Sample records for rack bulk total

  1. Donald R. Rack- Biography

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Don Rack has nearly 30 years' experience in the nuclear industry in both nuclear facility operations and oversight. He served for over 8 years in the U.S. Navy specializing in reactor plant operation, control system maintenance, and radiological controls.

  2. Rack protection monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  3. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures to be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  4. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed (Oakland, CA); West, Brian (San Francisco, CA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  5. Furniture Rack Corrosion Coupon Surveillance - 2012 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Murphy, T. R.; Berry, C. J.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the L Basin corrosion surveillance program furniture rack coupons immersed for 14 years (FY2009 coupons) and 16 years (FY2011 coupons) were analyzed and the results trended with coupons exposed for shorter times. In addition, a section harvested from an actual furniture rack that was immersed for 14 years was analyzed for pitting in the weld and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) regions. The L Basin operations maintained very good water quality over the entire immersion period for these samples. These results for FY2009 and FY2011 coupons showed that the average pit depths for the 6061 and 6063 base metal are 1 and 2 mils, respectively, while those for the weld and HAZ are 3 and 4 mils, respectively. The results for the weld and HAZ regions are similar to coupons removed during the period of FY2003 to FY2007. These similarities indicate that the pit development occurred quickly followed by slow kinetics of increase in pit depth. For the actual furniture rack sample average pits of 5 and 2 mils were measured for the HAZ and weld, respectively. These results demonstrate that pitting corrosion of the aluminum furniture racks used to support the spent fuel occurs in waters of good quality. The corrosion kinetics or pit depth growth rate is much less that 1 mil/year, and would not impact long-term use of this material system for fuel storage racks in L Basin if good water quality is maintained.

  6. McGILL UNIVERSITY BIKE RACK INVENTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    McGILL UNIVERSITY BIKE RACK INVENTORY DOWNTOWN CAMPUS 09.2012 #12;McGILL UNIVERSITY BIKE RACK INVENTORY MAP DOWNTOWN CAMPUS 2012 4xA-8 4xA-8 6xA-8, 4xC-11 1xC-11 5xA-8 1xA-8 1xA-8 4xA-8 2xA-8 3xA-8 1x RACK INVENTORY MAP - ZONE A DOWNTOWN CAMPUS 2012 #12;32 32 6xA-8, 4xC-11 11 40 8 1xA-8 32 16 24 1xG-8

  7. Management Racks | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9November 6,BradburyManagement Racks Download

  8. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers FinalFOR A MODULAR, SCALABLE LIQUID-RACK COOLING SYSTEM IN DATAINFORMATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COOLING SYSTEMS,

  9. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers Final Report ToCOOLING SYSTEM IN DATA CENTERS ..Liquid-Rack Cooling System in Data Centers 1 Problem

  10. Fort Calhoun Station disposal of spent fuel pool racks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamieson, T.W. [Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, NE (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The original plan was to have the racks pulled out of the pool, washed down and wrapped and placed in Sea/Lands to be sent to a vendor for free release and disposal. In the winter of 93 the proposed quotations on the Spent Fuel Rerack Processing were all rejected. With the rerack job starting in March of 94 and the closing of Barnwell in July we were faced with what to do with the racks. Processing of the existing racks were required since if the racks were sent to Barnwell for burial intact the cost would be prohibitive, that is, if Barnwell would have stayed open. If the racks were sent to a smelter, such as Scientific Ecology Group (SEG), there are restrictions on the length of the components that can go through the smelter. If SEG were to do the rack processing (sectioning) at their facility, the cost would also be prohibitive and they would not be in a position to receive the racks until June, 1995. Therefore, bid specifications were requested for on-site volume reduction processing of the existing spent fuel storage racks, with further ultimate disposal to be performed by SEG. The processing of the racks included piping and supports. Volume reduction (VR) was an issue in the evaluation since after this process the racks were to be shipped to SEG. If a low VR ratio option was chosen, OPPD would need a significant number of shipping containers and required more radwaste shipments versus if a high VR ratio option were chosen.

  11. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, D.R.

    1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  12. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Donald R. (Pocatello, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  13. RACK1, A Multifaceted Scaffolding Protein: Structure and Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, David R; Ron, Dorit; Kiely, Patrick A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B-C turn. Thus, RACK1 proteins lack the GH motif in the D-Aways. WD-repeat proteins themselves lack any enzy- maticlocation and protein partnerships may be modulated. The lack

  14. Project Profile: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 2010 Rocky Mountain Institute report estimated that structural systems alone cost about $0.95 per watt for rooftop installations. Cascade is developing a plastic-based photovoltaic (PV) racking...

  15. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons, E-mail: baiker@chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Hönggerberg, HCI, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  16. Rack-and-pinion effects in molecular rolling friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg M. Braun; Erio Tosatti

    2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolling lubrication with spherical molecules working as 'nanobearings' has failed experimentally so far, without a full understanding of the physics involved and of the reasons why. Past model simulations and common sense have shown that molecules can only roll when they are not too closely packed to jam. The same type of model simulations now shows in addition that molecular rolling friction can develop deep minima once the molecule's peripheral 'pitch' can match the substrate periodicity, much as ordinary cogwheels do in a rack-and-pinion system. When the pinion-rack matching is bad, the driven molecular rolling becomes discontinuous and noisy, whence energy is dissipated and friction is large. This suggests experiments to be conducted by varying the rack-and-pinion matching. That could be pursued not only by changing molecules and substrates, but also by applying different sliding directions within the same system, or by applying pressure, to change the effective matching.

  17. Energy Performance Testing of Asetek's RackCDU System at NREL's High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickinger, D.; Van Geet, O.; Ravenscroft, C.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we report on the first tests of Asetek's RackCDU direct-to-chip liquid cooling system for servers at NREL's ESIF data center. The system was simple to install on the existing servers and integrated directly into the data center's existing hydronics system. The focus of this study was to explore the total cooling energy savings and potential for waste-heat recovery of this warm-water liquid cooling system. RackCDU captured up to 64% of server heat into the liquid stream at an outlet temperature of 89 degrees F, and 48% at outlet temperatures approaching 100 degrees F. This system was designed to capture heat from the CPUs only, indicating a potential for increased heat capture if memory cooling was included. Reduced temperatures inside the servers caused all fans to reduce power to the lowest possible BIOS setting, indicating further energy savings potential if additional fan control is included. Preliminary studies manually reducing fan speed (and even removing fans) validated this potential savings but could not be optimized for these working servers. The Asetek direct-to-chip liquid cooling system has been in operation with users for 16 months with no necessary maintenance and no leaks.

  18. Metered Rack PDU The American Power Conversion (APC) Metered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    StruXureManager interfaces. Outlets. The Rack PDU has twenty (20) IEC-320-C13 outlets and four (4) IEC-320-C19 outlets. The 10-foot (3.05-meter) power cord terminates with a IEC-309 32 A connector. AP7853 #12;*990-1898-001* 990-1898-001 08/2004 Specifications for AP7853 Electrical Input connector IEC-309 32 A plug Output

  19. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the modular liquid cooling system with varying supply waterinlet supply air temperature, while modular system coolingcooling needed (up to 9.8 kW/rack) at various supply water

  20. ReRack: Power Simulation for Data Centers with Renewable Energy Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renau, Jose

    ReRack: Power Simulation for Data Centers with Renewable Energy Generation Michael Brown and Jose://masc.cse.ucsc.edu ABSTRACT Data centers operating cost are dominated by their power consump- tion. Renewable energy sources factors, but the model should be extensive to consider other factors like power gating support. This paper

  1. Three-dimensional microelectromechanical tilting platform operated by gear-driven racks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klody, Kelly A.; Habbit Jr., Robert D.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) tiltable-platform apparatus is disclosed which utilizes a light-reflective platform (i.e. a micromirror) which is supported above a substrate by flexures which can be bent upwards to tilt the platform in any direction over an angle of generally .+-.10 degrees using a gear-driven rack attached to each flexure. Each rack is driven by a rotary microengine (i.e. a micromotor); and an optional thermal actuator can be used in combination with each microengine for initially an initial uplifting of the platform away from the substrate. The MEM apparatus has applications for optical switching (e.g. between a pair of optical fibers) or for optical beam scanning.

  2. Thermal Issues Associated with the Lighting Systems, Electronics Racks, and Pre-Amplifier Modules in the National Ignition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. C. Owen; J. D. Bernardin; K. L. Lam

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an investigation of the thermal issues related to the National Ignition Facility. The influence of heat sources such as lighting fixtures, electronics racks, and pre-amplifier modules (PAMs) on the operational performance of the laser guide beam tubes and optical alignment hardware in the NE laser bays were investigated with experiments and numerical models. In particular, empirical heat transfer data was used to establish representative and meaningful boundary conditions and also serve as bench marks for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Numerical models, constructed with a commercial CFD code, were developed to investigate the extent of thermal plumes and radiation heat transfer from the heat sources. From these studies, several design modifications were recommended including reducing the size of all fluorescent lights in the NIF laser bays to single 32 W bulb fixtures, maintaining minimum separation distances between light fixtures/electronics racks and beam transport hardware, adding motion sensors in areas of the laser bay to control light fixture operation during maintenance procedures, properly cooling all electronics racks with air-water heat exchangers with heat losses greater than 25 W/rack to the M1 laser bay, ensuring that the electronics racks are not overcooked and thus maintain their surface temperatures to within a few degrees centigrade of the mean air temperature, and insulating the electronic bays and optical support structures on the PAMs.

  3. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Field, Michael B. (Jersey City, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  4. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. In the meanwhile, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 3. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable liquid-rack cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

  5. Bulk Power Transmission Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    BULK POWER TRANSMISSION STUDY TOMMY JOH~ P. E. Manager of Resource Recovery Waste Management of North America, Inc. Houston, Texas Texans now have a choice. We can become more efficient and maintain our standard of living, or we can... continue business as usual and watch our standard of living erode from competition from other regions. In the past, except for improving reliability, there was no need for a strong transmission system. When Texas generation was primarily gas fueled...

  6. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  7. Full-scale study of a building equipped with phase change material wallboards and a multi-layer rack latent heat thermal energy store system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -layer rack latent heat thermal energy store system Julien Borderon1 , Joseph Virgone2 , Richard Cantin1 installed as wallboard and as latent heat thermal energy storage system coupled with the ventilation system for the ventilation air is efficient. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, thermal energy storage systems are one way for reducing

  8. Electronics Division Technical Note No. 189 File: \\\\EAGLE\\cv-cdl-sis\\Docs\\Rack\\SIS Mixer Bias Supply\\Simulation\\Report2.doc Page 1 of 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    1 to protect the mixer junction from static discharge1 . The mixers are powered by bias suppliesElectronics Division Technical Note No. 189 File: \\\\EAGLE\\cv-cdl-sis\\Docs\\Rack\\SIS Mixer Bias Supply\\Simulation\\Report2.doc Page 1 of 5 Stability Analysis of SIS Mixer Bias Supply with 1K Ohm

  9. TOTAL M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Jane E.

    202 51 *total new freshmen 684: 636 Lexington campus, 48 Paducah campus MS Total 216 12 5 17 2 0 2 40 248 247 648 45 210 14 *total new freshmen 647: 595 Lexington campus, 52 Paducah campus MS Total 192 14

  10. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered...

  11. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively...

  12. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  13. Charm contribution to bulk viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Laine; Kiyoumars A. Sohrabi

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the range of temperatures reached in future heavy ion collision experiments, hadronic pair annihilations and creations of charm quarks may take place within the lifetime of the plasma. As a result, charm quarks may increase the bulk viscosity affecting the early stages of hydrodynamic expansion. Assuming thermalization, we estimate the charm contribution to bulk viscosity within the same effective kinetic theory framework in which the light parton contribution has been computed previously. The time scale at which this physics becomes relevant is related to the width of the transport peak associated with the trace anomaly correlator, and is found to be 600 MeV.

  14. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Wiranata; M. Prakash

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  15. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. S. Lima; R. Portugal; I. Waga

    2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  16. Bulk Hydrogen Strategic Directions for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economics Storage Performance Issues Market and Institutional Issues Storage Devices and Technologies-board) Develop new materials to address unique H2 leakage and Embrittlement Considerations Develop Smart Sensors Formations. #12;Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage "Take home" messages Economics Cost of Storage vis

  17. Hanford Bulk Vitrification Technology Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, Keith S.; Dysland, Eric J.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and testing was initiated in 2003 to support the selection of a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford low-activity wastes (LAWs). AMEC’s bulk vitrification process was chosen for full-scale demonstration, and the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) project was started in 2004. Also known as in-container vitrification™ (ICV™), the bulk vitrification process combines soil, liquid LAW, and additives (B2O3 and ZrO2); dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. The DBVS project was initiated with the intent to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat LAW from Tank 241-S-109 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. AMEC is adapting its ICV™ technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DBVS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Since the beginning of the selection process in 2003, testing has utilized crucible-scale, engineering-scale, and full-scale bulk vitrification equipment. Crucible-scale testing, coupled with engineering-scale testing, helps establish process limitations of selected glass formulations. Full-scale testing provides critical design verification of the ICV™ process both before and during operation of the demonstration facility. Initial testing focused on development and validation of the baseline equipment configuration and glass formulation. Subsequent testing was focused on improvements to the baseline configuration. Many improvements have been made to the bulk vitrification system equipment configuration and operating methodology since its original inception. Challenges have been identified and met as part of the parallel testing and design process. A 100% design package for the pilot plant is complete and has been submitted to DOE for review. Additional testing will be performed to support both the DBVS project and LAW treatment for the full Hanford mission. In the near term, this includes testing some key equipment components such as the waste feed dryer and other integrated subsystems, as well as waste form process improvements. Additional testing will be conducted to verify that the system is adaptive to changing feed streams. This paper discusses the progress of the bulk vitrification system from its inception to its current state-of-the-art. Specific attention will be given to the testing and process design improvements that have been completed over the last year. These include the completion of full-scale ICV™ Test FS38C as well as process improvements to the feeding method, temperature control, and molten ionic salt separation control.

  18. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    synchronous motor. It may also be possible to use superconducting materials of different Tcs and a dual cooling system to develop an in-situ FC magnetization process for YBCO bulk plates using the superconducting stator coils of an electric machine... . Furthermore, the relative ease of fabrication of MgB2 materials, as well as their long coherence length [10], lower anisotropy and strongly linked supercurrent flow in untextured polycrystalline samples [11,12], has enabled a number of different processing...

  19. Bulk emission of scalars by a rotating black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Casals; S. R. Dolan; P. Kanti; E. Winstanley

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study in detail the scalar-field Hawking radiation emitted into the bulk by a higher-dimensional, rotating black hole. We numerically compute the angular eigenvalues, and solve the radial equation of motion in order to find transmission factors. The latter are found to be enhanced by the angular momentum of the black hole, and to exhibit the well-known effect of superradiance. The corresponding power spectra for scalar fields show an enhancement with the number of dimensions, as in the non-rotating case. We compute the total mass loss rate of the black hole for a variety of black-hole angular momenta and bulk dimensions, and find that, in all cases, the bulk emission remains significantly smaller than the brane emission. The angular-momentum loss rate is also computed and found to have a smaller value in the bulk than on the brane. We present accurate bulk-to-brane emission ratios for a range of scenarios.

