and measurement of neutron-absorbing elements on Mercury's surface David J. Lawrence be an important discriminator for testing whether Mercury's high bulk metal fraction stemmed from aerodynamic drag

Nittler, Larry R.

382

Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we demonstrate comprehensive studies on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based saturable absorbers (SA) for mode-locking of Er-doped fiber lasers. The...

Sobon, Grzegorz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Jagiello, Joanna; Kozinski, Rafal; Zdrojek, Mariusz; Holdynski, Marcin; Paletko, Piotr; Boguslawski, Jakub; Lipinska, Ludwika; Abramski, Krzysztof M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

MAGIICAT II. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Mg II ABSORBING CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the Mg II absorbing circumgalactic medium (CGM) for the 182 intermediate redshift (0.072 ? z ? 1.120) galaxies in the 'Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog' (MAGIICAT). We parameterize the anti-correlation between equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), and impact parameter, D, with a log-linear fit, and show that a power law poorly describes the data. We find that higher luminosity galaxies have larger W{sub r} (2796) at larger D (4.3?). The covering fractions, f{sub c} , decrease with increasing D and W{sub r} (2796) detection threshold. Higher luminosity galaxies have larger f{sub c} ; no absorption is detected in lower luminosity galaxies beyond 100 kpc. Bluer and redder galaxies have similar f{sub c} for D < 100 kpc, but for D > 100 kpc, bluer galaxies have larger f{sub c} , as do higher redshift galaxies. The 'absorption radius', R(L) = R{sub *}(L/L*){sup ?}, which we examine for four different W{sub r} (2796) detection thresholds, is more luminosity sensitive to the B-band than the K-band, more sensitive for redder galaxies than for bluer galaxies, and does not evolve with redshift for the K-band, but becomes more luminosity sensitive toward lower redshift for the B-band. These trends clearly indicate a more extended Mg II absorbing CGM around higher luminosity, bluer, and higher redshift galaxies. Several of our findings are in conflict with other works. We address these conflicts and discuss the implications of our results for the low-ionization, intermediate redshift CGM.

Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G., E-mail: nnielsen@nmsu.edu, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu, E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

384

Photochemical synthesis of disilane from silane with infrared laser radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report the clean and efficient conversion of silane to disilane by CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. The direct irradiation of pure silane at high pressures (from 75 to 1,700 Torr) converts silane to disilane with high selectivity and with efficient use of the absorbed laser radiation. Hydrogen is the only other major volatile product, and the production of solid products is minimal. The proposed mechanism of the photochemical reaction includes (1) collisionally enhanced absorption of the laser radiation by silane, (2) collisional deexcitation of the vibrationally excited silane, (3) concurrent decomposition to SiH{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, (4) production of vibrationally excited disilane by SiH{sub 2} insertion into a silane Si-H bond, (5) collisional quenching of the excited disilane, and (6) rapid cooling of the irradiated gas by thermal expansion. They support the proposed mechanism by additional experiments and model calculations.

Zavelovich, J. (Amoco Technology Co., Naperville, IL (USA)); Lyman, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

385

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Effect of Angle of Incidence of Sun Rays on the Bending of Absorber Tube of Solar Parabolic Trough Concentrator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In a parabolic trough system, the solar flux distribution on the surface of absorber tube is non-uniform which results in circumferential temperature gradient. Thus, bending moment is induced and leads to the deflection in absorber tube from the focal line of trough. It is concluded that during zero angle of incidence of sun rays (angle made by sun rays with trough's aperture normal), absorber tube will not deflect from the focal line. However, during non-zero angle of incidence, the absorber tube will deflect. It is because of the fact that during non-zero angle of incidence, the absorber tube does not receive any concentrated flux near the end facing the sun. In the current work, an analytical expression is derived for finding the deflection in the central axis of absorber tube from the focal line of trough. Results for deflection are plotted for different values of angle of incidence taking the dimensions of LS3 parabolic trough with Schott 2008 PTR70 receiver.

Sourav Khanna; Suneet Singh; Shireesh B. Kedare

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A particle can indeed absorb more than the light incident on it. Metallic particles at ultraviolet frequencies are one class of such particles and insulating particles at infrared frequencies are another. In the former strong absorption is associated with excitation of surface plasmons; in the latter it is associated with excitation of surfacephonons. In both instances the target area a particle presents to incident light can be much greater than its geometrical cross?sectional area. This is strikingly evident from the field lines of the Poynting vector in the vicinity of a small sphere illuminated by a plane wave.

Craig F. Bohren

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.420?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

389

Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anthropogenic NO Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for NO 2 column retrievals, and, secondly, its radiative forcing calculated as difference between integral solar fluxes absorbed in the atmosphere with and without NO 2 under given air mass or the sun zenith angle.

390

Multisection gas counters for spectral studies of weak pulse x-radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes two multisection gas counters for recording pulse x-radiation. The first design is a set of eight tandem cylindrical gas counters and the second design is a sixsection gas scintillation counter. These detectors measure the free path length of radiation in the gas filling them, form the measurement data using the maximum-liklihood method, and a computer satisfactorily reconstructs the x-ray spectra, when the total number of absorbed photons Np about 10/sup 2/ for one pulse with a duration of less than or equal to 1 usec.

