National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for r7-compatible cumulative damage

  1. Effect of cumulative seismic damage and corrosion on life-cycle cost of reinforced concrete bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ramesh

    2009-05-15

    reinforced concrete (RC) bridges in earthquake prone regions. The approach is developed by combining cumulative seismic damage and damage associated to corrosion due to environmental conditions. Cumulative seismic damage is obtained from a low-cycle fatigue...

  2. Cumulative Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CUMULATIVE INDEX I. Articles (i) By Author Abate, Charles J. "Has Dretske Really Refuted Skepticism?", v.4, n.3 (June, 1977), pp. 169- 175. Abugattas, Juan A. "On the Relation Between Morality and the Notion of God". v.7, n.l (November, 1979...), pp. 47-81. Algeo, Donald. "Why Art?", v.7, n.2 (Spring, 1980), pp. 105-129. Austin, James W. "Rorty's Materialism", v.3, n.l (November, 1975), pp. 20-28. Bell, Gary. "A Characterization of Mathematics". v.8, n.2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 96-104. Bell...

  3. Multivariate Cumulates in R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Leeuw, Jan

    2012-01-01

    and Cumulants from Multivariate Distributions. StatisticsTaylor Expan- sion of a Multivariate Function. International79(3):278–305, 1991. MULTIVARIATE CUMULANTS IN R J. Morton

  4. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act This handbook presents the...

  5. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework |

  6. Pilot-Scale MixotrophicAlgae Integrated Biorefinery(IBR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage

  7. Pipeline Safety Research, Development and Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Ellen P.

  8. Plain Writing Act of 2010 for the Web | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Ellen

  9. Direct, Indirect and Cumulative Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demers, Nora Egan

    during creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Public evaluations and input from independent on the natural and human environment from mining in the Peace River Watershed. Environmental Impacts from on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President. What are Cumulative Impacts? #12;The report describes

  10. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  11. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage FrameworkPilotPilot

  12. Pilot Integrated Cellulosic Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage FrameworkPilotPilot

  13. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage FrameworkPilotPilot

  14. Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Ellen P.Program In

  15. Simulation of the reaction of fragmentation of deuterons into cumulative and twice-cumulative pions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litvinenko, A G

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the features of the behavior of pion production cross section as a function of the atomic mass of the target nucleus for the reaction of fragmentation of the incident deuterons in the pions produced in the so-called "twice-cumulative" kinematic region. A distinctive feature of the twice-cumulative pions is that for their production the target nucleus must be heavier than hydrogen. The simulation results show that the dependence of the cross sections for pion production in the twice-cumulative region differs from the analogous dependence for the cumulative region. The paper discusses the reasons for such differences. In this work we present simulation results for some models of nuclear structure on small nucleon-nucleon distances.

  16. Simulation of the reaction of fragmentation of deuterons into cumulative and twice-cumulative pions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Litvinenko; E. I. Litvinenko

    2015-05-12

    The paper discusses the features of the behavior of pion production cross section as a function of the atomic mass of the target nucleus for the reaction of fragmentation of the incident deuterons in the pions produced in the so-called "twice-cumulative" kinematic region. A distinctive feature of the twice-cumulative pions is that for their production the target nucleus must be heavier than hydrogen. The simulation results show that the dependence of the cross sections for pion production in the twice-cumulative region differs from the analogous dependence for the cumulative region. The paper discusses the reasons for such differences. In this work we present simulation results for some models of nuclear structure on small nucleon-nucleon distances.

  17. Orbital-optimized density cumulant functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, Alexander Yu. Schaefer, Henry F.

    2013-11-28

    In density cumulant functional theory (DCFT) the electronic energy is evaluated from the one-particle density matrix and two-particle density cumulant, circumventing the computation of the wavefunction. To achieve this, the one-particle density matrix is decomposed exactly into the mean-field (idempotent) and correlation components. While the latter can be entirely derived from the density cumulant, the former must be obtained by choosing a specific set of orbitals. In the original DCFT formulation [W. Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 171101 (2006)] the orbitals were determined by diagonalizing the effective Fock operator, which introduces partial orbital relaxation. Here we present a new orbital-optimized formulation of DCFT where the energy is variationally minimized with respect to orbital rotations. This introduces important energy contributions and significantly improves the description of the dynamic correlation. In addition, it greatly simplifies the computation of analytic gradients, for which expressions are also presented. We offer a perturbative analysis of the new orbital stationarity conditions and benchmark their performance for a variety of chemical systems.

  18. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  19. The Crab glitches: incidence and cumulative effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Graham Smith; C. Jordan

    2003-01-10

    The fourteen glitches observed during 33 years do not show the simple pattern expected from a relaxation oscillator. They may however be regarded as three major events separated by about 12 years, the third being a group of smaller glitches. There is a step increase in slowdown rate at each glitch, whose cumulative effect makes a significant contribution to the second differential nu-ddot. The braking index "n" has previously been evaluated only between glitches: the effect of the glitches is to reduce "n" from 2.51 to 2.45. This extra effect due to the glitches would be explained by an increase in dipole field at the fractional rate of 1.5x10^-5 per annum.

  20. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Dallas, E-mail: dallas.johnson@gov.ab.ca; Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-09-15

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  1. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the use of wind power forecasting in power systems operations, and a visual impact risk analysis and mitigation system. Addthis Related Articles Model Examines Cumulative Impacts...

  2. Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details Date & Time of Damage / Loss: Type of damage / loss: Location - specific address / room: Project / Grant associated with damage / loss - grant Police: When was damage / loss first discovered - BY WHOM: Pictures available or attached? Was personal

  3. Third cumulant of the total transmission of diffuse waves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rossum, Mark; de Boer, Johannes; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M

    1995-01-01

    The probability distibution of the total transmission is studied for waves multiply scattered from a random, static configuration of scatterers. A theoretical study of the second and third cumulants of this distribution ...