  20. Hanford bulk vitrification technology status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, K.S.; Dysland, E.J. [AMEC Nuclear Holdings Ltd., GeoMelt Division, Richland, Washington (United States); Bagaasen, L.M.; Schlahta, S.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.; Hrma, P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and testing was initiated in 2003 to support the selection of a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford low-activity wastes (LAWs). AMEC's bulk vitrification process was chosen for full-scale demonstration, and the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) project was started in 2004. Also known as In-Container Vitrification{sup TM} (ICV{sup TM}), the bulk vitrification process combines soil, liquid LAW, and additives (B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}); dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a batch feed-while-melt process within a disposable, refractory-lined steel container. The DBVS project was initiated with the intent to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat LAW from Tank 241-S-109 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the selection process in 2003, testing has utilized crucible-scale, engineering-scale, and full-scale bulk vitrification equipment. Crucible-scale testing, coupled with engineering-scale testing, helps establish process limitations of selected glass formulations. Full-scale testing provides critical design verification of the ICV{sup TM} process both before and during operation of the demonstration facility. Initial testing focused on development and validation of the melt container and the glass formulation. Subsequent testing was focused on improvements to the baseline configuration. Challenges have been identified and met as part of the parallel testing and design process. A 100% design package for the pilot plant is complete and has been submitted to DOE for review. Additional testing will be performed to support both the DBVS project and LAW treatment for the full Hanford mission. In the near term, this includes testing some key equipment components such as the waste feed mixer-dryer and other integrated subsystems, as well as waste form process improvements. Additional testing will be conducted to verify that the system is adaptive to changing feed streams. This paper discusses the progress of the bulk vitrification system from its inception to its current state-of- the-art. Specific attention will be given to the testing and process design improvements that have been completed over the last year. These include the completion of full-scale ICV{sup TM} Test FS38C as well as process improvements to the feeding method, temperature control, and molten ionic salt separation control. AMEC is adapting its ICV{sup TM} technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and design support from DMJN H and N. CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. is the Prime Contractor for the DOE Office of River Protection for the DBVS contract. (authors)

  1. Nanofluidics, from bulk to interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyderic Bocquet; Elisabeth Charlaix

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluidics has emerged recently in the footsteps of microfluidics, following the quest of scale reduction inherent to nanotechnologies. By definition, nanofluidics explores transport phenomena of fluids at the nanometer scales. Why is the nanometer scale specific ? What fluid properties are probed at nanometric scales ? In other words, why 'nanofluidics' deserves its own brand name ? In this critical review, we will explore the vast manifold of length scales emerging for the fluid behavior at the nanoscales, as well as the associated mechanisms and corresponding applications. We will in particular explore the interplay between bulk and interface phenomena. The limit of validity of the continuum approaches will be discussed, as well as the numerous surface induced effects occuring at these scales, from hydrodynamic slippage to the various electro-kinetic phenomena originating from the couplings between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An enlightening analogy between ion transport in nanochannels and transport in doped semi-conductors will be discussed.

  2. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Distributed Bio-Oil...

  3. Bulk viscosity in kaon condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of $K^-$ condensed matter on bulk viscosity and r-mode instability in neutron stars. The bulk viscosity coefficient due to the non-leptonic process $n \\rightleftharpoons p + K^-$ is studied here. In this connection, equations of state are constructed within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models where nucleon-nucleon and kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. We find that the bulk viscosity coefficient due to the non-leptonic weak process in the condensate is suppressed by several orders of magnitude. Consequently, kaon bulk viscosity may not damp the r-mode instability in neutron stars.

  4. Inorganic Nanocrystal Bulk Heterojunctions - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Inorganic Nanocrystal Bulk Heterojunctions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This...

  5. Hyperon bulk viscosity in strong magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monika Sinha; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2009-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the bulk viscosity of neutron star matter including $\\Lambda$ hyperons in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Relaxation time and bulk viscosity due to both the non-leptonic weak process involving $\\Lambda$ hyperons and direct Urca processes are calculated here. In the presence of a strong magnetic field of $10^{17}$ G, the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient is reduced whereas bulk viscosity coefficients due to direct Urca processes are enhanced compared with their field free cases when many Landau levels are populated by protons, electrons and muons.

  6. Bulk Storage Program Compliance Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Bulk Storage Program Compliance Written Program Cornell University 5/8/2013 #12;Bulk Storage.......................................................... 5 4.2.2 Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks­ University activities/operations designed to prevent releases of oil from Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks (ASTs) required to comply with following

  7. The Bulk Viscosity of a Pion Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egang Lu; Guy D. Moore

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the bulk viscosity of a gas of pions at temperatures below the QCD crossover temperature, for the physical value of pion mass, to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. Bulk viscosity is controlled by number-changing processes which become exponentially slow at low temperatures when the pions become exponentially dilute, leading to an exponentially large bulk viscosity zeta ~ (F_0^8/m_\\pi^5) exp(2m_\\pi/T), where F_0 = 93 MeV is the pion decay constant.

  8. Bulk viscosity of N=2* plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel; Chris Pagnutti

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We use gauge theory/string theory correspondence to study the bulk viscosity of strongly coupled, mass deformed SU(N_c) N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma, also known as N=2^* gauge theory. For a wide range of masses we confirm the bulk viscosity bound proposed in arXiv:0708.3459. For a certain choice of masses, the theory undergoes a phase transition with divergent specific heat c_V ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2). We show that, although bulk viscosity rapidly grows as T -> T_c, it remains finite in the vicinity of the critical point.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MIDWEST REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    INVESTIGATION OF BULK POWER MARKETS MIDWEST REGION November 1, 2000 The analyses and conclusions Energy Regulatory Commission, any individual Commissioner, or the Commission itself #12;3-i Contents Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 A. Description of the Midwest

  10. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    emissions prices? How would CO2 regulations impact coal, gas, electricity, & SO2 markets? 3. Disruptions1 Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks Electrical Engineering Professor Jim Mc: · integrated fuel, electricity networks · environmental impacts · electricity commodity markets · behavior

  11. Total Light Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers total light management, and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  14. FABRICATION OF A TITANIUM MICROELECTRODE CHIP TO INVESTIGATE BULK TITANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    FABRICATION OF A TITANIUM MICROELECTRODE CHIP TO INVESTIGATE BULK TITANIUM MICROMACHININING, USA Abstract Bulk titanium has a number of attractive characteristics that are favorable of a microelectrode chip for particle trapping and fundamental microfluidic studies. Keywords: bulk titanium

  15. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  16. Regulatory Roadmap Workshop for Federal Bulk Transmission Regulations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for bulk transmission. Date: Tuesday, 29 July, 2014 - 09:30 - 15:30 Location: NREL Education Center Auditorium Golden, Colorado Groups: Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory...

  17. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  18. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28...

  19. Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  20. metry and conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk peat samples from the lowest visually apparent peat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Rosemary

    #12;metry and conventional radiocarbon dating of bulk peat samples from the lowest visually apparent peat horizon in each core. Substantially older radiocarbon ages from organic-rich gytjja (mineral peat- lands throughout the WSL, for a total of 29,350 measurements digitized. (ii) Our own field data

  1. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  2. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  3. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Iorio; G. Lambiase

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, that cannot be explained by the conventional cosmology and particle physics.

  4. New Approachesfor Bulk Power System Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    New Approachesfor Bulk Power System Restoration by AbbasKETABI M.Sc in Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering, Teheran, Iran Supervisors: SHARIF Professor: Ali M. RANJBAR and complexity. Both factors increase the risk of major power outages. After a blackout, power needs

  5. Bulk viscosity in a cold CFL superfluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristina Manuel; Felipe Llanes-Estrada

    2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute one of the bulk viscosity coefficients of cold CFL quark matter in the temperature regime where the contribution of mesons, quarks and gluons to transport phenomena is Boltzmann suppressed. In that regime dissipation occurs due to collisions of superfluid phonons, the Goldstone modes associated to the spontaneous breaking of baryon symmetry. We first review the hydrodynamics of relativistic superfluids, and remind that there are at least three bulk viscosity coefficients in these systems. We then compute the bulk viscosity coefficient associated to the normal fluid component of the superfluid. In our analysis we use Son's effective field theory for the superfluid phonon, amended to include scale breaking effects proportional to the square of the strange quark mass m_s. We compute the bulk viscosity at leading order in the scale breaking parameter, and find that it is dominated by collinear splitting and joining processes. The resulting transport coefficient is zeta=0.011 m_s^4/T, growing at low temperature T until the phonon fluid description stops making sense. Our results are relevant to study the rotational properties of a compact star formed by CFL quark matter.

  6. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  7. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  8. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess)).

  9. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  10. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming leg, Carol

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  11. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, legal representative, Carol (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  12. Bulk viscosity in heavy ion collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Roy; A. K. Chaudhuri

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a temperature dependent bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio~($\\zeta/s$) along with a constant shear viscosity to entropy density ratio~($\\eta/s$) on the space time evolution of the fluid produced in high energy heavy ion collisions have been studied in a relativistic viscous hydrodynamics model. The boost invariant Israel-Stewart theory of causal relativistic viscous hydrodynamics is used to simulate the evolution of the fluid in 2 spatial and 1 temporal dimension. The dissipative correction to the freezeout distribution for bulk viscosity is calculated using Grad's fourteen moment method. From our simulation we show that the method is applicable only for $\\zeta/s<0.004$.

  13. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  14. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  15. Accelerating universes driven by bulk particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brito, F.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Cruz, F.F.; Oliveira, J.F.N. [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Regional do Cariri, 63040-000 Juazeiro do Norte, Ceara (Brazil)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider our universe as a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski space-time. We address the problem of inflation and late time acceleration driven by bulk particles colliding with the 3d domain wall. The expansion of our universe is mainly related to these bulk particles. Since our universe tends to be permeated by a large number of isolated structures, as temperature diminishes with the expansion, we model our universe with a 3d domain wall with increasing internal structures. These structures could be unstable 2d domain walls evolving to fermi-balls which are candidates to cold dark matter. The momentum transfer of bulk particles colliding with the 3d domain wall is related to the reflection coefficient. We show a nontrivial dependence of the reflection coefficient with the number of internal dark matter structures inside the 3d domain wall. As the population of such structures increases the velocity of the domain wall expansion also increases. The expansion is exponential at early times and polynomial at late times. We connect this picture with string/M-theory by considering BPS 3d domain walls with structures which can appear through the bosonic sector of a five-dimensional supergravity theory.

  16. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  17. TotalView Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances » Top InnovativeTopoisomeraseTotalView

  18. The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Systems with High Percentages to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;#12;The Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage Economic Case for Bulk Energy Storage in Transmission Sys- tems with High Percentages of Renewable

  19. Bulk viscosity of gauge theory plasma at strong coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a lower bound on bulk viscosity of strongly coupled gauge theory plasmas. Using explicit example of the N=2^* gauge theory plasma we show that the bulk viscosity remains finite at a critical point with a divergent specific heat. We present an estimate for the bulk viscosity of QGP plasma at RHIC.

  20. Bulk viscosity and r-modes of neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process involving hyperons in $K^-$ condensed matter is discussed here. We find that the bulk viscosity is modified in a superconducting phase. Further, we demonstrate how the exotic bulk viscosity coefficient influences $r$-modes of neutron stars which might be sources of detectable gravitational waves.

  1. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  2. Bulk viscosity effects on elliptic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. S. Denicol; T. Kodama; T. Koide; Ph. Mota

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of bulk viscosity on the elliptic flow $v_{2}$ are studied using realistic equation of state and realistic transport coefficients. We find that thebulk viscosity acts in a non trivial manner on $v_{2}$. At low $p_{T}$, the reduction of $v_{2}$ is even more effective compared to the case of shear viscosity, whereas at high $p_{T}$, an enhancement of $v_{2}$ compared to the ideal case is observed. We argue that this is caused by the competition of the critical behavior of the equation of state and the transport coefficients.

  3. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. We have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235 }U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. RAPID/Bulk Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod JumpGeorgia: EnergyOnline Permitting SystemsBulk

  5. The Bulk Channel in Thermal Gauge Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey B. Meyer

    2010-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal correlator of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. Our goal is to constrain the spectral function in that channel, whose low-frequency part determines the bulk viscosity. We focus on the thermal modification of the spectral function, $\\rho(\\omega,T)-\\rho(\\omega,0)$. Using the operator-product expansion we give the high-frequency behavior of this difference in terms of thermodynamic potentials. We take into account the presence of an exact delta function located at the origin, which had been missed in previous analyses. We then combine the bulk sum rule and a Monte-Carlo evaluation of the Euclidean correlator to determine the intervals of frequency where the spectral density is enhanced or depleted by thermal effects. We find evidence that the thermal spectral density is non-zero for frequencies below the scalar glueball mass $m$ and is significantly depleted for $m\\lesssim\\omega\\lesssim 3m$.

  6. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50-1/2 inches high by 24-1/2 inches in outside diameter. With contents the gross weight of the BTSP is 650 lbs. The BTSP is designed for the safe shipment of 150 grams of tritium in a solid or gaseous state. To comply with the federal regulations that govern Type B shipping packages, the BTSP is designed so that it will not lose tritium at a rate greater than the limits stated in 10CFR 71.51 of 10{sup -6} A2 per hour for the 'Normal Conditions of Transport' (NCT) and an A2 in 1 week under 'Hypothetical Accident Conditions' (HAC). Additionally, since the BTSP design incorporates a valve as part of the tritium containment boundary, secondary containment features are incorporated in the CV Lid to protect against gas leakage past the valve as required by 10CFR71.43(e). This secondary containment boundary is designed to provide the same level of containment as the primary containment boundary when subjected to the HAC and NCT criteria.

  8. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  9. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Laine

    2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form.