Bogomolov, G.D.; Kravchenko, N.A.; Peskov, V.D.; Podolyak, E.R.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

392

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Dose-Rate Dependence of High-Dose Health Effects in Humans from Photon Radiation with Application to Radiological Terrorism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1981, as part of a symposium entitled ''The Control of Exposure of the Public to Ionizing Radiation in the Event of Accident or Attack,'' Lushbaugh, H?bner, and Fry published a paper examining ''radiation tolerance'' of various human health endpoints as a function of dose rate. This paper may not have received the notice it warrants. The health endpoints examined by Lushbaugh et al. were the lethal dose that will kill 50% of people within 60 days of exposure without medical care (LD50/60); severe bone marrow damage in healthy men; severe bone marrow damage in leukemia patients; temporary sterility (azoospermia); reduced male fertility; and late effects such as cancer. Their analysis was grounded in extensive clinical experience and anchored to a few selected data points, and based on the 1968 dose-rate dependence theory of J.L. Bateman. The Lushbaugh et al. paper did not give predictive equations for the relationships, although they were implied in the text, and the relationships were presented in a non-intuitive way. This work derives the parameters needed in Bateman's equation for each health endpoint, tabulates the results, and plots them in a more conventional manner on logarithmic scales. The results give a quantitative indication of how the human organism can tolerate more radiation dose when it is delivered at lower dose rates. For example, the LD50/60 increases from about 3 grays (300 rads) when given at very high dose rates to over 10 grays (1,000 rads) when given at much lower dose rates over periods of several months. The latter figure is borne out by the case of an individual who survived for at least 19 years after receiving doses in the range of 9 to 17 grays (900-1700 rads) over 106 days. The Lushbaugh et al. work shows the importance of sheltering when confronted with long-term exposure to radiological contamination such as would be expected from a radiological dispersion event, reactor accident, or ground-level nuclear explosion.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

396

Radiation.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An average American's exposure is about 620 millirems per year from naturally occurring and other sources. Other Factors Background radiation varies with location....

397

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

398

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................... 8 2.6 RUA Holder........................................................................................................ 11 3.3 Radiation Use Authorization (RUA).......................................................................................... 11 3.4 Review of RUA Applications

California at Irvine, University of

399

Radiative polarization of electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new method of calculating the radiative polarization of electrons in homogeneous magnetic fields, using the modified electron propagation function.

Julian Schwinger and Wu-yang Tsai

1974-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

A high-spectral-resolution radiative transfer model for simulating multi-layered clouds and aerosols in the infrared spectral region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fast and flexible model is developed to simulate the transfer of thermal infrared radiation at wavenumbers from 700 to 1300 cm?1 with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm?1 for scattering/absorbing atmospheres. In a single run and at multiple user-...

Chenxi Wang; Ping Yang; Xu Liu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

402

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

403

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

404

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

405

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

406

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies G. M. McFarquhar and T. Nousiainen Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois M. S. Timlin, S. F. Iacobellis, and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cloud radiative feedback is the most important effect determining climate response to human activity. Ice clouds reflect solar radiation and absorb thermal emission from the ground and the lower atmosphere and emit infrared radiation to space. The representation of these processes in models affects future climate predictions and there is much uncertainty in the representation of these processes. The size and

408

New search strategy for high z intervening absorbers: GRB021004, a pilot study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present near-infrared narrow- and broad-band imaging of the field of GRB021004, performed with ISAAC on the UT1 of the ESO Very Large Telescope. The narrow-band filters were chosen to match prominent emission lines at the redshift of the absorption-line systems found against the early-time afterglow of GRB021004: [OIII] at z=1.38 and Halpha at z=1.60, respectively. For the z=1.38 system we find an emission-line source at an impact parameter of 16", which is somewhat larger than the typical impact parameters of a sample of MgII absorbers at redshifts around unity. Assuming that this tentative redshift-identification is correct, the star formation rate of the galaxy is 13 +- 2 Msun/year. Our study reaches star-formation rate limits (5 sigma) of 5.7 Msun/year at z=1.38, and 7.7 Msun/year at z=1.60. These limits correspond to a depth of roughly 0.13 L*. Any galaxy counterpart of the absorbers nearer to the line of sight either has to be fainter than this limit or not be an emission-line source.

P. M. Vreeswijk; P. Moller; J. P. U. Fynbo

2003-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

Technique-dependent decrease in thyroid absorbed dose for dental radiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A LiF thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) system, calibrated in the tissue of interest with the beam used for experimentation, was employed to investigate dosages (muGy) to the thyroid region of an anthropomorphic phantom resultant from two dental complete-mouth radiographic procedures. Both techniques were compared in terms of dosages associated with combinations of lead apron and thyroid collar shielding while using a 70-kVp or 90-kVp x-ray beam for a 20-film complete-mouth series. Lead shielding significantly decreased the dose to the thyroid using both techniques (p less than 0.05). The use of the 90-kVp beam resulted in a significant reduction in the thyroid absorbed dose when using the bisecting angle technique (p less than 0.05) but caused a significant increase in the thyroid absorbed dose when the paralleling technique was used (p less than 0.05). The implementation of higher kilovoltage techniques in dental offices must therefore be dependent on the radiographic technique employed.

Wood, R.E.; Bristow, R.G.; Clark, G.M.; Nussbaum, C.; Taylor, K.W.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

A Partial Eclipse of the Heart: The Absorbed X-ray Low State in Mrk 1048  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present two new XMM-Newton observations of an unprecedented low flux state in the Seyfert 1 Mrk 1048 (NGC 985), taken in 2013. The X-ray flux below 1 keV drops by a factor of 4-5, whereas the spectrum above 5 keV is essentially unchanged. This points towards an absorption origin for the low state, and we confirm this with spectral fitting, finding that the spectral differences can be well modelled by the addition of a partial covering neutral absorber, with a column density of $\\sim3\\times 10^{22}$~cm$^{-2}$ and a covering fraction of $\\sim0.6$. The optical and UV fluxes are not affected, and indeed are marginally brighter in the more recent observations, suggesting that only the inner regions of the disk are affected by the absorption event. This indicates either that the absorption is due to a cloud passing over the inner disk, obscuring the X-ray source but leaving the outer disk untouched, or that the absorber is dust-free so the UV continuum is unaffected. We use arguments based on the duration of the...

