National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for r7-compatible cumulative damage

  1. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Sanborn, Scott E.

    2011-07-01

    This is a working report drafted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, describing statistical models of passives component reliabilities.

  2. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching...

  3. Cumulative Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    parties to the complex issue of cumulative effects, outlines general principles, presents useful steps, and provides information on methods of cumulative effects analysis ...

  4. Report - Considering Cumulative Effects Under NEPA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act Council on Environmental Quality January 1997 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I INTRODUCTION TO CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Purpose of Cumulative Effect sAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Agency Experience with Cumulative Effects Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Principles of

  5. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Act Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act This handbook presents the results of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental...

  6. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 31, 2013. OE ARRA Payments August 2013 More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through October 31, 2013 Cumulative Federal...

  7. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through August 2015 More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments...

  8. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard; Piris, Mario

    2014-12-21

    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of ?S-^{sup 2}?, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall ?S{sup ^2}? values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, ?S{sup ^2}?.

  9. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    31, 2015 | Department of Energy Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through August 2015 (20.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act

  10. RESEARCH and RELATED BUDGET - Cumulative Budget

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cumulative Budget 0 Totals ($) Section A, Senior/Key Person - $ Section B, Other Personnel - $ Total Number Other Personnel 0 Total Salary, Wages and Fringe Benefits (A+B) - $ Section C, Equipment - $ Section D, Travel - $ 1. Domestic - $ 2. Foreign - $ Section E, Participant/Trainee Support Costs - $ 1. Tuition/Fees/Health Insurance - $ 2. Stipends - $ 3. Travel - $ 4. Subsistence - $ 5. Other - $ 6. Number of Participants/Trainees 0 Section F, Other Direct Costs - $ 1. Materials and Supplies -

  11. Orbital-optimized density cumulant functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, Alexander Yu. Schaefer, Henry F.

    2013-11-28

    In density cumulant functional theory (DCFT) the electronic energy is evaluated from the one-particle density matrix and two-particle density cumulant, circumventing the computation of the wavefunction. To achieve this, the one-particle density matrix is decomposed exactly into the mean-field (idempotent) and correlation components. While the latter can be entirely derived from the density cumulant, the former must be obtained by choosing a specific set of orbitals. In the original DCFT formulation [W. Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 171101 (2006)] the orbitals were determined by diagonalizing the effective Fock operator, which introduces partial orbital relaxation. Here we present a new orbital-optimized formulation of DCFT where the energy is variationally minimized with respect to orbital rotations. This introduces important energy contributions and significantly improves the description of the dynamic correlation. In addition, it greatly simplifies the computation of analytic gradients, for which expressions are also presented. We offer a perturbative analysis of the new orbital stationarity conditions and benchmark their performance for a variety of chemical systems.

  12. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    31, 2015 | Department of Energy January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through January 2015 (20.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31,

  13. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    31, 2015 | Department of Energy March 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through March 2015 (21.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31,

  14. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  15. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This handbook presents the results of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality concerning the consideration of cumulative effects in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). It introduces the NEPA practitioner and other interested parties to the complex issue of cumulative effects, outlines general principles, presents useful steps, and provides information on methods of cumulative effects analysis and data sources.

  16. Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Cumulative Index | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance & Requirements » Lessons Learned » Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Cumulative Index Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Cumulative Index The LLQR is produced as a means of disseminating NEPA program metrics, along with related guidance, case studies, analysis, references, litigation updates, and resource information. The LLQR Cumulative Index contains topical listings with citations to relevant articles included in past LLQR issues. LLQR_Index_Dec_2012.pdf (347.36 KB) More Documents

  17. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (CEQ, 1997) | Department of Energy Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (CEQ, 1997) Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (CEQ, 1997) This handbook presents the results of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality concerning the consideration of cumulative effects in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). It introduces the NEPA practitioner and other interested

  18. Methods, techniques, and tools for analyzing cumulative effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southerland, M.T.

    1995-12-01

    One of the perceived impediments to successful cumulative effects analysis is the lack of readily available methods for addressing the wider boundaries, extended time frames, and more complex interactions involved. Many of the methods commonly used in environmental impact assessment can adequately address cumulative effects if used in combination. Other methods, specifically adapted to analyzing cumulative effects have also been developed. Performing cumulative effects analysis requires (1) an appropriate conceptual framework be developed and (2) the full range of impacts be determined and evaluated. Methods for both phases of cumulative effects analysis are needed, or special purpose methods that incorporate several methods and directly address cumulative effects can be used. The primary methods for developing a cumulative effects conceptual model are often those used in scoping, and are generally qualitative. Foremost among these methods are information gathering techniques. More specific methods are often needed for identifying resources (e.g., checklist), setting boundaries (e.g., mapping), identifying past, present, and future actions (e.g., checklists and trends analysis), and identifying cause and effect pathways (e.g., networks). The primary methods for evaluating impacts include modeling resource response and interactions, determining resource-specific impacts, determining cumulative impacts, determining significance of impacts, and, if appropriate, determining overall cumulative impact. Special purpose methods for performing cumulative effects analysis can be used when conditions warrant and information is available. Such methods include carrying capacity analysis, ecosystem analysis, the synoptic landscape approach, economic impact assessment, and social impact assessment. Two important tools with applications to the analysis of cumulative effects are geographic information systems and remote sensing.

  19. Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCold, L. ); Holman, J. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyzed 89 environmental assessments published in the Federal Register from January 1 through June 30, 1992, to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1500-1508. Only 35 (39%) EAs mentioned cumulative impacts. Nineteen EAs addressed cumulative impacts of some resources, but not others. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) past, present and reasonable foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and be listed with, the proposed action. (2) for each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

  20. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2009-12-17

    Draft annual report for the Cumulative Effects Study for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District

  2. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy July 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through July 2015 (20.72 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31,

  3. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

  4. Consideration Of Cumulative Impacts In EPA Review of NEPA Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on specific issues that are critical in EPA's review of NEPA documents under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act. The guidance offers information on what issues to look for in the analysis, what practical considerations should be kept in mind when reviewing the analysis, and what should be said in EPA comments concerning the adequacy of the analysis.

  5. Power plant cumulative environmental impact report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted by the Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) to determine the cumulative impact of power plants on Maryland's environment. Included in this report are: (1) current and projected power demands and consumption in Maryland; (2) current and planned power generation; (3) air impacts; (4) aquatic effects; (5) radiological effects; (6) social and economic considerations; (7) noise impacts; (8) groundwater effects; (9) solid waste management concerns; (10) transmission line impacts; and (11) descriptions of cooling towers in Maryland. Also contained is the 1982 Ten Year Plan of Maryland Electric Utilities.

  6. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  7. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  8. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-02-15

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  9. May 19, 2011, HSS/Union Focus Group Meeting - HSS Project, Cumulative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HSS total directives: 107 (as of 312010) Safety and Security Directives Reform - Cumulative Progress (June 15, 2011) 90 100 Total - Directives with JMs Approved by DRB Total - ...

  10. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demi, Libertario Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  11. Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sage-Grouse | Department of Energy Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater Sage-Grouse Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater Sage-Grouse March 31, 2014 - 11:34am Addthis Photo of a sage grouse. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory developed a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater

  12. Consideration of Cumulative Impacts in EPA Review of NEPA Documents, EPA Office of Federal Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on...

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  15. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction | Department of Energy 3: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market

  16. Production of cumulative jets by ablatively-driven implosion of hollow cones and wedges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikitin, S. P.; Manka, C.; Miller, C.; Grun, J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zabetakis, D.

    2008-05-15

    Cumulative plasma jets formed by hollow cones imploded via laser ablation of their outer surfaces were observed. The velocity, shape, and density of the jets are measured with monochromatic 0.65 keV x-ray imaging. Depending on cone geometry, cumulative jets with ion density {approx}2x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and propagation velocities >10 km/s are formed. Similar results are observed when jets are formed by imploding wedges. Such jets can be used to simulate hydrodynamics of astrophysical jets interacting with stellar or interstellar matter.

  17. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis (CEQ, 2005)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this Memorandum, the Council on Environmental Quality provides guidance on the extent to which agencies of the Federal government are required to analyze the environmental effects of past actions when they describe the cumulative environmental effect of a proposed action.

  18. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  19. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  20. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Sensitive Species

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Argonne National Laboratory recently developed the prototype of a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)—an important wildlife species that has been affected by energy development in the western United States.

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  2. Evidence-based evaluation of the cumulative effects of ecosystem restoration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Buenau, Kate E.; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Borde, Amy B.; Kropp, Roy K.

    2016-03-18

    Evaluating the cumulative effects of large-scale ecological restoration programs is necessary to inform adaptive ecosystem management and provide society with resilient and sustainable services. However, complex linkages between restorative actions and ecosystem responses make evaluations problematic. Despite long-term federal investments in restoring aquatic ecosystems, no standard evaluation method has been adopted and most programs focus on monitoring and analysis, not synthesis and evaluation. In this paper, we demonstrate a new transdisciplinary approach integrating techniques from evidence-based medicine, critical thinking, and cumulative effects assessment. Tiered hypotheses are identified using an ecosystem conceptual model. The systematic literature review at the core ofmore » evidence-based assessment becomes one of many lines of evidence assessed collectively, using critical thinking strategies and causal criteria from a cumulative effects perspective. As a demonstration, we analyzed data from 166 locations on the Columbia River and estuary representing 12 indicators of habitat and fish response to floodplain restoration actions intended to benefit threatened and endangered salmon. Synthesis of seven lines of evidence showed that hydrologic reconnection promoted macrodetritis export, prey availability, and fish access and feeding. The evidence was sufficient to infer cross-boundary, indirect, compounding and delayed cumulative effects, and suggestive of nonlinear, landscape-scale, and spatial density effects. On the basis of causal inferences regarding food web functions, we concluded that the restoration program has a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. As a result, this evidence-based approach will enable the evaluation of restoration in complex coastal and riverine ecosystems where data have accumulated without sufficient synthesis.« less

  3. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  4. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation damage materials modification Radiation Damage/Materials Modification High-energy ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade their physical properties to the point of failure. For example, alpha-decay in nuclear fuels results in dislocation damage to and accumulation of helium and fission gasses in the material. Similarly, neutrons interacting with

  5. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories thatmore » skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.« less

  6. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories that skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Role of slope stability in cumulative impact assessment of hydropower development: North Cascades, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Two environmental assessments considered the potential cumulative environmental impacts resulting from the development of eight proposed hydropower projects in the Nooksack River Basin and 11 proposed projects in the Skagit River Basin, North Cascades, Washington, respectively. While not identified as a target resource, slope stability and the alteration of sediment supply to creeks and river mainstems significantly affect other resources. The slope stability assessment emphasized the potential for cumulative impacts under disturbed conditions (e.g., road construction and timber harvesting) and a landslide-induced pipeline rupture scenario. In the case of small-scale slides, the sluicing action of ruptured pipeline water on the fresh landslide scarp was found to be capable of eroding significantly more material than the original landslide. For large-scale landslides, sluiced material was found to be a small increment of the original landslide. These results predicted that hypothetical accidental pipeline rupture by small-scale landslides may result in potential cumulative impacts for 12 of the 19 projects with pending license applications in both river basins. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  9. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  10. Consideration Of Cumulative Impacts In EPA Review of NEPA Documents (EPA, 1999)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on specific issues that are critical in EPA's review of NEPA documents under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act. The guidance offers information on what issues to look for in the analysis, what practical considerations should be kept in mind when reviewing the analysis, and what should be said in EPA comments concerning the adequacy of the analysis.

  11. OSTIblog Articles in the cumulative energy Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information cumulative energy Topic Enjoy the benefits of LED lighting by Kathy Chambers 30 Dec, 2013 in Products and Content 13966 Photographic%20credit%E2%80%9CArchitect%20of%20the%20Capitol.%E2%80%9D%202010%20LED%20Tree.jpg Enjoy the benefits of LED lighting Read more about 13966 Every day we are bombarded with advertisements in every form and format telling us that our lives will be improved if we buy a particular product because it will save us money,

  12. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  13. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senner, Robert

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  14. Real time cumulant approach for charge-transfer satellites in x-ray photoemission spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-01

    X-ray photoemission spectra generally exhibit satellite features in addition to quasi-particle peaks due to many-body excitations which have been of considerable theoretical and experimental interest. However, the satellites attributed to charge-transfer (CT) excitations in correlated materials have proved difficult to calculate from first principles. Here we report a real-time, real-space approach for such calculations based on a cumulant representation of the core-hole Green’s function and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach also yields an interpretation of CT satellites in terms of a complex oscillatory, transient response to a suddenly created core hole. Illustrative results for TiO2 and NiO are in good agreement with experiment.

  15. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  16. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  17. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  18. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  19. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed betweenmore » different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.« less

  20. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed between different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.

  1. Table 4.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 2 Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 3 Million Barrels Billion Cubic Feet 1977 118,091 31,780 514,439 207,413 1978 121,269 31,355 533,561 208,033 1979 124,390 31,221 553,224 200,997 1980 127,537 31,335 572,627 199,021 1981 130,665 31,006 591,808 201,730 1982 133,822 29,459 609,628 201,512 1983 136,993 29,348 625,722

  2. Cumulative impacts study of The Geysers KGRA: public-service impacts of geothermal development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1982-05-01

    Geothermal development in The Geysers KGRA has affected local public services and fiscal resources in Sonoma, Lake, Mendocino, and Napa counties. Each of these counties underwent rapid population growth between 1970 and 1980, some of which can be attributed to geothermal development. The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in The Geysers is identified. Using three different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in The Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdictions are examined and compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed, and a framework is presented for calculating mitigation costs per unit of public service.

  3. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola dEnginyeria dIgualada (EEI), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaa del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comer Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola dEnginyeria dIgualada (EEI), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaa del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comer Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  4. LANL Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Performance Work Statement (PWS) sets forth the tasks to be performed to complete a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) and Restoration Plan based on injuries to natural resources from the release of hazardous substances from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  6. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Wegner, Paul J.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Feit, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  7. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.

    2015-04-14

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmorethan for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)less

  8. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  9. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  10. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the project from initiation through the second quarter of 2013.

  11. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the period through the third quarter of 2013.

  12. Simulation of dependence of the cross section of deuterons beam fragmentation into cumulative pions and protons on the mass of the target nucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, A. G.; Litvinenko, E. I.

    2015-03-15

    We have studied the mechanisms influencing production of cumulative pions and protons in the fragmentation of the incident deuterons into cumulative pions and protons emitted at zero angle. We argue that the peripheral dependence on the atomic mass of the target nucleus, which was obtained in the experiments for medium and heavy nuclei, can be explained by scattering on target nucleons without introducing additional parameters.

  13. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  14. Earthquake damage to underground facilities (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the ... Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. ...

  15. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. . Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Stark, A.; Ju, C. . Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology)

    1990-10-01

    The feasibility of measuring Pb-210 in vivo in the skulls of those individuals who have resided in homes with above average levels of radon/radon daughters, has now been successfully demonstrated. These values, when incorporated into metabolic models of Pb-210 in the body including other related physical parameters, can be used for the calculation of a realistic estimate of a resident's cumulative exposure to radon and its' decay products. Data are presented for 26 subjects exposed to higher than average concentrations of radon i.e. ranging from 10 to 120 pCi/l, for various periods of time. Their skeletal Pb-210 burdens are compared to measurement results of a population of individuals presumed to have been exposed to values which are more representative of average levels i.e. <1pCi/1. Results of a study to determine the biological retention of Pb-210 in the human skeleton for use in the metabolic model relating skull burdens of this nuclide to cumulative radon/daughter exposure, are also described. At the present time, our measurements, made over a period of 10 years, of an individual with a significant Pb-210 burden, indicate a biological half-time of approximately 57 years and an effective half-life of 16 years. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Candidate wind-turbine generator site cumulative meteorological data summary and data for January 1982 through September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.; Bradymire, S.L.; Gregory, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    Summarized cumulative hourly meteorological data for 20 new sites selected in early 1980 as part of the expanded candidate site program are presented. The reporting period is July 1980 through September 1982. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and to provide data that could be considered representative of longer-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and in a topographic map showing the approximated location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of the information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for longer-term average wind energy production at each site. Two appendices of other data are provided. Appendix A contains summarized data collected at new and original sites during the period January 1982 through September 1982. Appendix B contains cumulative summarized data for those original sites selected in 1976 with data collection programs continuing into 1982.

  17. Special Section Guest Editorial: Laser Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzdev, Vitaly E.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2012-11-09

    Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mühlig and S

  18. Testing model for predicting spillway cavitation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.; Hoopes, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Using fuzzy mathematics a comprehensive model has been developed to predict the time, location and level (intensity) of spillway cavitation damage. Five damage levels and four factors affecting damage are used. Membership functions express the degree that each factor effects damage, and weights express the relative importance of each factor. The model has been calibrated and tested with operating data and experience from the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway, which had major cavitation damage in 1983. An error analysis for the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway gave the best ranges for model weights. Prediction of damage at other spillways (4 tunnels, 3 chutes) with functions and parameters as for the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway gave reasonable predictions of damage intensity and location and poor estimates of occurrence time in the tunnels. Chute predictions were in poor agreement with observations, indicating need for different parameter values. Finally, two membership functions with constant or time varying parameters are compared with observed results from the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway.

  19. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J.; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  20. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  1. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  2. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., George W.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  3. Quantitative damage evaluation of localized deep pitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Beed, A.A.; Al Garni, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    Localized deep pitting is considered difficult to precisely measure and evaluate using simple techniques and daily-use analysis approaches. A case study was made of carbon steel heat exchangers in a typical fresh cooling water environment that experienced severe pitting. To effectively and precisely evaluate the encountered pitting damage, a simple measurement and analyses approach was devised. In this article, the pitting measurement technique and the damage evaluation approach are presented and discussed in detail.

  4. Damaged Surface Hydrodynamics (DSH) Flash Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Damaged Surface Hydrodynamics (DSH) Flash Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Damaged Surface Hydrodynamics (DSH) Flash Report You are accessing ...

  5. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  6. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  7. Structural damage detection using the holder exponent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R.; Do, N. B.; Green, S. R.; Schwartz, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper implements a damage detection strategy that identifies damage sensitive features associated with nonlinearities. Some rion-linezlrities result from discontinuities introduced into the data by certain types of darnage. These discontinuities may also result from noise in the measured dynamic response data or can be caused by random excitation of the system. The Holder Exponent, which is a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is used to detect the discontinuities. By studying the Holder bponent as a function af time, a statistical model is developed that classifies changes in the Holder Exponent that are associated with clamage-induced discontinuities. The results show that for certain cases, the Holder Exponent is an effective technique to detect damage.

  8. Probing Radiation Damage at the Molecular Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, N. J.; Smialek, M. A.; Moore, S. A.; Folkard, M.; Hoffmann, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Radiation damage of DNA and other cellular components has traditionally been attributed to ionisation via direct impact of high-energy quanta or by complex radical chemistry. However recent research has shown that strand breaks in DNA may be initiated by secondary electrons and is strongly dependent upon the target DNA base identity. Such research provides the fascinating perspective that it is possible that radiation damage may be described and understood at an individual molecular level introducing new possibilites for therapy and perhaps providing an insight into the origins of life.

  9. Physics-Based Multi-State Models of Passive Component Degradation for the R7 Reactor Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Layton, Robert F.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lowry, Peter P.

    2012-06-25

    Abstract: The Next Generation Systems Analysis Code - referred to as R7 - is reactor systems simulation software being developed to support the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. It will provide an integrated multi-physics environment, implemented in an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework that can produce risk and other performance insights on long-term reactor operations. An element of this simulation environment will be the performance of passive components and materials. Conventional models of component reliability are largely parametric, relying on plant service data to estimate component lifetimes and failure rates. This type of model has limited usefulness in the R7 environment where the intent is to explicitly determine the influence of physical stressors on component degradation. In this paper, we describe a new class of multi-state physics-based component models designed to be R7-compatible. These models capture the physics of materials degradation while also incorporating the effects of interventions and component rejuvenation. The models are implemented in a cumulative damage framework that allows the impact of an evolving physical environment to be addressed without recourse to resampling within the Monte Carlo-based UQ framework. The paper describes an application to stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metal welds - a principal contributor to potential loss of coolant accidents. So while R7 will have the more conventional capability of reactor simulation codes to model the impact of degraded components and systems on plant performance, the methodology described here allows R7 to model the inverse effect; the impact of the physical environment on component degradation and performance.

  10. Cumulative fission yields of short-lived isotopes under natural-abundance-boron-carbide-moderated neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce; Wittman, Richard S.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2015-04-09

    The availability of gamma spectroscopy data on samples containing mixed fission products at short times after irradiation is limited. Due to this limitation, data interpretation methods for gamma spectra of mixed fission product samples, where the individual fission products have not been chemically isolated from interferences, are not well-developed. The limitation is particularly pronounced for fast pooled neutron spectra because of the lack of available fast reactors in the United States. Samples containing the actinide isotopes 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu individually were subjected to a 2$ pulse in the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. To achieve a fission-energy neutron spectrum, the spectrum was tailored using a natural abundance boron carbide capsule to absorb neutrons in the thermal and epithermal region of the spectrum. Our tailored neutron spectrum is unique to the WSU reactor facility, consisting of a soft fission spectrum that contains some measurable flux in the resonance region. This results in a neutron spectrum at greater than 0.1 keV with an average energy of 70 keV, similar to fast reactor spectra and approaching that of 235U fission. Unique fission product gamma spectra were collected from 4 minutes to 1 week after fission using single-crystal high purity germanium detectors. Cumulative fission product yields measured in the current work generally agree with published fast pooled fission product yield values from ENDF/B-VII, though a bias was noted for 239Pu. The present work contributes to the compilation of energy-resolved fission product yield nuclear data for nuclear forensic purposes.

  11. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films with (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.

  12. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore » (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.« less

  13. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  14. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume II, Technical Information, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes a study to determine the potential cumulative effects of proposed small hydro development on the fisheries of the Swan River drainage. This report contains technical information and is a support document for the main report (Leathe and Enk, 1985). Consequently, discussion of results was minimized. The sections on fish population monitoring, streambed monitoring, habitat survey comparisons, and water temperature are the only portions that were not discussed in the main report. 5 refs., 55 figs., 44 tabs.

  15. Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at sNN=7.7–200GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Angerami, A.; et al

    2016-01-19

    Our report presents the measurement of cumulants (Cn,n=1,...,4) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity (|η|<0.35) in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=7.7–200GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g., C1/C2, C3/C1) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in themore » ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. These measured values of C1/C2 and C3/C1 can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy. Moreover, the extracted baryon chemical potentials are in excellent agreement with a thermal-statistical analysis model.« less

  16. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  17. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  18. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haiyong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Teng, Lisong; Legerski, Randy J.

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  19. Radiation damage in cubic-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) can be used for nuclear applications as an inert matrix for actinide immobilization or transmutation. Indeed, the large amount of native oxygen vacancies leads to a high radiation tolerance of this material owing to defect recombination occurring in the atomic displacements cascades induced by fast neutron irradiation or ion implantations, as showed by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Amorphization cannot be obtained in YSZ either by nuclear-collision or electronic-excitation damage, just like in urania. A kind of polygonization structure with slightly disoriented crystalline domains is obtained in both cases. In the first steps of damage, specific isolated point defects (like F+-type color centers) and point-defect clusters are produced by nuclear collisions with charged particles or neutrons. Further increase of damage leads to dislocation-loop formation, then to collapse of the dislocation network into a polygonization structure. For swift heavy ion irradiations, a similar polygonization structure is obtained above a threshold stopping power value of about 20-30 keV nm-1.

  20. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  1. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  2. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  3. Survey of four damage models for concrete.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavanichkul, Seubpong; Brannon, Rebecca Moss

    2009-08-01

    Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to statistical variability of material

  4. Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Mezzanotte, D.A. Jr.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with increasing He-3 concentration. Sustained-load cracking tests indicate that the stress intensity required to initiate and propagate a crack also decreases with increasing He-3 concentration. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Development of subsidence damage criteria. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Singh, M.M.

    1985-10-01

    In the process of coal mining it is certain that some degree of disturbance of the overlying strata and consequent subsidence of the surface will result. The problem of land subsidence has faced engineers and geologists for many years and, when widespread movements and damage to surface structures occurred, systematic investigations were undertaken. The term subsidence, as used in the report, implies the total phenomenon of surface effects associated with the mining of minerals, and not only vertical displacement of the surface as is sometimes inferred in the literature.

  6. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, but instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  7. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #843: Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction

  8. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-24

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratio is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Finally, our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries.

  9. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; et al

    2015-09-24

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratiomore » is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Finally, our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries.« less

  10. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2005-01-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  11. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2004-11-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  12. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 μb–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 T n, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients aremore »presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.« less

  13. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 μb–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 < pT < 20 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.5. The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, vn, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients aremore » presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.« less

  14. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  15. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  16. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  17. Final report on optical damage tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-18

    This report presents the data resulting from a series of mirror damage tests conducted with the FLEX laser at KMS Fusion on March 14 through March 20, 1990 for Los Alamos National Laboratory. The FLEX laser consists of a ND:YLF master oscillator and four Nd:glass rod amplifiers operating at 1.05 {mu}m. For this program, the laser was configured to produce a 3 ms long square wave envelope of mode locked pulses which was focused onto Los Alamos supplied targets via a 1200 mm focal length (f/20) lens at approximately normal incidence. The pulse energy and spot size were specified by Los Alamos personnel, the energy varying from approximately 10--40 Joules and the spot size ranging from approximately 100--300 {mu}m. A total of 63 target shots and 19 calibration and/or test shots were conducted.

  18. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  19. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Performance of Damaged Soil-Concrete Wraparound Dam Sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting seismic or shock loading damage of the soil-concrete interface where an ... erosion process, and deposition within interface cracks; and (2) to investigate the ...