  10. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  11. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  12. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  13. SpaceX 2 Cargo Manifest TOTAL CARGO: 575 kilograms / 1268 pounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supplies Lego MSG gloves #12;12 PIG SCK SPHERES VCAM EXPRESS Rack Stowage Lockers Surplus +4C Ice Supply Pack o Top. & Inj. Medications Pack o Oral Meds Pack ECLSS o H2 Sensor ORU o ACY Urine Filter

  14. MUJERES TOTAL BIOLOGIA 16 27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , PLASTICA Y VISUAL 2 2 EDUCACION FISICA, DEPORTE Y MOTRICIDAD HUMANA 1 1 6 11 TOTAL CIENCIAS Nº DE TESIS

  15. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 16 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , DEPORTE Y MOTRICIDAD HUMANA 0 4 TOTAL FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORADO Y EDUCACIÓN 0 6 ANATOMÍA PATOLÓGICA 2 5

  16. The Total RNA Story Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    The Total RNA Story Introduction Assessing RNA sample quality as a routine part of the gene about RNA sample quality. Data from a high quality total RNA preparation Although a wide variety RNA data interpretation and identify features from total RNA electropherograms that reveal information

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Effect of bulk liquid BOD concentration on activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerenberg, Robert

    BOD. FISH results indicated increasing abundance of heterotrophs with increasing bulk liquid BOD); however, competition of heterotrophs and nitrifiers in biofilm systems limits nitrification rates

  18. Optimization Online - Real-Time Dispatchability of Bulk Power ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Wei

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 16, 2015 ... Real-Time Dispatchability of Bulk Power Systems with Volatile Renewable Generations. Wei Wei (wei-wei04 ***at*** mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)

  19. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  20. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater. Res. Soc.Thermoelectricity", Materials Reserach Society Symposium,Johnson, D. C. , Eds. Materials Research Society: Boston,

  1. Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunc...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure April 29, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Jenny Nelson...

  2. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured...

  3. Bulk viscosity of QCD matter near the critical temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Kharzeev; K. Tuchin

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Kubo's formula relates bulk viscosity to the retarded Green's function of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Using low energy theorems of QCD for the latter we derive the formula which relates the bulk viscosity to the energy density and pressure of hot matter. We then employ the available lattice QCD data to extract the bulk viscosity as a function of temperature. We find that close to the deconfinement temperature bulk viscosity becomes large, with viscosity-to-entropy ratio zeta/s about 1.

  4. On Eling-Oz formula for the holographic bulk viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently Eling and Oz [1] proposed a simple formula for the bulk viscosity of holographic plasma. They argued that the formula is valid in the high temperature (near-conformal) regime, but is expected to break down at low temperatures. We point out that the formula is in perfect agreement with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of the cascading plasma [2,3], as well as with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of N=2^* plasma [4,5]. In the latter case it correctly reproduces the critical behaviour of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the critical point with the vanishing speed of sound.

  5. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates. Peak internal quantum efficiency (IQE) values of greater than 80% are...

  6. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallamace, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mallamace@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino [IPCF-CNR, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  7. Bulk viscous cosmology: statefinder and entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hu; Xin He Meng

    2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The statefinder diagnostic pair is adopted to differentiate viscous cosmology models and it is found that the trajectories of these viscous cosmology models on the statefinder pair $s-r$ plane are quite different from those of the corresponding non-viscous cases. Particularly for the quiessence model, the singular properties of state parameter $w=-1$ are obviously demonstrated on the statefinder diagnostic pair planes. We then discuss the entropy of the viscous / dissipative cosmology system which may be more practical to describe the present cosmic observations as the perfect fluid is just a global approximation to the complicated cosmic media in current universe evolution. When the bulk viscosity takes the form of $\\zeta=\\zeta_{1}\\dot{a}/a$($\\zeta_{1}$ is constant), the relationship between the entropy $S$ and the redshift $z$ is explicitly given out. We find that the entropy of the viscous cosmology is always increasing and consistent with the thermodynamics arrow of time for the universe evolution. With the parameter constraints from fitting to the 157 gold data of supernova observations, it is demonstrated that this viscous cosmology model is rather well consistent to the observational data at the lower redshifts, and together with the diagnostic statefinder pair analysis it is concluded that the viscous cosmic models tend to the favored $\\Lambda$CDM model in the later cosmic evolution, agreeable to lots of cosmological simulation results, especially to the fact of confidently observed current accelerating cosmic expansion.

  8. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  9. Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

  10. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the penetration of molten salt. Out of several refractory tile candidates, only greystone and fused-cast alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory remained intact and well bonded to the CRB after firing to 1000 C. The deformation of the refractory-tile composite was avoided by prefiring the greystone tile to 800 C. Condensed vapors did not penetrate the tiles, but Re salts condensed on their surface. Refractory corrosion tests indicated that a 0.25-inch-thick greystone tile would not corrode during a BV melt. Tiles can reduce both vapor penetration and molten salt penetration, but vapor deposition above the melt line will occur even on tiles. The Tc/Re transport scenario was outlined as follows. At temperatures below 700 C, molten ionic salt (MIS) that includes all the Tc/Re penetrates, by capillarity, from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 750 C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NOx, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na2O formed in the decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the feed and with the aluminosilicates in the CRB to form more viscous liquids that reduce further liquid penetration into the CRB. At 800 to 1000 C, a continuous glass phase traps the remains of the MIS in the form of inclusions in the bulk glass melt. At 1000 to 1200 C, the salt inclusions in the glass slowly dissolve but also rise to the surface. The Tc/Re salts also evaporate from the free surface of the glass melt that is rapidly renewed by convective currents. The vapors condense on cooler surfaces in the upper portion of the CRB, the box lid, and the off-gas system.

  11. BULK MICROMACHINED TITANIUM MICROMIRROR DEVICE WITH SLOPING ELECTRODE GEOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    BULK MICROMACHINED TITANIUM MICROMIRROR DEVICE WITH SLOPING ELECTRODE GEOMETRY Masa P. Rao1 , Marco micromachined hybrid torsional micromirror device composed of titanium mirror structures bonded to an underlying time, high aspect ratio micromachining capability in bulk titanium; and 2) the High Aspect Ratio

  12. MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    MORPHOLOGY DEPENDENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELL Biswajit Ray, Pradeep, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Polymer based bulk heterostructure (BH) solar cell offers a relatively inexpensive option for the future solar cell technology, provided its efficiency increases beyond

  13. Role of Cavitation in Bulk Ultrasound Ablation: A Histologic Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mast, T. Douglas

    Role of Cavitation in Bulk Ultrasound Ablation: A Histologic Study Chandra Priya Karunakaran, Mark of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio Abstract. The role of cavitation in bulk ultrasound ablation has been evaluated-ablate probe at 31 W/cm2 for 20 minutes under normal and elevated ambient pressures. A 1 MHz passive cavitation

  14. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  15. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  16. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.4 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.3 Q Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1.9 1.1 Q Q 0.3 Q Do Not Use Central Air-Conditioning... 45.2 24.6 3.6 5.0 8.8 3.2 Use a Programmable...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.6 3 or More Units... 5.4 3.8 2.9 0.4 Q N 0.2 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.3 Q 3 or More Units... 5.4 1.6 0.8 Q 0.3 0.3 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  20. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.4 1.4 0.7 0.9 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  1. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 1.7 0.6 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  2. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  3. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.1 0.9 0.2 1.0 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  5. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.3 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.7 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  6. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 0.7 2.1 0.3 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  7. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......

  8. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......

  9. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer... 75.6...

  10. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer......

  11. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......

  12. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer......

  13. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......

  14. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.3 0.8 0.5 Once a Day... 19.2 4.6 3.0 1.6 Between Once a Day and Once a Week... 32.0 8.9 6.3 2.6 Once a...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AppliancesTools.... 56.2 11.6 3.3 8.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 0.2 Q 0.1 Hot Tub or Spa......

  16. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tools... 56.2 20.5 10.8 3.6 6.1 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 N N N N Hot Tub or Spa......

  17. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tools... 56.2 27.2 10.6 9.3 9.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q Q Q 0.4 Hot Tub or Spa......

  18. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools.... 56.2 12.2 9.4 2.8 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q Q Q Hot Tub or Spa......

  19. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.3 3.8 Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 40,000 to 59,999 60,000 to 79,999 80,000...

  20. Total..............................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720

  1. Total................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  2. Total........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  3. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6

  4. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q Table

  5. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q TableQ

  6. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q

  7. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q26.7

  8. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  9. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  10. Total.............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  11. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8

  12. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8,171

  13. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7

  14. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7 21.7

  15. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7

  16. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1

  17. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  18. Total................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  19. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.

  20. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5

  1. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5

  2. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.578.1

  3. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4

  4. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1 14.7

  5. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1

  6. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.115.2

  7. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4.

  8. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7

  9. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,618

  10. Total....................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,61814.7

  11. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033

  12. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.7

  13. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.74.2

  14. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6

  15. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1 5.5

  16. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1

  17. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.10.7

  18. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:

  19. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have

  20. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have7.1

  1. Total.........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6 40.7

  3. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6

  4. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.65.6

  5. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do

  6. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6 16.6

  7. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6

  8. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.1

  9. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.10.6

  10. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2

  11. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2 7.6

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2Cooking

  14. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1

  15. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not Have

  16. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDo

  17. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDoDo

  18. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not

  19. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  20. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  1. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not20.6

  2. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo

  3. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1 19.0

  4. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1

  5. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1...

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do

  7. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking

  8. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.6

  9. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.65.6

  10. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0

  11. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  12. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  13. Total.........................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6

  14. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,

  15. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,Product:

  16. Total..............................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970

  17. Total................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  18. Total........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 111.1

  19. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  20. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q Table

  1. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q

  2. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q14.7

  3. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6

  4. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  5. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  6. Total.............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  7. Total..............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6,171

  8. Total..............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8

  9. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.6 25.6

  10. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.6

  11. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.626.7

  12. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7

  13. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0 22.7

  14. Total................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0 22.7

  15. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0

  16. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.014.7

  17. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1

  18. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1 64.1

  19. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1

  20. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1.

  1. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770

  2. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9

  3. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3

  4. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3Type

  5. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2

  6. Total....................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.7 7.4

  7. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.7

  8. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.75.6

  9. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0

  10. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.6 40.7

  11. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.6

  12. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.6 17.7

  13. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.6

  14. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.64.2

  15. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8

  16. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.0 22.7

  17. Total.........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.0

  18. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6

  19. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6.

  20. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6.5.6

  1. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.6 16.6

  3. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.6

  4. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.67.1

  5. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.67.10.6

  6. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2

  7. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2 7.6

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2 7.6Do

  9. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2Cooking

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not Have Cooling

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not Have

  14. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo Not

  15. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo NotDo

  16. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo

  17. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.7

  18. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.7

  19. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.77.1

  20. Total.................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not

  1. Total.................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.0 8.0

  2. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.0

  3. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.05.6

  4. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1

  5. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1Personal

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1Personal4.2

  7. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do

  8. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do 111.1 47.1 19.0

  9. Total.........................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do 111.1 47.1

  10. Running heading: Bulk density of a clayey subsoil Increase in the bulk density of a Grey Clay subsoil by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Running heading: Bulk density of a clayey subsoil Increase in the bulk density of a Grey Clay of the prisms were coated by material similar in composition to the topsoil and separated from as the profile dries over summer leading to widening of cracks between prismatic peds, (2) infilling of cracks

  11. Brane-Bulk energy exchange and agegraphic dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Sheykhi

    2010-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the agegraphic models of dark energy in a braneworld scenario with brane-bulk energy exchange. We assume that the adiabatic equation for the dark matter is satisfied while it is violated for the agegraphic dark energy due to the energy exchange between the brane and the bulk. Our study shows that with the brane-bulk interaction, the equation of state parameter of agegraphic dark energy on the brane, $w_D$, can have a transition from normal state where $w_D >-1 $ to the phantom regime where $w_D energy always satisfies $w^{\\mathrm{eff}}_D\\geq-1$.

  12. Neutrino mass, bulk majoron and neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Mohapatra; A. Perez-Lorenzana; C. A. de S. Pires

    2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new economical model for neutrino masses is proposed in the context of brane bulk scenarios for particle physics, where global B-L symmetry of the standard model is broken spontaneously by a gauge singlet Higgs field in the bulk. This leads to a bulk majoron whose KK excitations may make it visible if neutrinoless double beta decay if the string scale is close to a TeV. It also leads to neutron-anti-neutron oscillation process with transition times which can be in the range accessible to proposed experiments.

  13. Bulk viscosity, chemical equilibration and flow at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schaefer; Kevin Dusling

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of bulk viscosity on p_T spectra and elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We argue that direct effect of the bulk viscosity on the evolution of the velocity field is small, but corrections to the freezeout distributions can be significant. These effects are dominated by chemical non-equilibration in the hadronic phase. We show that a non-zero bulk viscosity in the range $\\zeta/s \\lsim 0.05$ improves the description of spectra and flow at RHIC.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, M.L.

    We have studied the mechanical properties of monolithic bulk metallic glasses and composite in the La based alloys. La???yAl??(Cu, Ni)y (y=24 to 32) alloy systems was used to cast the ...

  15. High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model, the cooling power densities of the devices can alsothe cooling power densities 2–24 times. Experimentally, the14 4 OCTOBER 2004 High-power-density spot cooling using bulk

  16. Photonic integration in a commercial scaled bulk-CMOS process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaertner, Franz X.

    We demonstrate the first photonic chip designed for a commercial bulk CMOS process (65 nm-node) using standard process layers combined with post-processing, enabling dense photonic integration with high-performance ...

  17. Structural and economic analysis of capesize bulk carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjiyiannis, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural failures of bulk carriers continue to account for the loss of many lives every year. Capes are particularly vulnerable to cracking because of their large length, their trade in high density cargos, and the high ...

  18. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developments in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater.and M. D. Drsselhaus, "Thermoelectric figure of merit of aO'Quinn, " Thin-film thermoelectric devices with high room-

  19. Bulk Viscosity Effects in Event-by-Event Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacquelyn Noronha-Hostler; Gabriel S. Denicol; Jorge Noronha; Rone P. G. Andrade; Frederique Grassi

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk viscosity effects on the collective flow harmonics in heavy ion collisions are investigated, on an event by event basis, using a newly developed 2+1 Lagrangian hydrodynamic code named v-USPhydro which implements the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm for viscous hydrodynamics. A new formula for the bulk viscous corrections present in the distribution function at freeze-out is derived starting from the Boltzmann equation for multi-hadron species. Bulk viscosity is shown to enhance the collective flow Fourier coefficients from $v_2(p_T)$ to $v_5(p_T)$ when $% p_{T}\\sim 1-3$ GeV even when the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, $% \\zeta/s$, is significantly smaller than $1/(4\\pi)$.

  20. Bulk viscosity in nuclear and quark matter: A short review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui Dong; Nan Su; Qun Wang

    2007-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The history and recent progresses in the study of bulk viscosity in nuclear and quark matter are reviewed. The constraints from baryon number conservation and electric neutrality in quark matter on particle densities and fluid velocity divergences are discussed.

  1. Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid Alex Sim 1 ,CA 94720, USA Abstract The Earth System Grid (ESG) communityNetLogger 1. Introduction The Earth System Grid (ESG) [1

  2. abdominal bulking mass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y. Burnier; M. Laine 2013-11-13 4 Neutrino mass, bulk majoron and neutrinoless double beta decay HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: A new economical model for neutrino...

  3. Supply chain management in the dry bulk shipping industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bryan E. (Bryan Edward)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is intended to show the importance of supply chain management in the dry-bulk shipping industry. A hypothetical company, the Texas Grain and Bakery Corporation, was created. The values and calculations used are ...