Parker, M L; Komossa, S; Grupe, D; Fabian, M Santos-Lle A C; Mathur, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Measurements of photon absorbed fractions and dose profiles using a gelatin-based volumetric dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current methodology of internal dose assessment used by the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is based, among other things...

Walker, Scottie Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

414

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

415

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......occupational illness to personnel, major damage...acceptable levels. Selection of control measures...or equipment operating correctly in...99 103 to 104 Personnel life safety...and abnormal operating conditions under...radiation risk to personnel, public and...worker radiation training) reduces the......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......disable this safety function and...circuits and software. Other required...source in case of radiation monitors. Feedback...from other non-safety systems to prevent...write and check software. The expected...logic systems for safety functions can...levels of prompt radiation hazard. ACS......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

418

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Radiation Weighting Factors and High Energy Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......generally inadequate for high energy radiation. In order to determine...appropriate wR values in the high energy region, several criteria are...are proposed for neutrons of energy above 100 MeV and for protons above 10 MeV. The wR value for muons is confirmed to be practically......

M. Pelliccioni

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Radiation effects on humans  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ignition of Deflagration and Detonation Ahead of the Flame due to Radiative Preheating of Suspended Micro Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a flame propagating in the gaseous combustible mixture with suspended inert solid micro particles. The gaseous mixture is assumed to be transparent for thermal radiation emitted by the hot combustion products, while particles absorb and reemit the radiation. Thermal radiation heats the particles, which in turn transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of thermal heat transfer. Different scenarios are possible depending on the spatial distribution of the particles, their size and the number density. In the case of uniform spatial distribution the radiation absorption ahead of the flame causes a modest increase of the combustion wave velocity. On the contrary, in the case of non-uniform distribution of the particles, such that the particles number density increases far ahead of the flame, the preheating caused by the thermal radiation may trigger additional source of ignition. Far enough ahead of the flame, where number density of particles is higher, the temperature due to...

Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward 10.1126/science.331.6024...radiation, workers at the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant wear protective gear...Candidate radiation drugs inch forward. | News | 0 (E)-4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone...

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

423

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

424

Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet), Thermal Systems Group: CSP Capabilities (TSG)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ideally, we want reflector Ideally, we want reflector materials in a CSP plant to last 20 to 30 years and cost less than $2.50 per square foot (or $25 per square meter) to manufacture. Highly specular mirrors should have better than 95% reflectance into a 4-milliradian full-cone angle and should resist soiling in all outdoor conditions. NREL focuses on achieving these goals by creating and applying testing procedures that accurately predict the performance and lifetime of materials. Some testing is relatively brief, lasting several weeks, whereas other processes may take several months or even years. We evaluate the potential of reflector (mirror) and absorber (receiver) materials in the three areas described below, working with our industry partners to develop technologies that will

425

RANS Simulation of the Heave Response of a Two-Body Floating Point Wave Absorber: Preprint  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RANS Simulation of the Heave RANS Simulation of the Heave Response of a Two-Body Floating Point Wave Absorber Preprint Y. Yu and Y. Li To be presented at ISOPE 2011 Maui, Hawaii June 19-24, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-50980 March 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

426

Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

Shaik, Ummar Pasha [ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam, E-mail: mgksp@uohyd.ac.in [ACRHEM and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

427

HST/COS observations of a new population of associated QSO absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Abridged) We present a sample of new population of associated absorbers, detected through Ne VIII \\lambda\\lambda 770,780 absorption, in HST/COS spectra of intermediate redshift (0.45 7,000 km/s) systems in our sample. All these systems show very high N(Ne VIII) (i.e. > 10^{15.6} cm^{-2}), high ionization parameter (i.e. log U > 0.5), high metallicity (i.e. Z > Z_{\\odot}), and ionization potential dependent f_c values. The observed column density ratios of different ions are reproduced by multiphase photoionization (PI) and/or collisional ionization (CI) equilibrium models. While solar abundance ratios are adequate in CIE, enhancement of Na relative to Mg is required in PI models to explain our observations.

Muzahid, Sowgat; Arav, Nahum; Savage, Blair D; Narayanan, Anand

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Radiobiologic risk estimation from dental radiology. Part I. Absorbed doses to critical organs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of the present study was to generate one consistent set of data for evaluating and comparing radiobiologic risks from different dental radiographic techniques. To accomplish this goal, absorbed doses were measured in fourteen anatomic sites from (1) five different panoramic machines with the use of rare-earth screens, (2) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long round cone, (3) a twenty-film complete-mouth survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone, (4) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long round cone, and (5) a four-film interproximal survey with E-speed film, long rectangular cone. The dose to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the brain, and the salivary glands was evaluated by means of exposure of a tissue-equivalent phantom, fitted with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at the relevant locations.