  1. Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The ...

  2. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on...

  3. Structural Damage Detection Using Slopes of Longitudinal Vibration Shapes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, W.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.; Cao, M. S.

    2016-03-18

    While structural damage detection based on flexural vibration shapes, such as mode shapes and steady-state response shapes under harmonic excitation, has been well developed, little attention is paid to that based on longitudinal vibration shapes that also contain damage information. This study originally formulates a slope vibration shape for damage detection in bars using longitudinal vibration shapes. To enhance noise robustness of the method, a slope vibration shape is transformed to a multiscale slope vibration shape in a multiscale domain using wavelet transform, which has explicit physical implication, high damage sensitivity, and noise robustness. These advantages are demonstrated in numericalmore » cases of damaged bars, and results show that multiscale slope vibration shapes can be used for identifying and locating damage in a noisy environment. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal steady-state response shape of an aluminum bar with damage due to reduced cross-sectional dimensions under harmonic excitation, and results show that the method can successfully identify and locate the damage. Slopes of longitudinal vibration shapes are shown to be suitable for damage detection in bars and have potential for applications in noisy environments.« less

  4. Guest Editorial: Laser Damage (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the output energy and power of pulsed and ... studies based on third-harmonic generation microscopy). ... Another paper is devoted to thermal annealing of damage ...

  5. Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bataviciute, Gintare; Grigas, Povilas; Smalakys, Linas; Melninkaitis, Andrius

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the applicability of commonly used Damage Frequency Method (DFM) is addressed in the context of Laser-Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing with pulsed lasers. A simplified computer model representing the statistical interaction between laser irradiation and randomly distributed damage precursors is applied for Monte Carlo experiments. The reproducibility of LIDT predicted from DFM is examined under both idealized and realistic laser irradiation conditions by performing numerical 1-on-1 tests. A widely accepted linear fitting resulted in systematic errors when estimating LIDT and its error bars. For the same purpose, a Bayesian approach was proposed. A novel concept of parametric regression based on varying kernel and maximum likelihood fitting technique is introduced and studied. Such approach exhibited clear advantages over conventional linear fitting and led to more reproducible LIDT evaluation. Furthermore, LIDT error bars are obtained as a natural outcome of parametric fitting which exhibit realistic values. The proposed technique has been validated on two conventionally polished fused silica samples (355 nm, 5.7 ns).

  6. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Aleksandr; Golubov, Stanislav I

    2008-09-01

    Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

  7. Modeling and characterization of recompressed damaged materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, R; Cazamias, J U; Kalantar, D H; LeBlanc, M M; Springer, H K

    2004-02-11

    Experiments have been performed to explore conditions under which spall damage is recompressed with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. Spall is introduced through traditional gas gun techniques or with laser ablation. Recompression techniques producing a uniaxial stress state, such as a Hopkinson bar, do not create sufficient confinement to close the porosity. Higher stress triaxialities achieved through a gas gun or laser recompression can close the spall. Characterization of the recompressed samples by optical metallography and electron microscopy reveal a narrow, highly deformed process zone. At the higher pressures achieved in the gas gun, little evidence of spall remains other than differentially etched features in the optical micrographs. With the very high strain rates achieved with laser techniques there is jetting from voids and other signs of turbulent metal flow. Simulations of spall and recompression on micromechanical models containing a single void suggest that it might be possible to represent the recompression using models similar to those employed for void growth. Calculations using multiple, randomly distributed voids are needed to determine if such models will yield the proper behavior for more realistic microstructures.

  8. C–IBI: Targeting cumulative coordination within an iterative protocol to derive coarse-grained models of (multi-component) complex fluids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    de Oliveira, Tiago E.; Netz, Paulo A.; Kremer, Kurt; Junghans, Christoph; Mukherji, Debashish

    2016-05-03

    We present a coarse-graining strategy that we test for aqueous mixtures. The method uses pair-wise cumulative coordination as a target function within an iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) like protocol. We name this method coordination iterative Boltzmann inversion (C–IBI). While the underlying coarse-grained model is still structure based and, thus, preserves pair-wise solution structure, our method also reproduces solvation thermodynamics of binary and/or ternary mixtures. In addition, we observe much faster convergence within C–IBI compared to IBI. To validate the robustness, we apply C–IBI to study test cases of solvation thermodynamics of aqueous urea and a triglycine solvation in aqueous urea.

  9. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore » that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  10. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.

  11. Micro-mechanical modeling of perforating shock damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, R.P.; Krogh, K.E.; Behrmann, L.A.; Halleck, P.M.

    1997-11-17

    Shaped charge jet induced formation damage from perforation treatments hinders productivity. Manifestation of this damage is in the form of grain fragmentation resulting in fines that plug up pore throats along with the breakdown of inter-grain cementation. The authors use the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) computational method as a way to explicitly model, on a grain pore scale, the dynamic interactions of grains and grain/pores to calculate the damage resulting from perforation type stress wave loading. The SPH method is a continuum Lagrangian, meshless approach that features particles. Clusters of particles are used for each grain to provide representation of a grain pore structure that is similar to x-ray synchrotron microtomography images. Numerous damage models are available to portray fracture and fragmentation. In this paper the authors present the results of well defined impact loading on a grain pore structure that illustrate how the heterogeneity affects stress wave behavior and damage evolution. The SPH approach easily accommodates the coupling of multi-materials. Calculations for multi-material conditions with the pore space treated as a void, fluid filled, and/or clay filled show diverse effects on the stress wave propagation behavior and damage. SPH comparisons made with observed damage from recovered impacted sandstone samples in gas gun experiments show qualitatively the influence of stress intensity. The modeling approach presented here offers a unique way in concert with experiments to define a better understanding of formation damage resulting from perforation completion treatments.

  12. Electronic effects in high-energy radiation damage in tungsten

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Nordlund, Kai; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Weber, William J.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2015-01-01

    Even though the effects of the electronic excitations during high-energy radiation damage processes are not currently understood, it is shown that their role in the interaction of radiation with matter is important. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collision cascades in bcc-tungsten using the coupled two-temperature molecular dynamics (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the effects of electronic stopping and electron–phonon interaction. We compare the combination of these effects on the induced damage with only the effect of electronic stopping, and conclude in several novel insights. In the 2T-MD model, the electron–phonon coupling results in less damage production in themore » molten region and in faster relaxation of the damage at short times. We show these two effects lead to a significantly smaller amount of the final damage at longer times.« less

  13. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  14. Uncertainty of silicon 1-MeV damage function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danjaji, M.B.; Griffin, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the ASTM E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma as calculated from the ORNL Si cross-section evaluation. Experimental work has shown that observed damage ratios at various test facilities agree with the defined response function to within 5%. Here, a covariance matrix for the silicon 1-MeV neutron displacement damage function is developed. This uncertainty data will support the electronic radiation hardness-testing community and will permit silicon displacement damage sensors to be used in least squares spectrum adjustment codes.

  15. Analysis of 1w Bulk Laser Damage in KDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D A; Carr, C W

    2011-04-11

    The influence of laser parameters on laser-induced damage in the bulk of KDP is difficult to determine because the damage manifests as discrete sites a few microns in diameter distributed throughout a relatively large volume of material. Here, they present a method to directly measure the size and location of many thousands of such sites and correlate them to the laser conditions which produced them. This technique is used to characterize the effects of pulse duration on damage initiated by 1053 nm light in the bulk of KDP crystals. They find that the density of damage sites produced by 1053 nm light is less sensitive to pulse duration than was previously reported for 526 nm and 351 nm light. In addition, the effect of pulse duration on the size of the damage sites produced appears insensitive to wavelength.

  16. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete [1]. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete [2] does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure [3]. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  17. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  18. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  19. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 μb–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 < pT < 20 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.5. The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, vn, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients are presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.

  20. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening

  1. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Buenau, Kate E.; Kropp, Roy K.

    2013-12-01

    The listing of 13 salmon and steelhead stocks in the Columbia River basin (hereafter collectively referred to as “salmon”) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, has stimulated tidal wetland restoration in the lower 235 kilometers of the Columbia River and estuary for juvenile salmon habitat functions. The purpose of the research reported herein was to evaluate the effect on listed salmon of the restoration effort currently being conducted under the auspices of the federal Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Linking changes in the quality and landscape pattern of tidal wetlands in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) to salmon recovery is a complex problem because of the characteristics of the ecosystem, the salmon, the restoration actions, and available sampling technologies. Therefore, we designed an evidence-based approach to develop, synthesize, and evaluate information to determine early-stage (~10 years) outcomes of the CEERP. We developed an ecosystem conceptual model and from that, a primary hypothesis that habitat restoration activities in the LCRE have a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. There are two necessary conditions of the hypothesis: • habitat-based indicators of ecosystem controlling factors, processes, and structures show positive effects from restoration actions, and • fish-based indicators of ecosystem processes and functions show positive effects from restoration actions and habitats undergoing restoration. Our evidence-based approach to evaluate the primary hypothesis incorporated seven lines of evidence, most of which are drawn from the LCRE. The lines of evidence are spatial and temporal synergies, cumulative net ecosystem improvement, estuary-wide meta-analysis, offsite benefits to juvenile salmon, landscape condition evaluation, and evidence-based scoring of global literature. The general methods we used to develop information for the lines of evidence included field

  2. NMSLO Water Lease Damage Bond | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Lease Damage BondLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  3. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Damage Evolution in High Strength A1 Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ; Foulk, James W., III ; johnson, george Publication Date: 2012-09-01 OSTI...

  4. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High-Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Damage Evolution in High-Strength Al Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ; Foulk, James W., III Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1072668...

  5. Los Alamos offers new insights into radiation damage evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two reports are helping crack the code of how certain materials respond in the highly-damaging radiation environments within a nuclear reactor. March 16, 2015 Researchers at Los ...

  6. Scientists Assess Damage Caused by Earthquake near Amchitka

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contractor scientists for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) traveled to the Amchitka, Alaska, Site in late August to assess the damage caused by a recent earthquake....

  7. Minimizing damage to a propped fracture by controlled flowback procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, B.M.; Holditch, S.A.; Whitehead, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    Severe fracture-conductivity damage can result from proppant crushing and/or proppant flowback into the wellbore. Such damage is often concentrated near the wellbore and can directly affect postfracture performance. Most of the time severe fracture-conductivity damage can be minimized by choosing the correct type of proppant for a particular well. In many cases, however, this is not enough. To minimize excessive crushing or to prevent proppant flowback, it is also necessary to control carefully the flowback of the well after the treatment. Specific procedures can be followed to minimize severe fracture-conductivity damage. These procedures involve controlling the rates at which load fluids are recovered and maximizing backpressure against the formation. These procedures require much more time and effort than is normally spent on postfracture cleanup; however, the efforts could result in better performance.

  8. Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    used for optics for self-seeding of soft x-ray free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for ...

  9. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  10. PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps2_dow_gaston.pdf (1.26 MB) More Documents & Publications FY2015 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of High-Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Rods from Pressurized Water Reactor and BWR Environments 2014 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monitoring stations, canyons Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental monitoring stations, canyons Stations supporting Santa Fe water utility returned to service September 18, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to

  12. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  13. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  14. The U.S. Forest Service's analysis of cumulative effects to wildlife: A study of legal standards, current practice, and ongoing challenges on a National Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Courtney A.

    2012-01-15

    Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) allows natural resource managers to understand the status of resources in historical context, learn from past management actions, and adapt future activities accordingly. U.S. federal agencies are required to complete CEA as part of environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Past research on CEA as part of NEPA has identified significant deficiencies in CEA practice, suggested methodologies for handling difficult aspects of CEA, and analyzed the rise in litigation over CEA in U.S. courts. This article provides a review of the literature and legal standards related to CEA as it is done under NEPA and then examines current practice on a U.S. National Forest, utilizing qualitative methods in order to provide a detailed understanding of current approaches to CEA. Research objectives were to understand current practice, investigate ongoing challenges, and identify impediments to improvement. Methods included a systematic review of a set of NEPA documents and semi-structured interviews with practitioners, scientists, and members of the public. Findings indicate that the primary challenges associated with CEA include: issues of both geographic and temporal scale of analysis, confusion over the purpose of the requirement, the lack of monitoring data, and problems coordinating and disseminating data. Improved monitoring strategies and programmatic analyses could support improved CEA practice.

  15. Considering Cumulative Effects under NEPA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Adamus, P. R., E.J. Clairain, Jr., R.D. Smith, and R,E. Young. 1987. Wetland Evaluation ... managers have been conducting carrying capacity analyses for many years (Smith 1974). ...

  16. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond; Doug Adams

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the

  17. CO/sub 2/ formation damage study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, J.T.

    1983-07-01

    The literature did provide insight into four possible damage mechanisms, namely: (1) precipitation of reservoir mineral in the vicinity around the producing well as carbon dioxide escapes from the water phase due to pressure draw down; (2) plugging of reservoir interstices by insoluble organic solids precipitated as the carbon dioxide dissolves in crude oil; (3) formation of an immobile gas phase, predominately CO/sub 2/, which would drastically lower the effective permeability to oil and, especially water; and (4) dissolution of cementation, especially carbonates or feldspars, that could allow fines to migrate in the reservoir and plug tiny flow passages. Each of these mechanisms was investigated in depth during the laboratory experiments. Occasional reports from industry suggested that the use of carbon dioxide to enhance the recovery of tertiary oil might be causing formation damage. This project was undertaken to define the mechanisms responsible for such occurrences. The objectives were threefold: (1) provide a comprehensive literature survey to elicit all that is currently known or suspected, relative to formation damage that might occur during the injection of carbon dioxide into an oil reservoir; (2) under simulated reservoir conditions, demonstrate in the laboratory each of the damage mechanisms and quantify the degree to which each mechanism could cause damage; and (3) for those damage mechanisms identified to be significant, develop a feasible remedy, easily applied in actual field operations. The third mechanism, related to the presence of an immobile gas phase, is a real problem but not unique to the injection of carbon dioxide. In the case of carbon dioxide, the damage should be self-correcting, as the solubility of carbon dioxide in water will eventually allow the water to dissolve away the gas and, hence, the blocking effect.

  18. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    2004-03-23

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model

  19. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bude, J. D.; Carr, C. W.; Conder, A. D.; DiNicola, J. M. G.; Dixit, S. N.; Feigenbaum, E.; et al

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of themmore » anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.« less

  20. Investigation of subsidence damages above abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Po-Ming.

    1988-01-01

    Abandoned mine lands (AML) subsidence is one of the most hazardous problems for personal property and community development. In order to improve the technique for subsidence diagnosis and the effectiveness of remedial measures, several methods and techniques have been developed in this research. A subsidence site investigation checklist is developed to guide the investigators with or without hands-on experience to collect a complete and necessary information for subsidence analysis during site investigation. A subsidence cause identification system is developed to streamline the process of analysis and for subsidence cause differentiation and identification over AML. A damage severity system is developed to evaluate the intensity of the damage to structures. A subsidence deduction model is developed based on the probability function integration method to reconstruct subsidence profile and subsurface failure zone for AML subsidence. The study is based on the case studies which include site investigation, surface subsidence survey, subsurface instrumentation, damage severity evaluation, subsidence deduction and statistical analysis. The results show that geologic conditions such as seam depth, seam height, ratios of strong and weak rocks do affect the subsidence damage area, subsidence factor, and damage severity. The relationship between above parameters can be expressed by a second order polynomial with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  1. Analysis of bending properties for damaged laminated pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, A.; Nishiwaki, T.; Nakai, A.; Hamada, H.

    1996-12-01

    Various composite cylinders, such as braided cylinders, could be fabricated with a high volume fabrication method, using thermoplastic composites and so on. If so, usage of composite cylinder would be extended. In this paper, a new analytical model named Quasi-Three-Dimensional model was proposed and applied to a two-layered composite cylinder. Under various service environments, a damaged cylinder with interlaminar fracture often appeared. The calculated elastic modulus was decreased with an increase of the damaged area. From deformation states and stress distribution of interlaminae, some coupling effects were recognized, even if the analytical cylinder without any damage never showed any coupling effects. This result showed the usefulness of the Quasi-Three-Dimensional model.

  2. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, E.; Devanathan, R.; Weber, W. J.; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Nordlund, K.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.10.5?MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  3. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  4. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J; Seaton, M; Todorov, I T; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  5. Damage rates for FFTF structural components and surveillance assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) surveillance program provides coupon surveillance materials that are irradiated to the expected lifetime damage dose that the represented component will experience. This methodology requires a knowledge of the damage dose rates to the surveillance assemblies and to the critical locations of the structural components. This analysis updates the predicted exposures from a total fluence to a displacement per atom (dpa) basis using Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) code (MCNP). The MCNP calculation improves the relative consistency and lowers the predicted damage rates uncertainty in a number of out-of-core locations. The results were used an part of the evaluation to extend the lifetime of the invessel components to 30 years in support of multiple missions for FFTF.

  6. Dynamically Driven Phase Transformations in Damaged Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plohr, JeeYeon N.; Clements, Brad E.; Addessio, Frank L

    2006-07-28

    A model developed for composite materials undergoing dynamicaly driven phase transitions in its constituents has been extended to allow for complex material micro-structure and evolution of damage. In this work, damage is described by interfacial debonding and micro-crack growth. We have applied the analysis to silicon carbide-titanium (SiC-Ti) unidirectional metal matrix composites. In these composites, Ti can undergo a low pressure and temperature solid-solid phase transition. With these extensions we have carried out simulations to study the complex interplay between loading rates, micro-structure, damage, and the thermo-mechanical response of the system as it undergoes a solid-solid phase transitions.

  7. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  8. Laser damage in silicon: Energy absorption, relaxation, and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rämer, A. Rethfeld, B.; Osmani, O.

    2014-08-07

    Silicon irradiated with an ultrashort 800 nm-laser pulse is studied theoretically using a two temperature description that considers the transient free carrier density during and after irradiation. A Drude model is implemented to account for the highly transient optical parameters. We analyze the importance of considering these density-dependent parameters as well as the choice of the Drude collision frequency. In addition, degeneracy and transport effects are investigated. The importance of each of these processes for resulting calculated damage thresholds is studied. We report damage thresholds calculations that are in very good agreement with experimental results over a wide range of pulse durations.

  9. BDS Thin Film UV Antireflection Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2010-10-26

    UV antireflection coatings are a challenging coating for high power laser applications as exemplified by the use of uncoated Brewster's windows in laser cavities. In order to understand the current laser resistance of UV AR coatings in the industrial and university sectors, a double blind laser damage competition was performed. The coatings have a maximum reflectance of 0.5% at 355 nm at normal incidence. Damage testing will be performed using the raster scan method with a 7.5 ns pulse length on a single testing facility to facilitate direct comparisons. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes and coating materials will also be shared.

  10. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-02-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  11. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  12. A Mechanistic Approach to Damage in Short-Fiber Composites Based on Micromechanical and Continuum Damage Mechanics Descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-04-01

    A micro-macro mechanistic approach to matrix cracking in randomly oriented short-fiber composites is developed in this paper. At the micro-scale, the virgin and reduced elastic properties of the reference aligned fiber composite are determined using micromechanical models [1-5], and are then distributed over all possible orientations in order to compute the stiffness of the random fiber composite containing random matrix microcracks. After that the macroscopic response is obtained by means of a continuum damage mechanics formulation, which extends the thermodynamics based approach in [6] to randomly oriented short-fiber composites. Damage accumulations leading to initiation and propagation of a macroscopic crack are modeled using a vanishing element technique. The model is validated against the published experimental data and results [7]. Finally, its practical application is illustrated through the damage analysis of a random glass/epoxy composite plate containing a central hole and under tensile loading.

  13. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

  14. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-02-07

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

  15. Japanese Ratify Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "The Japanese ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) marks an important milestone towards creating a global nuclear liability regime that will assure prompt and meaningful compensation in the event of a nuclear accident and will facilitate international cooperation on nuclear projects such as ongoing clean-up work at the Fukushima site."

  16. DOE and State Sign Natural Resources Damages Settlement Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Officials from TDEC and DOE signed a Natural Resources Damages settlement agreement. The signed document designates DOE’s plans to compensate the state for ecological and human use impacts associated with contaminant releases from facilities at the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  17. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  18. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  19. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  20. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is

  1. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  2. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore » density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  3. Sandia/Stanford Unified Creep Plasticity Damage Model for ANSYS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-03

    A unified creep plasticity (UCP) model was developed, based upon the time-dependent and time-independent deformation properties of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (wt.%) soldier that were measured at Sandia. Then, a damage parameter, D, was added to the equation to develop the unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model. The parameter, D, was parameterized, using data obtained at Sandia from isothermal fatigue experiments on a double-lap shear test. The softwae was validated against a BGA solder joint exposed tomore » thermal cycling. The UCPD model was put into the ANSYS finite element as a subroutine. So, the softwae is the subroutine for ANSYS 8.1.« less

  4. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling.

  5. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in thismore » impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.« less

  6. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in this impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.

  7. Evaluation of ATWS core damage frequency for a BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, K.; Ilberg, D.; Hanan, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a study performed to evaluate the core damage frequency contribution from Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) in a BWR/4 plant. Discussions on improvements in the design and operation of BWR plants to reduce the likelihood of occurrence and core damage frequency of ATWS have continued for years. In November 1981, subsequent to the issuance of three alternate proposed ATWS rules, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission invited comments on these rules. In June 1984, a final rule on the reduction of risk from ATWS events was issued. In the study, it is assumed that the BWR/4 reactor is of an earlier vintage. However, only two of the modifications have been implemented in accordance with the final rule: a diverse scram system and automatic recirculation pump trip. It is further assumed that the setpoint for Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) closure is at reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level 1 and that the BWR emergency procedure guidelines are implemented.

  8. Fractal mechanism for characterizing singularity of mode shape for damage detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M. S.; Ostachowicz, W.; Bai, R. B.; Radzieński, M.

    2013-11-25

    Damage is an ordinary physical phenomenon jeopardizing structural safety; damage detection is an ongoing interdisciplinary issue. Waveform fractal theory has provided a promising resource for detecting damage in plates while presenting a concomitant problem: susceptibility to false features of damage. This study proposes a fractal dimension method based on affine transformation to address this problem. Physical experiments using laser measurement demonstrate that this method can substantially eliminate false features of damage and accurately identify complex cracks in plates, providing a fundamental mechanism that brings the merits of waveform fractal theory into full play in structural damage detection applications.

  9. Cryogenic and Fire Damage Analysis on Liquefied Natural Gas Ships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fire Damage Analysis on Liquefied Natural Gas Ships - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  10. Natural resource damages: A legal, economic and policy overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connaughton, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Natural resource damages liability is a major development in environmental law. Government authorities are increasingly seeking damage claims for injury to natural resources, invoking the natural resource damages (NRD) provisions of the federal Superfund statute and the Oil Pollution Act. The number of Claims asserted is increasing, and the amounts sought range to hundreds of millions of dollars, with some claims exceeding $1 billion. Some assert that the federal NRD program is an awakening sleeping giant that could threaten to rival the Superfund cleanup program in cost and the potential for imposing far-reaching liabilities on a wide range of businesses as well as the federal government. Lawyers, economists, and other experts on NRD have become fully engaged in comprehensive analyses of the legal, economic and policy issues presented by NRD claims, including a full review of the NRD litigating record. Many critics find that existing NRD law and practice is flawed; produces excessive liability claims, skewed incentives and economic waste; and urgently needs reform. Changes have been recommended to improve the law and refocus the NRD program on achieving cost-effective restoration of injured natural resources. These analytical endeavors are especially timely because Congress is currently considering significant changes in NRD law. This overview will provide a brief background summary of the NRD program and highlight some of the central legal and scientific issues facing government policy makers and litigants in NRD cases.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty in material damage from vibrational data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, T.; Huhtala, A.; Juntunen, M.

    2015-02-15

    The response of a vibrating beam to a force depends on many physical parameters including those determined by material properties. Damage caused by fatigue or cracks results in local reductions in stiffness parameters and may drastically alter the response of the beam. Data obtained from the vibrating beam are often subject to uncertainties and/or errors typically modeled using probability densities. The goal of this paper is to estimate and quantify the uncertainty in damage modeled as a local reduction in stiffness using uncertain data. We present various frameworks and methods for solving this parameter determination problem. We also describe a mathematical analysis to determine and compute useful output data for each method. We apply the various methods in a specified sequence that allows us to interface the various inputs and outputs of these methods in order to enhance the inferences drawn from the numerical results obtained from each method. Numerical results are presented using both simulated and experimentally obtained data from physically damaged beams.

  12. [Localized fracture damage effects in toughened ceramics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The primary research goal was to investigate localized fracture damage due to single point cutting of ceramic materials and then to compare this to multipoint cutting during precision grinding of the same materials. Two test systems were designed and constructed for the single-point cutting tests. The first system used a PZT actuator for closed-loop load control. An acoustic emission data acquisition system was used for crack initiation detection. The second test system employed a high-precision diamond-turning machine for closed-loop position (cutting depth) control. A high stiffness load cell and data acquisition system were used for crack initiation detection. Microcutting tests were carried out on silicon, borosilicate glass and CVD silicon carbide. The crack initiation thresholds and the fracture damage distribution were determined as a function of the loading conditions using a Vickers diamond as the cutting tool. The grinding tests were done using a plunge-grinding technique with metal-bonded diamond wheels. Optical microscopy, surface roughness and specific cutting energy were measured in order to characterize the fracture damage as a function of the grinding infeed rate. Simulation models were developed in order to estimate the average grain-depth of cut in grinding so that the response could be compared to the single-point microcutting tests.

  13. Damaged Material, Heal Thyself | U.S. DOE Office of Science ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    When the gel was damaged by slicing, the ruptured droplets in the immediate vicinity of the damage released oil and the gel network was squeezed. This squeezing allowed oil to be ...