  4. Bulk viscosity and the conformal anomaly in the pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the bulk viscosity of the massive pion gas within Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory. We obtain a low temperature peak arising from explicit conformal breaking due to the pion mass and another peak near the critical temperature, dominated by the conformal anomaly through gluon condensate terms. The correlation between bulk viscosity and conformal breaking supports a recent QCD proposal. We discuss the role of resonances, heavier states and large-$N_c$ counting.

  5. Costs, Savings and Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Donald S.; Stelly, Randall; Parker, Cecil A.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    \\ BULLETIN 904 MAY 1958 .t(. :a ,s - / cwdh\\@ Costs, Savi~gs;.itd Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms . ?. I I 1 i I I ! ,:ravings in hauling - 10 cents I \\ \\ 1 \\ savings in hauling - 15 cents -----------____--- 'savings... in hauling - 20 cents Annual production, 1,000 pounds Estimated number of years required for savings from a bulk tank to equal additional costs at different levels of production and savings in hauling costs. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEN'T STATION R. D...

  6. Cosmic No Hair for Braneworlds with a Bulk Dilaton Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James E. Lidsey; David Seery

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Braneworld cosmology supported by a bulk scalar field with an exponential potential is developed. A general class of separable backgrounds for both single and two-brane systems is derived, where the bulk metric components are given by products of world-volume and bulk coordinates and the world-volumes represent any anisotropic and inhomogeneous solution to an effective four-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We deduce a cosmic no hair theorem for all ever expanding, spatially homogeneous Bianchi world-volumes and find that the spatially flat and isotropic inflationary scaling solution represents a late-time attractor when the bulk potential is sufficiently flat. The dependence of this result on the separable nature of the bulk metric is investigated by applying the techniques of Hamilton-Jacobi theory to five-dimensional Einstein gravity. We employ the spatial gradient expansion method to determine the asymptotic form of the bulk metric up to third-order in spatial gradients. It is found that the condition for the separable form of the metric to represent the attractor of the system is precisely the same as that for the four-dimensional world-volume to isotropize. We also derive the fourth-order contribution to the Hamilton-Jacobi generating functional. Finally, we conclude by placing our results within the context of the holographic approach to braneworld cosmology.

  7. Macromolecular Reaction Engineering Control of Bulk Propylene Polymerizations Operated with Multiple Catalysts through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Macromolecular Reaction Engineering Control of Bulk Propylene Polymerizations Operated: Control of Bulk Propylene Polymerizations Operated with Multiple Catalysts through Controller: Abstract: This article presents a model to describe the dynamic behavior of bulk propylene polymerizations

  8. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  9. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput Product: TotalCountry:

  10. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  11. Page (Total 3) Philadelphia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page (Total 3) Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Biotechnology and Genetic be used in animals or plants. It can be also used in environmental monitoring, food processing ...etc are developed and marketed in kit format by biotechnology companies. The main source of information is web sites

  12. Dark goo: Bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Sebastien Gagnon; Julien Lesgourgues

    2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local equilibrium today for viscous effects to be important.

  13. Dark goo: Bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagnon, Jean-Sebastien

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local eq...

  14. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM); He, Duanwei (Sichuan, CN)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  15. Bulk Viscosity and Particle Creation in the Inflationary Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehdi Eshaghi; Nematollah Riazi; Ahmad Kiasatpour

    2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study particle creation in the presence of bulk viscosity of cosmic fluid in the early universe within the framework of open thermodynamical systems. Since the first-order theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is non-causal and unstable, we try to solve the bulk viscosity equation of the cosmic fluid with particle creation through the full causal theory. By adopting an appropriate function for particle creation rate of "Creation of Cold Dark Matter" model, we obtain analytical solutions which do not suffer from the initial singularity and are in agreement with equivalent solutions of Lambda-CDM model. We constrain the free parameter of particle creation in our model based on recent Planck data. It is also found that the inflationary solution is driven by bulk viscosity with or without particle creation.

  16. Bulk Viscosity, Decaying Dark Matter, and the Cosmic Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Wilson; Grant J. Mathews; George M. Fuller

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a cosmology in which cold dark-matter particles decay into relativistic particles. We argue that such decays could lead naturally to a bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluid. For decay lifetimes comparable to the present hubble age, this bulk viscosity enters the cosmic energy equation as an effective negative pressure. We investigate whether this negative pressure is of sufficient magnitude to account fo the observed cosmic acceleration. We show that a single decaying species in a flat, dark-matter dominated cosmology without a cosmological constant cannot reproduce the observed magnitude-redshift relation from Type Ia supernovae. However, a delayed bulk viscosity, possibly due to a cascade of decaying particles may be able to account for a significant fraction of the apparent cosmic acceleration. Possible candidate nonrelativistic particles for this scenario include sterile neutrinos or gauge-mediated decaying supersymmetric particles.

  17. Bulk Viscosity and Particle Creation in the Inflationary Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshaghi, Mehdi; Kiasatpour, Ahmad

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study particle creation in the presence of bulk viscosity of cosmic fluid in the early universe within the framework of open thermodynamical systems. Since the first-order theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is non-causal and unstable, we try to solve the bulk viscosity equation of the cosmic fluid with particle creation through the full causal theory. By adopting an appropriate function for particle creation rate of "Creation of Cold Dark Matter" model, we obtain analytical solutions which do not suffer from the initial singularity and are in agreement with equivalent solutions of Lambda-CDM model. We constrain the free parameter of particle creation in our model based on recent Planck data. It is also found that the inflationary solution is driven by bulk viscosity with or without particle creation.

  18. Quasiparticle theory of shear and bulk viscosities of hadronic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, P.; Kapusta, J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical framework for the calculation of shear and bulk viscosities of hadronic matter at finite temperature is presented. The framework is based on the quasiparticle picture. It allows for an arbitrary number of hadron species with pointlike interactions, and allows for both elastic and inelastic collisions. Detailed balance is ensured. The particles have temperature-dependent masses arising from mean-field or potential effects, which maintains self-consistency between the equation of state and the transport coefficients. As an example, we calculate the shear and bulk viscosity in the linear {sigma} model. The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density shows a minimum in the vicinity of a rapid crossover transition, whereas the ratio of bulk viscosity to entropy density shows a maximum.

  19. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

  20. Bulk torsion fields in theories with large extra dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya; Somasri Sen; Soumitra SenGupta

    2002-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the consequences of spacetime torsion coexisting with gravity in the bulk in scenarios with large extra dimensions. Having linked torsion with the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field arising in string theories, we examine its artifacts on the visible 3-brane when the extra dimensions are compactified. It is found that while torsion would have led to parity violation in a 4-dimensional framework, all parity violating effects disappear on the visible brane when the torsion originates in the bulk. However, such a scenario is found to have characteristics of its own, some of which can be phenomenologically significant.

  1. Bulk-edge correspondence for two-dimensional topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. M. Graf; M. Porta

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological insulators can be characterized alternatively in terms of bulk or edge properties. We prove the equivalence between the two descriptions for two-dimensional solids in the single-particle picture. We give a new formulation of the $\\mathbb{Z}_{2}$-invariant, which allows for a bulk index not relying on a (two-dimensional) Brillouin zone. When available though, that index is shown to agree with known formulations. The method also applies to integer quantum Hall systems. We discuss a further variant of the correspondence, based on scattering theory.

  2. Bulk viscosity of strongly coupled plasmas with holographic duals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven S. Gubser; Silviu S. Pufu; Fabio D. Rocha

    2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We explain a method for computing the bulk viscosity of strongly coupled thermal plasmas dual to supergravity backgrounds supported by one scalar field. Whereas earlier investigations required the computation of the leading dissipative term in the dispersion relation for sound waves, our method requires only the leading frequency dependence of an appropriate Green's function in the low-frequency limit. With a scalar potential chosen to mimic the equation of state of QCD, we observe a slight violation of the lower bound on the ratio of the bulk and shear viscosities conjectured in arXiv:0708.3459.

  3. Security-Constrained Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Security-Constrained Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power System Reliability Fang Yang, Student Member. Stefopoulos, Student Member, IEEE Abstract -- A framework of security-constrained adequacy evaluation (SCAE electric load while satisfying security constraints. It encompasses three main steps: (a) critical

  4. A phase space analysis for nonlinear bulk viscous cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acquaviva, Giovanni

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with both viscous radiation and nonviscous dust. The former has a bulk viscosity which is proportional to an arbitrary power of the energy density, i.e. $\\zeta \\propto \\rho_v^{\

  5. A phase space analysis for nonlinear bulk viscous cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Acquaviva; Aroonkumar Beesham

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with both viscous radiation and nonviscous dust. The former has a bulk viscosity which is proportional to an arbitrary power of the energy density, i.e. $\\zeta \\propto \\rho_v^{\

  6. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2?K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3?T at 20?K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  7. Computing hypersurfaces which minimize surface energy plus bulk energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John M.

    such energies is an important step in the definition of flat curvature flows [ATW]. By modifying the bulk energy this precise by working in the context of currents, as in [ATW] or [S].) Here, if S and S0 are contained

  8. BULK TITANIUM MICROFLUIDIC NETWORKS FOR PROTEIN SELF-ASSEMBLY STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    BULK TITANIUM MICROFLUIDIC NETWORKS FOR PROTEIN SELF-ASSEMBLY STUDIES E.R. Parker1 , L.S. Hirst2 developed micromachining technique to fabricate microfluidic networks in thin titanium foils. These devices been integrated into the fabrication process in order to minimize protein adsorption to the titanium

  9. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Practices 24 4.4 4.5 Pollutants 26 4.4.1 Fugitive Dust 26 4.4.2 Commodity Spillage 27 4.4.3 Oil, lubricant#12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1996-19 Prepared for: Enviromnent Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement North

  10. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  11. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)JulyEnd Use: Total

  12. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion

  13. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814 136,932

  14. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814

  15. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814Pipeline

  16. U.S. Total Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009Feet)

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other supplemental treatment alternatives as provided in M-62-08.

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  2. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shtein, Max (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating an optoelectronic device comprises: depositing a first layer having protrusions over a first electrode, in which the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer; in which the smallest lateral dimension of the protrusions are between 1 to 5 times the exciton diffusion length of the first organic small molecule material; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction is also provided and comprises: depositing a first layer with protrusions over an electrode by organic vapor phase deposition; depositing a second layer on the first layer where the interface of the first and second layers forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing another electrode over the second layer.

  3. Bulk-Brane Interaction and Holographic Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M R Setare

    2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we consider the bulk-brane interaction to obtain the equation of state for the holographic energy density in non-flat universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of horizon named $L$. We assumes that the cold dark matter energy density on the brane is conserved, but the holographic dark energy density on the brane is not conserved due to brane-bulk energy exchange. Our calculation show, taking $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0.73$ for the present time, the lower bound of $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}^{eff}$ is -0.9. This implies that one can not generate phantom-like equation of state from an interacting holographic dark energy model in non-flat universe.

  4. Bulk from Bi-locals in Thermo Field CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jevicki, Antal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Large $N$ dynamics of the $O(N)$ field theory in the Thermo field approach. Concentrating on the singlet bi-local space within the systematic $1/N$ framework of collective field theory we discuss the emergent bulk space-time and construct the associated (Higher spin) fields. We note the presence of `evanescent' modes in this construction and also the mixing of spins at finite temperature.

  5. Bulk from Bi-locals in Thermo Field CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antal Jevicki; Junggi Yoon

    2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Large $N$ dynamics of the $O(N)$ field theory in the Thermo field approach. Concentrating on the singlet bi-local space within the systematic $1/N$ framework of collective field theory we discuss the emergent bulk space-time and construct the associated (Higher spin) fields. We note the presence of `evanescent' modes in this construction and also the mixing of spins at finite temperature.

  6. Magnetization of 2-G Coils and Artificial Bulks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coombs, T. A.; Fagnard, J. F.; Matsuda, K.

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    or bulks. ? Index Terms—HTS, racetrack, YBCO, magnetisation I. INTRODUCTION BCO has been available, in various forms, since shortly after the initial discovery of high temperature superconductors by Bednorz and Mueller. All forms of YBCO have... those available from conventional materials such as copper (wires) or NdFeB (magnetic field) there remain relatively few industrial applications and the barriers to widespread adoption remain high. Devices such as Fault Current Limiters, cables...

  7. Comment on "Accelerating cosmological expansion from shear and bulk viscosity"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 091301 (2105)] the cause of the acceleration of the present Universe has been identified with the shear viscosity of an imperfect relativistic fluid even in the absence of any bulk viscous contribution. The gist of this comment is that the shear viscosity, if anything, can only lead to an accelerated expansion over sufficiently small scales well inside the Hubble radius.

  8. Comparison of bulk- and surface-micromachined pressure sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Monk, D.J.; O`Brien, G.; Miller, T.F. [Motorola, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two piezoresistive micromachined pressure sensors were compared: a commercially available bulk-micromachined (BM) pressure sensor and an experimental surface-micromachined (SM) pressure sensor. While the SM parts had significantly smaller die sizes, they were outperformed in most areas by the BM parts. This was due primarily to the smaller piezoresistive gauge factor in the polysilicon piezoresistors in the SM parts compared to the single crystal strain gauge used in the BM parts.

  9. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  10. Standard practice for bulk sampling of liquid uranium hexafluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers methods for withdrawing representative samples of liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from bulk quantities of the material. Such samples are used for determining compliance with the applicable commercial specification, for example Specification C787 and Specification C996. 1.2 It is assumed that the bulk liquid UF6 being sampled comprises a single quality and quantity of material. This practice does not address any special additional arrangements that might be required for taking proportional or composite samples, or when the sampled bulk material is being added to UF6 residues already in a container (“heels recycle”). 1.3 The number of samples to be taken, their nominal sample weight, and their disposition shall be agreed upon between the parties. 1.4 The scope of this practice does not include provisions for preventing criticality incidents. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of th...

  11. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrissopoulou, K. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Fotiadou, S. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M. [CNR-IPCF, Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Frick, B. [ILL-Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane® S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  12. Bulk viscous matter-dominated Universes: asymptotic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avelino, Arturo [Departamento de Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); García-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Legaria del IPN, México D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, División de Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Nucamendi, Ulises [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Quiros, Israel, E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.mx, E-mail: tamegc72@gmail.com, E-mail: ulises@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: iquiros6403@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemáticas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías (CUCEI), Corregidora 500 S.R., Universidad de Guadalajara, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of a combined use of the type Ia supernovae and H(z) data tests, together with the study of the asymptotic properties in the equivalent phase space — through the use of the dynamical systems tools — we demonstrate that the bulk viscous matter-dominated scenario is not a good model to explain the accepted cosmological paradigm, at least, under the parametrization of bulk viscosity considered in this paper. The main objection against such scenarios is the absence of conventional radiation and matter-dominated critical points in the phase space of the model. This entails that radiation and matter dominance are not generic solutions of the cosmological equations, so that these stages can be implemented only by means of unique and very specific initial conditions, i. e., of very unstable particular solutions. Such a behavior is in marked contradiction with the accepted cosmological paradigm which requires of an earlier stage dominated by relativistic species, followed by a period of conventional non-relativistic matter domination, during which the cosmic structure we see was formed. Also, we found that the bulk viscosity is positive just until very late times in the cosmic evolution, around z < 1. For earlier epochs it is negative, been in tension with the local second law of thermodynamics.