Underhill, T.E.; Chilvarquer, I.; Kimura, K.; Langlais, R.P.; McDavid, W.D.; Preece, J.W.; Barnwell, G.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Experimental Investigation of the Power Generation Performance of Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Systems: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of energy from ocean waves has gained interest in recent years. The floating-point absorber (FPA) is one of the most promising devices among a wide variety of wave energy conversion technologies. Early theoretical studies mainly focused on understanding the hydrodynamics of the system and on predicting the maximum power that could be extracted by a heaving body. These studies evolve from the investigation of floating-body interactions in offshore engineering and naval architecture disciplines. To our best knowledge, no systematic study has been reported about the investigation of the power generation performance of an FPA with a close-to-commercial design. A series of experimental tests was conducted to investigate the power extraction performance of an FPA system.

Li, Y.; Yu, Y.; Epler, J.; Previsic, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Coloured Solar-thermal Absorbers A Comparative Analysis of Cermet Structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Novel coloured solar-thermal absorber coatings are obtained as thin films of alumina infiltrated with pigment oxides (Fe2O3 and V2O5) and sulfides (CuS). The coatings are stepwise obtained in successive spray pyrolysis depositions, using inorganic precursors. The composite layers have good crystallinity degree and develop various morphologies, with very different matrix- pigment infiltration; the addition of gold nanoparticles differently influences the properties, depending on the interactions with the precursor species: it can strongly decrease the thermal emittance, when embedded in the layers structure (Fe2O3) or it can form large aggregates on the matrix (V2O5) without significant effect on the optical properties. Bright red spectral selective coatings, with spectral selectivity of 12 were obtained using Fe2O3 hematite pigments.

Anca Duta; Luminita Isac; Andrea Milea; Elena Ienei; Dana Perniu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

High energy beam impact tests on a LHC tertiary collimator at the CERN high-radiation to materials facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely operate highly energetic particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs) in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN High-Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat) facility, involved 440GeV proton beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained, together with some first outcomes from visual inspection and a comparison of such results with numerical simulations.

Marija Cauchi; O. Aberle; R.?W. Assmann; A. Bertarelli; F. Carra; K. Cornelis; A. Dallocchio; D. Deboy; L. Lari; S. Redaelli; A. Rossi; B. Salvachua; P. Mollicone; N. Sammut

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

432

RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.

Beloborodov, Andrei M., E-mail: amb@phys.columbia.edu [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

434

Stability and Electronic Structures of CuxS Solar Cell Absorbers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu{sub x}S is one of the most promising solar cell absorber materials that has the potential to replace the leading thin-film solar cell material Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for high efficiency and low cost. In the past, solar cells based on Cu{sub x}S have reached efficiency as high as 10%, but it also suffers serious stability issues. To further improve its efficiency and especially the stability, it is important to understand the stability and electronic structure of Cu{sub x}S. However, due to the complexity of their crystal structures, no systematic theoretical studies have been carried out to understand the stability and electronic structure of the Cu{sub x}S systems. In this work, using first-principles method, we have systematically studied the crystal and electronic band structures of Cu{sub x}S (1.25 < x {le} 2). For Cu{sub 2}S, we find that all the three chalcocite phases, i.e., the low-chalcocite, the high-chalcocite, and the cubic-chalcocite phases, have direct bandgaps around 1.3-1.5 eV, with the low-chalcocite being the most stable one. However, Cu vacancies can form spontaneously in these compounds, causing instability of Cu{sub 2}S. We find that under Cu-rich condition, the anilite Cu{sub 1.75}S is the most stable structure. It has a predicted bandgap of 1.4 eV and could be a promising solar cell absorber.

Wei, S. H.; Xu, Q.; Huang, B.; Zhao, Y.; Yan, Y.; Noufi, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Thermal solar collector with VO2 absorber coating and thermochromic glazing Temperature matching and triggering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Overheating is a common problem both with the use of active and passive solar energy in thermal solar energy systems and in highly glazed buildings, even in central European latitudes. In solar thermal collectors, the elevated temperatures occurring during stagnation result in reduced lifetime of the collector materials. They lead to water evaporation, glycol degradation and stresses in the collector with increasing vapor pressure. Special precautions are necessary to release this pressure; only mechanical solutions exist nowadays. The temperature of degradation of glycols is above 160170C. However, it would be preferable to limit the temperature of the collector to approximately 100C, avoiding likewise the evaporation of the used water-glycol mixture. Additionally, the elevated temperatures lead to degradation of the materials that compose the collector, such as sealing, thermal insulation and the selective absorber coating. A new way of protecting solar thermal systems without any mechanical device (e.g. for shading or for pressure release) is proposed. A durable inorganic thermochromic material, which exhibits a change in optical properties at a transition temperature T t , is vanadium dioxide (VO2). At 68C, VO2 undergoes a reversible crystal structural phase transition accompanied by a strong variation in optical properties. Therefore, a dynamical switching of the thermal emittance ? th can be achieved by VO2. By doping the material with tungsten, it is possible to lower the transition temperature making it suitable as a glazing coating. The possibility of using the switch in emittance of the absorber coating in order to trigger the transition of a thermochromic coating on the glazing of the solar collector has been studied. An analytical approach yielded the required transition temperature of such a switching glazing. The fascinating optical properties of these switchable films elucidate the way towards novel intelligent thermal solar collector materials.

Antonio Paone; Mario Geiger; Rosendo Sanjines; Andreas Schler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Radiation prevents much cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence reviewed here supports the concept that chronic exposure to ionising radiation can dramatically decrease cancer incidence and mortality. This evidence includes an inverse relationship between radiation levels and cancer induction and/or mortality in: over 200 million people in the USA; 200 million people in India; 10,000 residents of Taipei who live in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; high radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; almost 300,000 homes with radon in the USA; non-smokers in high radon areas of Saxony, Germany.