  14. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Engineering survey building damage assessment training manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The training objectives are: differentiate between the various levels of damage caused to buildings and structures by an earthquake and classify them as to their safety of occupancy, extent of damage, and resources needed for recovery/repair.

  15. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2005-12-13

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  16. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Mulligan, Anthony C.; Popovich, Dragan

    2004-03-23

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  17. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  18. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume III, Fish and Habitat Inventory of Tributary Streams, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of the fisheries of the Swan River drainage in relation to potential small hydro development. This information was collected in order to obtain a reliable basin-wide database which was used to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of a number of proposed small hydro developments on the fisheries of the drainage. For each named tributary stream there is a reach-by-reach narrative summary of general habitat characteristics, outstanding features of the stream, and fish populations and spawning use. An attempt was made to rank many of the measured parameters relative to other surveyed stream reaches in the drainage. 3 refs.

  19. Laser damage threshold measurements of optical materials for direct laser accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soong, Ken; Byer, R. L.; Colby, E. R.; England, R. J.; Peralta, E. A.

    2012-12-21

    The laser-damage threshold is a fundamental limit for any dielectric laser-driven accelerator and is set by the material of the structure. In this paper, we present a theoretical model of the laser damage mechanism, in comparison with experimental data on the damage threshold of silicon. Additionally, we present damage threshold measurement data of various optical materials, most of which have not been previously characterized in the picosecond-regime.

  20. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  1. SuppCompensationNuclearDamage_ExtensionComments.PDF | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SuppCompensationNuclearDamage_ExtensionComments.PDF SuppCompensationNuclearDamage_ExtensionComments.PDF (131.46 KB) More Documents & Publications CSC_Extension.PDF Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Notice of extension of public comment period for reply comments.

  2. Correlating cookoff violence with pre-ignition damage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker; Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro

    2010-03-01

    Predicting the response of energetic materials during accidents, such as fire, is important for high consequence safety analysis. We hypothesize that responses of ener-getic materials before and after ignition depend on factors that cause thermal and chemi-cal damage. We have previously correlated violence from PETN to the extent of decom-position at ignition, determined as the time when the maximum Damkoehler number ex-ceeds a threshold value. We seek to understand if our method of violence correlation ap-plies universally to other explosive starting with RDX.

  3. Radiation damage in silicon trackers at the Tevatron experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the studies performed on the radiation damage affecting the silicon detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments is presented. These detectors have been exposed to a much larger radiation dose (and operating for a longer time) than originally planned and therefore these studies are fundamental to assess the status and future of the sensors. Results are summarized with special emphasis on the techniques used and their complementarity to achieve a complete picture of the effect of the radiation on the sensors and their performance for physics analysis.

  4. Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  5. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  6. Rapid Damage Assessment Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Imagery: Tools and Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Chandola, Varun; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to growing population, as well as human migration to disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid damage assessment and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques and tools are important in disaster damage assessment and reporting activities. In this review, we will look into the state of the art techniques in damage assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

  7. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-12

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB₆ single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, however instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  8. Laser damage resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, J; Roger Qiu, ,; Stolz, C; Thomas, M; Martinez, C; Ozkan, A

    2009-11-03

    Replacing growing damage sites with benign, laser damage resistant features in multilayer dielectric films may enable large mirrors to be operated at significantly higher fluences. Laser damage resistant features have been created in high reflecting coatings on glass substrates using femtosecond laser machining. These prototype features have been damage tested to over 40 J/cm{sup 2} (1064nm, 3ns pulselength) and have been shown not to damage upon repeated irradiation at 40J/cm{sup 2}. Further work to optimize feature shape and laser machining parameters is ongoing.

  9. The role of nickel in radiation damage of ferritic alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Anento, Napoleon; Serra, Anna; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2014-11-26

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content frommore » 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T < 500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. Furthermore, this effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.« less

  10. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  11. Combined Effects of Temperature and Irradiation on Concrete Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Pape, Yann; Giorla, Alain; Sanahuja, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) is a predominant mechanism in the formation of mechanical damage in the hardened cement paste (hcp) of irradiated concrete under fast-neutron flux (Giorla et al. 2015). Among the operating conditions difference between test reactors and light water reactors (LWRs), the difference of irradiation flux and temperature is significant. While a temperature increase is quite generally associated with a direct, or indirect (e.g., by dehydration) loss of mechanical properties (Maruyama et al. 2014), we found that it causes a partial annealing of irradiation amorphization of α-quartz, hence, reducing RIVE rate. Based on data collected by Bykov et al. (1981), an incremental RIVE model coupling neutron fluence and temperature is developed. The elastic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of irradiated polycrystalline quartz are interpreted through analytical homogenization of experimental data on irradiated α-quartz published by Mayer and Lecomte (1960). Moreover, the proposed model, implemented in the meso-scale simulation code AMIE, is compared to experimental data obtained on ordinary concrete made of quartz/quartzite aggregate (Dubrovskii et al. 1967). Substantial discrepancy, in terms of damage and volumetric expansion developments, is found when comparing irradiation scenarios assuming constant flux and temperature, as opposed to more realistic test reactor operation conditions.

  12. The Role of Nickel in Radiation Damage of Ferritic Alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Anento, Napoleon; Serra, Anna; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content from 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T<500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. This effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.

  13. Combined Effects of Temperature and Irradiation on Concrete Damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Pape, Yann; Giorla, Alain; Sanahuja, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) is a predominant mechanism in the formation of mechanical damage in the hardened cement paste (hcp) of irradiated concrete under fast-neutron flux (Giorla et al. 2015). Among the operating conditions difference between test reactors and light water reactors (LWRs), the difference of irradiation flux and temperature is significant. While a temperature increase is quite generally associated with a direct, or indirect (e.g., by dehydration) loss of mechanical properties (Maruyama et al. 2014), we found that it causes a partial annealing of irradiation amorphization of α-quartz, hence, reducing RIVE rate. Based on data collected by Bykovmore » et al. (1981), an incremental RIVE model coupling neutron fluence and temperature is developed. The elastic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of irradiated polycrystalline quartz are interpreted through analytical homogenization of experimental data on irradiated α-quartz published by Mayer and Lecomte (1960). Moreover, the proposed model, implemented in the meso-scale simulation code AMIE, is compared to experimental data obtained on ordinary concrete made of quartz/quartzite aggregate (Dubrovskii et al. 1967). Substantial discrepancy, in terms of damage and volumetric expansion developments, is found when comparing irradiation scenarios assuming constant flux and temperature, as opposed to more realistic test reactor operation conditions.« less

  14. Damage Identification of Wind Turbine Blades Using Piezoelectric Transducers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Seong-Won; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Taylor, Stuart G.; Light-Marquez, Abraham; Park, Gyuhae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of active-sensing structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, which utilize piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators, for determining the structural integrity of wind turbine blades. Specifically, Lamb wave propagations and frequency response functions at high frequency ranges are used to estimate the condition of wind turbine blades. For experiments, a 1 m section of a CX-100 blade is used. The goal of this study is to assess and compare the performance of each method in identifying incipient damage with a consideration given to field deployability. Overall, these methods yielded a sufficient damage detection capability to warrantmore » further investigation. This paper also summarizes the SHM results of a full-scale fatigue test of a 9 m CX-100 blade using piezoelectric active sensors. This paper outlines considerations needed to design such SHM systems, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.« less

  15. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  16. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  17. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  18. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide,more » irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.« less

  19. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

    2014-10-01

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  20. DDT of hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 in heavy confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Gary R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The research presented examines DDT of cylinders of PBX 9501 damaged above 180 C in heavy confinement for 0-3 hours and end-ignited or ramped until self-ignition (cookoff) occurred. Progression of luminous reaction was observed by streak photography through a glass-filled slit running the length of the cylinder. Post-mortem analysis of the steel DDT tubes was also done for correlation with the optical records. Results indicate that repeatable, Type I DDT was observed to occur in hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 with low levels of porosity. It was demonstrated that multiple parameters affect DDT behavior, most likely in a coupled fashion. These parameters are porosity, ignition temperature and thermal soak duration. Conditions leading up to cookoff were shown to sensitize the HE to DDT by increasing likelihood and decreasing run length. Over the range of porosities (0-37%) and ignition temperatures (180-235 C), run lengths and detonation velocities varied, respectively, from approximately 22-109 mm and 6.0-8.3 mm {micro}s{sup -1}. This work fills a valuable and realistic space in the understanding of high explosive violent reaction, including DDT, in abnormal thermal environments.

  1. Catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in the bulk of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Frank R. Natoli, Jean-Yves; Akhouayri, Hassan; Commandré, Mireille; Duchateau, Guillaume

    2014-06-28

    Due to its high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to produce periodically poled crystals, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, KTP) is still one of the economically important nonlinear optical materials. In this overview article, we present a large study on catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in this material and the very similar RbTiOPO{sub 4} (RTP). Several different systematic studies are included: multiple pulse laser damage, multi-wavelength laser damage in KTP, damage resistance anisotropy, and variations of the laser damage thresholds for RTP crystals of different qualities. All measurements were carried out in comparable experimental conditions using a 1064 nm Q-switched laser and some were repeated at 532 nm. After summarizing the experimental results, we detail the proposed model for laser damage in this material and discuss the experimental results in this context. According to the model, nanosecond laser damage is caused by light-induced generation of transient laser-damage precursors which subsequently provide free electrons that are heated by the same nanosecond pulse. We also present a stimulated Raman scattering measurement and confront slightly different models to the experimental data. Finally, the physical nature of the transient damage precursors is discussed and similarities and differences to laser damage in other crystals are pointed out.

  2. Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Karim, Julia Abdul

    2011-03-30

    Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

  3. One call systems can limit third party damage exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, R.C.; Sage, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes how the Olympic Pipeline Co., in Washington, uses computers to handle more than 13,000 One Call messages annually. One call systems give contractors and the general public the ability to make one phone call and have all the utilities contacted in the general area of planned work. All the 1984 One Call messages were hand-researched and checked against system maps to determine if conflicts existed. Out of the 13,262 messages received, 12,763 were determined by a map search to be outside of the pipe line right of way. This represents, on the average, 4.4 man hours per day of clerical time spent checking the messages on the maps. Participating in a One Call system will definitely increase the work load of existing company personnel, and the system does not guarantee a company will never notified of all encroachment activity or never incur line damage as a result of encroachment.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchan, J. T.; Robinson, M.; Christie, H. J.; Roach, D. L.; Ross, D. K.; Marks, N. A.

    2015-06-28

    Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%.

  5. Monitoring genetic damage to ecosystems from hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.L.

    1992-03-01

    Applications of ecological toxicity testing to hazardous waste management have increased dramatically over the last few years, resulting in a greater awareness of the need for improved biomonitoring techniques. Our laboratory is developing advanced techniques to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental contamination on ecosystems. We have developed a novel mutagenesis assay using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is potentially applicable for multimedia studies in soil, sediment, and water. In addition, we are conducting validation studies of a previously developed anaphase aberration test that utilizes sea urchin embryos. Other related efforts include field validation studies of the new tests, evaluation of their potential ecological relevance, and analysis of their sensitivity relative to that of existing toxicity tests that assess only lethal effects, rather than genetic damage.

  6. Severe fuel-damage scoping test performance. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, G.E.; Buescher, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. The first test of Phase I of this series has been successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Following the first test, calculations were performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code with actual experimental boundary conditions. This paper discusses the test conduct and performance and presents the calculated and measured test bundle results. The test resulted in a slow heatup to 2000 K over about 4 h, with an accelerated reaction of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1600 K in the lower part or the bundle and 2000 K in the upper portion of the bundle.

  7. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  8. Sirtuin 6 protects the heart from hypoxic damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Kanfi, Yariv; Hochhauser, Edith; Isak, Ahuva; Cohen, Haim Y.; Shainberg, Asher

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. We investigated whether life extension is associated with cardioprotection against hypoxia. The proposed study is to develop approaches to reduce hypoxic damage through the use of the sirtuin pathway and to elucidate the mechanism involved. For that purpose we subjected cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice (TG) with over-expression of SIRT6, to hypoxic stress in cell cultures. We hypothesized that cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice subjected to prolonged hypoxia may release survival factors or fewer damage markers to protect them from hypoxic stress compared with wild type (WT) mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released to the medium and propidium iodide (PI) binding, were markedly decreased following hypoxia in TG cardiomyocytes. The protective mechanism of SIRT6 over-expression includes the activation of pAMPKα pathway, the increased protein level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), the decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction in the protein level of phospho-protein kinase B (pAkt) during hypoxia. Together, all these processes impede the necrosis/apoptosis pathways leading to the improved survival of cardiomyocytes following hypoxia, which might explain life extension. - Highlights: • Sirtuin 6 is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 protects cardiocytes from hypoxia and oxidative stress. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 activates the pAMPKα pathway and the Bcl2 expression. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 decreases ROS formation and pAkt level during hypoxia. • These pathways protect cardiocytes from hypoxia and might explain lifespan extension.

  9. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Damage in Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Remec, Igor; Giorla, Alain B; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has resulted in a renewed focus on long-term aging of materials at nuclear power plants (NPPs) including concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Nuclear Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete (Graves et al., (2014)). Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete (Hilsdorf et al., (1978)) does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure (Kontani et al., (2011)). To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, the Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are working to better understand radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines recent progress toward: 1) assessing the radiation environment in concrete biological shields and defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield for extended operation, and estimating adsorbed dose, 2) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, 3) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete and its components under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish conservative bounds and inform damage models, 4) developing improved models to enhance the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete and 5) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge including developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in data obtained from various concretes and from accelerated irradiation experiments.

  10. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  11. Critique of the carbonate mass loss model for paint damage functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    One of the key questions concerning the assessment of acid deposition damage is its effect on painted surfaces. In order to determine this it is necessary to have a paint damage function that expresses the quantity of physical damage associated with a given level of acid deposition. This problem is now a major focus of EPA's current research; however, results are not yet available. Consequently, the NAPAP paint damage function was derived from data collected in several studies that substantially predated the acid rain research program. Although this damage function may appear plausible at first glance, it has been criticized, in part because paint damage constitutes such an important part of the total, but mainly because it is based largely on a conceptual model involving erosion due to dissolution loss of carbonate extenders in the paint formulation.

  12. Direct comparison of defect ensembles extracted from damage probability and raster scan measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batavičiūtė, G. Ščiuka, M.; Melninkaitis, A.

    2015-09-14

    The presented study addresses the characterization of nanometer sized defects acting as damage precursors in nanosecond laser pulse duration regime. Two approaches are used to extract distributions of localized damage precursors, namely, damage probability and damage density measurements. Testing is performed on uncoated and SiO{sub 2} monolayer film deposited fused silica substrate exposed with pulsed UV irradiation (355 nm, 4.8 ns). Then, a direct comparison of damage precursor ensembles obtained from both methods is carried out. Our analysis indicates apparent differences between both methods that are discussed in detail. Contamination by ablation products is identified as one of the key factors that influence damage density measurements.

  13. Fracture Induced Sub-Band Absorption as a Precursor to Optical Damage on Fused Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Suratwala, T I; Shen, N; Laurence, T A; Steele, W A; Menapace, J; Feit, M D; Wong, L L

    2010-03-05

    The optical damage threshold of indentation induced flaws on fused silica surfaces was explored. Mechanical flaws were characterized by laser damaged testing, SEM, optical, and photoluminescence microscopy. Localized polishing, chemical etching, and the control of indentation morphology were used to isolate the structural features which limit optical damage. A thin defect layer on fracture surfaces, including those smaller than the wavelength of visible light, was found to be the dominant source of laser damage initiation during illumination with 355nm, 3ns laser pulses. Little evidence was found that either displaced or densified material or fluence intensification plays a significant role in optical damage at fluences >35J/cm{sup 2}. Elimination of the defect layer was shown to increase the overall damage performance of fused silica optics.

  14. Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, Veronica; Cerreta, Ellen K

    2010-03-18

    Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

  15. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  16. Sensitivity of silicon 1-MeV damage function to cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) {sup 28}Si cross-section evaluation and the NJOY code are used to define the standard response function to be used in reporting 1-MeV (silicon) neutron damage and in determining neutron damage equivalence between test facilities. This paper provides information for the precision and bias section of the E722 standard.

  17. Structural Basis of UV DNA-Damage Recognition by the DDB1-DDB2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DDB2 to detect lesions refractory to detection by other damage surveillance proteins. ... Issue: (7) ; 12, 2008 Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National ...

  18. Structure and Activation Mechanism of the CHK2 DNA Damage Checkpoint...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and Activation Mechanism of the CHK2 DNA Damage Checkpoint Kinase Citation ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud ...

  19. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

  20. Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ENERGYSOLUTIONS' Comment in Response to Notice of Inquiry, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation -75 FR 43945

  1. Capturing snapshots of APE1 processing DNA damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda S.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-10-12

    DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) sites are prevalent noncoding threats to genomic stability and are processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 incises the AP-site phosphodiester backbone, generating a DNA-repair intermediate that is potentially cytotoxic. The molecular events of the incision reaction remain elusive, owing in part to limited structural information. Here we report multiple high-resolution human APE1-DNA structures that divulge new features of the APE1 reaction, including the metal-binding site, the nucleophile and the arginine clamps that mediate product release. We also report APE1-DNA structures with a T-G mismatch 5' to the AP site, representing a clustered lesion occurring in methylatedmore » CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, these structures reveal that APE1 molds the T-G mismatch into a unique Watson-Crick-like geometry that distorts the active site, thus reducing incision. Finally, these snapshots provide mechanistic clarity for APE1 while affording a rational framework to manipulate biological responses to DNA damage.« less

  2. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  3. Laser-Induced Surface Damage of Optical Materials: Absorption Sources, Initiation, Growth, adn Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2009-04-07

    Susceptibility to laser damage of optical-material surfaces originates from the nature of the surface as a transitional structure between optical-material bulk and its surroundings. As such, it requires technological processing to satisfy figure and roughness requirements and is also permanently subjected to environmental exposure. Consequently, enhanced absorption caused by mechanical structural damage or incorporation and sorption of microscale absorbing defects, even layers of organic materials, is always characteristic for optical-material surfaces. In this review physics of interaction of pulsed-laser radiation with surface imperfections for different types of optical materials (metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, etc.), mechanisms of damage initiation, damage morphology, and damage-site growth under repetitive pulse irradiation are discussed. Consideration is also given here to the surface treatments leading to the reduction of damage initiation sites, such as laser cleaning and conditioning, removal of the surface layers affected by the grinding/polishing process, and mitigation of the damage growth at already formed damage sites.

  4. Determination of laser damage initiation probability and growth on fused silica scratches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Bude, J D; Steele, W A; Monticelli, M V; Suratwala, T I

    2010-10-26

    Current methods for the manufacture of optical components inevitably leaves a variety of sub-surface imperfections including scratches of varying lengths and widths on even the finest finishes. It has recently been determined that these finishing imperfections are responsible for the majority of laser-induced damage for fluences typically used in ICF class lasers. We have developed methods of engineering subscale parts with a distribution of scratches mimicking those found on full scale fused silica parts. This much higher density of scratches provides a platform to measure low damage initiation probabilities sufficient to describe damage on large scale optics. In this work, damage probability per unit scratch length was characterized as a function of initial scratch width and post fabrication processing including acid-based etch mitigation processes. The susceptibility of damage initiation density along scratches was found to be strongly affected by the post etching material removal and initial scratch width. We have developed an automated processing procedure to document the damage initiations per width and per length of theses scratches. We show here how these tools can be employed to provide predictions of the performance of full size optics in laser systems operating at 351 nm. In addition we use these tools to measure the growth rate of a damage site initiated along a scratch and compare this to the growth measured on an isolated damage site.

  5. Rapid Damage eXplorer (RDX): A Probabilistic Framework for Learning Changes From Bitemporal Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Recent decade has witnessed major changes on the Earth, for example, deforestation, varying cropping and human settlement patterns, and crippling damages due to disasters. Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to the growing population, as well as human migration to the disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid assessment of these changes and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Change detection using high-resolution satellite images is a primary tool in assessing damages, monitoring biomass and critical infrastructures, and identifying new settlements. In this demo, we present a novel supervised probabilistic framework for identifying changes using very high-resolution multispectral, and bitemporal remote sensing images. Our demo shows that the rapid damage explorer (RDX) system is resilient to registration errors and differing sensor characteristics.

  6. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  7. Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, B.J.

    1991-09-01

    Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  8. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Experimental determination of the relationship between permeability and microfracture-induced damage in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifle, T.W.

    1998-03-01

    The development of deep underground structures (e.g., shafts, mines, storage and disposal caverns) significantly alters the stress state in the rock near the structure or opening. The effect of such an opening is to concentrate the far-field stress near the free surface. For soft rock such as salt, the concentrating effect of the opening induces deviatoric stresses in the salt that may be large enough to initiate microcracks which then propagate with time. The volume of rock susceptible to damage by microfracturing is often referred to as the disturbed rock zone and, by its nature, is expected to exhibit high permeability relative to that of the native, far-field rock. This paper presents laboratory data that characterize microfracture-induced damage and the effect this damage has on permeability for bedded salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in southeastern New Mexico. Damage is induced in the salt through a series of tertiary creep experiments and quantified in terms of dilatant volumetric strain. The permeability of damaged specimens is then measured using nitrogen gas as the permeant. The range in damage investigated included dilatant volumetric strains from less than 0.03 percent to nearly 4.0 percent. Permeability values corresponding to these damage levels ranged from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}. Two simple models were fitted to the data for use in predicting permeability from dilatant volumetric strain.

  10. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girolamo, D. Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-03-31

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  11. Mechanical failure characterization of optical components caused by laser induced damage initiated at contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faux, D. R., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify by numerical techniques the effects of surface and subsurface absorbing defects on damage initiation and growth in high power laser optical components. The defects include laser absorbing spots (e.g., surface particulate contamination) and surface damage regions (e.g., micro-cracks and voids) which are present due to environmental exposure and fabrication processes. This report focuses on three sources of contamination that can cause damage to optical components: (1) Front surface particle contamination, (2) Back surface particle contamination, and (3) Subsurface particle contamination. The DYNA2D (non-linear structural mechanics) code was used to model the growth of damage in the glass substrate. The damage in the nominally transparent glass substrate as a result of front surface particle contamination was found to be dependent on the magnitude of the resultant pressure pulse applied to the particle and the initial area of contact between the particle and glass substrate. The pressures generated from a back surface particle being blown off the surface provided sufficient loading to severely damage (crack) the glass substrate. A subsurface Ceria dioxide particle showed a strong surface interaction that influenced the formation and direction of the damage (cracking) that ultimately resulted in the blow-out of the damaged material leaving a relatively clean crater in the glass. Crater shape and size was determined. Since fused silica is the most transparent, and therefore laser damage resistant, of the optical materials, it is used for the most at-risk optical elements. The present studies are for a fused silica substrate. Some oxides such as Ceria are transparent in the infrared and visible, but absorbing in the UV part of the spectrum. Because ICF lasers like NIF use frequency tripling, effects of such oxides must be included.

  12. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Kyungmi; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2015-08-07

    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.

  13. Using Minority Carrier Lifetime Measurement to Determine Saw Damage Characteristics on Si Wafer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, Bhushan; Devayajanam, Srinivas; Basnyat, Prakash

    2015-06-14

    The damage on the Si wafer surfaces, caused by ingot cutting, is determined from measurement of minority carrier lifetime (..tau..eff). Samples are sequentially etched to remove thin layers from each surface and lifetime is measured after each etch step. The thickness-removed at which the lifetime reaches a peak value corresponds to the damage depth. This technique also allows the depth distribution of the damage to be quantified in terms of surface recombination velocity (SRV). An accurate measurement of ..tau..eff requires corrections to optical reflection, and transmission to account for changes in the surface morphology and in the wafer thickness.

  14. A metallography and x-ray tomography study of spall damage in ultrapure Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, M. L.; Bie, B. X.; Zhao, F. P.; Fan, D.; Luo, S. N.; Hu, C. M.; Ran, X. X.; Xiao, X. H.; Yang, W. G.; Li, P.

    2014-07-15

    We characterize spall damage in shock-recovered ultrapure Al with metallography and x-ray tomography. The measured damage profiles in ultrapure Al induced by planar impact at different shock strengths, can be described with a Gaussian function, and showed dependence on shock strengths. Optical metallography is reasonably accurate for damage profile measurements, and agrees within 10–25% with x-ray tomography. Full tomography analysis showed that void size distributions followed a power law with an exponent of γ = 1.5 ± 2.0, which is likely due to void nucleation and growth, and the exponent is considerably smaller than the predictions from percolation models.

  15. Experimental Determination of Damage Threshold Characteristics of IR Compatible Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soong, Ken

    2011-05-20

    The accelerating gradient in a laser-driven dielectric accelerating structure is often limited by the laser damage threshold of the structure. For a given laser-driven dielectric accelerator design, we can maximize the accelerating gradient by choosing the best combination of the accelerator's constituent material and operating wavelength. We present here a model of the damage mechanism from ultrafast infrared pulses and compare that model with experimental measurements of the damage threshold of bulk silicon. Additionally, we present experimental measurements of a variety of candidate materials, thin films, and nanofabricated accelerating structures.

  16. Los Alamos structure-damage software wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure-damage software wins R&D 100 Award Los Alamos structure-damage software wins R&D 100 Award A software package called SHMTools, which can detect damage in a variety of structures and was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, won an R&D 100 Award. December 6, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience,

  17. Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.; Lichtenstein, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-ns, 248-nm KrF laser pulses were used to measure laser damage thresholds for halfwave-thick layers of 15 oxide and fluoride coating materials, and for high reflectance coatings made with 13 combinations of these materials. The damage thresholds of the reflectors and single-layer films were compared to measurements of several properties of the halfwave-thick films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films were useful for identifying materials for fabrication of damage resistant coatings.