  4. Three-particle cumulant Study of Conical Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claude Pruneau

    2009-01-07

    We discuss the sensitivity of the three-particle azimuthal cumulant method for a search and study of conical emission in central relativistic $A+A $ collisions. Our study is based on a multi-component Monte Carlo model which include flow background, Gaussian mono-jets, jet-flow, and Gaussian conical signals. We find the observation of conical emission is hindered by the presence of flow harmonics of fourth order ($v_4 $) but remains feasible even in the presence of a substantial background. We consider the use of probability cumulants for the suppression of 2$^{nd}$ order flow harmonics. We find that while probability cumulant significantly reduce $v_2^2$ contributions, they also complicate the cumulant of jets, and conical emission. The use of probability cumulants is therefore not particularly advantageous in searches for conical emission. We find the sensitivity of the (density) cumulant method depends inextricably on strengths of $v_2 $, $v_4 $, background and non-Poisson character of particle production. It thus cannot be expressed in a simple form, and without specific assumptions about the values of these parameters.

  5. Linear Cumulant Control and Its Relationship to Risk-Sensitive Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mou, Libin

    combination of cost cumulants in the performance index with an infinite series of cost cumulants. The solution descriptions of the cumulants of an integral quadratic cost associated with a linear system with white, these same descriptions are derived directly from the cumulant generating function of the cost

  6. CUMULATIVE CHORDS, PIECEWISE-QUADRATICS AND PIECEWISE-CUBICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozera, Ryszard

    and Statistics The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009, Perth Australia lyle@maths.uwa.edu.au Ryszard Kozera School of Computer Science and Software Engineering The University Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009, Perth Australia ryszard@csse.uwa.edu.au Abstract Cumulative chord

  7. A Scientific Basis for the Prediction of Cumulative Watershed Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of California Committee on Cumulative Watershed Effects WILDLAND RESOURCES CENTER Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of California Berkeley, California 94720 Report No. 46 June 2001 #12;A CENTER Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of California Bekeley, California 94720

  8. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tognelli, Emanuele; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary (LDB). To do that we computed almost 12000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_sun by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross-sections, plasma electron screening, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical elements abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy elements mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, alpha_ML). As a first step, we studied the effect of varying these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input/parameters without an a priori assumption of independence. Such an approach allowed us to build for the first time the cumulative error stripe, which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical LDB age. We found that the cumulative error stripe ...

  9. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ladrem; M. A. A. Ahmed; Z. Al-Full; S. Cherif

    2015-09-03

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed. A numerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value $T_{0}(V)$ agrees with that expected $T_{0}^{N}(V)$ from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility $\\chi _{T}\\left( T,V\\right)$, according to the standard procedure of localization to within about $2\\%$. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable.

  10. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  11. Application of the cumulative risk model in predicting school readiness in Head Start children 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez-Escobar, Olga Lydia

    2009-05-15

    This study investigates the degree to which the cumulative risk index predicted school readiness in a Head Start population. In general, the reviewed studies indicated the cumulative risk model was efficacious in predicting adverse developmental...

  12. Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: the case of Xiamen, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Anthony

    Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: the case of Xiamen, China; accepted 9 March 2004 Abstract This paper examines the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts of sources of environmental impacts, notably industrial expansion, port development, shipping, waste disposal

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2009-12-17

    Draft annual report for the Cumulative Effects Study for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District

  14. CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Patent quality and value in discrete and cumulative innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Patent quality and value in discrete and cumulative innovation Justus,version2-16Nov2010 #12;2 Patent Quality and Value in Discrete and Cumulative Innovation Cerna Working the relationship between patent quality and patent value in discrete and cumulative innovation. Using factor

  15. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that could support these fission yield experiments in the US, as well as at AWE and CEA. Considerations that will impact the final choice of experimental venues are: (1) Availability during the timeframe of interest; (2) Ability to accommodate special nuclear materials; (3) Cost; (4) Availability of counting facilities; and (5) Expected experimental uncertainties.

  16. Power plant cumulative environmental impact report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted by the Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) to determine the cumulative impact of power plants on Maryland's environment. Included in this report are: (1) current and projected power demands and consumption in Maryland; (2) current and planned power generation; (3) air impacts; (4) aquatic effects; (5) radiological effects; (6) social and economic considerations; (7) noise impacts; (8) groundwater effects; (9) solid waste management concerns; (10) transmission line impacts; and (11) descriptions of cooling towers in Maryland. Also contained is the 1982 Ten Year Plan of Maryland Electric Utilities.

  17. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  18. System and damage identification of civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak

    2007-01-01

    12 Damage Index Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Model Updating for Damage Identification . . . . . . . .298 x Damage Factors and Residual

  19. Identifying structural damage from images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, ZhiQiang

    2009-01-01

    feature extraction methods ( A). . . . . . . . . . . .damage feature extraction methods (B). . . . . . . . . . . .a damage feature extraction method and a multi-level

  20. OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM CUMULATIVE INDEX GEOGRAPHIC AND SITE INDEX 1AABW Africa SW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM CUMULATIVE INDEX GEOGRAPHIC AND SITE INDEX 1AABW · Africa SW A AABW. See Antarctic Bottom Water AAIW. See Antarctic Intermediate Water Abaco event, geology, 101B27:428­430; 29:1­19 organogenic dolomites, 175B15:1­17 pore water, 175A20:547­553 #12;OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM CUMULATIVE INDEX

  1. Long-Run Growth in Open Economies: Export-Led Cumulative Causation or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Long-Run Growth in Open Economies: Export-Led Cumulative Causation or a Balance. On the one hand, models of export-led cumulative causation (ELCC) stress the possibility that some countries competitiveness, rising exports, and rapid output growth (although, in this view, other countries may be doomed

  2. Calculation of the cumulative reaction probability via a discrete variable representation with absorbing boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    of a bimo- lecular chemical reaction, i.e., state-to-state differential and integral cross sections. HoweverCalculation of the cumulative reaction probability via a discrete variable representation is suggested for the calculation of the microcanonical cumulative reaction probability uia flux autocorrelation

  3. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    the high-energy proton damage than was the planar detector.as far as radiation damage is concerned. Unfortunately, some28-29, 1978 LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

  4. Controlling Beaver Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Beavers are important because their dams stabilize creek flow, slow runoff and create ponds. However, these same dams can negatively alter the flow of creeks. Damage prevention, control and various trapping methods are discussed in this publication....