T.D. Luckey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Biophysics and synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book, contains contributions to the conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation held in July 1986 at Frascati. It is devoted to advances in the resolution of biological molecule structure obtainable through synchroton radiation studies. The use of synchroton radiation has firmly established x-ray spectroscopy of biological molecules. More detailed knowledge on the local structure of active sites of metalloproteins, as well as a number of studies on the interaction of metal ions with other important biological macromolecular systems are presented. This new method for protein structure analysis is a major improvement for the rapidly expanding field of protein engineering.

Bianconi, A.; Castellano, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

440

Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glossary of Environmental Restoration Terms Glossary of Environmental Restoration Terms These definitions are from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Risk Assessment Program staff and affiliates and the following sources: Click on the letter that begins the term for which you are searching. To search for another term, at the end of each definition, click on the. If a link leaves the glossary to go to an outside page you will see a. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Abatement: The reduction in degree or intensity of pollution. Absorbed Dose: The energy imparted to a unit mass of matter by ionizing radiation. The unit of absorbed dose is the rad or gray. One rad equals 100 ergs per gram. The amount of a substance absorbed into the body, usually

442

An investigation of the effects of progressive waves on an oil slick retained by an absorber beach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGAT10N OF THE EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE HAVES ON AN OIL SI. ICE RETAINED BY AN ABSORBER BEACH A Thesis by t)'l l' YAU-MING HUANG Submitted to the Graduate Colleg of Texas A&M Uniuersity in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: C''oil Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE WAVES ON AN OIL SLICK RETAINED BY AN ABSORBER BEACH A Thesis by YAU-MING HUANG Approved as to style and content by...

Huang, Yau-Ming Kennith

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

444

Low Dose Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

445

Radiation from accelerated branes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

Mohab Abou-Zeid and Miguel S. Costa

2000-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radiation Induced Mammary Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Induced Mammary Cancer R.L. Ullrich * R.J. Preston # * Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550 # Biology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831, U.S.A Over the last......

R.L. Ullrich; R.J. Preston

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum

449

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

450

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

451

Radiative Muon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of radiative muon capture is developed. The discussion includes both parity conserving and nonconserving effects. The Gell-Mann weak magnetic term and the induced pseudoscalar are included, along with comparable relativistic effects in the nucleons. The theory is applied to light nuclei and especially to the radiative Godfrey reaction ?-+C126??+?+B125. An experiment to detect the induced pseudoscalar directly is proposed.

Jeremy Bernstein

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

453

Radiation and viral DNA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation and viral DNA Radiation and viral DNA Name: Loretta L Lamb Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can viral DNA be changed through exposure to radiation? If so, what type of radiation will do this? Can these irradiated viruses cause changes in the genome of any human cells they may infect? Can these (or any) viruses actually cause cancer, or do they merely act as triggering devices for cancer? Replies: In theory, any nucleic acid (viral or otherwise) can be changed by exposure to many kinds of radiation. Depending on the type of virus, these may then change the human cells that they infect. Although there are many different things that are being implicated in causing cancers, it looks like a fairly common model involves the sequential "knockout" of several human genes. Viruses may be one cause of such gene changes, radiation and other environmental causes may also contribute. Some of these changes may be inherited through families, so it becomes more likely that the environmental factors may happen to "hit" the right places in cells to cause cancers in these families. If you ask something more specific, perhaps I can focus my response a bit more

454

Radiative muon capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown by relating the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture to that of radiative pion capture, that the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture proposed recently by Hwang and Primakoff differs from the others mainly by Low's counter terms. Despite the fact that the "original" transition amplitude does not violate seriously the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, Low's counter terms, as introduced via Low's prescription to secure the presence of small conservation-of-hadronic-electromagnetic-current-breaking terms, are confirmed to be of numerical importance. Further, it is found in the "elementary-particle" treatment of radiative muon capture that the uncertainty arising from the nuclear structure can be reduced to become negligible. Therefore, an exclusive radiative muon capture experiment can in principle differentiate the Hwang-Primakoff theory from the others and yet provide a comprehensive test of partial conservation of axial-vector current.RADIOACTIVITY Theories of radiative muon capture, linearity hypothesis versus Low's prescription; nuclear structure and PCAC.

W -Y. P. Hwang

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Influence of circumferential solar heat flux distribution on the heat transfer coefficients of linear Fresnel collector absorber tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The absorber tubes of solar thermal collectors have enormous influence on the performance of the solar collector systems. In this numerical study, the influence of circumferential uniform and non-uniform solar heat flux distributions on the internal and overall heat transfer coefficients of the absorber tubes of a linear Fresnel solar collector was investigated. A 3D steady-state numerical simulation was implemented based on ANSYS Fluent code version 14. The non-uniform solar heat flux distribution was modelled as a sinusoidal function of the concentrated solar heat flux incident on the circumference of the absorber tube. The k? model was employed to simulate the turbulent flow of the heat transfer fluid through the absorber tube. The tube-wall heat conduction and the convective and irradiative heat losses to the surroundings were also considered in the model. The average internal and overall heat transfer coefficients were determined for the sinusoidal circumferential non-uniform heat flux distribution span of 160, 180, 200 and 240, and the 360 span of circumferential uniform heat flux for 10m long absorber tubes of different inner diameters and wall thicknesses with thermal conductivity of 16.27W/mK between the Reynolds number range of 4000 and 210,000 based on the inlet temperature. The results showed that the average internal heat transfer coefficients for the 360 span of circumferential uniform heat flux with different concentration ratios on absorber tubes of the same inner diameters, wall thicknesses and thermal conductivity were approximately the same, but the average overall heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase in the concentration ratios of the uniform heat flux incident on the tubes. Also, the average internal heat transfer coefficient for the absorber tube with a 360 span of uniform heat flux was approximately the same as that of the absorber tubes with the sinusoidal circumferential non-uniform heat flux span of 160, 180, 200 and 240 for the heat flux of the same concentration ratio, but the average overall heat transfer coefficient for the uniform heat flux case was higher than that of the non-uniform flux distributions. The average axial local internal heat transfer coefficient for the 360 span of uniform heat flux distribution on a 10m long absorber tube was slightly higher than that of the 160, 200 and 240 span of non-uniform flux distributions at the Reynolds number of 4000. The average internal and overall heat transfer coefficients for four absorber tubes of different inner diameters and wall thicknesses and thermal conductivity of 16.27W/mK with 200 span of circumferential non-uniform flux were found to increase with the decrease in the inner-wall diameter of the absorber tubes. The numerical results showed good agreement with the Nusselt number experimental correlations for fully developed turbulent flow available in the literature.