  18. A review of the Crystal River Unit 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Internal events, core damage frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanan, N.A.; Henley, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of the Crystal River Unit 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (CR-3 PRA) was performed with the objective of evaluating the dominant accident sequences and major contributions to the core damage frequency from internally-generated initiators. This review included not only an assessment of the assumption and methods used in the CR-3 PRA, but also included a quantitative analysis of the accident initiators, and accident sequences resulting in core damage. The effects of data uncertainties on the core damage frequency were quantified and sensitivity analysis was also performed. 55 refs., 22 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Ch 19 Cumulative Impacts FN East Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 This page intentionally left blank Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Eastern United States VOLUME 15 - CHAPTER 19 April 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal Communications Commission General Services Administration U.S. Department of

  20. Ch 19 Cumulative Impacts FN East Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... impacts for resource areas on a regional basis for unknown deployment activities ... Infrastructure + Soils Geology Water Resources Wetlands ...

  1. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications EIS-0333: Draft Environmental Impact Statement ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies ITP Aluminum: Energy and ...

  2. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  3. Radiation Damage Calculations for the FUBR and BEATRIX Irradiations of Lithium Compounds in EBR-II and FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.

    1999-05-01

    Radiation Damage Calculations for the FUBR and BEATRIX Irradiations of Lithium Compunds in EBR-II and FFTF

  4. Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suski, N; Wuest, C

    2011-02-04

    Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre

  5. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey; Najafi, Mohammand

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

  6. Structural Basis of UV DNA-Damage Recognition by the DDB1-DDB2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recognition by the DDB1-DDB2 Complex Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Basis of UV DNA-Damage Recognition by the DDB1-DDB2 Complex Ultraviolet (UV) ...

  7. Future property damage from flooding: sensitivities to economy and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Delgado, Michael

    2015-08-09

    Using a unique dataset for Indiana counties during the period 1995-2012, we estimate the effects of flood hazard, asset exposure, and social vulnerability on property damage. This relationship then is combined with the expected level of future flood risks to project property damage from flooding in 2030 under various scenarios. We compare these scenario projections to identify which risk management strategy offers the greatest potential to mitigate flooding loss. Results show that by 2030, county level flooding hazard measured by extreme flow volume and frequency will increase by an average of 16.2% and 7.4%, respectively. The total increase in property damages projected under different model specifications range from 13.3% to 20.8%. Across models future damages consistently exhibit the highest sensitivity to future increases in asset exposure, reinforcing the importance of non-structural measures in managing floodplain development.

  8. Future property damage from flooding: sensitivities to economy and climate change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Delgado, Michael

    2015-08-09

    Using a unique dataset for Indiana counties during the period 1995-2012, we estimate the effects of flood hazard, asset exposure, and social vulnerability on property damage. This relationship then is combined with the expected level of future flood risks to project property damage from flooding in 2030 under various scenarios. We compare these scenario projections to identify which risk management strategy offers the greatest potential to mitigate flooding loss. Results show that by 2030, county level flooding hazard measured by extreme flow volume and frequency will increase by an average of 16.2% and 7.4%, respectively. The total increase in propertymore » damages projected under different model specifications range from 13.3% to 20.8%. Across models future damages consistently exhibit the highest sensitivity to future increases in asset exposure, reinforcing the importance of non-structural measures in managing floodplain development.« less

  9. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  10. Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comments by International Group on Nuclear Liability (CIGNL), in response to U.S. Department of Energy Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

  11. United States and France Sign Joint Statement on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States and France today issued the Joint Statement on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage that sets forth the common views of the United States and France on civil nuclear liability

  12. EM, Tribal, and State Officials Receive Training on Restoring Damaged Natural Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NEW ORLEANS – Senior EM, Tribal, and state officials gathered for a training on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process for restoring resources damaged from oil spills or hazardous substance releases into the environment.

  13. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comments by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) on Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation; Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

  14. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (OAS) was used for establishing the opacity (and therefore the probing depth) of the damaged layer to the 632.8 nm wavelength of the He-Ne laser used for CMR throughout this study. ...

  15. On the Effect of Ramp Rate in Damage Accumulation of the CPV Die-Attach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N. S.; Silverman, T. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    It is commonly understood that thermal cycling at high temperature ramp rates may activate unrepresentative failure mechanisms. Increasing the temperature ramp rate of thermal cycling, however, could dramatically reduce the test time required to achieve an equivalent amount of thermal fatigue damage, thereby reducing overall test time. Therefore, the effect of temperature ramp rate on physical damage in the CPV die-attach is investigated. Finite Element Model (FEM) simulations of thermal fatigue and thermal cycling experiments are made to determine if the amount of damage calculated results in a corresponding amount of physical damage measured to the die-attach for a variety of fast temperature ramp rates. Preliminary experimental results are in good agreement with simulations and reinforce the potential of increasing temperature ramp rates. Characterization of the microstructure and resulting fatigue crack in the die-attach suggest a similar failure mechanism across all ramp rates tested.

  16. 01-07-2000 - Undergroud Cables Damaged during Excavation Work | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory 0 - Undergroud Cables Damaged during Excavation Work Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2000 File (public): PDF icon 01-07-2000_blue_alert(2).pdf Lessons Learned Type: Blue

  17. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  18. A creep-damage model for mesoscale simulations of concrete expansion-degradation phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B; Le Pape, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Long-term performance of aging concrete in nuclear power plants (NPPs) requires a careful examination of the physical phenomena taking place in the material. Concrete under high neutron irradiation is subjected to large irreversible deformations as well as mechanical damage, caused by a swelling of the aggregates. However, these results, generally obtained in accelerated conditions in test reactors, cannot be directly applied to NPP irradiated structures, i.e., the biological shield, operating conditions due to difference in time scale and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity). Mesoscale numerical simulations are performed to separate the underlying mechanisms and their interactions. The cement paste creep-damage model accounts for the effect of the loading rate on the apparent damage properties of the material and uses an event-based approach to capture the competition between creep and damage. The model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the literature and shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Circuits | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical Circuits Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical Circuits Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Designed chemical interactions of liquid-metal-filled

  20. Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.

    1982-07-07

    The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

  1. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidensticker, Max; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas; Garlipp, Benjamin; Koelble, Konrad; Wust, Peter; Antweiler, Kai; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluable liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.

  2. Damage prognosis of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, Charles R; Gobbato, Maurizio; Conte, Joel; Kosmatke, John; Oliver, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The extensive use of lightweight advanced composite materials in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drastically increases the sensitivity to both fatigue- and impact-induced damage of their critical structural components (e.g., wings and tail stabilizers) during service life. The spar-to-skin adhesive joints are considered one of the most fatigue sensitive subcomponents of a lightweight UAV composite wing with damage progressively evolving from the wing root. This paper presents a comprehensive probabilistic methodology for predicting the remaining service life of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of UAVs. Non-destructive evaluation techniques and Bayesian inference are used to (i) assess the current state of damage of the system and, (ii) update the probability distribution of the damage extent at various locations. A probabilistic model for future loads and a mechanics-based damage model are then used to stochastically propagate damage through the joint. Combined local (e.g., exceedance of a critical damage size) and global (e.g.. flutter instability) failure criteria are finally used to compute the probability of component failure at future times. The applicability and the partial validation of the proposed methodology are then briefly discussed by analyzing the debonding propagation, along a pre-defined adhesive interface, in a simply supported laminated composite beam with solid rectangular cross section, subjected to a concentrated load applied at mid-span. A specially developed Eliler-Bernoulli beam finite element with interlaminar slip along the damageable interface is used in combination with a cohesive zone model to study the fatigue-induced degradation in the adhesive material. The preliminary numerical results presented are promising for the future validation of the methodology.

  3. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

  4. Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria; Barkusky, Frank; Mann, Klaus; Mueller, Matthias

    2013-05-28

    Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

  5. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Laurence; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jisnmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Wall, Joe

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  6. Probing Fukushima with cosmic rays should help speed cleanup of damaged

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant Probing Fukushima with cosmic rays Probing Fukushima with cosmic rays should help speed cleanup of damaged plant The initiative could reduce the time required to clean up the disabled complex by at least a decade and greatly reduce radiation exposure to personnel working at the plant. December 22, 2014 Probing Fukushima with cosmic rays should help speed cleanup of damaged plant Los Alamos-generated computer animation of the Fukushima Daiichi power plant. Contact James Rickman

  7. Evaluation of ATWS core damage frequency for an earlier vintage BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, K.K.; Ilberg, D.; Hanan, N.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, this study evaluated the total core damage contribution due to ATWS events for an earlier vintage BWR/4. A realistic calculation was performed for a plant with a particular ATWS prevention and mitigation configuration and with some of the ATWS rule modifications implemented. Results are compared with the ATWS task force findings; three areas have been identified which could potentially have significant impact upon the ATWS core damage frequency contribution. 4 refs.

  8. Damage mapping in structural health monitoring using a multi-grid architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, V. John

    2015-03-31

    This paper presents a multi-grid architecture for tomography-based damage mapping of composite aerospace structures. The system employs an array of piezo-electric transducers bonded on the structure. Each transducer may be used as an actuator as well as a sensor. The structure is excited sequentially using the actuators and the guided waves arriving at the sensors in response to the excitations are recorded for further analysis. The sensor signals are compared to their baseline counterparts and a damage index is computed for each actuator-sensor pair. These damage indices are then used as inputs to the tomographic reconstruction system. Preliminary damage maps are reconstructed on multiple coordinate grids defined on the structure. These grids are shifted versions of each other where the shift is a fraction of the spatial sampling interval associated with each grid. These preliminary damage maps are then combined to provide a reconstruction that is more robust to measurement noise in the sensor signals and the ill-conditioned problem formulation for single-grid algorithms. Experimental results on a composite structure with complexity that is representative of aerospace structures included in the paper demonstrate that for sufficiently high sensor densities, the algorithm of this paper is capable of providing damage detection and characterization with accuracy comparable to traditional C-scan and A-scan-based ultrasound non-destructive inspection systems quickly and without human supervision.

  9. Lateral damage in graphene carved by high energy focused gallium ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Zhongquan; Zhang, Tao; Jordan, Rainer; Gall, Martin; Rosenkranz, Rüdiger; Dianat, Arezoo; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; and others

    2015-07-06

    Raman mapping is performed to study the lateral damage in supported monolayer graphene carved by 30 keV focused Ga{sup +} beams. The evolution of the lateral damage is tracked based on the profiles of the intensity ratio between the D (1341 cm{sup −1}) and G (1582 cm{sup −1}) peaks (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) of the Raman spectra. The I{sub D}/I{sub G} profile clearly reveals the transition from stage 2 disorder into stage 1 disorder in graphene along the direction away from the carved area. The critical lateral damage distance spans from <1 μm up to more than 30 μm in the experiment, depending on the parameters used for carving the graphene. The wide damage in the lateral direction is attributed to the deleterious tail of unfocused ions in the ion beam probe. The study raises the attention on potential sample damage during direct patterning of graphene nanostructures using the focused ion beam technique. Minimizing the total carving time is recommended to mitigate the lateral damage.

  10. Management of wildlife causing damage at Argonne National Laboratory-East, DuPage County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The DOE, after an independent review, has adopted an Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) which evaluates use of an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management approach at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois (April 1995). In 1994, the USDA issued a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that covers nationwide animal damage control activities. The EA for Management of Wildlife Causing Damage at ANL-E tiers off this programmatic EIS. The USDA wrote the EA as a result of DOE`s request to USDA to prepare and implement a comprehensive Wildlife Management Damage Plan; the USDA has authority for animal damage control under the Animal Damage Control Act of 1931, as amended, and the Rural Development, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1988. DOE has determined, based on the analysis in the EA, that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. Impact of substrate surface scratches on the laser damage resistance of multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, S; Wolfe, J; Monterrosa, A; Teslich, N; Feit, M; Pistor, T; Stolz, C

    2010-11-03

    Substrate scratches can limit the laser resistance of multilayer mirror coatings on high-peak-power laser systems. To date, the mechanism by which substrate surface defects affect the performance of coating layers under high power laser irradiation is not well defined. In this study, we combine experimental approaches with theoretical simulations to delineate the correlation between laser damage resistance of coating layers and the physical properties of the substrate surface defects including scratches. A focused ion beam technique is used to reveal the morphological evolution of coating layers on surface scratches. Preliminary results show that coating layers initially follow the trench morphology on the substrate surface, and as the thickness increases, gradually overcoat voids and planarize the surface. Simulations of the electrical-field distribution of the defective layers using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that field intensification exists mostly near the top surface region of the coating near convex focusing structures. The light intensification could be responsible for the reduced damage threshold. Damage testing under 1064 nm, 3 ns laser irradiation over coating layers on substrates with designed scratches show that damage probability and threshold of the multilayer depend on substrate scratch density and width. Our preliminary results show that damage occurs on the region of the coating where substrate scratches reside and etching of the substrate before coating does not seem to improve the laser damage resistance.

  12. Nonlinear ultrasonic assessment of stress corrosion cracking damage in sensitized 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morlock, Florian Jacobs, Laurence J. Kim, Jin-Yeon; Singh, Preet; Wall, James J.

    2015-03-31

    This research uses nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to characterize stress corrosion cracking (SCC) damage in welded 304 Stainless Steel (304 SS). 304 SS is widely used in reactor pressure vessels, where a corrosive environment in combination with applied stress due to high internal pressures can cause SCC. Welds and the nearby heat affected zones (HAZ) in the vessel material are especially sensitive to SCC damage. SCC damage results in microstructural changes such as dislocation formation and microcrack initiation that in the long term lead to reduced structural integrity and material failure. Therefore, the early detection of SCC is crucial to ensure safe operation. It has been shown that the microstructural changes caused by SCC can generate higher harmonic waves when excited harmonically. This research considers different levels of SCC damage induced in samples of welded 304 SS by applying stress to a specimen held in a corrosive medium (Sodium Thiosulfate). A nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave is introduced in the material and the fundamental and the second harmonic waves are measured using wedge detection. The nonlinearity parameter that relates the fundamental and the second harmonic amplitudes, is computed to quantify the SCC damage in each sample. These results are used to demonstrate the feasibility of using nonlinear Rayleigh waves to characterize SCC damage.

  13. Finite element simulation of magnetic detection of creep damage at seam welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sablik, M.J.; Rubin, S.W.; Jiles, D.C.; Kaminski, D.; Bi, Y.

    1996-09-01

    Using appropriately modified magnetization curves for each element of creep-damaged material, a finite element calculation has been carried out to simulate magnetic detection of non-uniform creep damage around a seam weld in a 2.25 Cr 1 Mo steam pipe. The magnetization curves for the creep-damaged elements were obtained from an earlier model for the magnetic effect of a uniformly creep-damaged material as given by Chen, et al. In the finite element calculation, a magnetic C-core with primary and secondary coils was placed with its pole pieces flush against the specimen in the vicinity of the weld. The secondary emf was shown to be reduced when creep damage was present inside the pipe wall at the cusp of weld and in the vicinity of the cusp. The C-core detected the creep damage best if it completely spanned the weld seam width. Also, the current in the primary needed to be such that the C-core was not magnetically saturated.

  14. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navalgund, Megha Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.; Zunjarrao, Suraj

    2015-03-31

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT’s capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage and understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  15. Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, R.A.; Jacobus, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent.

  16. (Microstructural dependence of the cavitation damage function in the FCC materials: Annual report, 1990--1991)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The interface damage function (IDF) defines an area fraction of damage on crystallite interfaces. This function, which is material and condition dependent, sustains a complete geometrical description of grain boundaries and identifies those types of interfaces which are preferentially damaged. Included in the IDF is functional dependence, not only upon lattice orientations or misorientations, but also upon grain boundary normal; this dependence has been largely neglected in other studies examining damage inhomogeneity of polycrystals. The experimental method used in describing the damaged microstructures included random sectioning of the damaged specimen, and the manual or semi-automatic construction of grain maps describing the observed microstructure. The grain maps for the initial IDF determination were constructed from scanning electron micrographs. Several of these micrographs were joined together and the grain boundaries were traced. There were manually fed back into the computer using a digitizing pad with each grain boundary intersection defined by an (x,y) pair of coordinates. Using algorithms written as a part of this work, the computer then reconstructs the grain map from this series of points. Manual correction of the computer generated maps was required to obtain an acceptable digitized reproduction of the observed microstructure.

  17. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-12

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, however instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  18. Effect of defects on long-pulse laser-induced damage of two kinds of optical thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Bin; Qin Yuan; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2010-10-10

    In order to study the effect of defects on the laser-induced damage of different optical thin films, we carried out damage experiments on two kinds of thin films with a 1ms long-pulse laser. Surface-defect and subsurface-defect damage models were used to explain the damage morphology. The two-dimensional finite element method was applied to calculate the temperature and thermal-stress fields of these two films. The results show that damages of the two films are due to surface and subsurface defects, respectively. Furthermore, the different dominant defects for thin films of different structures are discussed.

  19. SIMULATION AND MOCKUP OF SNS JET-FLOW TARGET WITH WALL JET FOR CAVITATION DAMAGE MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Felde, David K

    2014-01-01

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory induce cavitation damage on the stainless steel target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. Severe through-wall cavitation damage on an internal wall near the beam entrance window has been observed in spent-targets. Surprisingly though, there is very little damage on the walls that bound an annular mercury channel that wraps around the front and outside of the target. The mercury flow through this channel is characterized by smooth, attached streamlines. One theory to explain this lack of damage is that the uni-directional flow biases the direction of the collapsing cavitation bubble, reducing the impact pressure and subsequent damage. The theory has been reinforced by in-beam separate effects data. For this reason, a second-generation SNS mercury target has been designed with an internal wall jet configuration intended to protect the concave wall where damage has been observed. The wall jet mimics the annular flow channel streamlines, but since the jet is bounded on only one side, the momentum is gradually diffused by the bulk flow interactions as it progresses around the cicular path of the target nose. Numerical simulations of the flow through this jet-flow target have been completed, and a water loop has been assembled with a transparent test target in order to visualize and measure the flow field. This paper presents the wall jet simulation results, as well as early experimental data from the test loop.

  20. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wryobek, Andrew J

    2008-02-21

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7- 1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomalaberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  1. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis (spermiogenesis) is very sensitive to the genomic effects of environmental mutagens because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to mutagens during this repair-deficient phase result in the accumulation of heritable genomic damage in mouse sperm that leads to chromosomal aberrations in zygotes after fertilization. We used a combination of single or fractionated exposures to diepoxybutane (DEB), a component of tobacco smoke, to investigate how differential DNA repair efficiencies during the three weeks of spermiogenesis affected the accumulation of DEB-induced heritable damage in early spermatids (21-15 days before fertilization, dbf), late spermatids (14-8 dbf) and sperm (7-1 dbf). Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in zygotic metaphases using PAINT/DAPI showed that late spermatids and sperm are unable to repair DEB-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by significant increases (P<0.001) in the frequencies of zygotes with chromosomal aberrations. Comparisons between single and fractionated exposures suggested that the DNA repair-deficient window during late spermiogenesis may be less than two weeks in the mouse and that during this repair-deficient window there is accumulation of DNA damage in sperm. Finally, the dose-response study in sperm indicated a linear response for both single and repeated exposures. These findings show that the differential DNA repair capacity of post-meioitic male germ cells has a major impact on the risk of paternally transmitted heritable damage and suggest that chronic exposures that may occur in the weeks prior to fertilization because of occupational or lifestyle factors (i.e, smoking) can lead to an accumulation of genetic damage in sperm and result in heritable chromosomal aberrations of paternal origin.

  2. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  3. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Diagnosis and Prognosis of ASR Damage in Dry Cask Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jianmin; Bazant, Zdenek; Jacobs, Laurence; Guimaraes, Maria

    2015-11-30

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious chemical process that may occur in cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes, where the hydroxyl ions in the highly alkaline pore solution attack the siloxane groups in the siliceous minerals in the aggregates. The reaction produces a cross-linked alkali-silica gel. The ASR gel swells in the presence of water. Expansion of the gel results in cracking when the swelling-induced stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the concrete. As the ASR continues, cracks may grow and eventually coalesce, which results in reduced service life and a decrease safety of concrete structures. Since concrete is widely used as a critical structural component in dry cask storage of used nuclear fuels, ASR damage poses a significant threat to the sustainability of long term dry cask storage systems. Therefore, techniques for effectively detecting, managing and mitigating ASR damage are needed. Currently, there are no nondestructive methods to accurately detect ASR damage in existing concrete structures. The only current way of accurately assessing ASR damage is to drill a core from an existing structure, and conduct microscopy on this drilled cylindrical core. Clearly, such a practice is not applicable to dry cask storage systems. To meet these needs, this research is aimed at developing (1) a suite of nonlinear ultrasonic quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) techniques to characterize ASR damage, and (2) a physics-based model for ASR damage evolution using the QNDE data. Outcomes of this research will provide a nondestructive diagnostic tool to evaluate the extent of the ASR damage, and a prognostic tool to estimate the future reliability and safety of the concrete structures in dry cask storage systems

  4. HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

    2010-02-23

    The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical

  5. Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Eric Woolstenhulme; Roger McCormack

    2005-11-01

    From a handling perspective, any spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that has lost its original technical and functional design capabilities with regard to handling and confinement can be considered as damaged. Some SNF was damaged as a result of experimental activities and destructive examinations; incidents during packaging, handling, and transportation; or degradation that has occurred during storage. Some SNF was mechanically destroyed to protect proprietary SNF designs. Examples of damage to the SNF include failed cladding, failed fuel meat, sectioned test specimens, partially reprocessed SNFs, over-heated elements, dismantled assemblies, and assemblies with lifting fixtures removed. In spite of the challenges involved with handling and storage of damaged SNF, the SNF has been safely handled and stored for many years at DOE storage facilities. This report summarizes a variety of challenges encountered at DOE facilities during interim storage and handling operations along with strategies and solutions that are planned or were implemented to ameliorate those challenges. A discussion of proposed paths forward for moving damaged and nondamaged SNF from interim storage to final disposition in the geologic repository is also presented.

  6. Attenuation due to hysteretic damage in the free vibration of a beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, Daniel A.; Pecorari, Claudio

    2014-02-18

    We present an asymptotic analysis of nonlinear free vibration of a beam with a damage plane represented by nonlinear hysteretic bending and shear springs. The perturbation parameter is the product of the ratio of the nonlinear to linear parts of the stiffness times the amplitude of the free vibration. The loss of energy and ensuing attenuation due to hysteresis is accounted for by reducing the amplitude of vibration after each cycle by an amount such that the loss in total system energy equals the work done to traverse the hysteresis loop. A new Fourier representation for each cycle of the hysteresis and the deflection solution is used for this purpose and leads to higher harmonics, an evolving complex stiffness and corrected natural frequency that are linked to the attenuation. The frequency increases to its linear value from an initially reduced value. The damage parameter, frequency shift and fundamental amplitudes are presented as functions of the initial damage parameter and time (cycles of vibration). The amplitudes of several of the higher harmonics are also presented as functions of time. Many of the results exhibit sufficient sensitivity with respect to the damage parameter that they should be able to be used to characterize the damage.

  7. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacement damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.

  8. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacementmore » damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.« less

  9. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Baz, F. . Center for Remote Sensing); Al-Ajmi, D. . Environmental and Earth Sciences Div.)

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait.

  10. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, Thomas N; Ammerman, Curtt N; Park, Gyu Hae; Farinholt, Kevin M; Farrar, Charles R; Atterbury, Marie K

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  11. Investigation of damage behavior of thermally sprayed coatings depending on coating thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crostack, H.A.; Beller, U.

    1995-12-31

    In order to increase the lifetime of components used for diesel engines or gas turbines surfaces are coated by ceramics. In recent years it succeeded in spraying thermal barrier coatings based on zirconia up to a thickness of a few millimeters. A comparison of the damage behavior between yttria partially stabilized zirconia coatings with different thickness will be presented. The coatings are produced by atmospheric plasma spraying. The thickness is varied from 0.5 mm up to 2 mm. In order to characterize the mechanical as well as the damage processes different methods of destructive testing (tensile, bending, and loading test) are applied. Additionally, non-destructive testing methods were used to investigate the damage processes on micro structural level. The results will be discussed according to the microstructure.

  12. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  13. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Wampler, William R.

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombinationmore » when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.« less

  14. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2007, Proceedings of the SPIE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Lewis, Keith L.; Ristau, Detlev; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2008-01-16

    The Boulder Damage Symposium is the leading forum for the exchange of information on the physics/technology of materials for high power/high energy lasers. The series of conference proceedings has grown to be a comprehensive source of information on optics for lasers and includes topics on materials and thin film preparation, durability, properties modeling, testing, and component fabrication. Four subject areas comprise core topics within the Symposium. These include: Thin Films; Materials and Measurements; Fundamental Mechanisms; and, Surfaces and Mirrors. To insure that the meeting is indeed dynamic, a Mini-Symposium is offered each year in a subject area of current interest to the laser-damage community. This year the focus is on damage issues in fiber laser systems. Key issues in this current technical program that are distributed among the respective topical areas, tend to emphasize shorter wavelength irradiation and ultrashort pulsewidths.

  15. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, W.N.; Hesson, G.M.; Pilger, J.P.; King, L.L.; Goodman, R.L.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the first full-length high-temperature test (FLHT-1) performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The test is part of a series of experiments being performed for the NRC as a part of their Severe Fuel Damage Program and is one of several planned for PNL`s Coolant Boilaway and Damage Progression Program. The report summarizes the test design and test plan. it also provides a summary and discussion of the data collected during the test and of the photos taken during the post-test examination. All objectives for the test were met. The key objective was to demonstrate that severe fuel damage tests on full-length fuel bundles can be safely conducted in the NRU reactor.