  13. Bulk Viscosity and Cavitation in Boost-Invariant Hydrodynamic Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna Rajagopal; Nilesh Tripuraneni

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We solve second order relativistic hydrodynamics equations for a boost-invariant 1+1-dimensional expanding fluid with an equation of state taken from lattice calculations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. We investigate the dependence of the energy density as a function of proper time on the values of the shear viscosity, the bulk viscosity, and second order coefficients, confirming that large changes in the values of the latter have negligible effects. Varying the shear viscosity between zero and a few times s/(4 pi), with s the entropy density, has significant effects, as expected based on other studies. Introducing a nonzero bulk viscosity also has significant effects. In fact, if the bulk viscosity peaks near the crossover temperature Tc to the degree indicated by recent lattice calculations in QCD without quarks, it can make the fluid cavitate -- falling apart into droplets. It is interesting to see a hydrodynamic calculation predicting its own breakdown, via cavitation, at the temperatures where hadronization is thought to occur in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions.

  14. Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable Hans Zantema Utrecht University, Department Usually termination of term rewriting systems (TRS's) is proved by means of a monotonic well­founded order. If this order is total on ground terms, the TRS is called totally terminating. In this paper we prove that total

  15. Total Petroleum Systems and Assessment Units (AU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Surface water Groundwater X X X X X X X X AU 00000003 Oil/ Gas X X X X X X X X Total X X X X X X X Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Total undiscovered petroleum (MMBO or BCFG) Water per oil

  16. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I., E-mail: shklovsk@physics.spa.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Fine Theoretical Physics Institute (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states.

  17. Notes 10. A thermohydrodynamic bulk-flow model for fluid film bearings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complete set of bulk-flow equations for the analysis of turbulent flow fluid film bearings. Importance of thermal effects in process fluid applications. A CFD method for solution of the bulk-flow equations....

  18. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of ?-Al2O3-Supported...

  19. Analysis and forecast of the capesize bulk carriers shipping market using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voudris, Athanasios V

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investing in the bulk carrier market constitutes a rather risky investment due to the volatility of the bulk carrier freight rates. In this study it is attempted to uncover the benefits of using Artificial Neural Networks ...

  20. Notes 10. A thermohydrodynamic bulk-flow model for fluid film bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Notes 10. THERMOHYDRODYNAMIC BULK-FLOW MODEL IN THIN FILM LUBRICATION ? Dr. Luis San Andr?s (2009) 1 Notes 10. Thermohydrodynamic Bulk-Flow Model in Thin Film Lubrication General flow characteristics in oil lubricated fluid film... regimes Notes 10. THERMOHYDRODYNAMIC BULK-FLOW MODEL IN THIN FILM LUBRICATION ? Dr. Luis San Andr?s (2009) 2 Bulk-Flow Equations for Thin Fluid Films The fluid flow within a thin film region, see Fig.1, is governed by the continuity...

  1. High temperature magnetic properties of SmCo5/-Fe(Co) bulk nanocomposite magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    High temperature magnetic properties of SmCo5/-Fe(Co) bulk nanocomposite magnets Chuanbing Rong://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;High temperature magnetic properties of SmCo5/a-Fe(Co) bulk nanocomposite magnets Chuanbing Rong,1 containing no heavy rare earths for power applications, SmCo5/Fe bulk nanocomposite magnets with enhanced

  2. Corrosion of, and cellular responses to MgZnCa bulk metallic glasses Xuenan Gu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Corrosion of, and cellular responses to Mg­Zn­Ca bulk metallic glasses Xuenan Gu a , Yufeng Zheng a: Magnesium alloy Bulk metallic glass Mechanical property Corrosion Cytotoxicity a b s t r a c t Mg­Zn­Ca bulk, mechanical testing, corrosion and cytotoxicity tests. It was found that the Mg66Zn30Ca4 sample presents

  3. Bulk viscosity of superfluid hyperon stars Mikhail E. Gusakov and Elena M. Kantor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulk viscosity of superfluid hyperon stars Mikhail E. Gusakov and Elena M. Kantor Ioffe Physical; published 14 October 2008) We calculate the bulk viscosity due to nonequilibrium weak processes bulk viscosity coefficients, with only three of them being independent. In addition, we correct

  4. SINGLE-MASK, HIGH ASPECT RATIO, 3-D MICROMACHINING OF BULK TITANIUM , M. F. Aimi2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    SINGLE-MASK, HIGH ASPECT RATIO, 3-D MICROMACHINING OF BULK TITANIUM M. P. Rao1 , M. F. Aimi2 , E. R profiles in bulk titanium. The method relies on the exploitation of Reactive Ion Etching Lag (RIE Lag for application in bulk micromachined titanium micromirror devices. 1. INTRODUCTION The recent development

  5. Radiative cooling of bulk silicon by incoherent light pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutenko, V. K., E-mail: malyut@isp.kiev.ua; Bogatyrenko, V. V.; Malyutenko, O. Yu. [V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)] [V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to radiative cooling by light up conversion caused exclusively by a low-entropy laser pump and employing thermally assisted fluorescence/luminescence as a power out, we demonstrate light down conversion cooling by incoherent pumps, 0.47–0.94??m light emitting diodes, and employing thermal emission (TE) as a power out. We demonstrate ?3.5?K bulk cooling of Si at 450?K because overall energy of multiple below bandgap TE photons exceeds the energy of a single above bandgap pump photon. We show that using large entropy TE as power out helps avoid careful tuning of an incoherent pump wavelength and cool indirect-bandgap semiconductors.

  6. Bulk effects in the coherent inelastic scattering of ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Barabanov; S. T. Belyaev

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    With the use of theory developed earlier, bulk effects in ultracold neutron coherent inelastic scattering are considered both for solid and liquid target samples related to energy and momentum exchange with phonon and diffusion-like modes. For the neutron in a material trap, differential and integral probabilities for the energy transfer per bounce are presented in a simple analytic form which exhibits the parameter dependence. As an example, the theoretical values for the ultracold neutron loss rate from a storage bottle with Fomblin coated walls and stainless steel walls are evaluated. Possible contribution from incoherent inelastic scattering on hydrogen contamination is discussed.

  7. Elastic Moduli Inheritance and Weakest Link in Bulk Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; Lu, Z.P. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing; Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, Donald [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a variety of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) inherit their Young s modulus and shear modulus from the solvent components. This is attributed to preferential straining of locally solvent-rich configurations among tightly bonded atomic clusters, which constitute the weakest link in an amorphous structure. This aspect of inhomogeneous deformation, also revealed by our in-situ neutron diffraction studies of an elastically deformed BMG, suggests a scenario of rubber-like viscoelasticity owing to a hierarchy of atomic bonds in BMGs.

  8. Bulk viscosity in a plasma of confining gluons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojciech Florkowski; Radoslaw Ryblewski; Nan Su; Konrad Tywoniuk

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dynamic properties of a plasma whose constituents are confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization. In a static formulation, this system reproduces qualitatively the pure-glue equation of state and thereby encodes crucial features of the phase transition. The dynamic description proposed in this work allows us to study non-equilibrium transport phenomena with the inclusion of confinement effects. In particular, we determine the non-equilibrium behaviour of the interaction measure (trace anomaly) and find the form of the bulk viscosity coefficient. The latter may be used in phenomenological applications to heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Bulk Viscosity of a Gas of Massless Pions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiunn-Wei Chen; Juven Wang

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the hadronic phase, the dominant configuration of QCD with two flavors of massless quarks is a gas of massless pions. We calculate the bulk viscosity (zeta) using the Boltzmann equation with the kinetic theory generalized to incorporate the trace anomaly. We find that the dimensionless ratio zeta/s, s being the entropy density, is monotonic increasing below T=120 MeV, where chiral perturbation theory is applicable. This, combined with previous results, shows that zeta/s reaches its maximum near the phase transition temperature Tc, while eta/s, eta being the shear viscosity, reaches its minimum near Tc in QCD with massless quarks.

  10. Bulk viscosity in a plasma of confining gluons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Su, Nan; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dynamic properties of a plasma whose constituents are confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization. In a static formulation, this system reproduces qualitatively the pure-glue equation of state and thereby encodes crucial features of the phase transition. The dynamic description proposed in this work allows us to study non-equilibrium transport phenomena with the inclusion of confinement effects. In particular, we determine the non-equilibrium behaviour of the interaction measure (trace anomaly) and find the form of the bulk viscosity coefficient. The latter may be used in phenomenological applications to heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Non-Brownian molecular self-diffusion in bulk water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janez Stepišnik; Aleš Mohori?; Igor Serša

    2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the velocity autocorrelation spectrum of bulk water measured by a new technique of NMR modulated gradient spin echo method. This technique is unprecedented for the spectrum measurement in the frequency interval between a few Hz to about 100 kHz with respect to directness and clarity of results and shows that a simple model of Brownian self-diffusion is not applicable to describe the diffusion dynamics of water molecules. The observed temperature dependant spectra of water show the existence of a slow chain-like dynamics in water, which we explain by coupling of diffusing molecule to broken bonds in the hydrogen bond network.

  12. Tilting the Primordial Power Spectrum with Bulk Viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James E. Lidsey

    1993-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the cold dark matter model, current observations suggest that inflationary models which generate a tilted primordial power spectrum with negligible gravitational waves provide the most promising mechanism for explaining large scale clustering. The general form of the inflationary potential which produces such a spectrum is a hyperbolic function and is interpreted physically as a bulk viscous stress contribution to the energy-momentum of a perfect baryotropic fluid. This is equivalent to expanding the equation of state as a truncated Taylor series. Particle physics models which lead to such a potential are discussed.

  13. Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania:57427°, -89.4742177° Show Map LoadingFayston,Federal Bulk

  14. Robbins Corn & Bulk Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to: navigation, searchRobbins Corn & Bulk

  15. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  16. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  17. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  18. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  19. About Total Lubricants USA, Inc. Headquartered in Linden, New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides advanced quality industrial lubrication productsAbout Total Lubricants USA, Inc. Headquartered in Linden, New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides. A subsidiary of Total, S.A., the world's fourth largest oil company, Total Lubricants USA still fosters its

  20. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc salt in the castable refractory block and it is released over the same time period as the salt. Therefore, to limit the impact of precipitated Fe on the release of 99Tc, both the amount of precipitated Fe in the BV glass and the diameter of these particles should be minimized.

  2. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  3. GALAXY CLUSTER BULK FLOWS AND COLLISION VELOCITIES IN QUMOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Angus, G. W., E-mail: hkatz@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu, E-mail: teuben@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: angus.gz@gmail.com [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants'' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  4. Randall-Sundrum scenario with bulk dilaton and torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Sen, Somasri; SenGupta, Soumitra [Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad - 211 019 (India); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India); Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a string-inspired torsion-dilaton-gravity action in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario and show that, in an effective four-dimensional theory on the visible brane, the rank-2 antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field (source of torsion) is exponentially suppressed. The result is similar to our earlier result in [B. Mukhopadhyaya, S. Sen, and S. SenGupta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 121101 (2002); Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 259902(E) (2002)], where no dilaton was present in the bulk. This offers an explanation of the apparent invisibility of torsion in our space-time. However, in this case the trilinear couplings {approx}TeV{sup -1} between the dilaton and torsion may lead to new signals in TeV-scale experiments, bearing the stamp of extra warped dimensions.

  5. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  6. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Ping (2843A Forest Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705)

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  7. Derivations and Observations of Prominence Bulk Motions and Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kucera, T A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this chapter we review observations and techniques for measuring both bulk flows in prominences and prominence mass. Measuring these quantities is essential to development and testing of models discussed throughout this book. Prominence flows are complex and various, ranging from the relatively linear flows along prominence spines to the complex, turbulent patterns exhibited by hedgerow prominences. Techniques for measuring flows include time slice and optical flow techniques used for motions in the plane of the sky and the use of spectral line profiles to determine Doppler velocities along the line of sight. Prominence mass measurement is chiefly done via continuum absorption measurements, but mass has also been estimated using cloud modeling and white light measurements.

  8. Cavitation from bulk viscosity in neutron stars and quark stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jes Madsen

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulk viscosity in quark matter is sufficiently high to reduce the effective pressure below the corresponding vapor pressure during density perturbations in neutron stars and strange stars. This leads to mechanical instability where the quark matter breaks apart into fragments comparable to cavitation scenarios discussed for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Similar phenomena may take place in kaon-condensed stellar cores. Possible applications to compact star phenomenology include a new mechanism for damping oscillations and instabilities, triggering of phase transitions, changes in gravitational wave signatures of binary star inspiral, and astrophysical formation of strangelets. At a more fundamental level it points to the possible inadequacy of a hydrodynamical treatment of these processes in compact stars.

  9. Scanning Tunneling Macroscopy, Black Holes, and AdS/CFT Bulk Locality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soo-Jong Rey; Vladimir Rosenhaus

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish resolution bounds on reconstructing a bulk field from boundary data on a timelike hypersurface. If the bulk only supports propagating modes, reconstruction is complete. If the bulk also supports evanescent modes, local reconstruction is not achievable unless one has exponential precision in knowledge of the boundary data. Without exponential precision, for a Minkowski bulk, one can reconstruct a spatially coarse-grained bulk field, but only out to a depth set by the coarse-graining scale. For an asymptotically AdS bulk, reconstruction is limited to a spatial coarse-graining proper distance set by the AdS scale. AdS black holes admit evanescent modes. We study the resolution bound in the large AdS black hole background and provide a dual CFT interpretation. Our results demonstrate that, if there is a black hole of any size in the bulk, then sub-AdS bulk locality is no longer well-encoded in boundary data in terms of local CFT operators. Specifically, in order to probe the bulk on sub-AdS scales using only boundary data in terms of local operators, one must either have such data to exponential precision or make further assumptions about the bulk state.

  10. Optimization Online - Total variation superiorization schemes in ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S.N. Penfold

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 8, 2010 ... Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography ... check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the ...

  11. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","331...

  12. ,"New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","2272015"...

  13. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA S RENSEN a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for total re verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation generally is less energy e cient than

  14. Total correlations as fully additive entanglement monotones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardo A. Paz-Silva; John H. Reina

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We generalize the strategy presented in Refs. [1, 2], and propose general conditions for a measure of total correlations to be an entanglement monotone using its pure (and mixed) convex-roof extension. In so doing, we derive crucial theorems and propose a concrete candidate for a total correlations measure which is a fully additive entanglement monotone.