Izuchukwu F. Okafor; Jaco Dirker; Josua P. Meyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

457

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

458

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

459

Modeling the Action of Protons and Heavier Ions in Biological Targets: Nuclear Interactions in Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tumor treatment with protons and Carbon ions can allow for a better optimization of Tumor Control Probability and Normal Tissue Complication Probability especially for radio?resistant tumors. Exposure to protons and heavier ions is also of concern for manned space missions such as future travels to the Moon and Mars. Nuclear reactions with the human body constituents the beam line components (for hadrontherapy) and the spacecraft walls and shielding (for space radiation protection) can significantly modify the characteristics of the primary radiation field and thus the dose distributions in the various target tissues. In this context the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code integrated with radiobiological data and coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms was applied to the characterization of therapeutic proton beams and the calculation of space radiation organ doses with focus on the role of nuclear interactions. Besides absorbed and equivalent doses distributions of biological dose (modeled as the average number of DNA clustered lesions per cell induced in a given organ or tissue) were calculated as well. Concerning space radiation protection exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) under different shielding conditions was simulated. Both for hadrontherapy and for space radiation exposure nuclear reaction products were found to play a more important role for the equivalent and biological dose than for the absorbed dose. Furthermore while for SPEs the doses (both absorbed and equivalent/biological) decreased dramatically by increasing the shield thickness the GCR doses showed a slight shielding dependence. Overall these examples of application of FLUKA to radiotherapy and radiation protection problems emphasized the need of further models and data typically double?differential cross sections for nucleus?nucleus interactions at energies below a few hundred MeV/n.

F. Ballarini; G. Battistoni; F. Cerutti; E. Gadioli; M. V. Garzelli; A. Ottolenghi; V. Parini; M. Pelliccioni; P. Sala; D. Scannicchio

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energys (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experimental and numerical heat transfer analysis of a V-cavity absorber for linear parabolic trough solar collector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the present study, a V-cavity absorber with rectangular fins that can be used in the linear parabolic trough collector (PTC) system was proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The optical performance of the absorber was studied by means of Monte-Carlo ray-tracing (MCRT) method. An energy balance model and a more detailed three-dimensional numerical model were developed to analyze the flow and heat transfer characteristics. Moreover, an experimental setup was built to validate the theoretical analysis. A reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental results was achieved, which proves the feasibility and reliability of the models. The results show that the sunlight could be reflected repeatedly by the triangle shape and nearly no sunlight escapes. The absorber with rectangular fins has a better heat transfer performance with higher outlet temperature of heat transfer fluid (HTF), lower temperature of heating surface and lower heat loss than those of absorber without fins. The effects of heat flux distribution, mass flow rate and direct normal irradiance on the heat transfer performance were further discussed. In addition, the variations of the heat transfer coefficient along z axial direction with different mass flow rates were also calculated based on the numerical results.

X. Xiao; P. Zhang; D.D. Shao; M. Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXCESS NUMBER OF STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS OBSERVED TOWARD GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The number of strong (equivalent width >1 A) Mg II absorbers observed toward gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been found to be statistically larger than the number of strong absorbers toward quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). We formalize this 'Mg II problem' and present a detailed explanation of the statistical tools required to assess the significance of the discrepancy. We find that the problem exists at the 4{sigma} level for GRBs with high-resolution spectra. It has been suggested that the discrepancy can be resolved by the combination of a dust obscuration bias toward QSOs, and a strong gravitational lensing bias toward GRBs. We investigate one of the two most probable lensed GRBs that we presented in our previous work (GRB020405) and find that it is not strongly gravitationally lensed, constraining the percentage of lensed GRBs to be <35% (2{sigma}). Dust obscuration of QSOs has been estimated to be a significant effect with dusty Mg II systems removing {approx}20% of absorbed objects from flux-limited QSO samples. We find that if {approx}30% of the strong Mg II systems toward QSOs are missing from the observed samples, then GRBs and QSOs would have comparable numbers of absorbers per unit redshift. Thus, strong gravitational lensing bias is likely to make only a modest contribution to solving the Mg II problem. However, if the dust obscuration bias has been slightly underestimated, the Mg II problem would no longer persist.