  16. Measurement of underfilm corrosion propagation by use of spotface paint damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.L; Franks, L.L.; Kallend, J.S.

    1995-11-01

    A new method of paint damage for underfilm corrosion testing of painted galvanized steel was introduced. The method was based on the observation that the onset of underfilm creepback propagation in atmospheric exposures is preceded by the formation of red rust at the paint defect. Spotface panel damage, i.e., milling through organic and metallic coatings to create a large, unprotected source of red rust, was used to shorten the time needed to produce underfilm creepback in atmospheric exposures. The traditional scribe method of paint damage was used in the same tests. Statistical techniques were used to rank underfilm creepback performance on a variety of painted metallic coated steels and to provide rank correlations between scribe and spotface data. Spotface data collected at six months provided similar rankings and discriminating ability as scribe data collected after a 30 month atmospheric exposure.

  17. Assessing thermal damage in silicon PN-junctions using Raman thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beechem, Thomas E.; Serrano, Justin R.; McDonald, Anthony; Mani, Seethambal

    2013-03-28

    Laser machining is frequently utilized in the manufacture of photovoltaics. A natural by-product of these fabrication processes, heat, not only serves as a means of material removal but also modifies the material in an extended region beyond that ideally intended for alteration. This modified region, termed the heat affected zone, is detrimental to performance and should therefore be minimized. While undoubtedly thermal in origin, it is unclear exactly how the thermal environment during laser machining correlates to changes in the PN-junction that reduce performance. In response, we combine in-situ Raman based thermometry measurements with post-event failure analysis to identify the physical mechanisms damaging the junction during laser machining. From this approach, damage is shown to initiate prior to melting and be driven primarily by the diffusion of dopants for fluences that do not induce ablation. Additionally, comparatively small regions of damage are shown to have a large impact on operation.

  18. Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar

    2015-03-10

    This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.

  19. A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Wang, Xuelin; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-09

    Understanding irradiation effects induced by elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei and inelastic energy loss to electrons in a crystal, as well as the coupled effect between them, is a scientific challenge. Damage evolution in LiNbO3 irradiated by 0.9 and 21 MeV Si ions at 300 K has been studied utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode. During the low-energy ion irradiation process, damage accumulation produced due to elastic collisions is described utilizing a disorder accumulation model. Moreover, low electronic energy loss is shown to induce observable damage that increases with ion fluence. For the same electronic energy loss, themore » velocity of the incident ion could affect the energy and spatial distribution of excited electrons, and therefore effectively modify the diameter of the ion track. Furthermore, nonlinear additive phenomenon of irradiation damage induced by high electronic energy loss in pre-damaged LiNbO3 has been observed. The result indicates that pre-existing damage induced from nuclear energy loss interacts synergistically with inelastic electronic energy loss to promote the formation of amorphous tracks and lead to rapid phase transformation, much more efficient than what is observed in pristine crystal solely induced by electronic energy loss. As a result, this synergistic effect is attributed to the fundamental mechanism that the defects produced by the elastic collisions result in a decrease in thermal conductivity, increase in the electron-phonon coupling, and further lead to higher intensity in thermal spike from intense electronic energy deposition along high-energy ion trajectory.« less

  20. Nucleolar exit of RNF8 and BRCA1 in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Mateo, Francesca; Franke, Kristin; Huen, Michael S.Y.; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodriguez, Manuel S.; Plans, Vanessa; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-11-01

    The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicits a plethora of responses that redirect many cellular functions to the vital task of repairing the injury, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR). We have found that, in the absence of DNA damage, the DSB repair factors RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus. Shortly after exposure of cells to {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci, a traffic that was reverted several hours after the damage. RNF8 interacted through its FHA domain with the ribosomal protein RPSA, and knockdown of RPSA caused a depletion of nucleolar RNF8 and BRCA1, suggesting that the interaction of RNF8 with RPSA is critical for the nucleolar localization of these DDR factors. Knockdown of RPSA or RNF8 impaired bulk protein translation, as did {gamma}-irradiation, the latter being partially countered by overexpression of exogenous RNF8. Our results suggest that RNF8 and BRCA1 are anchored to the nucleolus through reversible interactions with RPSA and that, in addition to its known functions in DDR, RNF8 may play a role in protein synthesis, possibly linking the nucleolar exit of this factor to the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to DNA damage. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus of undamaged cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon {gamma}-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 are translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ribosomal protein RPSA anchors RNF8 to the nucleolus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RNF8 may play previously unsuspected roles in protein synthesis.

  1. Uncertainty Quantification of Composite Laminate Damage with the Generalized Information Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Lucero; F. Hemez; T. Ross; K.Kline; J.Hundhausen; T. Tippetts

    2006-05-01

    This work presents a survey of five theories to assess the uncertainty of projectile impact induced damage on multi-layered carbon-epoxy composite plates. Because the types of uncertainty dealt with in this application are multiple (variability, ambiguity, and conflict) and because the data sets collected are sparse, characterizing the amount of delamination damage with probability theory alone is possible but incomplete. This motivates the exploration of methods contained within a broad Generalized Information Theory (GIT) that rely on less restrictive assumptions than probability theory. Probability, fuzzy sets, possibility, and imprecise probability (probability boxes (p-boxes) and Dempster-Shafer) are used to assess the uncertainty in composite plate damage. Furthermore, this work highlights the usefulness of each theory. The purpose of the study is not to compare directly the different GIT methods but to show that they can be deployed on a practical application and to compare the assumptions upon which these theories are based. The data sets consist of experimental measurements and finite element predictions of the amount of delamination and fiber splitting damage as multilayered composite plates are impacted by a projectile at various velocities. The physical experiments consist of using a gas gun to impact suspended plates with a projectile accelerated to prescribed velocities, then, taking ultrasound images of the resulting delamination. The nonlinear, multiple length-scale numerical simulations couple local crack propagation implemented through cohesive zone modeling to global stress-displacement finite element analysis. The assessment of damage uncertainty is performed in three steps by, first, considering the test data only; then, considering the simulation data only; finally, performing an assessment of total uncertainty where test and simulation data sets are combined. This study leads to practical recommendations for reducing the uncertainty and

  2. Radiolysis to knock-on damage transition in zeolites under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugurlu, O.; Haus, J.; Gunawan, A. A.; Maheshwari, S.; Tsapatsis, M.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Thomas, M. G.

    2011-03-15

    The electron-beam-induced damage in a zeolite under 60-200 keV energy beam irradiation has both radiolitic and knock-on components and can be described by linear superposition of these two processes. Theoretical predictions supported by experiments at 60 keV suggest that for electron beam energies smaller than 70 keV, the damage to the specimen follows a radiolitic path. For energies larger than 200 keV, knock-on based sputtering of the material will dominate, while considerable radiolitic movement of the atoms will still be present.

  3. Sub-micron resolution of localized ion beam induced charge reduction in silicon detectors damaged by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Abraham, John B. S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, displacement damage reduces ion beam induced charge (IBIC) through Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Closely spaced pulses of 200 keV Si++ ions focused in a 40 nm beam spot are used to create damage cascades within 0.25 μm2 areas. Damaged areas are detected through contrast in IBIC signals generated with focused ion beams of 200 keV Si++ ions and 60 keV Li+ ions. IBIC signal reduction can be resolved over sub-micron regions of a silicon detector damaged by as few as 1000 heavy ions.

  4. Sub-micron resolution of localized ion beam induced charge reduction in silicon detectors damaged by heavy ions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Abraham, John B. S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, displacement damage reduces ion beam induced charge (IBIC) through Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Closely spaced pulses of 200 keV Si++ ions focused in a 40 nm beam spot are used to create damage cascades within 0.25 μm2 areas. Damaged areas are detected through contrast in IBIC signals generated with focused ion beams of 200 keV Si++ ions and 60 keV Li+ ions. IBIC signal reduction can be resolved over sub-micron regions of a silicon detector damaged by as few as 1000 heavy ions.

  5. Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kammoun, S.; Brassart, L.; Doghri, I.; Delannay, L. [Universite catholique de Louvain, institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), 4, av. G. Lemaitre, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Robert, G. [Rhodia Engineering Plastics, Avenue Ramboz, B.P. 64, 69192 Saint-FONS Cedex (France)

    2011-05-04

    A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which affects progressively the overall stiffness and strength up to total failure. Each pseudograin is a two-phase composite with aligned inclusions having same aspect ratio. A two-step mean-field homogenization procedure is adopted. In the first step, the pseudograins are homogenized individually according to the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The second step consists in a self-consistent homogenization of homogenized pseudograins. An isotropic damage model is applied at the pseudograin level. The model is implemented as a UMAT in the finite element code ABAQUS. Model is shown to reproduce the strength and the anisotropy (Lankford coefficient) during uniaxial tensile tests on samples cut under different directions relative to the injection flow direction.

  7. Damage accumulation in ion-irradiated Ni-based concentrated solid-solution alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ullah, Mohammad W.; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Irradiation-induced damage accumulation in Ni0.8Fe0.2 and Ni0.8Cr0.2 alloys by using molecular dynamics simulations to assess possible enhanced radiation-resistance in these face-centered cubic (fcc), single-phase, concentrated solid-solution alloys, as compared with pure fcc Ni.

  8. Investigation of Various Condition Monitoring Techniques Based on a Damaged Wind Turbine Gearbox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2011-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of a 2009 paper presented at the 7th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring that described various wind turbine condition-monitoring techniques. This paper presents the results obtained by various condition- monitoring techniques from a damaged Gearbox Reliability Collaborative test gearbox.

  9. Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades in concentrated Ni-based alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Lu, Chenyang; Osetskiy, Yuri N.; Samolyuk, German D.; Caro, Alfredo; Wang, Lumin; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-02-25

    Alloying of Ni with Fe or Co reduces primary damage production under ion irradiation. Similar results have been obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations of 1, 10, 20, and 40 keV collision cascades in Ni, NiFe, and NiCo. In all cases, a mix of imperfect stacking fault tetrahedra, faulted loops with a 1/3 {111} Burgers vector, and glissile interstitial loops with a 1/2 {110} Burgers vector were formed, along with small sessile point defect complexes and clusters. Primary damage reduction occurs by three mechanisms. First, Ni-Co, Ni-Fe, Co-Co, and Fe-Fe short-distance repulsive interactions are stiffer than Ni-Ni interactions, which leadmore » to a decrease in damage formation during the transition from the supersonic ballistic regime to the sonic regime. This largely controls final defect production. Second, alloying decreases thermal conductivity, leading to a longer thermal spike lifetime. The associated annealing reduces final damage production. These two mechanisms are especially important at cascades energies less than 40 keV. Third, at the higher energies, the production of large defect clusters by subcascades is inhibited in the alloys. A number of challenges and limitations pertaining to predictive atomistic modeling of alloys under high-energy particle irradiation are discussed.« less

  10. Damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by He irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tengfei; Huang, Xuejun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2012-01-01

    The study presents an investigation of damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) induced by irradiation of 100 keV He ions at room temperature as a function of fluence. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used in order to study the nature and evolution of structural damage at different levels. Our study shows that various kinds of defects are formed with the increasing fluence. Firstly, at low fluences, from 1 1016 to 4 1016 cm 2, of which maximum values of displacement per atom (dpa) range from 0.29 to 1.17, an elastic strain which is attributed to the accumulation of irradiation-induced discrete point defects, is presented. Secondly, in the intermediate fluences ranging from 8 1016 to 1 1017 cm 2 with corresponding dpa varying from 2.33 to 2.91, a large drop of elastic strain occurs accompanied by presence of an intensive damage region, which is comprised by large and interacted defect clusters. Thirdly, at the two high fluences of 2 1017 and 4 1017 cm 2, of which dpa are 5.83 and 11.65 respectively, a great amount of ribbon-like He bubbles with granular structure and cracks are presented at the depth of maximum concentration of deposited He atoms. The structural damage evolution and the mechanism of formation of He bubbles are discussed.

  11. Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

  12. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Laskar, Aparna; Jana, Madhurya; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain.

  13. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, Shweta; Gupta, Manoj; Khamaisi, Mogher; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wagner, Bridget; Guye, Patrick; Busskamp, Volker; Shirakawa, Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Liew, Chong Wee; Clauss, Therese RW; Valdez, Ivan; EL Ouaaman, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Takatani, Tomozumi; Keenan, Hillary; Smith, Richard D.; Church, George; Weiss, Ron; Wagers, Amy J.; Qian, Weijun; King, George L.; Kulkami, Rohit N.

    2015-08-04

    Themechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D(disease durationR50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist *C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist *C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated in Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage.WeproposemiR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.

  14. Inhibition of HAS2 induction enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells via persistent DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yan Nan; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •HAS2 may be a promising target for the radiosensitization of human cancer. •HAS2 is elevated (up to ∼10-fold) in irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cancer cells. •HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. •HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptotic death. •Thus, the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. -- Abstract: Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), a synthetic enzyme for hyaluronan, regulates various aspects of cancer progression, including migration, invasion and angiogenesis. However, the possible association of HAS2 with the response of cancer cells to anticancer radiotherapy, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells. Upon exposure to radiation, all of the tested human cancer cell lines exhibited marked (up to 10-fold) up-regulation of HAS2 within 24 h. Inhibition of HAS2 induction significantly reduced the survival of irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cells. Interestingly, HAS2 depletion rendered the cells to sustain irradiation-induced DNA damage, thereby leading to an increase of apoptotic death. These findings indicate that HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation via persistent DNA damage, further suggesting that the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. Thus, HAS2 could potentially be targeted for therapeutic interventions aimed at radiosensitizing cancer cells.

  15. TGF-{beta} antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-{beta} antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-{beta} antibody or a TGF-{beta} latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  16. TGF-.beta. antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-.beta. antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-.beta. antibody or a TGF-.beta. latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  17. Combined advanced finishing and UV laser conditioning process for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Peterson, John E.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Miller, Philip E.; Parham, Thomas G.; Nichols, Michael A.

    2005-07-26

    A method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects, and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure to a high-power laser beam.

  18. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis.

  19. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M.; Moses, V.

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  20. Copper damage modeling with the tensile hopkinson bar and gas gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, D. L.; Thissell, W. R.; Trujillo, C. P.; Schwartz, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Ductile damage nucleation in recovered copper tensile Hopkinson bar specimens has been modeled using the 2D EPIC code. The model has also been successfully applied to spallation gas gun data to greatly expand the pressure range. The split tensile Hopkinson pressure bar permits the creation of damage at fairly high strain rates (10{sup 4}/s) with large plastic strains (100%). Careful momentum trapping allows incipient damage states to be arrested and recovered for metallurgical examination. The use of notched samples allows the pressure - flow stress, or triaxiality, to be varied from 1/3 to about 1.2 to study the interplay of pressure and deviatoric stress. In this paper, we will concentrate on modeling the nucleation of ductile damage in pure copper (Hitachi). With the same material, we also study spallation in a gas gun experiment to obtain the nucleation stress under high pressure and small plastic strain. The goal of the modeling is to obtain a unified nucleation model suitable for both.

  1. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  2. Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallais, L. Douti, D.-B.; Commandré, M.; Batavičiūtė, G.; Pupka, E.; Ščiuka, M.; Smalakys, L.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Melninkaitis, A.

    2015-06-14

    An experimental and numerical study of the laser-induced damage of the surface of optical material in the femtosecond regime is presented. The objective of this work is to investigate the different processes involved as a function of the ratio of photon to bandgap energies and compare the results to models based on nonlinear ionization processes. Experimentally, the laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials has been studied in a range of wavelengths from 1030 nm (1.2 eV) to 310 nm (4 eV) with pulse durations of 100 fs with the use of an optical parametric amplifier system. Semi-conductors and dielectrics materials, in bulk or thin film forms, in a range of bandgap from 1 to 10 eV have been tested in order to investigate the scaling of the femtosecond laser damage threshold with the bandgap and photon energy. A model based on the Keldysh photo-ionization theory and the description of impact ionization by a multiple-rate-equation system is used to explain the dependence of laser-breakdown with the photon energy. The calculated damage fluence threshold is found to be consistent with experimental results. From these results, the relative importance of the ionization processes can be derived depending on material properties and irradiation conditions. Moreover, the observed damage morphologies can be described within the framework of the model by taking into account the dynamics of energy deposition with one dimensional propagation simulations in the excited material and thermodynamical considerations.

  3. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Response and representation of ductile damage under varying shock loading conditions in tantalum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.; Addessio, F. L.; Livescu, V.; Bourne, N. K.; MacDonald, S. A.; Withers, P. J.

    2016-02-25

    The response of polycrystalline metals, which possess adequate mechanisms for plastic deformation under extreme loading conditions, is often accompanied by the formation of pores within the structure of the material. This large deformation process is broadly identified as progressive with nucleation, growth, coalescence, and failure the physical path taken over very short periods of time. These are well known to be complex processes strongly influenced by microstructure, loading path, and the loading profile, which remains a significant challenge to represent and predict numerically. In the current study, the influence of loading path on the damage evolution in high-purity tantalum ismore » presented. Tantalum samples were shock loaded to three different peak shock stresses using both symmetric impact, and two different composite flyer plate configurations such that upon unloading the three samples displayed nearly identical “pull-back” signals as measured via rear-surface velocimetry. While the “pull-back” signals observed were found to be similar in magnitude, the sample loaded to the highest peak stress nucleated a connected field of ductile fracture which resulted in complete separation, while the two lower peak stresses resulted in incipient damage. The damage evolution in the “soft” recovered tantalum samples was quantified using optical metallography, electron-back-scatter diffraction, and tomography. These experiments are examined numerically through the use of a model for shock-induced porosity evolution during damage. The model is shown to describe the response of the tantalum reasonably well under strongly loaded conditions but less well in the nucleation dominated regime. As a result, numerical results are also presented as a function of computational mesh density and discussed in the context of improved representation of the influence of material structure upon macro-scale models of ductile damage.« less

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  6. On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianconi, M.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Bentini, G.G.; Chiarini, M.; Cerutti, A.; Mazzoldi, P.; Pennestri, G.; Sada, C.

    2005-08-15

    The damage induced by 5 MeV oxygen ion implantation in x-cut congruent LiNbO{sub 3} has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling technique. The dynamics of the damage growth has been described by an analytical formula considering the separate contributions of nuclear and electronic energy deposition. It has been hypothesized that the nuclear damage provides the localization of the energy released to the electronic subsystem necessary for the conversion into atomic displacements. The strong influence of the preexisting defects on the damage pileup, foreseen by the analytical formula, has been experimentally verified by pre-implanting the samples with 500 keV oxygen ions. It has been shown that a subsequent 5 MeV oxygen implantation step gives rise to an impressive damage accumulation, eventually leading to the total amorphization of the surface, even at moderate fluences.

  7. Plasma induced DNA damage: Comparison with the effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazovi?, S.; Maleti?, D.; Pua?, N.; Malovi?, G.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj.; Leskovac, A.; Filipovi?, J.; Joksi?, G.

    2014-09-22

    We use human primary fibroblasts for comparing plasma and gamma rays induced DNA damage. In both cases, DNA strand breaks occur, but of fundamentally different nature. Unlike gamma exposure, contact with plasma predominantly leads to single strand breaks and base-damages, while double strand breaks are mainly consequence of the cell repair mechanisms. Different cell signaling mechanisms are detected confirming this (ataxia telangiectasia mutated - ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related - ATR, respectively). The effective plasma doses can be tuned to match the typical therapeutic doses of 2?Gy. Tailoring the effective dose through plasma power and duration of the treatment enables safety precautions mainly by inducing apoptosis and consequently reduced frequency of micronuclei.

  8. Higher certainty of the laser-induced damage threshold test with a redistributing data treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Lars; Mrohs, Marius; Gyamfi, Mark; Mädebach, Heinrich; Ristau, Detlev

    2015-10-15

    As a consequence of its statistical nature, the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold holds always risks to over- or underestimate the real threshold value. As one of the established measurement procedures, the results of S-on-1 (and 1-on-1) tests outlined in the corresponding ISO standard 21 254 depend on the amount of data points and their distribution over the fluence scale. With the limited space on a test sample as well as the requirements on test site separation and beam sizes, the amount of data from one test is restricted. This paper reports on a way to treat damage test data in order to reduce the statistical error and therefore measurement uncertainty. Three simple assumptions allow for the assignment of one data point to multiple data bins and therefore virtually increase the available data base.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A FAST-RUNNING TOOL TO CHARACTERIZE SHOCK DAMAGE WITHIN TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, L; Morris, J; Glenn, L; Krnjajic, M

    2009-03-31

    Successful but time-intensive use of high-fidelity computational capabilities for shock loading events and resultant effects on and within enclosed structures, e.g., tunnels, has led to an interest in developing more expedient methods of analysis. While several tools are currently available for the general study of the failure of structures under dynamic shock loads at a distance, presented are a pair of statistics- and physics-based tools that can be used to differentiate different types of damage (e.g., breach versus yield) as well as quantify the amount of damage within tunnels for loads close-in and with standoff. Use of such faster running tools allows for scoping and planning of more detailed model and test analysis and provides a way to address parametric sensitivity over a large multivariate space.

  10. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weiliang Qu, Wenzhong E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Xiao, Li E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Shen, Yanfeng Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  11. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  12. Observed damage during Argon gas cluster depth profiles of compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, Anders J. Portoles, Jose F.; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2014-08-07

    Argon Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) sources have become very popular in XPS and SIMS in recent years, due to the minimal chemical damage they introduce in the depth-profiling of polymer and other organic materials. These GCIB sources are therefore particularly useful for depth-profiling polymer and organic materials, but also (though more slowly) the surfaces of inorganic materials such as semiconductors, due to the lower roughness expected in cluster ion sputtering compared to that introduced by monatomic ions. We have examined experimentally a set of five compound semiconductors, cadmium telluride (CdTe), gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), indium arsenide (InAs), and zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a high-? dielectric material, hafnium oxide (HfO), in their response to argon cluster profiling. An experimentally determined HfO etch rate of 0.025?nm/min (3.95??10{sup ?2}?amu/atom in ion) for 6?keV Ar gas clusters is used in the depth scale conversion for the profiles of the semiconductor materials. The assumption has been that, since the damage introduced into polymer materials is low, even though sputter yields are high, then there is little likelihood of damaging inorganic materials at all with cluster ions. This seems true in most cases; however, in this work, we report for the first time that this damage can in fact be very significant in the case of InAs, causing the formation of metallic indium that is readily visible even to the naked eye.

  13. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Luděk; Boháček, Pavel; Přeček, Martin; Wild, Jan; Özkan, Cigdem; Coppola, Nicola; Farahani, Shafagh Dastjani; et al

    2015-01-07

    An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 μJ) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 μm2 was determinedmore » by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was found to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.« less

  14. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Luděk; Boháček, Pavel; Přeček, Martin; Wild, Jan; Özkan, Cigdem; Coppola, Nicola; Farahani, Shafagh Dastjani; Schulz, Joachim; Sinn, Harald; Tschentscher, Thomas; Gaudin, Jérôme; Bajt, Saša; Tiedtke, Kai; Toleikis, Sven; Chapman, Henry N.; Loch, Rolf A.; Jurek, Marek; Sobierajski, Ryszard; Krzywinski, Jacek; Moeller, Stefan; Harmand, Marion; Galasso, Germano; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Saskl, Karel; Sovák, Pavol; Juha, Libor

    2015-01-07

    An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 μJ) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 μm2 was determined by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was found to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.

  15. Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, M; Stolken, J; Vignes, R; Norton, M

    2009-11-02

    Localized damage repair and polishing of silica-based optics using mid- and far-IR CO{sub 2} lasers has been shown to be an effective method for increasing optical damage threshold in the UV. However, it is known that CO{sub 2} laser heating of silicate surfaces can lead to a level of residual stress capable of causing critical fracture either during or after laser treatment. Sufficient control of the surface temperature as a function of time and position is therefore required to limit this residual stress to an acceptable level to avoid critical fracture. In this work they present the results of 351 nm, 3 ns Gaussian damage growth experiments within regions of varying residual stress caused by prior CO{sub 2} laser exposures. Thermally stressed regions were non-destructively characterized using polarimetry and confocal Raman microscopy to measure the stress induced birefringence and fictive temperature respectively. For 1 {approx} 40s square pulse CO{sub 2} laser exposures created over 0.5-1.25 kW/cm{sup 2} with a 1-3 mm 1/e{sup 2} diameter beam (T{sub max} {approx} 1500-3000 K), the critical damage site size leading to fracture increases weakly with peak temperature, but shows a stronger dependence on cooling rate, as predicted by finite element hydrodynamics simulations. Confocal micro-Raman was used to probe structural changes to the glass over different thermal histories and indicated a maximum fictive temperature of 1900K for T{sub max} {ge} 2000 K. The effect of cooling rate on fictive temperature caused by CO{sub 2} laser heating are consistent with finite element calculations based on a Tool-Narayanaswamy relaxation model.

  16. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry; Petersen, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  17. Thermomechanical damage recovery parameters for rocksalt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in which intact WIPP salt specimens were damaged by testing under constant strain-rate triaxial conditions at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) and near room temperature (25{degrees}C) until 1.5 percent axial strain was reached. Introduction of dilatant damage caused specimen volume to increase and compressional wave velocities and amplitudes to decrease. Specimens were then subjected to hydrostatic loads of 15 MPa at a temperature of either 20{degrees}C, 46{degrees}C, or 70{degrees}C. Under these conditions damage was partially recovered and specimen volume and compressional wave characteristics approached the values of the undamaged state. The data from each test were fitted using a first order kinetics law to determine characteristic time constants for the damage recovery process at each temperature. The mean time constant associated with recovery of ultrasonic amplitudes decreased as temperature increased, as expected for a thermally activated process. Time constants associated with ultrasonic velocities and with volumetric strains showed no systematic change with temperature. The modeling results show that time constants are very short compared with time scales required for creep closure of rooms and shafts, implying that the rate of healing under confining pressure will be extremely rapid. The rates of volumetric strain recovery determined at different temperatures were fitted to an Arrhenius plot to determine an activation energy for the recovery process. The data were fitted using linear least squares to calculate an activation energy of 10.5 kJ {center_dot} mole{sup {minus}1}.