  5. Controlling Feral Hog Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2008-04-15

    This publication discusses the distribution of feral hogs as well as their habitats, food habits and reproduction. Feral hogs can damage crops and kill lambs and kid goats. Methods of control are also explained....

  6. A UNIFIED FAILURE/DAMAGE APPROACH TO BATTLE DAMAGE REGENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A UNIFIED FAILURE/DAMAGE APPROACH TO BATTLE DAMAGE REGENERATION : APPLICATION TO GROUND MILITARY-availability. Military weapon systems availability can be affected by system failures or by damage to the system damage into account in their more general dependability studies. This paper takes a look at the issues

  7. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction Fact 843:...

  8. Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development, Nu River, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development, Nu River, China Authors hydropower facilities. This support is manifested in national and international energy and development policies designed to incentivize growth in the small hydropower sector while curtailing large dam

  9. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  10. HALF INDEPENDENCE AND HALF CUMULANTS By Arup Bose,, Rajat Subhra Hazra and Koushik Saha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    HALF INDEPENDENCE AND HALF CUMULANTS By Arup Bose,, Rajat Subhra Hazra and Koushik Saha Indian described in Banica, Curran and Speicher (2010)[2] and Bose, Hazra and Saha (2010)[7]. In Section 2, we

  11. Consideration of Cumulative Impacts in EPA Review of NEPA Documents, EPA Office of Federal Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on...

  12. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    occurring within the detector, radiation may also change theLBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS Richard H.LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS* Richard H.

  13. Efficient evaluation of high-order moments and cumulants in tensor network states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin West; Artur Garcia-Saez; Tzu-Chieh Wei

    2015-04-01

    We present a numerical scheme for efficiently extracting the higher-order moments and cumulants of various operators on spin systems represented as tensor product states, for both finite and infinite systems, and present several applications for such quantities. For example, the second cumulant of the energy of a state, $\\langle \\Delta H^2 \\rangle$, gives a straightforward method to check the convergence of numerical ground-state approximation algorithms. Additionally, we discuss the use of moments and cumulants in the study of phase transitions. Of particular interest is the application of our method to calculate the so-called Binder's cumulant, which we use to detect critical points and study the critical exponent of the correlation length with only small finite numerical calculations. We apply these methods to study the behavior of a family of one-dimensional models (the transverse Ising model, the spin-1 Ising model, and the spin-1 Ising model in a crystal field), as well as the two-dimensional Ising model on a square lattice. Our results show that in one dimension, cumulant-based methods can produce precise estimates of the critical points at a low computational cost, and show promise for two-dimensional systems as well.

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  15. Controlling Armadillo Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    of overlapping rings. The under- parts are covered with soft skin and a few long hairs. The armadillo is about the size of an opos- sum. Its front feet are well adapted for digging. Tracks made by an armadillo appear to have been made by a three-toed animal... and other invertebrates, as well as on small amounts of fruit and vegetable matter such as berries and tender roots. Damage Although armadillos are beneficial because they eat insects and other invertebrates, they sometimes become a nuisance by digging...

  16. Tables of the cumulative distribution function are provided. THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lionheart, Bill

    MATH39032 2 hours Tables of the cumulative distribution function are provided. THE UNIVERSITY questions A1. An asset pays a dividend of £2 at the end of each of the next 2 years. The current asset price that a zero value forward contract on this asset with delivery date in 3 years and delivery price of £135

  17. Assessing the cumulative environmental impact of hydropower construction on river systems based on energy network model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Assessing the cumulative environmental impact of hydropower construction on river systems based 2014 Keywords: Hydropower construction Sustainable energy development Environmental impact assessment Energy network model a b s t r a c t Hydropower is the major renewable energy source for many nations

  18. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  19. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  20. Nowcasting Disaster Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to climate change. And during such events, citizens are turning to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. Additionally, spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. Here we present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats -- together with the physical disaster effects -- are directly observable through the intens...

  1. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  2. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade...

  3. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-168. 1998. 117 Cumulative Watershed Effects: Caspar Creek and Beyond1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impacts are influenced by multiple activities, so almost all impacts must be evaluated as cumulative impacts rather than as individual impacts. Existing definitions suggest that to be significant, an impact and managing cumulative watershed impacts have not yet proved successful for averting these impacts, so

  4. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  5. Cumulative Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Edinburgh University Press, 1988. McGrane, Bernard. Beyond Anthropology: Society and the Other. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Michclfelder, Diane and Palmer, Richard. Dialogue and Deconstruction: The Gadamer-Derrida Encounter. Albany: SUNY...: Edinburgh University Press, 1988. McGrane, Bernard. Beyond Anthropology: Society and the Other. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Michclfelder, Diane and Palmer, Richard. Dialogue and Deconstruction: The Gadamer-Derrida Encounter. Albany: SUNY...