  15. A paucity of bulk entangling surfaces: AdS wormholes with de Sitter interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Fischetti; Donald Marolf; Aron Wall

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study and construct spacetimes, dubbed planar AdS-dS-wormholes, satisfying the null energy condition and having two asymptotically AdS boundaries connected through a (non-traversable) inflating wormhole. As for other wormholes, it is natural to expect dual descriptions in terms of two disconnected CFTs in appropriate entangled states. But for our cases certain expected bulk entangling surfaces used by the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) prescription to compute CFT entropy do not exist. In particular, no real codimension-2 extremal surface can run from one end of the wormhole to the other. According to HRT, the mutual information between any two finite-sized subregions (one in each CFT) must then vanish at leading order in large $N$ -- though the leading-order mutual information per unit area between the two CFTs taken as wholes may be nonzero. Some planar AdS-dS-wormholes also fail to have plane-symmetric surfaces that would compute the total entropy of either CFT. We suggest this to remain true of less-symmetric surfaces so that the HRT entropy is ill-defined and some modified prescription is required. It may be possible to simply extend HRT or the closely-related maximin construction by a limiting procedure, though complex extremal surfaces could also play an important role.

  16. Bulk viscosity of strange matter and r-modes in neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss bulk viscosity due to non-leptonic processes involving hyperons and Bose-Einstein condensate of negatively charged kaons in neutron stars. It is noted that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient is a few order of magnitude larger than that of the case with the condensate. Further it is found that the hyperon bulk viscosity is suppressed in a superconducting phase. The hyperon bulk viscosity efficiently damps the r-mode instability in neutron stars irrespective of whether a superconducting phase is present or not in neutron star interior.

  17. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    before and after cycling using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Correlating surface chemistry and bulk structure information with...

  18. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  19. Bulk matter fields on a GRS-inspired braneworld

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yu-Xiao; Fu, Chun-E; Guo, Heng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Zhao, Zhen-Hua, E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuche08@lzu.cn, E-mail: guoh06@lzu.cn, E-mail: weishaow06@lzu.cn, E-mail: zhaozhh09@lzu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the localization and mass spectra of bulk matter fields on a Gergory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov-inspired braneworld. In this braneworld model, there are one thick brane located at the origin of the extra dimension and two thin branes at two sides. For spin 1/2 fermions coupled with the background scalar ? via ? ?-bar ?{sup p}? with p a positive odd integer, the zero mode of left-hand fermions can be localized on the thick brane for finite distance of the two thin branes, and there exist some massive bound modes and resonance modes. The resonances correspond to the quasi-localized massive fermions. For free massless spin 0 scalars, the zero mode can not be localized on the thick brane when the two thin branes are located finitely. While for a massive scalar ? coupled with itself and the background scalar field ?, in order to get a localized zero mode on the thick brane, a fine-tuning relation should be introduced. Some massive bound modes and resonances also will appear. For spin 1 vectors, there is no bound KK mode because the effective potential felt by vectors vanishes outside the two thin branes. We also investigate the physics when the distance of the two thin branes tends to infinity.

  20. Gas bulk motion in the Perseus cluster measured with SUZAKU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamura, Takayuki; Iizuka, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ueda, S; Matsushita, K; Sato, K; Nakazawa, K; Ota, N; Takizawa, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results from Suzaku observations of the Perseus galaxy cluster, which is relatively close, the brightest in the X-ray sky and a relaxed object with a cool core. A number of exposures of central regions and offset pointing with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer cover a region within radii of 20'-30'. The central data are used to evaluate the instrumental energy-scale calibration with accuracy confirmed to within around 300 km/s, by the spatial and temporal variation of the instruments. These deep and well-calibrated data are used to measure X-ray redshifts of the intracluster medium. A hint of gas bulk motion, with radial velocity of about -(150-300) km/s, relative to the main system was found at 2-4 arcmin (45-90kpc) west of the cluster center, where an X-ray excess and a cold front were found previously. No other velocity structure was discovered. Over spatial scales of 50-100kpc and within 200kpc radii of the center, the gas-radial-velocity variation is below 300 km/s, while over scales of 400 k...

  1. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDannald, A. [Material Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States) [Material Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Kuna, L. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Jain, M. [Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States) [Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 ?{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  2. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  3. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA SØRENSEN in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback been built and the experiments verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation

  4. Total Energy Management in General Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeKoker, N.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of General Motors' energy management program with special emphasis on energy conservation. Included is a description of the total program organization, plant guidelines, communication and motivation techniques...

  5. Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Acylfulvene and (?)- Irofulven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-acylfulvene (1) and (?)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor ...

  7. Total synthesis of cyclotryptamine and diketopiperazine alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Justin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Total Synthesis of the (+)-12,12'-Dideoxyverticillin A The fungal metabolite (+)-12,12'-dideoxyverticillin A, a cytotoxic alkaloid isolated from a marine Penicillium sp., belongs to a fascinating family of densely ...

  8. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 October through 31 December of 2003.

  9. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , total air management of sensible and latent heat, filtration and zone pressure was brought about through the implementation of non-integrated, composite systems. Composite systems typically are built up of multi-vendor equipment each of which perform...

  10. Edge and bulk components of lowest-Landau-level orbitals, correlated fractional quantum Hall effect incompressible states, and insulating behavior in finite graphene samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constantine Yannouleas; Igor Romanovsky; Uzi Landman

    2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Many-body calculations of the total energy of interacting Dirac electrons in finite graphene samples exhibit joint occurrence of cusps at angular momenta corresponding to fractional fillings characteristic of formation of incompressible (gapped) correlated states (nu=1/3 in particular) and opening of an insulating energy gap (that increases with the magnetic field) at the Dirac point, in correspondence with experiments. Single-particle basis functions obeying the zigzag boundary condition at the sample edge are employed in exact diagonalization of the interelectron Coulomb interaction, showing, at all sizes, mixed equal-weight bulk and edge components. The consequent depletion of the bulk electron density attenuates the fractional-quantum-Hall-effect excitation energies and the edge charge accumulation results in a gap in the many-body spectrum.

  11. Integrating Bulk-Data Transfer into the Aurora Distributed Shared Data System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Paul

    Integrating Bulk-Data Transfer into the Aurora Distributed Shared Data System Paul Lu Dept version, with corrections to JPDC proofs 1 #12;Running Head: Integrating Bulk-Data Transfer into Aurora-1071 Web: http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~paullu/ Abstract The Aurora distributed shared data system implements

  12. Single pulse ultrafast laser imprinting of axial dot arrays in bulk glasses C. Mauclair,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Single pulse ultrafast laser imprinting of axial dot arrays in bulk glasses C. Mauclair,1, A sam- ples were irradiated with 160 fs pulses from an 800 nm Ti:Sapphire amplified ultrafast laser.mauclair@univ-st-etienne.fr Compiled December 20, 2010 Ultrafast laser processing of bulk transparent materials can significantly gain

  13. UNCORRECTED 2 Spall strength of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Glennan 616 B. Introduction 40 Bulk amorphous metals, also referred to as bulk metallic 41 glasses (BMG), are alloys in which super-cooling of a liquid 42 alloy produces a metastable phase, thus preventing forma- 43 tion

  14. Applications of Irreversible Thermodynamics: Bulk and Interfacial Electronic, Ionic, Magnetic, and Thermal Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sears, Matthew

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    : : : : : : : : : 7 A. Single Carrier Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Rate of Entropy Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Bulk Fluxes and Rate of Entropy Production . . . . . 11 3. Distinguishing Heating from Entropy Production... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1. Rate of Entropy Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. Bulk Fluxes and Rate of Entropy Production . . . . . 19 3. Surface Rate of Entropy Production . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. Surface Fluxes and Rate of Entropy Production . . . . 23...

  15. Bulk, surface and corner free energy series for the chromatic polynomial on the square and triangular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bulk, surface and corner free energy series for the chromatic polynomial on the square, surface and corner free energies of the chromatic polynomial. This extends the existing series expression for the bulk free energy (to order q-40 ), and we are able to conjecture exact product formulae

  16. A compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    for an intrinsic degradation concern for bulk heterojunction type organic photovoltaic (BH-OPV) cells that involveA compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk-induced degradation in Si-based cell (Staebler-Wronski effect), Cu diffusion in thin film (copper indium gallium

  17. Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and cytotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and cytotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk December 2011 Available online 27 December 2011 Keywords: Bulk metallic glass Corrosion Biocompatibility Electrochemical characterization Biomedical applications The aim of this work is to investigate the corrosion

  18. Proton transfer from the bulk to the bound ubiquinone QB of the reaction center in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Proton transfer from the bulk to the bound ubiquinone QB of the reaction center in chromatophores, 1999) The mechanism of proton transfer from the bulk into the mem- brane protein interior was studied is accompanied by proton trapping. We used kinetic spec- troscopy to measure (i) the electron transfer to QB (at

  19. Sub-100 ps bulk-recombination-limited InP:Fe photoconductive detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, R.B.; Paulter, N.G.; Iverson, A.E.; Smith, R.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both surface and bulk excited semi-insulating InP optoelectronic switches were studied. It was found that transient recombination in these devices is the same for both types of excitation. It is concluded that the recombination is a bulk controlled process.

  20. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Structure at the surface and in the bulk in biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Structure at the surface and in the bulk in biomaterials: Studies for investigating the surface and the bulk structure in biomaterials will be presented. Formation of thin polymer films on aqueous surfaces, and the adsorption of proteins onto polymer surfaces in the aqueous media

  1. Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaOAl2O3. Water-induced Bulk Ba(NO3)2 Formation From NO2 Exposed Thermally Aged BaOAl2O3. Abstract: Phase changes in high...

  2. Bulk ion acceleration and particle heating during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasmaa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Hantao

    Bulk ion acceleration and particle heating during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasmaa January 2014; accepted 20 February 2014; published online 7 May 2014) Bulk ion acceleration and particle-plane (Hall) electric field plays a key role in ion heating and acceleration. The electrostatic potential

  3. RowClone: Fast and Energy-Efficient In-DRAM Bulk Data Copy and Initialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RowClone: Fast and Energy-Efficient In-DRAM Bulk Data Copy and Initialization Processor MemoryChannel Limited bandwidth High energy Carnegie Mellon University Intel Pittsburgh #12;RowClone: Fast and Energy-Efficient University Intel Pittsburgh #12;RowClone: Fast and Energy-Efficient In-DRAM Bulk Data Copy and Initialization

  4. Risk-based Maintenance Allocation and Scheduling for Bulk Electric Power Transmission System Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    equipment, maintenance, reliability, risk, security, optimization 1.Introduction Maintenance of bulk Equipment Yong Jiang, Ming Ni, James D. McCalley, Tim Van Voorhis {jiangy for bulk transmission equipment that is based on the cumulative long-term risk caused by each piece

  5. Bulk superconductivity in Type II superconductors near the second critical field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fournais; B. Helffer

    2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider superconductors of Type II near the transition from the 'bulk superconducting' to the 'surface superconducting' state. We prove a new $L^{\\infty}$ estimate on the order parameter in the bulk, i.e. away from the boundary. This solves an open problem posed by Aftalion and Serfaty.

  6. 1Cellular Polymers, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    Hydrostaticcompressionoffoamisofinterestinavarietyofcontextsincluding under-sea applications. Syntactic foam, for instance, consists of hollow glass1Cellular Polymers, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams © Rapra Technology, 2007 On the Bulk Modulus of Open Cell Foams B. Moore, T. Jaglinski, D.S. Stone§ and R.S. Lakes

  7. Matter in the Bulk and its Consequences on the Brane: A Possible Source of Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subenoy Chakraborty; Asit Banerjee; Tanwi Bandyopadhyay

    2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The usual brane world scenario with anti de Sitter bulk has been generalized by considering a general form of energy momentum tensor in the bulk. The modified Einstein equation on the brane has been constructed. Two examples have been cited of which, the first one shows the usual brane equations when matter in the bulk is a negative cosmological constant. In the second example, the bulk matter is in the form of perfect fluid and as a result, an effective perfect fluid is obtained in the brane. Also it is noted that the effect of the dust bulk on the brane shows a dark energy behaviour and may be a possible explanation of the dark energy from the present day observational point of view.

  8. Bulk viscosity-driven suppression of shear viscosity effects on the flow harmonics at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Noronha-Hostler; J. Noronha; F. Grassi

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between shear and bulk viscosities on the flow harmonics, $v_n$'s, at RHIC is investigated using the newly developed relativistic 2+1 hydrodynamical code v-USPhydro that includes bulk and shear viscosity effects both in the hydrodynamic evolution and also at freeze-out. While shear viscosity is known to attenuate the flow harmonics, we find that the inclusion of bulk viscosity decreases the shear viscosity-induced suppression of the flow harmonics bringing them closer to their values in ideal hydrodynamical calculations. Depending on the value of the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\zeta/s$, in the quark-gluon plasma, the bulk viscosity-driven suppression of shear viscosity effects on the flow harmonics may require a re-evaluation of the previous estimates of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, of the quark-gluon plasma previously extracted by comparing hydrodynamic calculations to heavy ion data.

  9. National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Total Energy USA...

  10. Asymptomatic Chronic Dislocation of a Cemented Total Hip Prosthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio; Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav; Grappiolo, Guido

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dislocation of Hip Prosthesis dislocation after total hipa Cemented Total Hip Prosthesis * Mellino Mellini HospitalDislocation of a total hip prosthesis is a painful and

  11. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher density of nanometer sized carbides on the boundaries. This project will focus on void swelling but advances in processing of austenitic steels are likely to also improve the radiation response of the mechanical properties.

  12. Total Cross Sections for Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Chinn; Ch. Elster; R. M. Thaler; S. P. Weppner

    1994-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of neutron total cross-sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross-sections for neutron scattering from $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca are calculated as a function of energy from $50-700$~MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are already in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment.

  13. Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput Product: Total Input Natural

  14. ON DEVELOPMENT OF TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE VESTIBULAR PROSTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, William C

    ON DEVELOPMENT OF TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE VESTIBULAR PROSTHESIS Andrei M. Shkel 1 Department vestibular prosthesis. The sensing element of the prosthesis is a custom designed one-axis MEMS gyroscope of the prosthesis on a rate table indicate that the device's output matches the average firing rate of vestibular

  15. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to heat rejection to contain the size of the ground loop. In areas where seasonal heating is required, but cooling remains the dominant load, a hybrid heat rejection system can be specified. A hybrid system consists of a ground loop sized for total...

  16. Bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk, superhard, B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof. The bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compact is a well-sintered compact and includes nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B-C-N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compact has a Vicker's hardness of about 41-68 GPa. It is prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture, and sintering the encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a pressure of about 5-25 GPa and at a temperature of about 1000-2500 K.