  18. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zujun Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-07-15

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 ?m CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 10{sup 11}, 5 10{sup 11}, and 1 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The mean dark signal (K{sub D}), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V{sub N}), saturation output signal voltage (V{sub S}), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike.

  19. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  20. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaaf, A., E-mail: alexander.schaaf@de.bosch.com; De Monte, M., E-mail: alexander.schaaf@de.bosch.com; Hoffmann, C., E-mail: alexander.schaaf@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering - Advance Production Technology 1 - Plastics Engineering (CR/APP), Postbox 1131, 71301 Waiblingen (Germany); Vormwald, M., E-mail: vormwald@wm.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Material Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Quaresimin, M., E-mail: marino.quaresimin@unipd.it [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology.

  1. Thalidomide Ameliorates Inflammation and Vascular Injury but Aggravates Tubular Damage in the Irradiated Mouse Kidney

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Floot, Ben; Russell, Nicola S.; Coppes, Rob P.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: The late side effects of kidney irradiation include vascular damage and fibrosis, which are promoted by an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. We therefore treated kidney-irradiated mice with the anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating drug thalidomide in an attempt to prevent the development of late normal tissue damage and radiation nephropathy in the mouse kidney. Methods and Materials: Kidneys of C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with a single dose of 14 Gy. Starting from week 16 after irradiation, the mice were fed with thalidomide-containing chow (100 mg/kg body weight/day). Gene expression and kidney histology were analyzed at 40 weeks and blood samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40 weeks after irradiation. Results: Thalidomide improved the vascular structure and vessel perfusion after irradiation, associated with a normalization of pericyte coverage. The drug also reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells but could not suppress the development of fibrosis. Irradiation-induced changes in hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen levels were not rescued by thalidomide. Moreover, thalidomide worsened tubular damage after irradiation and also negatively affected basal tubular function. Conclusions: Thalidomide improved the inflammatory and vascular side effects of kidney irradiation but could not reverse tubular toxicity, which probably prevented preservation of kidney function.

  2. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1997 -- A status report. Volume 26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the five operational events in 1997 that affected five commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1997 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those events that could be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1996 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  3. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1995 A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A. and others

    1997-04-01

    Ten operational events that affected 10 commercial light-water reactors during 1995 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1995 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Clustered DNA Damages Induced by Silicon Beams of Different Kinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keszenman D. J.; Keszenman, D.J.; Bennett, P.V.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

    2013-05-14

    Humans may b exposed to highly energetic charged particle radiation as a result of medical treatments, occupational activitie or accidental events. In recent years, our increasing presence and burgeoning interest in space exploration beyond low Earth orbit has led to a large increase in the research of the biological effects ofcharged particle radiation typical of that encountered in the space radiation environment. The study of the effects of these types of radiation qualities in terms ofDNA damage induction and repair is fundamental to understand mechanisms both underlying their greater biological effectiveness as we)) as the short and long term risks of health effects such as carcinogenesis, degen rative diseases and premature aging. Charged particle radiation induces a variety of DNA alterations, notably bistranded clustered damages, defined as two or more closely-opposed strand break , oxidized bases or abasic sites within a few helical turns. The induction of such highly complex DNA damage enhances the probability of incorrect or incomplete repair and thus constitutes greater potential for genomic instability, cell death and transformation.

  5. Ethanol-induced cell damage in cultured rat antral mucosa assessed by chromium-51 release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, R.B.; Ling, T.S.; Yeomans, N.D.

    1986-08-01

    We have developed an in vitro method for studying ethanol-induced injury to gastric mucosa using organ culture of rat antrum. Cell damage was assessed by measurement of the release of (/sup 51/Cr)sodium chromate from preloaded cells, a method adapted from a standard immunologic technique. This system provided rapid and highly reproducible quantitation of tissue injury as assessed by /sup 51/Cr release into the culture medium. The threshold concentration for ethanol-induced damage was between 10 and 15% v/v, similar to in vivo thresholds observed by others. /sup 51/Cr release could also be induced by very short exposure to ethanol (5-15 min), and then continued despite ethanol removal. Interestingly, after continuous ethanol exposure, a plateau of maximum /sup 51/Cr release was reached 60 min after exposure to ethanol over the concentration range 20-50%, suggesting tissue adaptation to ethanol damage. This organ culture system, which allows precise control of experimental conditions, may be useful for studying mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury and protection.

  6. Surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of mineral reinforced polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, R.D.K.; Hadal, R.; Duncan, S.J

    2004-08-16

    The surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of neat and wollastonite reinforced ethylene-propylene and polypropylene polymeric materials with significant differences in ductility was studied using electron microscopy in association with scratch deformation parameters and local crystallinity characteristics obtained from atomic force microscopy. Under identical conditions of scratch tests, the decrease in resistance to scratch damage and stress whitening of polymeric materials followed the sequence: wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene (PP-W) congruent with wollastonite-reinforced ethylene-propylene (EP-W) > neat polypropylene (PP) > neat ethylene-propylene copolymer (EP). The improved resistance to scratch damage of mineral reinforced polymeric materials is attributed to the effective reinforcement by micrometer-sized wollastonite particles that increase the tensile modulus of the polymeric materials and restrict plastic deformation of the polymer matrix. Scratching of neat and wollastonite-containing EP copolymers involved periodic parabolic scratch tracks containing voids, which transformed to distinct zig-zag scratch tracks on reinforcement with micrometric wollastonite particles. The enhanced plastic flow in neat EP is facilitated by high ductility of the material and ability to nucleate voids, while in EP-W the plastic flow is suppressed because of reinforcement effect of wollastonite. On the other hand, zig-zag periodic scratch tracks were observed in both neat PP and PP-W, but the scratch tracks were not clearly discernible on reinforcement of PP with wollastonite. The resistance to scratch deformation is discussed in terms of tensile modulus, elastic recovery, scratch hardness, and reinforcement-matrix interaction.

  7. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. |

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  8. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Wolf, Sharon G.; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an ‘aloof’ electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies o1 eV can be ‘safely’ investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C–H, N–H and C=O vibrational signatures with nomore » observable radiation damage. Furthermore, the technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ~10nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope.« less

  9. Microstructure in the extreme environment: understanding and predicting dynamic damage processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis-koller, Darcie L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo-diaz, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-21

    The future of materials science: strategic application for functionally controlled materials properties is emphasized by the need to control material performance in extreme environments. To this end, this study examines the separate effects of kinetics (in the form of dynamic loading rate and shock wave shape) from that of length-scale effects (in the form of microstructural defect distributions). Recently available mesoscale modeling techniques are being used to capture a physical link between kinetic and length-scale influences on dynamic loading. This work contributes innovative new tools in the form of shock-wave shaping techniques in dynamic experimentation, materials characterization, lending insight into 3D damage field analysis at micron resolution, and the physics necessary to provide predictive capabilities for dynamic damage evolution. Experimental results tailored for the discreet understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects during dynamic loading are obtained to provide the basis for the development of process-aware material performance models. The understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects in extreme environments of dynamic loading advances the understanding of current emerging issues relevant to phenomena such as inclusion related failure in metals, grain size dependence on ejecta, and benefits of interfaces in mitigating defect development specifically driven by the need to tailor material response. Finally, the coupling of experimental techniques with theory and simulation is aimed at advancing process-aware damage modeling as well as transitioning materials science from observation to property control.

  10. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  11. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, A status report. Volume 17, Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.F.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Cross-Dial, A.E.; Morris, R.H.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Jansen, J.M.; Minarick, J.W.; Lau, W.; Salyer, W.D.

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-seven operational events with conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage of 1.0 {times} 10E-06 or higher occurring at commercial light-water reactors during 1992 are considered to be precursors to potential core damage. These are described along with associated significance estimates, categorization, and subsequent analyses. The report discusses (1) the general rationale for this study, (2) the selection and documentation of events as precursors, (3) the estimation and use of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage to rank precursor events, and (4) the plant models used in the analysis process.

  12. Structural investigation of self-irradiation damaged AmO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieur, Damien; Vigier, Jean-François; Wiss, Thierry; Janssen, Arne; Rothe, Jörg; Cambriani, Andrea; Somers, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Studying self-irradiated materials is an ideal means to investigate the effect of the damage on material structure and to better understand the behavior of irradiated nuclear fuels. In this context, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate self-irradiation damaged AmO{sub 2}. Combining these techniques allows studying the microstructure and the variation of the fluorite structure at both short-range and long-range order. Thus, the increase of both interatomic distances and lattice parameter was shown, as well as the presence of nanometer sized He bubbles and dislocation loops. As confirmed by the observed high-level of crystallinity, the fluorite structure exhibits a high radiation tolerance, which is confirmed by the low increase of the lattice parameter. This could be explained by a self-annealing mechanism of the created defects at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: The structure of damaged AmO2 (36 dpa) has been studied by XRD, XAS and TEM. Thus, the effects of the self-irradiation on the oxidation state, the lattice distances, the structural disorder, the radiation stability and the microstructure have been discussed. - Highlights: • The structure of highly self-irradiated AmO{sub 2} (36 dpa) was studied by XAS and TEM. • XRD, EXAFS and TEM confirm the high stability of the fluorite structure. • XRD and EXAFS show an increase of 0.3% of the structural distances. • XANES shows that Am is tetravalent as well as the Np recoil nucleus. • The presence of He bubbles was evidenced by TEM.

  13. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting

  14. Geomechanical modeling of reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and casing damage at the Belridge diatomite field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; DEITRICK,G.L.; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; DEROUFFIGNAC,E.P.

    2000-05-01

    Geologic, and historical well failure, production, and injection data were analyzed to guide development of three-dimensional geomechanical models of the Belridge diatomite field, California. The central premise of the numerical simulations is that spatial gradients in pore pressure induced by production and injection in a low permeability reservoir may perturb the local stresses and cause subsurface deformation sufficient to result in well failure. Time-dependent reservoir pressure fields that were calculated from three-dimensional black oil reservoir simulations were coupled uni-directionally to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir models included nearly 100,000 gridblocks (100--200 wells), and covered nearly 20 years of production and injection. The geomechanical models were meshed from structure maps and contained more than 300,000 nodal points. Shear strain localization along weak bedding planes that causes casing dog-legs in the field was accommodated in the model by contact surfaces located immediately above the reservoir and at two locations in the overburden. The geomechanical simulations are validated by comparison of the predicted surface subsidence with field measurements, and by comparison of predicted deformation with observed casing damage. Additionally, simulations performed for two independently developed areas at South Belridge, Sections 33 and 29, corroborate their different well failure histories. The simulations suggest the three types of casing damage observed, and show that although water injection has mitigated surface subsidence, it can, under some circumstances, increase the lateral gradients in effective stress, that in turn can accelerate subsurface horizontal motions. Geomechanical simulation is an important reservoir management tool that can be used to identify optimal operating policies to mitigate casing damage for existing field developments, and applied to incorporate the effect of

  15. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Ahmadi, Abbas; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and

  16. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-05-28

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A mountain shape correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The mountain shape correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  17. Cosmic ray radiography of the damaged cores of the Fukushima reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borozdin, Konstantin; Greene, Steven; Lukić, Zarija; Milner, Edward; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Perry, John

    2012-10-11

    The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei. The interaction with the electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The interaction with nuclei leads to angle “diffusion.” Two muon-imaging methods that use flux attenuation and multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are being studied as tools for diagnosing the damaged cores of the Fukushima reactors. Here, we compare these two methods. We conclude that the scattering method can provide detailed information about the core. Lastly, attenuation has low contrast and little sensitivity to the core.

  18. Damage evolution and residual stresses in plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J. P.

    1999-02-03

    Air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings were subjected to thermal cycling and residual stress evolution in thermally grown oxide scale was studied by micro- and macro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy. The macro approach reveals that compressive stress in the oxide scale increases with increasing number of thermal cycles (and thus increasing scale thickness), reaching a value of 1.8 GPa at a scale thickness of 3-4 {micro}m (80 cycles). Micro-ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that protrusions of the zirconia top coat into the bond coat act as localized areas of high stress concentration, leading to damage initiation during thermal cycling.

  19. Damage by X-rays: A Case Study for Metallo-Protein Crystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Damage by X-rays: A Case Study for Metallo-Protein Crystallography Junko Yano1,2, Jan Kern3, Klaus-Dieter Irrgang3, Matthew J. Latimer4, Uwe Bergmann4, Pieter Glatzel5, Yulia Pushkar1,2, Jacek Biesiadka6, Bernhard Loll6, Kenneth Sauer1,2, Johannes Messinger7, Athina Zouni3, Vittal K. Yachandra1 1Melvin Calvin Laboratory, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and 2Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA 3Max-Volmer-Laboratorium für

  20. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Proceedings of the SPIE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ristau, Detlev; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2008-12-20

    The 40th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium is the leading forum for the exchange of information on the physics/technology of materials for high power/high energy lasers. The series of conference proceedings has grown to be a comprehensive source of information on optics for lasers and includes topics on materials and thin film preparation, durability, properties modeling, testing, and component fabrication. Papers appear in the volume in the following core areas: Materials and Measurements; Thin Films; Fundamental Mechanisms; and, surfaces, Mirrors, and Contamination.

  1. Crystalline perfection, birefringence and laser damage threshold properties of piperidinium p-hydroxybenzoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudhahar, S.; Zahid, I. MD; Kumar, M. Krishna; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2015-06-24

    Piperidinium p-hydroxybenzoate (PPHB) crystal was grown by slow evaporation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm that PPHB crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group Cc. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was evaluated by using high resolution X-ray diffractometry. UV-Visible transmission and birefringence studies were employed on the grown PPHB crystal. The laser induced damage threshold value was estimated using Nd:YAG laser. Thermal behavior of PPHB crystal has been investigated by TG-DTA analyses. Etching studies have been performed to assess the growth pattern of PPHB crystal.

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing diffraction-induced damage in high power laser amplifier systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Newnam, Brian E.; Shapiro, Stanley L.; Terrell, Jr., N. James

    1976-01-01

    Self-focusing damage caused by diffraction in laser amplifier systems may be minimized by appropriately tailoring the input optical beam profile by passing the beam through an aperture having a uniform high optical transmission within a particular radius r.sub.o and a transmission which drops gradually to a low value at greater radii. Apertures having the desired transmission characteristics may readily be manufactured by exposing high resolution photographic films and plates to a diffuse, disk-shaped light source and mask arrangement.

  3. MRF Applications: Measurement of Process-dependent Subsurface Damage in Optical Materials using the MRF Wedge Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Wong, L L; Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E

    2005-11-02

    Understanding the behavior of fractures and subsurface damage in the processes used during optic fabrication plays a key role in determining the final quality of the optical surface finish. During the early stages of surface preparation, brittle grinding processes induce fractures at or near an optical surface whose range can extend from depths of a few mm to hundreds of mm depending upon the process and tooling being employed. Controlling the occurrence, structure, and propagation of these sites during subsequent grinding and polishing operations is highly desirable if one wishes to obtain high-quality surfaces that are free of such artifacts. Over the past year, our team has made significant strides in developing a diagnostic technique that combines magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and scanning optical microscopy to measure and characterize subsurface damage in optical materials. The technique takes advantage of the unique nature of MRF to polish a prescribed large-area wedge into the optical surface without propagating existing damage or introducing new damage. The polished wedge is then analyzed to quantify subsurface damage as a function of depth from the original surface. Large-area measurement using scanning optical microscopy provides for improved accuracy and reliability over methods such as the COM ball-dimple technique. Examples of the technique's use will be presented that illustrate the behavior of subsurface damage in fused silica that arises during a variety of intermediate optical fabrication process steps.

  4. The efficacy of post porosity plasma protection against vacuum-ultraviolet damage in porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lionti, K.; Volksen, W.; Darnon, M.; Magbitang, T.; Dubois, G.

    2015-03-21

    As of today, plasma damage remains as one of the main challenges to the reliable integration of porous low-k materials into microelectronic devices at the most aggressive node. One promising strategy to limit damage of porous low-k materials during plasma processing is an approach we refer to as post porosity plasma protection (P4). In this approach, the pores of the low-k material are filled with a sacrificial agent prior to any plasma treatment, greatly minimizing the total damage by limiting the physical interactions between plasma species and the low-k material. Interestingly, the contribution of the individual plasma species to the total plasma damage is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the specific damaging effect of vacuum-ultraviolet (v-UV) photons on a highly porous, k = 2.0 low-k material and we assessed the P4 protective effect against them. It was found that the impact of the v-UV radiation varied depending upon the v-UV emission lines of the plasma. More importantly, we successfully demonstrated that the P4 process provides excellent protection against v-UV damage.

  5. Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Negres, Raluca A.; Carr, Christopher W.; Laurence, Ted A.; Stanion, Ken; Guss, Gabe; Cross, David A.; Wegner, Paul J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we describe a damage testing system and its use in investigating laser-induced optical damage initiated by both intrinsic and extrinsic precursors on multilayer dielectric coatings suitable for use in high-energy, large-aperture petawatt-class lasers. We employ small-area damage test methodologies to evaluate the intrinsic damage resistance of various coatings as a function of deposition methods and coating materials under simulated use conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that damage initiation by raster scanning at lower fluences and growth threshold testing are required to probe the density of extrinsic defects, which will limit large-aperture optics performance.

  6. Negative effect of crystallization on the mechanism of laser damage in a HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tateno, Ryo; Okada, Hajime; Otobe, Tomohito; Kawase, Keigo; Koga, James K.; Kosuge, Atsushi; Nagashima, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Akira; Kashiwagi, Kunihiro

    2012-12-15

    Elucidation of the mechanisms of laser damage is indispensable in realizing high resistance mirrors for the next generation of ultra-short pulse high intensity lasers. In this study, the surface and a section of the laser-damaged area of a laser mirror were observed with a laser microscope and a transmission electron microscope (cross-sectional TEM), respectively. A grain boundary of HfO{sub 2} microcrystal was observed in the damaged area. This observation and an evaluation of the mirror's damage resistance showed that the formation of crystals in the multilayer mirror is one of the major determinants of damage resistance.

  7. Visualization of Heat Transfer and Core Damage With RGUI 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesina, George L.

    2002-07-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have become an integral and essential part of computer software. In the ever-changing world of computing, they provide the user with a valuable means to learn, understand, and use the application software while also helping applications adapt to and span different computing paradigms, such as different operating systems. For these reasons, GUI development for nuclear plant analysis programs has been ongoing for a decade and a half and much progress has been made. With the development of codes such as RELAP5-3D [1] and SCDAP/RELAP5 that have multi-dimensional modeling capability, it has become necessary to represent three-dimensional, calculated data. The RELAP5-3D Graphical User Interface (RGUI) [4] was designed specifically for this purpose. It reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three-dimensional models and enhances the analysts' ability to recognize plant behavior visually. Previous versions of RGUI [5] focused on visualizing reactor coolant behavior during a simulated transient or accident. Recent work has extended RGUI to display two other phenomena, heat transfer and core damage. Heat transfer is depicted through the visualization of RELAP5-3D heat structures. Core damage is visualized by displaying fuel rods and other core structures in a reactor vessel screen. Conditions within the core are displayed via numerical results and color maps. These new features of RGUI 1.5 are described and illustrated. (authors)

  8. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yi; Tao, Shasha; Lian, Fangru; Chau, Binh T.; Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan; Fang, Deyu; Lantz, R. Clark; Zhang, Donna D.

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  9. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  10. High-speed, low-damage grinding of advanced ceramics Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, J.A.; Malkin, S.

    1995-03-01

    In manufacture of structural ceramic components, grinding costs can comprise up to 80% of the entire manufacturing cost. Most of these costs arise from the conventional multi-step grinding process with numerous grinding wheels and additional capital equipment, perishable dressing tools, and labor. In an attempt to reduce structural ceramic grinding costs, a feasibility investigation was undertaken to develop a single step, roughing-finishing process suitable for producing high-quality silicon nitride ceramic parts at high material removal rates at lower cost than traditional, multi-stage grinding. This feasibility study employed combined use of laboratory grinding tests, mathematical grinding models, and characterization of resultant material surface condition. More specifically, this Phase 1 final report provides a technical overview of High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) ceramic grinding and the conditions necessary to achieve the small grain depths of cut necessary for low damage grinding while operating at relatively high material removal rates. Particular issues addressed include determining effects of wheel speed and material removal rate on resulting mode of material removal (ductile or brittle fracture), limiting grinding forces, calculation of approximate grinding zone temperatures developed during HSLD grinding, and developing the experimental systems necessary for determining HSLD grinding energy partition relationships. In addition, practical considerations for production utilization of the HSLD process are also discussed.

  11. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

  12. Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Carlin, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

  13. An immunochemical approach to the study of DNA damage and repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, S.S.; Erlanger, B.F. . Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics; Columbia Univ., New York, NY . Dept. of Microbiology)

    1989-01-01

    The most studied radiation-induced modified DNA base is thymine glycol. Thymine glycols are produced in relatively high yields in irradiated DNA and are also formed as a consequence of oxidative stress. Thymine glycol has been shown to be an in vitro replicative block to DNA polymerases as well as a cytotoxic lesion. DNA glycosylases that remove thymine glycol from damaged DNA are found in both prokaryotes an deukaryotes. Thus this lesion provides a good model for studying the potential biological consequences of pyrimidine ring saturation products. In order to elicit antibodies that would react with unique modified base on a damaged DNA molecule, we have chosen to chemically synthesize the hapten of interest and conjugate it to a protein carrier. Thymine glycol monophosphate was synthesized, conjugated by the carbodiimide method to bovine serum albumin (BSA), and used as an immunogen. Initially, polyclonal antibodies were produced in rabbits. These antibodies had high affinity and specificity as measured by both albumin (RSA) and by enzyme immunoassay using either the conjugate or DNA oxidized inhibited by thymine glycol, thymidine glycol and thymine glycol monophosphate determinants for the phosphate group in addition to the thymidine glycol. In both the direct and competitive assays, this antibody reacts with osmium tetroxide-treated DNA containing cis-thymine glycols and DNA X-irradiated in vitro at a femtomole level of sensitivity. 24 refs.

  14. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show howmore » this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.« less

  15. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of patients undergoing therapy for small cell lung cancer and ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padjas, Anna; Lesisz, Dominika; Lankoff, Anna; Banasik, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Bakalarz, Robert; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Andrzej . E-mail: awojcik@pu.kielce.pl

    2005-12-01

    The level of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing chemotherapy has been analyzed incisively 20 years ago. The results showed that the highest level of cytogenetic damage was observed at the end of therapy. In recent years, the doses of anticancer drugs were intensified thanks to the discovery of colony stimulating factors. Therefore, it was interesting to analyze the kinetics of micronuclei formation in lymphocytes of patients undergoing modern chemotherapy. The frequencies of micronuclei were measured in lymphocytes of 6 patients with small cell lung cancer treated with a combination of cisplatin and etoposide and 7 patients with ovarian carcinoma treated with a combination of taxol and cisplatin. 3 patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy. Micronuclei were analyzed in lymphocytes collected before the start of therapy and 1 day before each following cycle of chemotherapy. The micronucleus frequencies were compared with the kinetics of leukocyte counts. The micronucleus frequencies showed an interindividual variability. On average, the frequencies of micronuclei increased during the first half of therapy and declined thereafter, reaching, in some patients with ovarian carcinoma, values below the pre-treatment level. Leukocyte counts decreased strongly at the beginning of therapy with an upward trend at the end. We suggest that the decline of micronuclei was due to repopulation of lymphocytes and acquired drug resistance.

  16. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM )

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs.

  17. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore » 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  18. Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fok, Alex

    2013-10-30

    The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

  19. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  20. Summary of property damage control programs of the United States Department of Energy CY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, George P.; Maybee, Walter W.

    1980-10-01

    Calendar year 1979 was the second full year of operation of the Department of Energy. This report summarizes the loss experience in overall terms and itemizes facility and program achievements in property protection. Planned projects for CY 1980 are included and several subjects of interest to loss-control specialists are discussed in detail. Property damage from all causes was $2.5 million, of which $0.65 million was due to fire, the major cause of losses in both the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. Combined losses for the 2 full years of Department of Energy experience total over $20 million, of which over $13 million is due to fire. The fire loss ratio for 1979 was 0.13 cents for each $100 of property values at risk, more than an order-of-magnitude less than that expeienced by the better class of insured private property. Final decontamination and cleanup costs necessitated by a product spill at a solvent-refined coal pilot plant at the end of 1979 may exceed $2 million. Even including this estimate, the total loss from all causes (fire, explosion, mechanical or electrical damage, acts of nature, radioactive and non-radioactive contamination/cleanup costs, and a variety of miscellaneous causes), would yield a loss ratio of about 1 cent for each $100 of property. This indicated the overall property protection program is exemplary.

  1. ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi

    2012-02-16

    The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite

  2. A Tow-Level Progressive Damage for Simulating Carbon-Fiber Textile Composites: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E.