  6. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Malladi, Girish [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Dadap, Jerry I. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kisslinger, Kim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vemuri, Rama Sesha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Osgood, Jr., Richard M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formation than for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)

  7. Planning and Conducting Readiness Reviews

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible Cumulative

  8. Planning and Reporting for Operations and Maintenance in Federal Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible CumulativeSavings Performance

  9. Plant Microbe Interactions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible CumulativeSavings

  10. A quadratic cumulative production model for the material balance of an abnormally pressured gas reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Felix Eduardo

    2005-02-17

    -1 A QUADRATIC CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION MODEL FOR THE MATERIAL BALANCE OF AN ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS RESERVOIR A Thesis by FELIX E. GONZALEZ ROMERO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... OF AN ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS RESERVOIR A Thesis by FELIX E. GONZALEZ ROMERO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  11. Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: non-linear cumulant analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alastair G. Mailer; Paul S. Clegg; Peter N. Pusey

    2015-04-24

    We revisit the method of cumulants for analysing dynamic light scattering data in particle sizing applications. Here the data, in the form of the time correlation function of scattered light, is written as a series involving the first few cumulants (or moments) of the distribution of particle diffusion constants. Frisken (2001 Applied Optics 40, 4087) has pointed out that, despite greater computational complexity, a non-linear, iterative, analysis of the data has advantages over the linear least-squares analysis used originally. In order to explore further the potential and limitations of cumulant methods we analyse, by both linear and non-linear methods, computer-generated data with realistic `noise', where the parameters of the distribution can be set explicitly. We find that, with modern computers, non-linear analysis is straightforward and robust. The mean and variance of the distribution of diffusion constants can be obtained quite accurately for distributions of width (standard deviation/mean) up to about 0.6, but there appears to be little prospect of obtaining meaningful higher moments.

  12. Freezing Spring Temperatures Damage Knobcone Pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freezing Spring Temperatures Damage Knobcone Pine Stanley L. Krugman U. S. FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH, Stanley L. 1966. Freezing spring temperatures damage knobcone pine conelets. Berkeley, Calif.. Pacific pine, conelets, freezing temperature) Krugman, Stanley L. 1966. Freezing spring temperatures damage

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential indicators for detecting a signal in the estuarine system resulting from the multiple projects were also reviewed, i.e. organic matter production, nutrient cycling, sedimentation, food webs, biodiversity, salmon habitat usage, habitat opportunity, and allometry. In subsequent work, this information will be used to calculate the over net effect on the ecosystem. To evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary, a priority of this study has been to develop a set of minimum ecosystem monitoring protocols based on metrics important for the CRE. The metrics include a suite of physical measurements designed to evaluate changes in hydrological and topographic features, as well as biological metrics that will quantify vegetation and fish community structure. These basic measurements, intended to be conducted at all restoration sites in the CRE, will be used to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of various restoration procedures on target metrics, and (2) provide the data to determine the cumulative effects of many restoration projects on the overall system. A protocol manual is being developed for managers, professional researchers, and informed volunteers, and is intended to be a practical technical guide for the design and implementation of monitoring for the effects of restoration activities. The guidelines are intended to standardize the collection of data critical for analyzing the anticipated ecological change resulting from restoration treatments. Field studies in 2005 are planned to initiate the testing and evaluation of these monitoring metrics and protocols and initiate the evaluation of higher order metrics for cumulative effects.

  14. Discrete-Time, Bi-Cumulant Minimax and Nash Games Ronald W. Diersing, Michael K. Sain, and Chang-Hee Won

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Won, Chang-Hee

    Discrete-Time, Bi-Cumulant Minimax and Nash Games Ronald W. Diersing, Michael K. Sain, and Chang player, Nash and minimax cumulant games will be formulated and developed for a nonlinear system with non, a cumulant based, discrete time, Nash game will be developed. At first we will consider a nonlinear system

  15. Susceptibilities, the Specific Heat and a Cumulant in Two-Flavour QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frithjof Karsch; Edwin Laermann

    1994-06-13

    We study the quark mass dependence of various response functions, which contribute to chiral susceptibilities and the specific heat in the staggered fermion formulation of two-flavour QCD. This yields information about the critical exponents $\\alpha$, $\\beta$ and $\\delta$. In the case of the chiral susceptibility, obtained as derivative of the chiral order parameter with respect to the quark mass, we calculate all contributions. This allows to construct a cumulant of the order parameter, which is a scaling function and yields a direct determination of the critical exponent $\\delta$. All our results are consistent with a second order phase transition.

  16. Susceptibilities, the specific heat and a cumulant in two-flavour QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsch, Frithjof; Frithjof Karsch; Edwin Laermann

    1994-01-01

    Abstract We study the quark mass dependence of various response functions, which contribute to chiral susceptibilities and the specific heat in the staggered fermion formulation of two-flavour QCD. This yields information about the critical exponents \\alpha, \\beta and \\delta. In the case of the chiral susceptibility, obtained as derivative of the chiral order parameter with respect to the quark mass, we calculate all contributions. This allows to construct a cumulant of the order parameter, which is a scaling function and yields a direct determination of the critical exponent \\delta. All our results are consistent with a second order phase transition.

  17. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  18. Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks and M. L. Joyner Center.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18-19, 20001 #12;Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques

  19. Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks #3; and M. L. Joyner Wincheski and W.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA #3; Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18­19, 20001 #12; Electromagnetic Interrogation

  20. Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault damage zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Heather M.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2011-01-01

    E. McCallum (1999), Reservoir damage around faults: OutcropSkar (2005), Controls on damage zone asymmetry of a normal2007), The evolution of the damage zone with fault growth in

  1. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Wegner, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Windsor, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  2. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  3. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  4. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senner, Robert

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  5. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegmann, George, E-mail: george.hegmann@stantec.com [Principal, Environmental Management, Stantec Consulting Ltd., 805 - 8th Avenue SW Suite 300, Calgary, Alberta, T2P 1H7 (Canada); Yarranton, G.A., E-mail: yarran@shaw.ca [121 Artists View Way, Calgary, Alberta, T3Z 3N1 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  6. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function. Part II: An application to El Nino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernacchia, Alberto; Vrac, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    The spatial coherence of a measured variable (e.g. temperature or pressure) is often studied to determine the regions where this variable varies the most or to find teleconnections, i.e. correlations between specific regions. While usual methods to find spatial patterns, such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA), are constrained by linear symmetries, the dependence of variables such as temperature or pressure at different locations is generally nonlinear. In particular, large deviations from the sample mean are expected to be strongly affected by such nonlinearities. Here we apply a newly developed nonlinear technique (Maxima of Cumulant Function, MCF) for the detection of typical spatial patterns that largely deviate from the mean. In order to test the technique and to introduce the methodology, we focus on the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and its spatial patterns. We find nonsymmetric temperature patterns corresponding to El Nino and La Nina, and we compare the results of MCF with other techniques, such a...