  17. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Borgatti, F. [CNR, Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Lab. TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Tortora, L. [Laboratorio di Analisi di Superficie, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stefani, G.; Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  18. Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Do, Binh T

    2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured bulk and surface dielectric breakdown thresholds of pure silica for 14 ps and 8 ns pulses of 1064 nm light. The thresholds are sharp and reproducible. For the 8 ns pulses the bulk threshold irradiance is 4.75 {+-} 0.25 kW/{mu}m{sup 2}. The threshold is approximately three times higher for 14 ps pulses. For 8 ns pulses the input surface damage threshold can be made equal to the bulk threshold by applying an alumina or silica surface polish.

  19. ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy - evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kondo, S; Yasui, C; Kuzmenko, P J; Tokoro, H; Terada, H

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of CVD-ZnS, CVD-ZnSe, Si, and GaAs, in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of {alpha}{sub att} = 0.01-0.03 cm{sup -1} among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to {lambda}{sup -2}, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least > 80 %, even for the spectral resolution of R = 300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  20. Bulk Tungsten in the JET Divertor: Potential Influence of the Exhaustion of Ductility and Grain Growth on the Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulk Tungsten in the JET Divertor: Potential Influence of the Exhaustion of Ductility and Grain Growth on the Lifetime

  1. Clamping of Solid Tungsten Components for the Bulk W Divertor Row in JET – Precautionary Design for a Brittle Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clamping of Solid Tungsten Components for the Bulk W Divertor Row in JET – Precautionary Design for a Brittle Material

  2. Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

  3. High Temperature Deformation Behavior of in-situ Bulk Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, X.L.

    Macroscopic ductility is promoted in bulk metallic glasses by both composite reinforcements (at low temperatures) and by the activation of viscous flow mechanisms (at high temperatures). It is of fundamental interest to ...

  4. Dye-doped polymer nanoparticles for flexible, bulk luminescent solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Ron, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) cannot make use of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) due to necessarily low dye concentrations. In this thesis, we attempt to present a poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) waveguide ...

  5. Using first principles Destiny Functional Theory methods to model the Seebeck coefficient of bulk silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehra, Saahil

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectrics are gaining significant amounts of attention considering their relevance today in the areas of sustainable energy generation and energy efficiency. In this thesis, the thermoelectric properties of bulk ...

  6. Calibration of DEM models for granular materials using bulk physical tests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Mical William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , when validation studies are conducted, discrepancies between bulk responses in physical tests and numerical predictions using measured particles properties may arise. The aire of this research is to develop a methodology to calibrate DEM models...

  7. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation October 20, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Alan Heeger Department of Chemistry,...

  8. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  9. Bulk power risk analysis : ranking infrastructure elements according to their risk significance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koonce, Anthony M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disruptions in the bulk power grid can result in very diverse consequences that include economic, social, physical, and psychological impacts. In addition, power outages do not affect all end-users of the system in the ...

  10. Effect of Annealing on Hardness and the Modulus of Elasticity in Bulk Nanocrystalline Nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrents, Anna; Yang, Heather; Mohamed, Farghalli A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Bulk Nanocrystalline Nickel ANNA TORRENTS, HEATHER YANG,Composition of (ED) nc-Nickel P S Cu Co B Ni balance 622—for monocrys- talline nickel at ambient temperature (S 11 =

  11. Microyielding of Core-Shell Crystal Dendrites in a Bulk-metallic-glass Matrix Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, E-Wen

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. ...

  12. All bulk and boundary unitary cubic curvature theories in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct all the bulk and boundary unitary cubic curvature parity invariant gravity theories in three dimensions in (anti)-de Sitter spaces. For bulk unitarity, our construction is based on the principle that the free theory of the cubic curvature theory reduces to one of the three known unitary theories which are the cosmological Einstein-Hilbert theory, the quadratic theory of the scalar curvature, or the new massive gravity (NMG). Bulk and boundary unitarity in NMG is in conflict; therefore, cubic theories that are unitary both in the bulk and on the boundary have free theories that reduce to the other two alternatives. We also study the unitarity of the Born-Infeld extensions of NMG to all orders in curvature.

  13. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rapid solidified precursor converted into crystalline bulks under pressure produced thermoelectric materials of nano-sized grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries, achieving reduced lattice thermal conductivity and increased power factor

  14. Petrology and bulk chemistry of Yamato-82094, a new type of carbonaceous chondrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    Petrology and bulk chemistry of Yamato-82094, a new type of carbonaceous chondrite M. KIMURA1-rich metal in the chondrules indicate that Y-82094 is petrologic type 3.2. The extremely low abundance

  15. Suppression of structural imperfection in strained Si by utilizing SiGe bulk substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usami, N.; Nose, Y.; Fujiwara, K.; Nakajima, K. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2006-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempted to utilize homemade SiGe bulk crystal as a substrate for epitaxy of strain-controlled heterostructures. X-ray reciprocal space mapping clarified that the growth of a Si thin film on a SiGe bulk substrate leads to reduction in the orientation fluctuation compared with that on a SiGe virtual substrate. Furthermore, analysis of Raman spectra revealed a dramatic decrease of the strain fluctuation in the strained Si film on the SiGe bulk substrate. These results suggest that the SiGe bulk crystal can be utilized as a substrate for various strain-controlled heterostructures for fundamental studies as well as improvement of device performance.

  16. OGJ300; Smaller list, bigger financial totals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.; Biggs, J.B.

    1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on Oil and Gas Journal's list of the largest, publicly traded oil and gas producing companies in the U.S. which is both smaller and larger this year than it was in 1990. It's smaller because it covers fewer companies. Industry consolidation has slashed the number of public companies. As a result, the former OGJ400 has become the OGJ300, which includes the 30 largest limited partnerships. But the assets-ranked list is larger because important financial totals - representing 1990 results - are significantly higher than those of a year ago, despite the lower number of companies. Consolidation of the U.S. producing industry gained momentum throughout the 1980s. Unable to sustain profitability in a period of sluggish energy prices and, for many, rising costs, companies sought relief through mergers or liquidation of producing properties. As this year's list shows, however, surviving companies have managed to grow. Assets for the OGJ300 group totaled $499.3 billion in 1990 - up 6.3% from the 1989 total of last year's OGJ400. Stockholders' equity moved up 5.3% to $170.7 billion. Stockholders' equity was as high as $233.8 billion in 1983.

  17. An analysis of bulk agricultural commodity buying behavior in selected developing economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Kimberly Renee

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into a conceptual model is needed to analyze and describe bulk buying behavior. Literature from the third group was used to: 1) help identify, guide, and evaluate the need for mar- ket information on factors most likely to affect bulk buyers' re... be described by three characteristics: 1) the newness of the buying problem; 2) information requirements of the buy- ing decision makers; and 3) new alternatives given serious considera- tion by decision makers. These factors determine buyer's needs from...

  18. Emergent Universe in Brane World Scenario with Schwarzschild-de Sitter Bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asit Banerjee; Tanwi Bandyopadhyay; Subenoy Chakraborty

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of an emergent universe is obtained in brane world. Here the bulk energy is in the form of cosmological constant, while the brane consists of a fluid satisfying an equation of state of the form $p_{b}={1/3} \\rho_{b}$, which is effectively a radiation equation of state at high energies. It is shown that with the positive bulk cosmological constant, one of our models represents an emergent universe.

  19. Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol K.F. Chan, F.M.F. Ng, D. described the use of NaOH/ethanol as an etchant for the CR-39 detector, and have determined the corre and track etch properties of CR- 39 in NaOH/ethanol were derived from direct measurements. The bulk etch

  20. Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.

  1. ACCOUNTING FOR A VITRIFIED PLUTONIUM WASTE FORM IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY TOTAL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT (TSPA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification technology utilizing a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass appears to be a viable option for dispositioning excess weapons-useable plutonium that is not suitable for processing into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A significant effort to develop a glass formulation and vitrification process to immobilize plutonium was completed in the mid-1990s to support the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP). Further refinement of the vitrification process was accomplished as part of the Am/Cm solution vitrification project. The LaBS glass formulation was found to be capable of immobilizing in excess of 10 wt% Pu and to be very tolerant of the impurities accompanying the plutonium material streams. Thus, this waste form would be suitable for dispositioning plutonium owned by the Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) that may not be well characterized and may contain high levels of impurities. The can-in-canister technology demonstrated in the PIP could be utilized to dispose of the vitrified plutonium in the federal radioactive waste repository. The can-in-canister technology involves placing small cans of the immobilized Pu form into a high level waste (HLW) glass canister fitted with a rack to hold the cans and then filling the canister with HLW glass. Testing was completed to demonstrate that this technology could be successfully employed with little or no impact to current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operation and that the resulting canisters were essentially equivalent to the present HLW glass canisters to be dispositioned in the federal repository. The performance of wastes in the repository and, moreover, the performance of the entire repository system is being evaluated by the Department of Energy-Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) using a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) methodology. Technical bases documents (e.g., Analysis/Modeling Reports (AMR)) that address specific issues regarding waste form performance are being used to develop process models as input to the TSPA analyses. In this report, models developed in five AMRs for waste forms currently slated for disposition in the repository are evaluated for their applicability to waste forms with plutonium immobilized in LaBS glass using the can-in-canister technology. Those AMRs address: high-level waste glass degradation; radionuclide inventory; in-package chemistry; dissolved concentration limits of radioactive elements; and colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. Based on evaluation of how the models treated HLW glass and similarities in the corrosion behaviors of borosilicate HLW glasses and LaBS glass, the models in the AMRs were deemed to be directly applicable to the disposition of excess weapons-useable plutonium. The evaluations are summarized.

  2. TotalView | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6TotalView

  3. 2013 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y M E2003CommercialTotal (Data

  4. 2013 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial (DataTotal (Data

  5. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, NewDyerTier2 Submit SoftwareEPB JumpEQUUS Total

  6. 2013 Total Electric Industry- Sales (Megawatthours

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenue for

  7. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tattersall, Wade [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Chiari, Luca [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia)] [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); White, Ron D. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia)] [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia) [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Buckman, Stephen J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, Gustavo [Instituto de F?sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cient?ficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de F?sica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cient?ficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de F?sica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Departamento de F?sica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.

  8. Solar Total Energy Project final test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.F.; Abney, L.O.; Towner, M.L. (Georgia Power Co., Shenandoah, GA (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP), a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Georgia Power Company (GPC) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, has undergone several design modifications based on experience from previous operations and test programs. The experiences encountered were discussed in detail in the Solar Total Energy Project Summary Report'' completed in 1987 for DOE. Most of the proposed changes discussed in this report were installed and tested in 1987 as part of two 15-day test programs (SNL Contract No. 06-3049). However, several of the suggested changes were not completed before 1988. These plant modifications include a new distributed control system for the balance of plant (BOP), a fiber a optical communications ring for the field control system, and new control configuration reflecting the new operational procedures caused by the plant modifications. These modifications were tested during a non-consecutive day test, and a 60-day field test conducted during the autumn of 1989. These test were partially funded by SNL under Contract No. 42-4859, dated June 22, 1989. Results of these tests and preliminary analysis are presented in this test summary report. 9 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. UPRE method for total variation parameter selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Variation (TV) Regularization is an important method for solving a wide variety of inverse problems in image processing. In order to optimize the reconstructed image, it is important to choose the optimal regularization parameter. The Unbiased Predictive Risk Estimator (UPRE) has been shown to give a very good estimate of this parameter for Tikhonov Regularization. In this paper we propose an approach to extend UPRE method to the TV problem. However, applying the extended UPRE is impractical in the case of inverse problems such as de blurring, due to the large scale of the associated linear problem. We also propose an approach to reducing the large scale problem to a small problem, significantly reducing computational requirements while providing a good approximation to the original problem.

  10. Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of...

  11. Enantioselective total syntheses of acylfulvene, irofulven, and the agelastatins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Dustin S. (Dustin Scott), 1980-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Acylfulvene, and (-)-Irofulven We report the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene and (-)-irofulven, which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of ...

  12. Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Meiliana

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

  13. In vivo tibial force measurement after total knee arthroplasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Lima, Darryl David

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Colwell, C. W. , Jr. : The press-fit condylar total kneeColwell, C. W. , Jr. : Press-fit condylar design total knee

  14. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the...

  15. The terminal bulk Lorentz factor of relativistic electron-positron jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Renaud; G. Henri

    1998-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical simulation of bulk Lorentz factor of relativistic electron-positron jet driven by Compton rocket effect from accretion disc radiation. The plasma is assumed to have a power-law distribution $n_{e}(\\gamma) \\propto \\gamma^{-s}$ whith $1 terminal bulk Lorentz factor in the case of supermassive black holes relevant to AGN and stellar black holes relevant to galactic microquasars. In the latter case, Klein-Nishina cross section effect are more important, and induce terminal bulk Lorentz factor smaller than in the former case. Our result are in good agreement with bulk Lorentz factors observed in galactic sources (GRS1915+105, GROJ1655-40) and extragalactic ones. Differences in scattered radiation and acceleration mechanism efficiency in AGN environment can be responsible for the variety of relativistic motion in those objects. We also take into account the influence of the size of the accretion disc; if the external radius is small enough, the bulk Lorentz factor can be as high as 60.

  16. The terminal bulk Lorentz factor of relativistic electron-positron jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Renaud; G. Henri

    1997-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical simulation of bulk Lorentz factor of relativistic electron positron jet driven by Compton rocket effect from accretion disk radiation. The plasma is assumed to have a power-law energy distribution and is continuously reheated to compensate for radiation losses. We include Klein-Nishina (hereafter KN) corrections, and study the role of energy upper cut-off, spectral index, and source compactness. We determine terminal bulk Lorentz factor in the case of supermassive black holes relevant to AGN and stellar black holes relevant to galactic microquasars. In the latter case, effects of KN corrections are more important and induce terminal bulk Lorentz factor smaller than in the former case. The result can explain the low bulk Lorentz factors for galactic sources (GRS1915+105, GROJ1655-40) compared to extragalactic ones. We also take into account the influence of the size of the accretion disk; if the external radius is small enough, the bulk Lorentz factor can be as high as 60, which is comparable to the values needed to explain extragalactic gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Thermal conductivity of bulk and nanowire Mg?SixSn1–x alloys from first principles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Wu; Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Stewart, Derek A.; Mingo, Natalio

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice thermal conductivity (?) of the thermoelectric materials, Mg?Si, Mg?Sn, and their alloys, are calculated for bulk and nanowires, without adjustable parameters. We find good agreement with bulk experimental results. For large nanowire diameters, size effects are stronger for the alloy than for the pure compounds. For example, in 200 nm diameter nanowires ? is lower than its bulk value by 30%, 20%, and 20% for Mg?Si?.?Sn?.?, Mg?Si, and Mg?Sn, respectively. For nanowires less than 20 nm thick, the relative decrease surpasses 50%, and it becomes larger in the pure compounds than in the alloy. At room temperature, ? of Mg?SixSn1–x is less sensitive to nanostructuring size effects than SixGe1–x, but more sensitive than PbTexSe1–x. This suggests that further improvement of Mg?SixSn1–x as a nontoxic thermoelectric may be possible.