    2000-07-01

    A numerical approach to model the elasto-plastic and tensile damage response of tri-axially braided carbon-fiber polymeric-matrix composites is developed. It is micromechanically based and consists of a simplified unit cell geometry, a plane-stress tow-level constitutive relationship, a one-dimensional undulation constitutive law, and a non-traditional shell element integration rule. The braided composite lamina is idealized as periodic in the plane, and a simplified three-layer representative volume (RV) is assembled from axial and braider tows and pure resin regions. The constituents in each layer are homogenized with an iso-strain assumption in the fiber-direction and an iso-stress condition in the other directions. In the upper and lower layers, the fiber-direction strain is additively decomposed into an undulation and a tow portion. A finite-deformation tow model predicts the plane-stress tow response and is coupled to the undulation constitutive relationship. The overall braid model is implemented in DYNA3D and works with traditional shell elements. The finite-deformation tow constitutive relationship is derived from the fiber elasticity and the isotropic elasto-plastic power-law hardening matrix response using a thermodynamic framework and simple homogenization assumptions. The model replicates tensile damage evolution, in a smeared sense, parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis and is regularized to yield mesh independent results. The tow-level model demonstrates reasonable agreement, prior to damage, with detailed three-dimensional FE (finite element) elasto-plastic simulations of aligned, periodically arranged, uni-directional composites. The 3-layer braid model response is compared with predictions obtained from detailed micromechanical simulations of the braid's unit cell in uni-axial extension, shear, and flexure for three braid angles. The elastic properties show good agreement as does the non-linear response for loadings dominated by the axial

  3. Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suratwala, T I; Wong, L L; Miller, P E; Feit, M D; Menapace, J A; Steele, R A; Davis, P A; Walmer, D

    2005-11-28

    The distribution and characteristics of surface cracking (i.e. sub-surface damage or SSD) formed during standard grinding processes has been investigated on fused silica glass. The SSD distributions of the ground surfaces were determined by: (1) creating a shallow (18-108 {micro}m) wedge/taper on the surface by magneto-rheological finishing; (2) exposing the SSD by HF acid etching; and (3) performing image analysis of the observed cracks from optical micrographs taken along the surface taper. The observed surface cracks are characterized as near-surface lateral and deeper trailing indent type fractures (i.e., chatter marks). The SSD depth distributions are typically described by a single exponential distribution followed by an asymptotic cutoff in depth (c{sub max}). The length of the trailing indent is strongly correlated with a given process. Using established fracture indentation relationships, it is shown that only a small fraction of the abrasive particles are being mechanically loaded and causing fracture, and it is likely the larger particles in the abrasive particle size distribution that bear the higher loads. The SSD depth was observed to increase with load and with a small amount of larger contaminant particles. Using a simple brittle fracture model for grinding, the SSD depth distribution has been related to the SSD length distribution to gain insight into ''effective'' size distribution of particles participating in the fracture. Both the average crack length and the surface roughness were found to scale linearly with the maximum SSD depth (c{sub max}). These relationships can serve as useful rules-of-thumb for nondestructively estimating SSD depth and to identify the process that caused the SSD. In certain applications such as high intensity lasers, SSD on the glass optics can serve as a reservoir for minute amounts of impurities that absorb the high intensity laser light and lead to subsequent laser-induced surface damage. Hence a more scientific

  4. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L.; Talmage, Mellisa J.; McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K

    2006-10-01

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project

  5. Sirtuin 7 promotes cellular survival following genomic stress by attenuation of DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran, Shashi; Oddi, Vineesha; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2015-02-01

    Maintaining the genomic integrity is a constant challenge in proliferating cells. Amongst various proteins involved in this process, Sirtuins play a key role in DNA damage repair mechanisms in yeast as well as mammals. In the present work we report the role of one of the least explored Sirtuin viz., SIRT7, under conditions of genomic stress when treated with doxorubicin. Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells to DNA damage induced cell death by doxorubicin. SIRT7 overexpression in NIH3T3 delayed cell cycle progression by causing delay in G1 to S transition. SIRT7 overexpressing cells when treated with low dose of doxorubicin (0.25 µM) showed delayed onset of senescence, lesser accumulation of DNA damage marker γH2AX and lowered levels of growth arrest markers viz., p53 and p21 when compared to doxorubicin treated control GFP expressing cells. Resistance to DNA damage following SIRT7 overexpression was also evident by EdU incorporation studies where cellular growth arrest was significantly delayed. When treated with higher dose of doxorubicin (>1 µM), SIRT7 conferred resistance to apoptosis by attenuating stress activated kinases (SAPK viz., p38 and JNK) and p53 response thereby shifting the cellular fate towards senescence. Interestingly, relocalization of SIRT7 from nucleolus to nucleoplasm together with its co-localization with SAPK was an important feature associated with DNA damage. SIRT7 mediated resistance to doxorubicin induced apoptosis and senescence was lost when p53 level was restored by nutlin treatment. Overall, we propose SIRT7 attenuates DNA damage, SAPK activation and p53 response thereby promoting cellular survival under conditions of genomic stress. - Highlights: • Knockdown of SIRT7 sensitized cells to DNA damage induced apoptosis. • SIRT7 delayed onset of premature senescence by attenuating DNA damage response. • Overexpression of SIRT7 delayed cell cycle progression by delaying G1/S transition. • Upon DNA damage SIRT

  6. Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

    2015-02-23

    We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. Wemorehave not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.less

  7. Ideal sinks are not always ideal. Radiation damage accumulation in nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Choudhury, Samrat; Caro, Alfredo

    2014-11-27

    Designing radiation tolerant materials is one of the primary challenges associated with advanced nuclear energy systems. One attractive route that has received much attention world-wide is to introduce a high density of sinks, often in the form of interfaces or secondary phases. Here, we develop a simple model of such nanocomposites and examine the ramifications of various factors on the overall radiation stability of the material. In particular, we determine how the distribution of secondary phases, the relative sink strength of those phases, and the irradiation temperature influence the radiation tolerance of the matrix. We find that the best scenariomore » is one in which the sinks have intermediate strength, transiently trapping defects before releasing them back into the matrix.This provides new insight into the optimal properties of nanocomposites for radiation damage environments.« less

  8. Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Stolz, C.J.; Sarginson, T.G.

    1991-10-01

    An effort is being made to understand the limits of survivability and damage for optical components exposed to a visible laser operating continuously at a high repetition rate over 4 kHz. Results of this work are reported and related to the materials and manufacturing conditions for coatings and substrates as well as defects seen at the surface under laser illumination. These results were obtained for a variety of optical coatings and conditions using lasers from the Laser Demonstration Facility, part of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at LLNL. Better understanding of the reliability of optical components in this environment could lead to improvements in design and manufacture that would result in reduced size for the laser optical system and correspondingly lower costs for the facilities that can use this technology.

  9. Evaluation of microstructural damage and alteration of polytypes to determine the aging of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, T. W.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D. L.; Meshi, L.; Foxman, Z.; Landau, A.; Riesterer, J. L.; Kennedy, J. R.

    2013-01-25

    Irradiated silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits higher carrier content but a decrease in conductivity with increased irradiation. It was theorized that this conflicting data was due to structural damage due to irradiation. This theory was supported by the fact that non-irradiated 50{mu}m thick SiC is transparent for visible light and the higher the irradiation dose, the material of the same thickness became less transparent. However, changes in microscopy and polyforms observed by transmission electron microscopy in SiC due to irradiation were minor. Although existence of different polymorphs of SiC was documented, direct proof of the proposed theory has not yet been achieved.

  10. Ideal sinks are not always ideal. Radiation damage accumulation in nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Choudhury, Samrat; Caro, Alfredo

    2014-11-27

    Designing radiation tolerant materials is one of the primary challenges associated with advanced nuclear energy systems. One attractive route that has received much attention world-wide is to introduce a high density of sinks, often in the form of interfaces or secondary phases. Here, we develop a simple model of such nanocomposites and examine the ramifications of various factors on the overall radiation stability of the material. In particular, we determine how the distribution of secondary phases, the relative sink strength of those phases, and the irradiation temperature influence the radiation tolerance of the matrix. We find that the best scenario is one in which the sinks have intermediate strength, transiently trapping defects before releasing them back into the matrix.This provides new insight into the optimal properties of nanocomposites for radiation damage environments.

  11. Evaluation of subsurface damage in concrete deck joints using impact echo method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rickard, Larry; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-01-01

    Many factors can affect the overall performance and longevity of highway bridges, including the integrity of their deck joints. This study focuses on the evaluation of subsurface damage in deteriorated concrete deck joints, which includes the delamination and corrosion of the reinforcement. Impact echo and surface wave technology, mainly a portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA), were employed to evaluate the structural deficiency of concrete joints. Laboratory tests of core samples were conducted to verify the nondestructive test results. As a result, the primary advantage of the PSPA as a bridge assessment tool lies in its ability to assess the concrete’s modulus and to detect subsurface defects at a particular point simultaneously.

  12. Development and Application of a Strength and Damage Model for Rock under Dynamic Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoun, T H; Lomov, I N; Glenn, L A

    2001-03-12

    Simulating the behavior of geologic materials under impact loading conditions requires the use of a constitutive model that includes the effects of bulking, yielding, damage, porous compaction and loading rate on the material response. This paper describes the development, implementation and calibration of a thermodynamically consistent constitutive model that incorporates these features. The paper also describes a computational study in which the model was used to perform numerical simulations of PILE DRIVER, a deeply-buried underground nuclear explosion detonated in granite at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity histories, peak velocity and peak displacement as a function of slant range obtained from the code simulations compare favorably with PILE DRIVER data. The simulated attenuation of peak velocity and peak displacement also agrees with the results from several other spherical wave experiments in granite.

  13. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  14. A creep damage estimation method for in-service fossil fuel boiler superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogata, F. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Takahashi, H. . Research Inst. of Fracture Technology)

    1995-02-01

    Because mechanical properties of structural materials for high-temperature use, such as boiler tubing, degrade during long-term service, it is essential to detect toughness degradation by means of a nondestructive and simple field test technique. A grain boundary etching technique is developed to detect material degradation, and assess creep strength and notch toughness. An etching test using a picric acid solution with a wetting agent or using 20 percent HNO[sub 3] with alcoholic solution was found to have great potential for the nondestructive estimation of grain boundary embrittlement caused by carbide and sigma precipitation in SUS stainless steel. The feasibility of this estimation procedure was determined showing the relationships between Charpy impact energy (CVN) and grooving width (W[sub GS]), and creep damage ratio ([Phi]) and W[sub GS]. Superheater tubes of fossil fuel boiler were tested on site to demonstrate the validity of this technique.

  15. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  16. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The DAFS program element is a national effort composed of contributions from a number of National Laboratories and other government laboratories, universities, and industrial laboratories. It was organized by the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch, Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, and a Task Group on Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies which operates under the auspices of that Branch. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record of that effort for the use of the program participants, for the fusion energy program in general, and for the Department of Energy. This report is organized along topical lines in parallel to a Program Plan of the same title so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily, relative to that Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. The Table of Contents is annotated for the convenience of the reader.

  17. Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic

    2010-10-30

    IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.

  18. A thermodynamically consistent, damage-dependent, interface debonding model for composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.; Clements, B.E.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ability to design composite materials and analyze processing procedures relies on the availability of constitutive models that describe their dynamic response accurately. The strength, damage evolution, and failure of interfaces within composites often dominate their macroscopic performance but are not well characterized. The design of such composites for particular applications requires adequate knowledge of interfacial characteristics. Given the large number of potential loading scenarios that an engineering composite can be subjected to, it is obviously beneficial to have reliable and accurate theoretical methods for their quantitative treatment in numerical calculation. This project addresses the fundamental aspects of interfacial debonding in composites, and examines the basic behavior in practical situations.

  19. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  20. Evaluation of subsurface damage in concrete deck joints using impact echo method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rickard, Larry; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-01-01

    Many factors can affect the overall performance and longevity of highway bridges, including the integrity of their deck joints. This study focuses on the evaluation of subsurface damage in deteriorated concrete deck joints, which includes the delamination and corrosion of the reinforcement. Impact echo and surface wave technology, mainly a portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA), were employed to evaluate the structural deficiency of concrete joints. Laboratory tests of core samples were conducted to verify the nondestructive test results. As a result, the primary advantage of the PSPA as a bridge assessment tool lies in its ability to assess the concrete’smore » modulus and to detect subsurface defects at a particular point simultaneously.« less

  1. Suppression of autophagy enhances the cytotoxicity of the DNA-damaging aromatic amine p-anilinoaniline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Althea; Reiners, John J.

    2008-10-15

    p-Anilinoaniline (pAA) is an aromatic amine that is widely used in hair dying applications. It is also a metabolite of metanil yellow, an azo dye that is commonly used as a food coloring agent. Concentrations of pAA between 10 and 25 {mu}M were cytostatic to cultures of the normal human mammary epithelia cell line MCF10A. Concentrations {>=} 50 {mu}M were cytotoxic. Cytostatic concentrations induced transient G{sub 1} and S cell cycle phase arrests; whereas cytotoxic concentrations induced protracted arrests. Cytotoxic concentrations of pAA caused DNA damage, as monitored by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, and morphological changes consistent with cells undergoing apoptosis and/or autophagy. Enzymatic and western blot analyses, and binding analyses of fluorescent labeled VAD-FMK, suggested that caspase family members were activated by pAA. Western blot analyses documented the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, a post-translational modification involved in the development of the autophagosome. Suppression of autophagosome formation, via knockdown of ATG7 with shRNA, prevented pAA-induced vacuolization, enhanced the activation of pro-caspase-3, and increased susceptibility of ATG7-deficient cells to the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of markedly lower concentrations of pAA. Cells stably transfected with a nonsense shRNA behaved like parental MCF10A cells. Collectively, these data suggest that MCF10A cultures undergo autophagy as a pro-survival response to concentrations of pAA sufficient to induce DNA damage.

  2. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. ); Baxter, J.T. ); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. ); Brosseau, D.A. )

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

  3. Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytesGeneration of reactive oxygen species and cell damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jun; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Fu, Peter P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Zhao, Baozhong

    2012-08-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is among the top five widely used nanomaterials for various applications. In this study, we determine the phototoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) with different molecular sizes and crystal forms (anatase and rutile) in human skin keratinocytes under UVA irradiation. Our results show that all nano-TiO{sub 2} particles caused phototoxicity, as determined by the MTS assay and by cell membrane damage measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, both of which were UVA dose- and nano-TiO{sub 2} dose-dependent. The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. The level of photocytotoxicity and cell membrane damage is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using polyunsaturated lipids in plasma membranes and human serum albumin as model targets, and employing electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry and immuno-spin trapping as unique probing methods, we demonstrated that UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2} can induce significant cell damage, mediated by lipid and protein peroxidation. These overall results suggest that nano-TiO{sub 2} is phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes, and that this phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation. Highlights: ? We evaluate the phototoxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} with different sizes and crystal forms. ? The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. ? The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. ? ESR oximetry and immuno-spin trapping techniques confirm UVA-induced cell damage. ? Phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2}.

  4. Radiation damage in a micron-sized protein crystal studied via reciprocal space mapping and Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlan, H. D.; Darmanin, C.; Phillips, N. W.; Hofmann, F.; Clark, J. N.; Harder, R. J.; Vine, D. J.; Abbey, B.

    2015-04-29

    For laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray sources, radiation damage has posed a significant barrier to obtaining high-resolution structural data from biological macromolecules. The problem is particularly acute for micron-sized crystals where the weaker signal often necessitates the use of higher intensity beams to obtain the relevant data. Here, we employ a combination of techniques, including Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to characterise the radiation induced damage in a micron-sized protein crystal over time. The approach we adopt here could help screen for potential protein crystal candidates for measurement at X-ray free election laser sources.

  5. Impact of different cleaning processes on the laser damage threshold of antireflection coatings for Z-Backlighter optics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Ella; Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon

    2014-11-06

    We have examined how different cleaning processes affect the laser-induced damage threshold of antireflection coatings for large dimension, Z-Backlighter laser optics at Sandia National Laboratories. Laser damage thresholds were measured after the coatings were created, and again 4 months later to determine which cleaning processes were most effective. There is a nearly twofold increase in laser-induced damage threshold between the antireflection coatings that were cleaned and those that were not cleaned. Aging of the coatings after 4 months resulted in even higher laser-induced damage thresholds. Also, the laser-induced damage threshold results revealed that every antireflection coating had a high defect density, despite the cleaning process used, which indicates that improvements to either the cleaning or deposition processes should provide even higher laser-induced damage thresholds.

  6. Impact of different cleaning processes on the laser damage threshold of antireflection coatings for Z-Backlighter optics at Sandia National Laboratories

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Field, Ella; Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon

    2014-11-06

    We have examined how different cleaning processes affect the laser-induced damage threshold of antireflection coatings for large dimension, Z-Backlighter laser optics at Sandia National Laboratories. Laser damage thresholds were measured after the coatings were created, and again 4 months later to determine which cleaning processes were most effective. There is a nearly twofold increase in laser-induced damage threshold between the antireflection coatings that were cleaned and those that were not cleaned. Aging of the coatings after 4 months resulted in even higher laser-induced damage thresholds. Also, the laser-induced damage threshold results revealed that every antireflection coating had a high defectmore » density, despite the cleaning process used, which indicates that improvements to either the cleaning or deposition processes should provide even higher laser-induced damage thresholds.« less

  7. Nanosecond laser-induced damage at different initial temperatures of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films prepared by dual ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Cheng Jia, Jiaojiao; Fan, Heliang; Qiang, Yinghuai; Liu, Jiongtian; Yang, Di; Hu, Guohang; Li, Dawei

    2014-08-07

    Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were deposited by dual ion beam sputtering method. The nanosecond laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) at different initial temperatures and time of the films was investigated by an in situ high temperature laser-induced damage testing platform. It was shown that, when the initial temperature increased from 298 K to 383 K, the LIDT at 1064 nm and 12 ns significantly decreased by nearly 14%. Then the LIDT at 1064 nm and 12 ns decreased slower with the same temperature increment. Different damage morphologies were found at different initial temperatures. At low initial temperatures, it was the defects-isolated damage while at high initial temperatures it was the defects-combined damage. The theoretical calculations based on the defect-induced damage model revealed that both the significant increase of the highest temperature and the duration contributed to the different damage morphologies. With the initial temperature being increased, the thermal-stress coupling damage mechanism transformed gradually to the thermal dominant damage mechanism.

  8. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barregard, Lars; Bergström, Göran; Fagerberg, Björn

    2014-11-15

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  9. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  10. Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie

    2011-12-01

    Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

  11. Identification of the formation phases of filamentary damage induced by nanosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chao; Xu, Zhongjie; Chambonneau, Maxime E-mail: jiangtian198611@163.com; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Tian E-mail: jiangtian198611@163.com

    2015-09-14

    Employing a pump-probe polarization-based two-frame shadowgraphy setup, the formation of filamentary damage induced in bulk fused silica by a nanosecond pulse at 1064 nm is investigated with a picosecond probe. Three different phases are exhibited in the damage experiments. The first phase is the formation of a micrometric plasma channel along the laser direction during the beginning of the pulse likely caused by multi-photon ionization. This channel exhibits growth during ∼400 ps, and the newly grown plasma is discrete. Then, during the end of the pulse, this channel evolves into a tadpole-like morphology showing an elliptical head upstream the laser flux followed by a thin tail. This observed asymmetry is attributed to shielding effects caused by both the plasma and hot modified silica. Once the damage shows its almost final morphology, a last phase consists in the launch of a pressure wave enlarging it after the laser pulse. The physical mechanisms that might be involved in the formation of plasma channels are discussed. The experimental data are first confronted to the moving breakdown model which overestimates the filamentary damage length. Finally, taking into account the temporal shape of the laser pulses, the coupling between Kerr-induced self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin scattering is discussed to interpret the observations.

  12. CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Volume 3. Optical materials, Part 1 - Nonlinear optical properties/radiation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the nonlinear optical properties of laser materials. The physical radiation effects on laser materials are also considered. Topics considered include: nonlinear optical properties; nonlinear and harmonic generation materials; two-photon absorption; nonlinear refractive index; stimulated Raman scattering; radiation damage; crystals; and glasses.

  13. Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Prime, M.B.; Shevitz, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains a review of the technical literature concerning the detection, location, and characterization of structural damage via techniques that examine changes in measured structural vibration response. The report first categorizes the methods according to required measured data and analysis technique. The analysis categories include changes in modal frequencies, changes in measured mode shapes (and their derivatives), and changes in measured flexibility coefficients. Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The applications of the various methods to different types of engineering problems are categorized by type of structure and are summarized. The types of structures include beams, trusses, plates, shells, bridges, offshore platforms, other large civil structures, aerospace structures, and composite structures. The report describes the development of the damage-identification methods and applications and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of the technology. The critical issues for future research in the area of damage identification are also discussed.

  14. Laser-induced breakdown and damage generation by nonlinear frequency conversion in ferroelectric crystals: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji

    2013-11-28

    Using our experimental data for ns pulsed second harmonic generation (SHG) by periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} (PPSLT) crystals, we consider in detail the mechanism underlying laser-induced damage in ferroelectric crystals. This mechanism involves generation and heating of free electrons, providing an effective kinetic pathway for electric breakdown and crystal damage in ns pulsed operation via combined two-photon absorption (TPA) and induced pyroelectric field. In particular, a temperature increase in the lattice of ≈1 K induced initially by ns SHG and TPA at the rear of operating PPSLT crystal is found to induce a gradient of spontaneous polarization generating a pyroelectric field of ≈10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons generated by TPA to an energy of ≈10 eV, followed by impact ionization and crystal damage. Under the damage threshold for ns operation, the impact ionization does not lead to the avalanche-like increase of free electron density, in contrast to the case of shorter ps and fs pulses. However, the total number of collisions by free electrons, ≈10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} (generated during the pulse and accelerated to the energy of ≈10 eV), can produce widespread structural defects, which by entrapping electrons dramatically increase linear absorption for both harmonics in subsequent pulses, creating a positive feedback for crystal lattice heating, pyroelectric field and crystal damage. Under pulse repetition, defect generation starting from the rear of the crystal can propagate towards its center and front side producing damage tracks along the laser beam and stopping SHG. Theoretical analysis leads to numerical estimates and analytical approximation for the threshold laser fluence for onset of this damage mechanism, which agree well with our (i) experiments for the input 1064 nm radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG by PPSLT crystal, (ii) pulsed low frequency 532 nm radiation transmission experiments, and also (iii) with the data

  15. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ? Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ? Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ? Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ? Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ? Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  16. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  17. Comparison of laser-based mitigation of fused silica surface damage using mid- versus far-infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2009-12-16

    Laser induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and therefore operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, they quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {micro}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {micro}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The non-linear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda} = 4.6 {micro}m, while far-IR laser heating is well-described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on infrared radiometry, as well as sub-surface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally-ablative conditions. Based on their FOM, they show that for cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {micro}m in depth.

  18. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Baker, L. Jr.

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and can be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed of sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  19. A directed-overflow and damage-control N -glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; et al

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis,more » yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. We find COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites.« less

  20. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland; Larry D. Zuck; James K. Jewell; Douglas W. Akers; Gary S. Groenewold

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  1. Atomic Scale Modelling of the Primary Damage State of Irradiated UO{sub 2} Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Brutzel, Laurent

    2008-07-01

    Large scale classical molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the primary damage state due to a-decay self irradiation in UO{sub 2} matrix. Simulations of energetic displacement cascades up to the realistic energy of the recoil nucleus at 80 keV provide new informations on defect production, their spatial distribution and their clustering. The discrepancy with the classical linear theory NRT (Norton-Robinson-Torrens) law on the creation of the number of point defects is discussed. Study of cascade overlap sequence shows a saturation of the number of point defects created as the dose increases. Toward the end of the overlap sequence, large stable clusters of vacancies are observed. The values of athermal diffusion coefficients coming from the ballistic collisions and the additional point defects created during the cascades are estimated from these simulations to be, in all the cases, less than 10-26 m{sup 2}/s. Finally, the influence of a grain boundary of type Sigma 5 is analysed. It has been found that the energy of the cascades are dissipated along the interface and that most of the point defects are created at the grain boundary. (authors)

  2. Anisotropic mechanical properties of zircon and the effect of radiation damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beirau, Tobias; Nix, William D.; Bismayer, Ulrich; Boatner, Lynn A.; Isaacson, Scott G.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2016-06-02

    Our study provides new insights into the relationship between radiation-dose-dependent structural damage, due to natural U and Th impurities, and the anisotropic mechanical properties (Poisson s ratio, elastic modulus and hardness) of zircon. Natural zircon samples from Sri Lanka (see Muarakami et al. 1991) and synthetic samples, covering a dose range of zero up to 6.8 x 1018 -decays/g, have been studied by nanoindentation. Measurements along the [100] crystallographic direction and calculations, based on elastic stiffness constants determined by zkan (1976), revealed a general radiation-induced decrease in stiffness (~ 54 %) and hardness (~ 48 %) and an increase ofmore » the Poisson s ratio (~ 54 %) with increasing dose. Additional indentations on selected samples along the [001] allowed one to follow the amorphization process to the point that the mechanical properties are isotropic. This work shows that the radiation-dose-dependent changes of the mechanical properties of zircon can be directly correlated with the amorphous fraction as determined by previous investigations with local and global probes (Rios et al. 2000a; Farnan and Salje 2001; Zhang and Salje 2001). This agreement, revealed by the different methods, indicates a huge influence of structural and even local phenomena on the macroscopic mechanical properties.« less

  3. Preliminayr Study on Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging for a Canine Model of Cartilage Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the ability of a novel radiographic technique, Diffraction Enhanced Radiographic Imaging (DEI), to render high contrast images of canine knee joints for identification of cartilage lesions in situ. Methods: DEI was carried out at the X-15A beamline at Brookhaven National Laboratory on intact canine knee joints with varying levels of cartilage damage. Two independent observers graded the DE images for lesions and these grades were correlated to the gross morphological grade. Results: The correlation of gross visual grades with DEI grades for the 18 canine knee joints as determined by observer 1 (r2=0.8856, P=0.001) and observer 2 (r2=0.8818, P=0.001) was high. The overall weighted ? value for inter-observer agreement was 0.93, thus considered high agreement. Conclusion: The present study is the first study for the efficacy of DEI for cartilage lesions in an animal joint, from very early signs through erosion down to subchondral bone, representing the spectrum of cartilage changes occurring in human osteoarthritis (OA). Here we show that DEI allows the visualization of cartilage lesions in intact canine knee joints with good accuracy. Hence, DEI may be applicable for following joint degeneration in animal models of OA.