  7. Detection of damage in axial (membrane) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffey (T.A.), Tijeras, NM (United States); Baker, W.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rhee, W.H. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    In a recent paper, two methods of damage identification (Modified Damage Index and Change-in-Flexibility) were applied to detection of damage in an 8-DOF vibrating system. The goal of the work was to detect damage (reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the particular damaged elements (S). However, the investigation was limited to numerical simulations only. In this paper, a physical, spring-mass model of a similar, degenerate 8-DOF system (7 normal modes plus a rigid-body mode) was constructed. Experiments were then performed and the modal properties of the system were determined in undamaged and damaged states. Excitation was provided either by an impact hammer or by an electromechanical shaker. Damage was induced by replacing one of the springs with a spring of lower stiffness. The Modified Damage Index method clearly isolated the location of damage for a variety of damage locations and levels of damage. The Change-in-Flexibility method, however, was found to be less reliable. The ability of the method to locate damage depended strongly on location and the level of damage as well as the number of modes included.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  9. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)] [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)] [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  10. A damage model for fracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B

    2015-01-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume "super" fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  11. KU Public Safety Office Criminal Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KU Public Safety Office ! Criminal Damage The unidentified white male pictured below is a suspect in the damage of a Coca-Cola vending machine in the Parking Services lobby at 1501 Irving Hill Drive and damage to Coca-Cola vending machines across the campus. Suspect Description: W/M, 5 feet 10 inches, 150

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Radiation Damage in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiscale Modeling of Radiation Damage in Fusion Reactor Materials Brian D. Wirth, R.J. Kurtz-7405-Eng-48. #12;Presentation overview · Introduction to fusion reactor materials and radiation damage. tailor He HFIR isotopic tailor He HFIR target/RB He appmHe displacement damage (dpa) ffuussiioonn

  13. Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage S.L. Dudarev EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association and informative as the most advanced experimental techniques developed for the observation of radiation damage investigation and assessment of radiation damage effects, offering new insight into the origin of temperature

  14. Structural Damage Detection and Localization Using NETSHM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    Structural Damage Detection and Localization Using NETSHM Krishna Chintalapudi, Jeongyeup Paek and localize damage in large civil structures. Structural engineers often implement and test SHM algorithms the intricacies of wireless networking, or the details of sensor data acquisition. We have implemented a damage

  15. Damage Detection in Plate Structures using Guided Ultrasonic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarmer, Gregory James Sylvester

    2009. “Evaluation of the Damage Detection Capability of alikelihood Estimation of Damage Location in Guided- waveStatistically-based Damage Detection in Geometrically-

  16. Micromechanical Damage Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    2008). Micromechanical modeling of damage and fracture ofmatrix viscoplasticity and evolving damage, Journal of theW.A. (1998). Stochastic damage evolution and failure in

  17. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Blast Damage Mitigation of Steel35  Damage Levels Observed in LaboratoryFigure 3.34: Progression of damage for a Ballistic Loading

  18. Cognitive Empathy Following Orbitofrontal Cortex and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodkind, Madeleine Shirley

    2010-01-01

    following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature,as a measure of frontal lobe damage. Journal of Clinical andcaused by frontal damage fail to respond autonomically to

  19. RADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Parker, "Radiation Damage of Germanium Detectors", Bull. Am.to radiation damage between the two detectors was clearlyRADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

  20. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.

    2015-04-14

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmore »than for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)« less

  1. Nonlocal Damage Models 8.1 Basic Types of Nonlocal Damage Formulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirasek, Milan

    Chapter 8 Nonlocal Damage Models 8.1 Basic Types of Nonlocal Damage Formulations 8.1.1 Formulations Motivated by Isotropic Damage A number of nonlocal concepts giving local response in the linear elastic damage model from Section 5.2. Certain models use a formulation in which the role of the equivalent

  2. ACADEMIC RENEWAL GUIDELINES Academic Renewal is a university policy administered to recalculate the cumulative ASU grade point average of an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    ACADEMIC RENEWAL GUIDELINES Academic Renewal is a university policy administered to recalculate undergraduate degree and has not previously received an academic renewal; 2. has a cumulative ASU gpa below 2 requirements for resident credit hours and gpa must be fulfilled after the academic renewal. Graduation

  3. Social Learning and Cumulative Mutual Improvement in a Networked Group Thomas N. Wisdom (tnwisdom@indiana.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstone, Robert

    -solving game task to study imitation and innovation in groups of participants. Guesses were composed of the problem space and achieved lower performance overall. When scores were visible, higher performance within groups as a result of selective imitation and cross-participant cumulative mutual innovations

  4. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  5. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 446, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 183-200 THE CONCEPT OF CUMULATIVE DUCTILITY STRENGTH SPECTRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    -200 THE CONCEPT OF CUMULATIVE DUCTILITY STRENGTH SPECTRA AND ITS USE WITHIN PERFORMANCE-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712, U.S.A. ABSTRACT A seismic design procedure that does not take, is a useful tool for performance- based seismic design. Particularly, constant cumulative ductility strength

  6. Stochastic model for indirect estimation of instantaneous and cumulative loads in wind turbines: a systematic approach for off-shore wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Stochastic model for indirect estimation of instantaneous and cumulative loads in wind turbines present our recent findings for estimating instantaneous and cumulative loads in singles wind turbines at single wind turbines, driven by wind speed measurements. Through a standard fatigue analysis of data

  7. Nanofoams Response to Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nastasi, Michael [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68508; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis [PLS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551; Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Inst. Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, 5500 Argentina; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process; (2) np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa; (3) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams with highest and intermediate flux, while no SFTs were observed with lowest flux; (4) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams at RT, whereas no SFTs were observed at LNT irradiation; (5) The diffusivity of vacancies in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and thus collapse. As a result, SFTs were formed; (6) The high flux created much more damage/time, vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed.