Rapoport, Sharon; Onken, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Brian P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia); Wyithe, J. Stuart B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Thygesen, Anders O. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

464

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

465

Sensitivity of the absorbed energy into a ROPS during a rollover situation: Comparison to the security level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensitivity of the absorbed energy into a ROPS during a rollover situation: Comparison Co-operation and Development (OECD), such a model (designed using the simulation software Adams) allows the simulations of hazardous situations for impact energy calculation. Based on this material

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

New top layer reduces the"wiggle"that degrades the conversion of light to electricity in solar cells by absorbing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New top layer reduces the"wiggle"that degrades the conversion of light to electricity in solar cells by absorbing light within a specific wavelength. Today's thin-film solar cells could not function light to pass through to the cell's active layers. Until recently, TCOs were seen as a necessary

467

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

469

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

Multiple-wavelength spectroscopic quantitation of light-absorbing species in scattering media  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen concentration measurement system for blood hemoglobin comprises a multiple-wavelength low-coherence optical light source that is coupled by single mode fibers through a splitter and combiner and focused on both a target tissue sample and a reference mirror. Reflections from both the reference mirror and from the depths of the target tissue sample are carried back and mixed to produce interference fringes in the splitter and combiner. The reference mirror is set such that the distance traversed in the reference path is the same as the distance traversed into and back from the target tissue sample at some depth in the sample that will provide light attenuation information that is dependent on the oxygen in blood hemoglobin in the target tissue sample. Two wavelengths of light are used to obtain concentrations. The method can be used to measure total hemoglobin concentration [Hb.sub.deoxy +Hb.sub.oxy ] or total blood volume in tissue and in conjunction with oxygen saturation measurements from pulse oximetry can be used to absolutely quantify oxyhemoglobin [HbO.sub.2 ] in tissue. The apparatus and method provide a general means for absolute quantitation of an absorber dispersed in a highly scattering medium.

Nathel, Howard (Albany, CA); Cartland, Harry E. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Roe, Jeffery N. (San Ramon, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

High conduction neutron absorber to simulate fast reactor environment in an existing test reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new metal matrix composite material has been developed to serve as a thermal neutron absorber for testing fast reactor fuels and materials in an existing pressurized water reactor. The performance of this material was evaluated by placing neutron fluence monitors within shrouded and unshrouded holders and irradiating for up to four cycles. The monitor wires were analyzed by gamma and X-ray spectrometry to determine the activities of the activation products. Adjusted neutron fluences were calculated and grouped into three binsthermal, epithermal, and fastto evaluate the spectral shift created by the new material. A comparison of shrouded and unshrouded fluence monitors shows a thermal fluence decrease of ~11 % for the shielded monitors. Radioisotope activity and mass for each of the major activation products is given to provide insight into the evolution of thermal absorption cross-section during irradiation. The thermal neutron absorption capability of the composite material appears to diminish at total neutron fluence levels of ~8 1025 n/m2. Calculated values for dpa in excess of 2.0 were obtained for two common structural materials (iron and nickel) of interest for future fast flux experiments.

Donna Post Guillen; Larry R. Greenwood; James R. Parry

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

Radiation Minimum Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frost resulting from cooling of vegetation by nocturnal radiation is a serious agricultural problem. Because of the number of variables involved attacks on this problem from a purely theoretical point of view have met with only moderate success. It seems logical to suppose that an instrument might be devised which would speed up the natural radiation processes and enable an observer to obtain in a few hours a measure of the cooling which occurs naturally over a period of 12 to 14 hr. Such an instrument could serve as a frost warning device. This paper describes the construction of a radiation device and presents experimental evidence to show that it can be used as a predictor of freezing temperatures at vegetation level.

Francis K. Davis Jr.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Audible radiation monitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, D.M.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A significant obstacle to organic photovoltaics is radiation damage either directly by photochemical reactions or indirectly via hot electrons. Such effects are investigated for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells (phthalocyanines) and for a biological analog (the charge transfer protein cytochrome c). Both feature a central transition metal atom (or H 2 ) surrounded by nitrogen atoms. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are used to identify three types of radiation-induced changes in the electronic structure of these molecules. (1) The peptidebonds along the backbone of the protein are readily broken while the nitrogen cage remains rather stable in phthalocyanines. This finding suggests minimizing peptide attachments to biologically inspired molecules for photovoltaic applications. (2) The metal atom in the protein changes its 3d electron configuration under irradiation. (3) The Fermi level E F shifts relative to the band gap in phthalocyanine films due to radiation-induced gap states. This effect has little influence on the optical absorption but it changes the lineup between the energy levels of the absorbing dye and the acceptor/donor electrodes that collect the charge carriers in a solar cell.

Peter L. Cook; Phillip S. Johnson; Xiaosong Liu; An-Li Chin; F. J. Himpsel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

478

Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Revisited: the Greenhouse Effect of Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A parameterized spectral radiative-convective equilibrium model is built and the heating rates and temperature profiles for various absorbers are calculated and compared with the results of a classical model. Then using an optical depth that is dependent on both the extinction coefficient and the cloud-water path the validity of the black-cloud assumption is tested. It is determined under what conditions one would need to know the liquid or ice water path of the cloud and when one can simply treat the cloud as a black object. A distribution of both ice and water clouds is inputted into the model and the global average surface temperature is obtained. The sensitivity of the surface temperature to a change in either the ice or liquid water path of the cloud is also evaluated.

R. Davies; C. Radley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, Tuwaitha, Baghdad, (Iraq))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rad radiation absorbed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not contaminate the Inspector by touching it to radioactive surfaces or materials. If contamination is suspected Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17, and x-ray radiation. Its applications include: · Detecting and measuring surface contamination

Haller, Gary L.

482

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Solar energy: Radiation nation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Australia receives more solar radiation per square metre, on average, than any other continent. Although turning this ... to make use of its heat. We spoke to Australian proponents of two very different solar-thermal systems, both rather confusingly known as ...