  4. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Alexander V; Golubov, Stanislav I; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors. The model takes into account the intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and their one-dimensional diffusion; explains the growth stages, including the break-away growth of pre-annealed samples; and accounts for some striking observations, such as of negative strain in prismatic direction, and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops. In this report, the change of dislocation densities due to accumulation of sessile dislocation loops is taken into account explicitly to investigate the dose dependence of radiation growth. The dose dependence of climb rates of dislocations is calculated, which is important for the climb-induced glide model of radiation creep. The results of fitting the model to available experimental data and some numerical calculations of the strain behavior of Zr for different initial dislocation structures are presented and discussed. The computer code RIMD-ZR.V1 (Radiation Induced Microstructure and Deformation of Zr) developed is described and attached to this report.

  5. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, Proceedings of SPIE,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Ristau, Detlev; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2005-12-27

    This volume contains papers presented at the 37th Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers that was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 19-21 September 2005. The symposium was cosponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), QinetiQ (United Kingdom), and the College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL and FPCE, University of Central Florida (USA). The symposium, was attended by 145 scientist and engineers from China, France, Lithuania, Russia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. One-third of the attendees and nearly half of the presentations were from abroad. A mini-symposium on Tuesday afternoon, that addressed damage issues associated with petawatt lasers, highlighted our growing interest in the emerging area. Including the mini-symposium, 87 papers were presented in oral and poster sessions.

  6. Large-diameter coiled tubing completions decrease risk of formation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, V. ); Edens, F. ); Coker, G. ); King, G. )

    1992-07-20

    Amoco Production Co. has used large-diameter coiled tubing strings to avoid damaging gas wells with kill fluids. The coiled tubing is stripped in the gas well under pressure. In Amoco's case, the gas flows up the tubing/casing annulus. The coiled tubing string provides a way to blow down the well whenever the well loads up with liquids from completion, workover, or naturally produced fluids. This paper reports that to date, Amoco has installed coiled tubing in four wells. The oldest has 18 months of service. Although some turbine longevity questions must be answered, the first four completions have proven fast and trouble free. The basic equipment for handling coil tubing is shown. The transport trailer and tubing injector head are similar to standard servicing equipment and not considered experimental. The production tubing reel is capable of carrying 14,000 ft of 2-in tubing or 18,000 ft of 1 3/4-in. tubing. For shallower wells, multiple tubing strings can be would on the same spool. Because of handling difficulties of large tubing, spools must be wound at the factory. Most of the largest sizes are made to order, making lead time a necessary consideration.

  7. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, John D.; Cassulo, John C.; Pedersen, Dean R.; Baker, Jr., Louis

    1986-01-01

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed or sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF BREAKDOWN INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE ON 805 MHZ PILLBOX CAVITY INTERIOR SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, M. R.; Chung, M.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Torun, Y.; Bowring, D.; Flanagan, G.

    2013-09-25

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, we have tested two 805 MHz vacuum RF cavities in a multi-Tesla magnetic field to study the effects of the static magnetic field on the cavity operation. This study gives useful information on field emitters in the cavity, dark current, surface conditioning, breakdown mechanisms and material properties of the cavity. All these factors determine the maximum accelerating gradient in the cavity. This paper discusses the image processing technique for quantitative estimation of spark damage spot distribution on cavity interior surfaces. The distribution is compared with the electric field distribution predicted by a computer code calculation. The local spark density is proportional to probability of surface breakdown and shows a power law dependence on the maximum electric field (E). This E dependence is consistent with the dark current calculated from the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  9. Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowing localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.

  10. Kinetic gating mechanism of DNA damage recognition by Rad4/XPC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xuejing; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Zheng, Guanqun; Park, Beomseok; Shim, Yoonjung; Kim, Youngchang; Liu, Lili; Van Houten, Bennett; He, Chuan; Ansari, Anjum; et al

    2015-01-06

    The xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) complex initiates nucleotide excision repair by recognizing DNA lesions before recruiting downstream factors. How XPC detects structurally diverse lesions embedded within normal DNA is unknown. Here we present a crystal structure that captures the yeast XPC orthologue (Rad4) on a single register of undamaged DNA. The structure shows that a disulphide-tethered Rad4 flips out normal nucleotides and adopts a conformations similar to that seen with damaged DNA. Contrary to many DNA repair enzymes that can directly reject non-target sites as structural misfits, our results suggest that Rad4/XPC uses a kinetic gating mechanism whereby lesion selectivitymore » arises from the kinetic competition between DNA opening and the residence time of Rad4/XPC per site. This mechanism is further supported by measurements of Rad4-induced lesion-opening times using temperature-jump pertubation spectroscopy. Kinetic gating may be a general mechanism used by site-specific DNA-binding proteins to minimize time-consuming interrogations of non-target sites.« less

  11. DDT modeling and shock compression experiments of porous or damaged energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Anderson, M.U.; Graham, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    In this presentation, we present modeling of DDT in porous energetic materials and experimental studies of a time-resolved, shock compression of highly porous inert and reactive materials. This combined theoretical and experimental studies explore the nature of the microscale processes of consolidation, deformation and reaction which are key features of the shock response of porous or damaged energetic materials. The theoretical modeling is based on the theory of mixtures in which multiphase mixtures are treated in complete nonequilibrium allowing for internal boundary effects associated mass/momentum and energy exchange between phases, relative flow, rate-dependent compaction behavior, multistage chemistry and interphase boundary effects. Numerous studies of low-velocity impacts using a high resolution adaptive finite element method are presented which replicate experimental observations. The incorporation of this model into multi-material hydrocode analysis will be discussed to address the effects of confinement and its influence on accelerated combustion behavior. The experimental studies will focus on the use of PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress-rate gauge to precisely measure the input and propagating shock stress response of porous materials. In addition to single constituent porous materials, such as granular HMX, we have resolved shock waves in porous composite intermetallic powders that confirm a dispersive wave nature which is highly morphologically and material dependent. This document consists of viewgraphs from the poster session.

  12. Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowingmore » localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.« less

  13. Damage free integration of ultralow-k dielectrics by template replacement approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, L.; De Gendt, S.; Marneffe, J.-F. de; Heylen, N.; Murdoch, G.; Tokei, Z.; Boemmels, J.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2015-08-31

    Cu/low-k integration by conventional damascene approach is becoming increasingly difficult as critical dimensions scale down. An alternative integration scheme is studied based on the replacement of a sacrificial template by ultralow-k dielectric. A metal structure is first formed by patterning a template material. After template removal, a k = 2.31 spin-on type of porous low-k dielectric is deposited onto the patterned metal lines. The chemical and electrical properties of spin-on dielectrics are studied on blanket wafers, indicating that during hard bake, most porogen is removed within few minutes, but 120 min are required to achieve the lowest k-value. The effective dielectric constant of the gap-fill low-k is investigated on a 45 nm ½ pitch Meander-Fork structure, leading to k{sub eff} below 2.4. The proposed approach solves the two major challenges in conventional Cu/low-k damascene integration approach: low-k plasma damage and metal penetration during barrier deposition on porous materials.

  14. Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Source: Sandia EERE Success Story-Percussive Hammer Enables Geothermal Drilling New Approach to Determine the Need for Operating Reserves in Electricity Markets with Wind Power

  15. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information, Final Rule DRAFT NEPA Guidance on Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions CEQ Guidance on the Application of NEPA to ...

  16. EA-1758: Supplement to the Cumulative Impact Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Drilling, Testing, and Monitoring of up to 12 Temperature Gradient/Passive Seismic Geothermal Exploratory Wells Deschutes County, Oregon

  17. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This is an excerpt from the Third Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Photo of a bird. DOE's Argonne National Laboratory recently developed the prototype of a ...

  18. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    discretion to determine whether, and to what extent, information about the specific nature, design, or present effects of a past action is usefbl for the agency's analysis of...

  19. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Actions in the United States with Transboundary Effects Revised DRAFT NEPA Guidance on Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (DOE, 2014)

  20. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY WASH INGTON, D.C. 20503 June 24, 2005 MEMORANDUM FROM: JAMES L. CONNAUGHTON CHAIRMAN TO: HEADS OF FEDERAL AGENCIES RE: GUIDANCE ON THE...

  1. Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP) - Cumulative through June 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the use of shorepower at 50 planned American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded truck stop electrification (TSE) sites across the nation. Trucks participating in the study have idle-reduction equipment installed that was purchased with rebates through the ARRA. A total of 5,000 rebates will be approved.

  2. Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP) - Cumulative through February 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-02-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the use of shorepower at 50 planned American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)-funded truck stop electrification sites across the nation. Trucks participating in the study have idle-reduction equipment installed that was purchased with rebates through the ARRA. A total of 5,000 rebates will be approved.

  3. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  4. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Gen 2 - Cumulative (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  5. NEPA Lessons Learned Cumulative Index December 2012 1 DOE NEPA...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Agencies; Tribes Integration see: NEPA, Integration with Other Review Interim Actions Mar 026; Sep 0214 International Association for Impact Assessment Jun 9710; Sep ...

  6. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation -- Gen 2 -- Cumulative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric ... 1. Vehicle specifications provided by Smith Electric Vehicles. 2. Actual electric ...

  7. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation … Cumulative (Brochure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric ... 1. Vehicle specifications provided by Smith Electric Vehicles. 2. Actual electric ...

  8. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  9. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hae-June; Kwon, Hee-Chung; Chung, Hee-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  10. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  11. Dynamic characterization and damage detection in the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Baker, W.E.; Bell, T.M.; Cone, K.M.; Darling, T.W.; Duffey, T.A.; Eklund, A.; Migliori, A.

    1994-06-01

    In the 1960`s and 1970`s over 2500 bridges were built in the U.S. with a design similar to those on Interstate 40 over the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico. These bridges were built without structural redundancy and typically have only two plate girders carrying the entire dead and live loads. Failure of either girder is assumed to produce catastrophic failure of the bridge, hence these bridges are referred to as fracture-critical bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have provided funds to New Mexico State University (NMSU) through the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSH&TD) and The Alliance For Transportation Research (ATR) for evaluation and testing of the existing fracture critical bridges over the Rio Grande. Because the 1-40 bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed during the summer of 1993, the investigators were able to introduce simulated fatigue cracks, similar to those observed in the field, into the structure in order to test various damage identification methods and to observe the changes in load paths through the structure caused by the cracking. To support this research effort, NMSU contracted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform experimental modal analyses, and to develop experimentally verified numerical models of the bridge. Scientists from the LANL`s Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group (P-10) applied state-of-the-art sensors and data acquisition software to the modal tests. Engineers from the LANL`s Advanced Engineering Technology Group (MEE-13) conducted ambient and forced vibration tests to verify detailed and simplified finite element models of the bridge. Forced vibration testing was done in conjunction with engineers from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) who provided and operated a hydraulic shaker.

  12. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, H; Zhang, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients.

  13. Measurement and modeling of infrared nonlinear absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds in Ge and GaSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, T. J.; Bohn, M. J.; Coutu, R. A. Jr.; Gonzalez, L. P.; Murray, J. M.; Guha, S.; Schepler, K. L.

    2010-10-15

    Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, we measure two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients for Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 {mu}m for the first time, to our knowledge. Results agreed well with published theory. Single-shot damage thresholds were also measured at 2.5 {mu}m and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally determined parameters including nonlinear absorption coefficients and temperature dependent linear absorption. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} anti-reflective coating on Ge was 55% or 35% lower than the uncoated threshold for picosecond or nanosecond pulses, respectively.

  14. Focused-ion-beam induced damage in thin films of complex oxide BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemons, W.; Beekman, C.; Budai, J. D.; Christen, H. M.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Balke, N.; Tischler, J. Z.; Xu, R.; Liu, W.; Gonzales, C. M.

    2014-02-01

    An unexpected, strong deterioration of crystal quality is observed in epitaxial perovskite BiFeO{sub 3} films in which microscale features have been patterned by focused-ion-beam (FIB) milling. Specifically, synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction shows that the damaged region extends to tens of μm, but does not result in measureable changes to morphology or stoichiometry. Therefore, this change would go undetected with standard laboratory equipment, but can significantly influence local material properties and must be taken into account when using a FIB to manufacture nanostructures. The damage is significantly reduced when a thin metallic layer is present on top of the film during the milling process, clearly indicating that the reduced crystallinity is caused by ion beam induced charging.

  15. Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, C W; Cross, D; Feit, M D; Bude, J D

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced damage initiation in silica has been shown to follow a power-law behavior with respect to pulse-length. Models based on thermal diffusion physics can successfully predict this scaling and the effect of pulse shape for pulses between about 3ns and 10ns. In this work we use sophisticated new measurement techniques and novel pulse shape experiments to test the limits of this scaling. We show that simple pulse length scaling fails for pulses below about 3ns. Furthermore, double pulse initiation experiments suggest that energy absorbed by the first pulse is lost on time scales much shorter than would be predicted for thermal diffusion. This time scale for energy loss can be strongly modulated by maintaining a small but non-zero intensity between the pulses. By producing damage with various pulse shapes and pulse trains it is demonstrated that the properties of any hypothetical thermal absorber become highly constrained.

  16. Rotation magnet sputtering: Damage-free novel magnetron sputtering using rotating helical magnet with very high target utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Takaaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-07-15

    Novel magnetron-sputtering equipment, called rotation magnet sputtering (ROT-MS), was developed to overcome various disadvantages of current magnetron-sputtering equipment. Disadvantages include (1) very low target utilization of less than 20%, (2) difficulty in obtaining uniform deposition on the substrate, and (3) charge-up damages and ion-bombardment-induced damages resulting from very high electron temperature (>3 eV) and that the substrate is set at the plasma excitation region. In ROT-MS, a number of moving high-density plasma loops are excited on the target surface by rotating helical magnets, resulting in very high target utilization with uniform target erosion and uniform deposition on the substrate. This excellent performance can be principally maintained even if equipment size increases for very large-substrate deposition. Because strong horizontal magnetic fields (>0.05 T) are produced within a very limited region just at the target surface, very low electron-temperature plasmas (<2.5 eV for Ar plasma and <1 eV for direct-current-excited Xe plasma) are excited at the very limited region adjacent to the target surface with a combination of grounded plate closely mounted on the strong magnetic field region. Consequently, the authors can establish charge-up damage-free and ion-bombardment-induced damage-free processes. ROT-MS has been applied for thin-film formation of LaB{sub 6}, which is well known as a stable, low-work-function bulk-crystal material for electron emissions. The work function of the LaB{sub 6} film decreased to 2.8 eV due to enhanced (100)-orientation crystallinity and reduced resistivity realized by adjusting the flux of low-energy bombarding ions impinging on the depositing surface, which work very efficiently, improving the performance of the electron emission devices.

  17. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  18. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses.more » With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.« less

  19. Interfacial shear behavior and its influence on fiber damage in sapphire-reinforced gamma titanium aluminide composites. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbraith, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    The interfacial shear behavior and its influence on fiber damage in sapphire-reinforced TiAl composites was investigated using a combination of microscopic characterization, indentation crack growth results, fiber pushout testing, fiber displacement measurements, and computational analyses. Two interrelated phenomena were studied: (1) residual stresses and resulting damage within fibers intersecting a free surface and (2) fiber/matrix interfacial strength behavior. In the first aspect of this study, experimental observations, finite element analysis, as well as analytical computations were all used to analyze the evolution of fiber damage that was observed in fibers intersecting a free surface in sapphire-reinforced Ti-48Al-IV composites. Experimental observations indicate that, under certain conditions, surface cracks introduced during specimen preparation will propagate along the fiber axis due to thermally-induced residual stresses. Finite element computations predict that significant thermally-induced residual tensile stresses exist in sapphire fibers embedded within TiAl-based matrices when they intersect and are oriented normal to a free surface. Indentation crack growth behavior within the sapphire fibers provided experimental validation of the predicted stress state. Finally, the application of an exact elastic analysis indicates that tensile stresses also exist within fibers oriented parallel to and near a free surface.

  20. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 21: Main report and appendices A--H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. |

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  1. Parametric study of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambonneau, M. Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Lamaignère, L.; Natoli, J.-Y.

    2015-03-14

    With the use of multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm, laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica clearly and systematically exhibit ring patterns. It has been shown in our previous works that the apparent chronology of rings was closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This particular correspondence had suggested an explanation of the ring morphology formation based on the displacement of an ionization front in the surrounding air. To provide a former basis for this hypothesis and deeper understanding of ring pattern formation, additional experiments have been performed. First, the impact of fluence has been investigated, revealing that a wide variety of damage sites are produced within a very narrow fluence range; this fact involves the chronology of appearance of a surface plasma during the laser pulse. The sizes of the damage sites are proportional to the fluence of their expansion occurring between the beginning of the plasma and the end of the laser pulse. Second, specific experiments have been carried out at different angles of incidence, resulting in egg-shaped patterns rather than circular ones. This behavior can be explained by our previous hypothesis of creation of a plasma in air, its expansion being tightly conditioned by the illumination angle. This series of experiments, in which the angle of incidence is varied up to 80°, permits us to link quantitatively the working hypothesis of ionization front propagation with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling.

  2. Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

    2010-10-26

    Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

  3. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses. With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.

  4. Multi-Timescale Investigation of Radiation Damage near TiO2 Rutile Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian-Ming Bai; Blas P. Uberuaga

    2012-04-01

    Although grain boundaries (GBs) have been experimentally demonstrated to serve as sinks for absorbing radiation induced defects and improving the radiation tolerance of materials, the detailed atomistic interactions between defects and GBs leading to this enhanced tolerance are not well understood. In oxide ceramics the interactions are further complicated as defects can be charged and grain boundaries may exhibit space charge and charge dipole effects. Here, we use two atomistic modeling methods to examine the role of GBs in a model oxide system, rutile TiO2, in modifying defect production during irradiation events. The GB studied is a symmetric tilt GB with a rotation axis of [100] and a rotation angle of 15.25{sup o}. We use molecular dynamics to investigate defect production near the GB at both 300K and 1000 K and find that the damage production is sensitive to the initial distance of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) from the GB. We find three distinct regimes in which GBs have different effects on modifying defect production. Similar to GBs in metals, the GB absorbs more interstitials than vacancies at certain distances while this behavior of biased loading of interstitials diminishes at other distances. Further, we obtain the statistics of both interstitial and vacancy clusters 2 produced in collision cascades in terms of their compositions at two temperatures. We find that perfectly stoichiometric defect clusters (Schottky and anti-Schottky clusters) represent a small fraction of the total defect clusters produced. Moreover, a significant reduction in the number of interstitial clusters at 1000 K compared to 300 K is thought to be a consequence of enhanced migration of interstitials towards the GB. Finally the kinetic properties of certain defect clusters are investigated with temperature accelerated dynamics, without any priori assumptions of migration mechanisms. We find that small interstitial clusters become mobile at high temperatures while small vacancy

  5. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B.; Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G.; Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Manti, L.

    2013-07-26

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/?m on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately

  6. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histological damage in the myocardium. Effects of a soy-based diet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferramola, Mariana L.; Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Honoré, Stella M.; Sánchez, Sara S.; Antón, Rosa I.; Anzulovich, Ana C.; Giménez, María S.

    2012-12-15

    Cd exposure has been associated to an augmented risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of 15 and 100 ppm of Cd on redox status as well as histological changes in the rat heart and the putative protective effect of a soy-based diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups and treated during 60 days as follows: groups (1), (2) and (3) were fed a casein-based diet; groups (4), (5) and (6), a soy-based diet; (1) and (4) were given tap water; (2) and (5) tap water containing 15 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}; and (3) and (6) tap water containing 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}. Serum lipid peroxides increased and PON-1 activity decreased in group (3). Lipoperoxidation also increased in the heart of all intoxicated groups; however protein oxidation only augmented in (3) and reduced glutathione levels diminished in (2) and (3). Catalase activity increased in groups (3) and (6) while superoxide dismutase activity increased only in (6). Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in groups (3) and (6). Nrf2 expression was higher in groups (3) and (6), and MTI expression augmented in (3). Histological examination of the heart tissue showed the development of hypertrophic and fusion of cardiomyocytes along with foci of myocardial fiber necrosis. The transmission electron microscopy analysis showed profound ultra-structural damages. No protection against tissue degeneration was observed in animals fed the soy-based diet. Our findings indicate that even though the intake of a soy-based diet is capable of ameliorating Cd induced oxidative stress, it failed in preventing cardiac damage. -- Highlights: ► Cd intoxication produces extracellular and ultrastructural damage in the myocardium. ► The intake of a soy-based diet ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress. ► Cd-induced myocardial damage wasn't prevented by the intake of a soy-based diet. ► Cd-induced myocardial degeneration may not be caused by oxidative stress generation. ► Histology evaluation is needed to

  7. NWTC Aerodynamics Studies Improve Energy Capture and Lower Costs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory (NREL) have expanded wind turbine aerodynamics research from blade and ... impact the cumulative fatigue damage of turbine structural compo- nents that ultimately ...

  8. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  9. Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

  10. A Statement from U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz on India Joining the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    “India’s membership in the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) is a crucial step toward facilitating the growth of safe, civilian nuclear energy in the world’s second...

  11. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included

  12. Investigation on the damage threshold of films coated on various silicate, fluorophosphate and phosphate laser glasses. Final report, January 1, 1979-August 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Y; Izumitani, T

    1980-01-01

    Effects of substrate laser glass on the damage threshold and adhesion of dielectric films has been studied in order to improve the damage threshold. The study is divided into two parts: the first part dealing with four types of laser glass, LSG-91H silicate, LHG-8 phosphate, P-1 phosphate and LHG-10 fluorophosphate; the second part dealing with twenty-six glasses with systematically modified compositions in three glass systems, silicate, phosphate and fluorophosphate.

  13. Damage Detection of CFRP Plates by Full-Spectral Analysis of a Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor Signal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Groves, Roger M.

    2010-05-28

    This paper describes the measurement of average strain, strain distribution and vibration of cantilever beam made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), using a single Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor mounted on the beam surface. Average strain is determined from the displacement of the peak wavelength of reflected light from the FBG sensor. Unstrained reference FBG sensors were used to compensate for temperature drift and the photoelastic coefficient (P{sub e}), which was used to calculate the gauge factor. Measured strains agree with those measured by a resistance foil strain gauge attached to the sample. Stress distributions are measured by monitoring the variation in the full width half maximum (FWHM) values of the reflected spectrum, using a proposed optical analytical model, described in the paper. FWHM values were measured for both the cantilever test beam and a for a reference beam, loaded using a four-point bending rig. The trend of the stress distribution for the test beam matches with our analytical model, however with a relatively large noise present in the experimentally determined data. The vibration of cantilever beam was measured by temporal analysis of the peak reflection wavelength. This technique is very stable as measurements are not affected by variations in the signal amplitude. Finally an application of FBG sensors for damage detection of CFRP plates is demonstrated, by measuring the average strain and natural frequency. With small defects of different sizes applied to the CFRP plate, average strains were seen to increase with damage size and the natural frequency decreased with damage size.

  14. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  15. Targeting the Renin–Angiotensin System Combined With an Antioxidant Is Highly Effective in Mitigating Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, Javed; Jelveh, Salomeh; Zaidi, Asif; Doctrow, Susan R.; Medhora, Meetha; Hill, Richard P.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of suppression of the renin angiotensin system using captopril combined with an antioxidant (Eukarion [EUK]-207) for mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Methods and Materials: The thoracic cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated with a single dose of 11 Gy. Treatment with captopril at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d in drinking water and EUK-207 given by subcutaneous injection (8 mg/kg daily) was started 1 week after irradiation (PI) and continuing until 14 weeks PI. Breathing rate was monitored until the rats were killed at 32 weeks PI, when lung fibrosis was assessed by lung hydroxyproline content. Lung levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 and macrophage activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and lipid peroxidation was measured by a T-BARS assay. Results: The increase in breathing rate in the irradiated rats was significantly reduced by the drug treatments. The drug treatment also significantly decreased the hydroxyproline content, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels, and levels of activated macrophages and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 at 32 weeks. Almost complete mitigation of these radiation effects was observed by combining captopril and EUK-207. Conclusion: Captopril and EUK-207 can provide mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage out to at least 32 weeks PI after treatment given 1-14 weeks PI. Overall the combination of captopril and EUK-207 was more effective than the individual drugs used alone.

  16. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saquib, Quaiser; Attia, Sabry M.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613 Giza ; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Giesy, John P.; Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5B3; Zoology Department and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 ; Musarrat, Javed; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, AMU, Aligarh

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  17. Radiation damage in cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia from molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2014-11-20

    Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Moreover, oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies.

  18. Radiation damage in cubic-ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2015-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies.

  19. Damaging HMX/HTPB formulations: In-situ compression imaging using X-ray micro computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn; Tappan, Bryce C.; Thompson, Darla Graff; Manner, Virginia Warren

    2015-04-17

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is a powerful high explosive that is routinely used in formulations such as PBX 9501. Much remains to be learned about the performance and mechanical properties of HMX formulations such as these, particularly after dynamic damage has occurred. We have prepared formulations with HMX using hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder in order to form an explosive that is relatively insensitive to mild stimuli, analogous to PBXB-110 (different only is substitution of dioctyladipate (DO) for isodecyl pelargonate).

  20. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 2030 nm (CNT20) and 4070 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 ?g/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-?B (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-?-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ?Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ?MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA lesion associated