  8. Corrosion-induced damage raises serious implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.D.; Cayard, M.S. [CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    One of the most difficult and often underestimated aspects of pipeline rehabilitation is the assessment of corrosion-induced damage. This question involves evaluation of damage from prior service as well as consideration of conditions which may pose additional time-dependent degradation which could affect the future serviceability of the pipeline. The present study examines the assessment of pipeline damage and rehabilitation requirements through knowledge of materials of construction, operating conditions, field inspection and service records.

  9. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  10. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  11. Prediction of Damage Zone Growth in Composites Using Continuum Damage Mechanics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLendon, Wesley R.

    2010-07-14

    The continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach is widely used to model damage in polymer matrix composite materials which are represented using the homogenized properties of the fiber and matrix constituents. CDM simplifies the problem of accounting...

  12. Damage Identification with Linear Discriminant Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Nix, D.A.; Duffey, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Pardoen, G.C.

    1999-02-08

    This paper explores the application of statistical pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to vibration-based damage detection. First, the damage detection process is described in terms of a problem in statistical pattern recognition. Next, a specific example of a statistical-pattern-recognition-based damage detection process using a linear discriminant operator, ''Fisher's Discriminant'', is applied to the problem of identifying structural damage in a physical system. Accelerometer time histories are recorded from sensors attached to the system as that system is excited using a measured input. Linear Prediction Coding (LPC) coefficients are utilized to convert the accelerometer time-series data into multi-dimensional samples representing the resonances of the system during a brief segment of the time series. Fisher's discriminant is then used to find the linear projection of the LPC data distributions that best separates data from undamaged and damaged systems. The method i s applied to data from concrete bridge columns as the columns are progressively damaged. For this case, the method captures a clear distinction between undamaged and damaged vibration profiles. Further, the method assigns a probability of damage that can be used to rank systems in order of priority for inspection.

  13. MODELING LONGITUDINAL DAMAGE IN SHIP COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Alan

    . Performing Organization Name and Address Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering. 10. Work Unit No made excellent progress towards predicting damage penetration in ship collisions. This project focuses collision data for penetrating collisions. 17. Key Words ship collisions, longitudinal ship damage 18

  14. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J.; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  15. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at ?sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 ?b–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 T n, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients aremore »presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.« less

  16. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE PLATE STRUCTURES WITH UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE PLATE STRUCTURES WITH UNCERTAINTY Chandrashekhar M.* , Ranjan Uncertainties associated with a structural model and measured vibration data may lead to unreliable damage that material uncertainties in composite structures cause considerable problem in damage assessment which can

  17. New navel orangeworm sanitation standards ?could reduce almond damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Siegel, Joel P

    2009-01-01

    disruption, dispersal and damage prediction. Proc 34thtype and amount of insect damage. J Ag Food Chem 49:4513–9.standards could reduce almond damage by Bradley S. Higbee

  18. RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeller, A.F.; Ronningen, R.M.; Godeke, A.; Heilbronn, L.H.; McMahan-Norris, P.; Gupta, R.

    2007-01-01

    RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS A. F.BSCCO-2223. Radiation damage. INTRODUCTION The magnets incomponents be resistant to damage. One solution [1] is to

  19. A Damage-Revelation Rationale for Coupon Remedies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinsky, A. Mitchell; Rubinfeld, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    Bargaining and the Design of Damage Awards,” 10 Journal ofpage 1 Revised: March 2006 A DAMAGE-REVELATION RATIONALE FORin a setting in which damages vary among plaintiffs and are

  20. INSTANTANEOUS DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION THROUGH SPARSE LASER ULTRASONIC SCANNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INSTANTANEOUS DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION THROUGH SPARSE LASER ULTRASONIC SCANNING This study proposes an instantaneous damage identification and localization technique through sparse laser ultrasonic signals are obtained, a damage index (DI) representing the violation of the linear reciprocity

  1. A Damage-Revelation Rationale for Coupon Remedies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinsky, A. Mitchell; Rubinfeld, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    Bargaining and the Design of Damage Awards,’’ 10 Journal ofGramlich, Fred. 1986. ‘‘Scrip Damages in Antitrust Cases,’’in the Assessment of Damages,’’ 39 Journal of Law and

  2. Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheras, Anastasia Francis

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

  3. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  4. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the project from initiation through the second quarter of 2013.

  5. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the period through the third quarter of 2013.

  6. Ubiquitylation, neddylation and the DNA damage response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jessica S.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2015-04-01

    , collectively termed the DNA damage response (DDR), requires the recruitment and subsequent post-translational modification (PTM) of a complex network of proteins. Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) SUMO have established roles in regulating...

  7. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  8. Damage spreading and coupling in Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etienne P. Bernard; Cédric Chanal; Werner Krauth

    2011-06-23

    In this paper, we relate the coupling of Markov chains, at the basis of perfect sampling methods, with damage spreading, which captures the chaotic nature of stochastic dynamics. For two-dimensional spin glasses and hard spheres we point out that the obstacle to the application of perfect-sampling schemes is posed by damage spreading rather than by the survey problem of the entire configuration space. We find dynamical damage-spreading transitions deeply inside the paramagnetic and liquid phases, and show that critical values of the transition temperatures and densities depend on the coupling scheme. We discuss our findings in the light of a classic proof that for arbitrary Monte Carlo algorithms damage spreading can be avoided through non-Markovian coupling schemes.

  9. Micropatterned cell arrays for detecting DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Sukant

    2008-01-01

    Numerous agents are capable of interacting with DNA and damaging it. Permanent changes in the DNA structure can be both mutagenic and cytotoxic; therefore, methods to measure the susceptibility of cells to mutations are ...