Carina Dennis

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

484

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

486

Infrared radiation: Herschel revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The year 2000 marks the 200th anniversary of Herschels discovery of infrared radiation. Using a car light in place of the Sun and a liquid crystal sheet instead of thermometers the experiment is an effective classroom demonstration of invisible light.

Erin E. Pursell; Richard Kozlowski

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

489

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Deep imaging of Q2112+059: A bright host galaxy but no DLA absorber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a ongoing programme aimed at studying galaxy counterparts of Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers (DLAs) we have obtained high resolution deep I-band imaging data of the field around the z_em = 0.457 BAL QSO Q2112+059. In the literature this QSO is listed to have a candidate DLA at z_abs = 0.2039 along the line of sight. After subtraction of the QSO Point Spread Function (PSF) we detect a galaxy centred on the position of Q2112+059. To help answer whether this galaxy is the DLA or the QSO host galaxy we retrieved a GHRS spectrum of Q2112+059 from the HST-archive. This spectrum shows that there is no Ly-alpha absorption line at z_abs = 0.2039. This fact in combination with the perfect alignment on the sky of the galaxy and Q2112+059 lead us to the conclusion that the galaxy must be the host galaxy of Q2112+059. The host galaxy of Q2112+059 is bright (M_I^obs = -23.6), and has a radial profile well fitted by a {\\it modified Hubble + de Vaucouleurs} profile with R_c = 0.5 kpc and R_e = 3.6 kpc. Our results are well in line with the conclusion of earlier work done at lower redshifts, that bright low redshift QSOs preferentially reside in luminous, elliptical galaxies. The host of Q2112+059 is however, despite it's brightness, very compact when compared to early type galaxies at lower redshifts.

J. U. Fynbo; P. Moller; B. Thomsen

2001-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

491

Testing of a Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) for the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bi-modal system based on a concept developed by Babcock & Wilcox in 1992. ISUS will provide advanced power and propulsion capabilities that will enable spacecraft designers to either increase the mass to orbit or decrease the cost to orbit for their satellites. In contrast to the current practice of using chemical propulsion for orbit transfer and photovoltaic conversion/battery storage for electrical power ISUS uses a single collection storage and conversion system for both the power and propulsion functions. The ISUS system is currently being developed by the Air Forces Phillips Laboratory. The ISUS program consists of a systems analysis design and integration (SADI) effort and three major sub-system development efforts: the Concentrator Array and Tracking (CATS) sub-system which tracks the sun and collects/focuses the energy; the Receiver-Absorber-Converter (RAC) sub-system which receives and stores the solar energy transfers the stored energy to the propellant during propulsion operations and converts the stored energy to electricity during power operations; and the Cryogenic Storage and Propellant Feed Sub-system (CSPFS) which stores the liquid hydrogen propellant and provides it to the RAC during propulsion operations. This paper discuses the evolution of the RAC sub-system as a result of the component level testing and provides the initial results of systems level ground testing. A total of 5 RACs were manufactured as part of the Phillips Laboratory ISUS Technology Development program. The first series of component tests were carried out at the Solar Rocket Propulsion Laboratory at Edwards AFB California. These tests provided key information on the propulsion mode of operations. The second series of RAC tests were performed at the Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) in Albuquerque New Mexico and provided information on the electrical performance of the RAC. The systems level testing was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Simulator Facility (Tank 6) in Cleveland OH.

Kurt O. Westerman; Barry J. Miles

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Thermodynamic pathways to melting, ablation, and solidification in absorbing solids under pulsed laser irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamic pathways involved in laser irradiation of absorbing solids are investigated in silicon for pulse durations of 500fs and 100ps. This is achieved by accounting for carrier and atom dynamics within a combined Monte Carlo and molecular-dynamics scheme and simultaneously tracking the time evolution of the irradiated material in ?-T-P space. Our simulations reveal thermal changes in long-range order and state of aggregation driven, in most cases, by nonequilibrium states of rapidly heated or promptly cooled matter. Under femtosecond irradiation near the ablation threshold, the system is originally pulled to a near-critical state following rapid (?10?12s) disordering of the mechanically unstable crystal and isochoric heating of the resulting metallic liquid. The latter is then adiabatically cooled to the liquid-vapor regime where phase explosion of the subcritical, superheated melt is initiated by a direct conversion of translational, mechanical energy into surface energy on a ?10?1210?11s time scale. At higher fluences, matter removal involves, instead, the fragmentation of an initially homogeneous fluid subjected to large strain rates upon rapid, supercritical expansion in vacuum. Under picosecond irradiation, homogeneous and, at later times, heterogeneous melting of the superheated solid are followed by nonisochoric heating of the molten metal. In this case, the subcritical liquid material is subsequently cooled onto the binodal by thermal conduction and explosive boiling does not take place; as a result, ablation is associated with a trivial fragmentation process, i.e., the relatively slow expansion and dissociation into liquid droplets of supercritical matter near thermodynamic equilibrium. This implies a liquid-vapor equilibration time of ?10?1110?10s and heating along the binodal under nanosecond irradiation. Solidification of the nonablated, supercooled molten material is eventually observed on a ?10?1110?9s time scale, irrespective of the pulse duration.

Patrick Lorazo; Laurent J. Lewis; Michel Meunier

2006-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

493

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

494

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

495

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports September 24, 2013 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report...

496

Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Radiation Exposure Welcome The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to provide the latest available information on radiation exposure to...

497

Absorbed Gamma?Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work is devoted to the application of high?resolution gamma?ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides namely 40 K 232 Th and 238 U present in building materials such as sand cement and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms cons