  18. Thermal conductivity of bulk and nanowire Mg?SixSn1–x alloys from first principles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Wu; Lindsay, L.; Broido, D. A.; Stewart, Derek A.; Mingo, Natalio

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice thermal conductivity (?) of the thermoelectric materials, Mg?Si, Mg?Sn, and their alloys, are calculated for bulk and nanowires, without adjustable parameters. We find good agreement with bulk experimental results. For large nanowire diameters, size effects are stronger for the alloy than for the pure compounds. For example, in 200 nm diameter nanowires ? is lower than its bulk value by 30%, 20%, and 20% for Mg?Si?.?Sn?.?, Mg?Si, and Mg?Sn, respectively. For nanowires less than 20 nm thick, the relative decrease surpasses 50%, and it becomes larger in the pure compounds than in the alloy. At room temperature, ?more »of Mg?SixSn1–x is less sensitive to nanostructuring size effects than SixGe1–x, but more sensitive than PbTexSe1–x. This suggests that further improvement of Mg?SixSn1–x as a nontoxic thermoelectric may be possible.« less

  19. Boiling of the Interface between Two Immiscible Liquids below the Bulk Boiling Temperatures of Both Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiya V. Pimenova; Denis S. Goldobin

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becoming heated above its bulk boiling point. On the contrary, we address the case where both liquids remain below their bulk boiling points. In this paper we construct the theoretical description of the boiling process and discuss the actualisation of the case we consider for real systems.

  20. Spherically symmetric brane spacetime with bulk $f(\\mathcal{R})$ gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumanta Chakraborty; Soumitra SenGupta

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing $f(\\mathcal{R})$ term in the five-dimensional bulk action we derive effective Einstein's equation on the brane using Gauss-Codazzi equation. This effective equation is then solved for different conditions on dark radiation and dark pressure to obtain various spherically symmetric solutions. Some of these static spherically symmetric solutions correspond to black hole solutions, with parameters induced from the bulk. Specially, the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (electric part of Weyl curvature) affect the brane spherically symmetric solutions significantly. We have solved for one parameter group of conformal motions where the dark radiation and dark pressure terms are exactly obtained exploiting the corresponding Lie symmetry. Various thermodynamic features of these spherically symmetric space-times are studied, showing existence of second order phase transition. This phenomenon has its origin in the higher curvature term with $f(\\mathcal{R})$ gravity in the bulk.

  1. Diffusion of Small He Clusters in Bulk and Grain Boundaries in ?-Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, W. Y.; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2013-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The diffusion properties of He interstitials and He clusters in the bulk and grain boundaries (GBs) of ?-Fe have been studied using molecular dynamics with a newly developed Fe?He potential. The low migration energy barrier for a single He interstitial in the bulk is consistent with that obtained using ab initio methods. Small He clusters can migrate at low temperatures, but at higher temperatures they will kick out a self-interstitial atom (SIA) and become trapped by the vacancy, forming an He-vacancy complex. It is of great interest to note that small Henvacancy clusters (n<5) in the bulk are able to absorb an SIA, and the clusters become mobile again. Trapping and de-trapping of He clusters by emitting and absorbing an SIA represent an important dynamic process that provides a mechanism for the diffusion of He clusters and the nucleation of He bubbles in bulk Fe, particularly under irradiation in which numerous SIAs and vacancies are constantly being produced. A single He interstitial can migrate one-dimensionally or two-dimensionally within GBs, depending on the GB structure. Small interstitial Hen clusters 2 (n ~ 1 - 10) can easily kick out an SIA, and become trapped by the vacancy, while the SIA quickly diffuses away from the clusters, disappearing into the GB, such that de-trapping of the He clusters by absorbing an SIA is less likely to occur. This suggests that small He clusters may be treated as relatively immobile defects in GBs. The different behavior of He clusters in the bulk compared to their behavior in GBs may explain the different He bubble sizes experimentally observed in the bulk and in GBs in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels that have been simultaneously neutron irradiated and He implanted.

  2. Thermodynamic States and Phase Diagrams for Bulk-Incoherent, Bulk-Coherent, and Epitaxially-Coherent Semiconductor Alloys: Application to Cubic (Ga,In)N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. Z.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The morphology and microstructure of A{sub 1-x}B{sub x}C semiconductor alloys depend on the type of thermodynamic states established during growth. We distinguish three main cases: (i) bulk-incoherent structures occur when the alloy grows without being coherent with an underlying substrate and when each of the possible alloy species-phase separated AC and BC constituents, random A{sub 1-x}B{sub x}C alloy, or ordered (AC){sub n}/(BC){sub m} structures-maintain their own lattice structures and lattice constants, giving up mutual coherence. Bulk incoherence is common in thick films with sufficient dislocations. For cubic (Ga,In)N, bulk-incoherent structures are found to have a positive excess enthalpy {Delta}H{sub bulk}{sup incoh} > 0 and, thus, to phase separate. (ii) Bulk-coherent structures occur when the alloy grows without being coherent with a substrate, but each of the possible species internal to the alloy film is forced to be coherent with the film matrix. Thus, the constituents AC-rich and BC-rich solid solution phases share the same lattice structure at their interface, leading to internal strain that destabilizes the AC+BC separated constituents. This can expose the intermediate (AC){sub n}/(BC){sub m} ordered phases as stable structures with respect to the strained constituents, i.e., {Delta}H{sub bulk}{sup coh} < 0. Bulk coherence is applicable to growth when the development of dislocations is inhibited, e.g., small size precipitates in the alloy matrix. For cubic (Ga,In)N alloy, we find that the coherent ground state phases are three ordered superlattice structures: (InN){sub 2}/(GaN){sub 2} (=chacolpyrite), (InN){sub 3}/(GaN){sub 1}, and (InN){sub 4}/(GaN){sub 1}, along (201) [and its cubic symmetry equivalent, i.e., (102), (210), etc.] crystal direction. (iii) Epitaxially coherent structures occur when the alloy is made coherent with an underlying substrate, e.g., in thin film pseudomorphic growth. Depending on the substrate, the formation enthalpy {Delta}H{sup epi} < 0. For cubic (Ga,In)N grown on GaN (001) substrate, we find that the stablest epitaxial phases are chalcopyrite and the (InN){sub 4}/(GaN){sub 1} superlattice along the (210) crystal direction. Here, we calculate, from first principles, the formation enthalpies of cubic zinc blende (Ga,In)N alloy under the three forms of thermodynamic states indicated above to establish a cluster expansion, from which we calculate the finite-temperature phase diagrams. This illustrates how the thermodynamic constraints during growth can radically alter the alloy phase behavior and its microstructures.

  3. Shear bands in a bulk metallic glass after large plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, D.D.; Wang, Y.B.; Liao, X.Z.; Shen, J. (Harbin); (Sydney)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmission electron microscopy investigation is conducted to trace shear bands in a Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 18.7}Ni{sub 12}Al{sub 16.3} bulk metallic glass after experiencing 4% plastic deformation. Shear band initiation, secondary shear band interactions, mature shear band broadening and the interactions of shear bands with shear-induced nanocrystals are captured. Results suggest that the plasticity of the bulk metallic glass is enhanced by complex shear bands and their interactions which accommodate large plastic strain and prevent catastrophic shear band propagation.

  4. THE EFFECT OF SUBBANDGAP ILLUMINATION ON THE BULK RESISTIVITY OF CDZNTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Burger, A.; Groza, M.; Buliga, V.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in bulk resistivity during infrared (IR) illumination above 950 nm of state-of-the-art CdZnTe (CZT) crystals grown using the traveling heating method or the modified Bridgman method is documented. The change in steady-state current with and without illumination is also evaluated. The influence of secondary phases (SP) on current?voltage (I?V) characteristics is discussed using IR transmission microscopy to determine the defect concentration within the crystal bulk. SP present within the CZT are connected to the existence of deep, IR-excitable traps within the bandgap.

  5. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in the Bulk Rashba Semiconductor BiTeI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, C.; Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Arita, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Onose, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk magnetoresistance quantum oscillations are observed in high quality single crystal samples of BiTeI. This compound shows an extremely large internal spin-orbit coupling, associated with the polarity of the alternating Bi, Te, and I layers perpendicular to the c-axis. The corresponding areas of the inner and outer Fermi surfaces around the A-point show good agreement with theoretical calculations, demonstrating that the intrinsic bulk Rashba-type splitting is nearly 360 meV, comparable to the largest spin-orbit coupling generated in heterostructures and at surfaces.

  6. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

  7. Bulk viscosity : a study from Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Kinkar

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extensive study of the bulk viscosity, $\\zeta$ using the framework of Kubo formalism within 2+1 flavored Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Alongwith, we have discussed the kinetic approaches in order to estimate the bulk viscous effects in the strongly interacting systems analogous to the situation in various high energy heavy-ion collisions. Our work strengthens the motivation for the proper incorporation of $\\zeta$ into the analysis of such systems. We also provide justification for such incorporation becoming more significant when density is substantially high.

  8. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Nichols, G.J.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device are disclosed. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E{sub g}) of 0.4 eV < E{sub g} < 0.7 eV and an emitter fabricated on the substrate formed from one of a p-type or an n-type material. Another thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers. 12 figs.

  9. Bulk viscosity : a study from Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinkar Saha; Sudipa Upadhaya

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extensive study of the bulk viscosity, $\\zeta$ using the framework of Kubo formalism within 2+1 flavored Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Alongwith, we have discussed the kinetic approaches in order to estimate the bulk viscous effects in the strongly interacting systems analogous to the situation in various high energy heavy-ion collisions. Our work strengthens the motivation for the proper incorporation of $\\zeta$ into the analysis of such systems. We also provide justification for such incorporation becoming more significant when density is substantially high.

  10. Soil Test P vs. Total P in Wisconsin Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    Soil Test P vs. Total P in Wisconsin Soils Larry G. Bundy & Laura W. Good Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Introduction · Soil test P is often measured · Little information is available on total P content of soils · Why do we care about total P now? ­ Soil total P

  11. Total Operators and Inhomogeneous Proper Values Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose G. Vargas

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Kaehler's two-sided angular momentum operator, K + 1, is neither vector-valued nor bivector-valued. It is total in the sense that it involves terms for all three dimensions. Constant idempotents that are "proper functions" of K+1's components are not proper functions of K+1. They rather satisfy "inhomogeneous proper-value equations", i.e. of the form (K + 1)U = {\\mu}U + {\\pi}, where {\\pi} is a scalar. We consider an equation of that type with K+1 replaced with operators T that comprise K + 1 as a factor, but also containing factors for both space and spacetime translations. We study the action of those T's on linear combinations of constant idempotents, so that only the algebraic (spin) part of K +1 has to be considered. {\\pi} is now, in general, a non-scalar member of a Kaehler algebra. We develop the system of equations to be satisfied by the combinations of those idempotents for which {\\pi} becomes a scalar. We solve for its solutions with {\\mu} = 0, which actually also makes {\\pi} = 0: The solutions with {\\mu} = {\\pi} = 0 all have three constituent parts, 36 of them being different in the ensemble of all such solutions. That set of different constituents is structured in such a way that we might as well be speaking of an algebraic representation of quarks. In this paper, however, we refrain from pursuing this identification in order to emphasize the purely mathematical nature of the argument.

  12. Totally Corrective Boosting with Cardinality Penalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasil S. Denchev; Nan Ding; Shin Matsushima; S. V. N. Vishwanathan; Hartmut Neven

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a totally corrective boosting algorithm with explicit cardinality regularization. The resulting combinatorial optimization problems are not known to be efficiently solvable with existing classical methods, but emerging quantum optimization technology gives hope for achieving sparser models in practice. In order to demonstrate the utility of our algorithm, we use a distributed classical heuristic optimizer as a stand-in for quantum hardware. Even though this evaluation methodology incurs large time and resource costs on classical computing machinery, it allows us to gauge the potential gains in generalization performance and sparsity of the resulting boosted ensembles. Our experimental results on public data sets commonly used for benchmarking of boosting algorithms decidedly demonstrate the existence of such advantages. If actual quantum optimization were to be used with this algorithm in the future, we would expect equivalent or superior results at much smaller time and energy costs during training. Moreover, studying cardinality-penalized boosting also sheds light on why unregularized boosting algorithms with early stopping often yield better results than their counterparts with explicit convex regularization: Early stopping performs suboptimal cardinality regularization. The results that we present here indicate it is beneficial to explicitly solve the combinatorial problem still left open at early termination.

  13. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G. (Dnipropetrovsk, UA); Noyes, Ronald T. (Stillwater, OK); Potapovych, Larysa P. (Dnipropetrovsk, UA)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  14. The Economic Value of Improving the Reliability of Supply on a Bulk Power Transmission Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economic Value of Improving the Reliability of Supply on a Bulk Power Transmission Network Economics and Management and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University Abstract, there is no established way of measuring the economic value of reliability, and as a result, regulators have adopted

  15. Oxide-Dependent Adsorption of a Model Membrane Phospholipid, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Bulk Adsorption Isotherms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Nita

    Oxide-Dependent Adsorption of a Model Membrane Phospholipid, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Bulk Adsorption Isotherms Timothy A. Oleson*, and Nita Sahai,,§ Department of Geology & Geophysics, 1215 West the substrate-dependence of phospholipid adsorption with an emphasis on oxide surface chemistry and to determine

  16. Cell multipole method for molecular simulations in bulk and confined systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Al

    Cell multipole method for molecular simulations in bulk and confined systems Jie Zheng Department. With the emergence of new simulations methodologies, such as the cell multipole method CMM , and massively parallel­particle and particle­mesh method PPPM 4,5 and the cell multipole method CMM .1­3 Both PPPM and CMM are more efficient

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of gold-catalyzed growth of silicon bulk crystals and nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    ARTICLES Molecular dynamics simulations of gold-catalyzed growth of silicon bulk crystals of the orientation, yield, and quality of the NWs. Much of the studies on the VLS growth mechanism have been focused. In this article, we present the first set of MD simu- lations of NW growth using this Au­Si potential model

  18. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  19. Bulk and particle strain analysis in high-temperature deformation experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Kelly

    and Russell [Quane, S.L., Russell, J.K., 2005a. Welding: insights from high-temperature analogue experimentsBulk and particle strain analysis in high-temperature deformation experiments Steven L. Quane a,, J. Keywords: image analysis; strain; welding; experimental; rheology 1. Introduction Rock deformation presses

  20. On the Conversion of Bulk Polycrystalline Y2O3 into the Nanocrystalline State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Stephen D.

    On the Conversion of Bulk Polycrystalline Y2O3 into the Nanocrystalline State Bernard H. Kear. Voronov Diamond Materials Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 Christopher S. Nordahl Raytheon IDS, Andover polycrystalline Y2O3 directly into the nanocrystalline state. The process involves a forward transfor- mation from