  10. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  11. Dealing with Storm-Damaged Trees 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Melanie; Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-25

    -Damaged Trees Melanie R. Kirk, Extension Program Specialist, Eric L. Taylor, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, and C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Forestry, The Texas A&M University System Downed trees...

  12. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., George W. (Tijeras, NM); Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Brannon, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  13. Candidate wind-turbine generator site cumulative meteorological data summary and data for January 1982 through September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.; Bradymire, S.L.; Gregory, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    Summarized cumulative hourly meteorological data for 20 new sites selected in early 1980 as part of the expanded candidate site program are presented. The reporting period is July 1980 through September 1982. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and to provide data that could be considered representative of longer-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and in a topographic map showing the approximated location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of the information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for longer-term average wind energy production at each site. Two appendices of other data are provided. Appendix A contains summarized data collected at new and original sites during the period January 1982 through September 1982. Appendix B contains cumulative summarized data for those original sites selected in 1976 with data collection programs continuing into 1982.

  14. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  15. Plant Energy Profiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible CumulativeSavings PerformanceofPlant

  16. Plant-wide Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible CumulativeSavingsPlant-wide Systems

  17. Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible CumulativeSavingsPlant-wide

  18. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-Compatible CumulativeSavingsPlant-widePlastics

  19. Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone Kathy Whitaker.jpg #12;Introduction: Sodium Sulfate Thenardite: Na2SO4 Mirabilite: Na2SO4·10H2O Salt exposure for 5 weeks the stone by capillary uptake of water containing the dissolved salt. Degradation of mortar. #12

  20. Damage and Damage Prediction for Wood Shearwalls Subjected to Simulated Earthquake Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    -structure predictive damage model and its integration into the development of a performance-based seismic design and refinement of modern strength-based seismic design codes were in use. One result of this significant damage-based seismic design PBSD philosophy for woodframe structures. Such phi- losophies are currently being developed

  1. DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITES BY NONCONTACT LASER Byeongjin Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITES BY NONCONTACT LASER ULTRASONIC Byeongjin Park 1 , Hoon Sohn 1 author: p.malinowski@imp.gda.pl ABSTRACT This study proposes an instantaneous damage localization, are obtained. Then possible damage locations are estimated through time-of-flight triangulation of damage

  2. DAMAGE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS Faisal Shabbir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS Faisal Shabbir 1 , Piotr Omenzetter 2 1.omenzetter@abdn.ac.uk ABSTRACT It is common to estimate structural damage severity by updating a structural model against experimental responses at different damage states. When experimental results from the healthy and damaged

  3. RUPTURE BY DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN ROCKS David Amitrano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RUPTURE BY DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN ROCKS David Amitrano LIRIGM, Université J. Fourier, Grenoble of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin

  4. Ductile damage parameters identification for cold metal forming applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ductile damage parameters identification for cold metal forming applications Pierre damage mechanics is essential to predict failure during cold metal forming applications. Several damage models can be found in the literature. These damage models are coupled with the mechanical behavior so

  5. Structural damage detection using the holder exponent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Do, N. B. (Nguyen B.); Green, S. R. (Scott R.); Schwartz, T. A. (Timothy A.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper implements a damage detection strategy that identifies damage sensitive features associated with nonlinearities. Some rion-linezlrities result from discontinuities introduced into the data by certain types of darnage. These discontinuities may also result from noise in the measured dynamic response data or can be caused by random excitation of the system. The Holder Exponent, which is a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is used to detect the discontinuities. By studying the Holder bponent as a function af time, a statistical model is developed that classifies changes in the Holder Exponent that are associated with clamage-induced discontinuities. The results show that for certain cases, the Holder Exponent is an effective technique to detect damage.

  6. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  7. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  8. Seawater can damage Saudi sandstone oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahab, A.S. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

    1990-12-10

    Experiments have shown that formation damage from waterflooding of the Aramco and Alkhafji sandstones of Saudi Arabia will not occur if the salinity of the injected brines is higher than 20% NaCl. Because the connate water in these reservoirs has a high salt content of up to 231,000 ppm, Saudi oil fields are almost always susceptible to formation damage when flooded with seawater (about 38,500 ppm). The productive behavior of a reservoir can be affected by clay crystals developed within rock pores.

  9. Resistance of cotton to pink bollworm damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brazzel, J. R.

    1956-01-01

    for resistance to pink bollworra damage, College Station, Texas, 1SAI . 12. Group comparisons analyses for a number of cottons with Deltapine TA based on number of larvae re? covered per gram of boll weight in greenhouse screening experiments for pink... screening experiment for resistance to pink bollworm damage, College Station, Texas, 195U- 1955: (A) Deltapine 15, (B) G^ thurberi, (C) Texas 389, (D) MW-298, (E) G^ stocksii, '(F) Stoneville 2-B x G. tomentosum, (G) Hexaploia Z-61j., (H) MW-1U7 . ? 5U...

  10. Gabriele Simi1 BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Gabriele Simi1 BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and Other OperationalBar and SVTIntro to BaBar and SVT Radiation Environment Damage to Si Detectors Damage to Front End Electronics for Photon and KL detection DIRC for K/ separation DCH for charged particle tracking SVT for tracking

  11. To be submitted to Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics From the onset of damage to rupture: construction of responses with damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    To be submitted to Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics From the onset of damage to rupture: construction of responses with damage localization for a general class of gradient damage models Kim Pham solutions for the traction problem of an elastic damaging bar. This bar has a softening behavior which obeys

  12. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations, Laboratoire d'´etudes dynamiques F-91191 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Abstract Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydro- static

  13. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi-LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glüsenkamp, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  14. Cumulative analysis of the association between the gravitational wave detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER and the gamma-ray bursts detected by BATSE and BeppoSAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Astone; D. Babusci; M. Bassan; P. Carelli; E. Coccia; C. Cosmelli; S. D'Antonio; V. Fafone; F. Frontera; G. Giordano; C. Guidorzi; A. Marini; Y. Minenkov; I. Modena; G. Modestino; A. Moleti; E. Montanari; G. V. Pallottino; G. Pizzella; L. Quintieri; A. Rocchi; F. Ronga; L. Sperandio; R. Terenzi; G. Torrioli; M. Visco

    2005-02-10

    The statistical association between the output of the Gravitational Wave (GW) detectors EXPLORER and NAUTILUS and a list of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by the satellite experiments BATSE and BeppoSAX has been analyzed using cumulative algorithms. GW detector data collected between 1991 and 1999 have been correlated to the GRB flux peak times. The cumulative analysis of a large number of GRBs (387) allows to push the upper bound for the corresponding GW burst amplitude down to $h = 2.5\\cdot10^{-19}$.

  15. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  16. Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dincal, Selcuk

    2010-12-08

    is to provide NDE methodologies that simultaneously identify the location, the extent, and the severity of damage in general beams. By general beams, we mean beyond Euler-Bernoulli beams (i.e. slender beams) to deep beams and stubby beams whose response may...

  17. Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

    2004-09-30

    This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production...

  18. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore »(100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.« less

  19. 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BAOTOU EARTHQUAKE DAMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    frame gallery (west) of No. 5 coke oven system of BISC. It acted in the violation of the national, water towers, bridges, substations, gas holders, open-hearth furnaces and reservoirs etc, 50% of them and heat supplying pipe networks, as well as gas pipelines for the municipal utilities. Damages

  20. Physics-Based Multi-State Models of Passive Component Degradation for the R7 Reactor Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Layton, Robert F.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lowry, Peter P.

    2012-06-25

    Abstract: The Next Generation Systems Analysis Code - referred to as R7 - is reactor systems simulation software being developed to support the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. It will provide an integrated multi-physics environment, implemented in an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework that can produce risk and other performance insights on long-term reactor operations. An element of this simulation environment will be the performance of passive components and materials. Conventional models of component reliability are largely parametric, relying on plant service data to estimate component lifetimes and failure rates. This type of model has limited usefulness in the R7 environment where the intent is to explicitly determine the influence of physical stressors on component degradation. In this paper, we describe a new class of multi-state physics-based component models designed to be R7-compatible. These models capture the physics of materials degradation while also incorporating the effects of interventions and component rejuvenation. The models are implemented in a cumulative damage framework that allows the impact of an evolving physical environment to be addressed without recourse to resampling within the Monte Carlo-based UQ framework. The paper describes an application to stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metal welds - a principal contributor to potential loss of coolant accidents. So while R7 will have the more conventional capability of reactor simulation codes to model the impact of degraded components and systems on plant performance, the methodology described here allows R7 to model the inverse effect; the impact of the physical environment on component degradation and performance.

  1. Strategic Sourcing Dashboard Fiscal Year 2015 Program Summary: Our FY 15 savings was $9.5 million, with our cumulative program savings up to $38.4 million.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Strategic Sourcing Dashboard Fiscal Year 2015 Program Summary: Our FY 15 savings was $9.5 million, with our cumulative program savings up to $38.4 million. Significant Accomplishments/Activities/Risks for this Reporting Period (FY 15): We added new Strategic Sourcing savings of $1.2M annually with 19 different

  2. DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS CONSIDERING CHANGING EVNIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. FARRAR

    2001-05-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  3. Laser damage creates backdoors in quantum communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim Makarov; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Poompong Chaiwongkhot; Mathieu Gagne; Thomas Jennewein; Sarah Kaiser; Raman Kashyap; Matthieu Legre; Carter Minshull; Shihan Sajeed

    2015-10-12

    Quantum communication protocols such as quantum cloud computing, digital signatures, coin-tossing, secret-sharing, and key distribution, using similar optical technologies, claim to provide unconditional security guaranteed by quantum mechanics. Among these protocols, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is most scrutinized and believed to be guaranteed as long as implemented devices are properly characterized and existing implementation loopholes are identified and patched. Here we show that this assumption is not true. We experimentally demonstrate a class of attacks based on laser damage, capable of creating new security loopholes on-demand. We perform it on two different implementations of QKD and coin-tossing protocols, and create new information leakage side-channels. Our results show that quantum communication protocols cannot guarantee security alone, but will always have to be supported by additional technical countermeasures against laser damage.

  4. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  5. Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for self-seeding of soft x-ray free electron laser Title: Damage threshold of platinum coating used for...

  6. Conservation of Severely Damaged Paper Using Passivation Polymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eilert, Eloise

    2012-10-19

    This work examined the use of passivation polymers in the conservation of severely damaged paper. It specifically investigated the use of this functional polymer treatment to address the issues of damage to paper caused ...

  7. Single cell trapping and DNA damage analysis using microwell arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David

    With a direct link to cancer, aging, and heritable diseases as well as a critical role in cancer treatment, the importance of DNA damage is well-established. The intense interest in DNA damage in applications ranging from ...

  8. Damage analysis in asphalt concrete mixtures based on parameter relationships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Injun

    2004-11-15

    Asphalt pavements experience damage due to traffic loading under various environmental conditions. Damage can be caused by viscopl microcracks, fracture due to fatigue cracking, or fracture due to thermal cracking. Asphalt pavements have...

  9. Radiation damage in cubic-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) can be used for nuclear applications as an inert matrix for actinide immobilization or transmutation. Indeed, the large amount of native oxygen vacancies leads to a high radiation tolerance of this material owing to defect recombination occurring in the atomic displacements cascades induced by fast neutron irradiation or ion implantations, as showed by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Amorphization cannot be obtained in YSZ either by nuclear-collision or electronic-excitation damage, just like in urania. A kind of polygonization structure with slightly disoriented crystalline domains is obtained in both cases. In the first steps of damage, specific isolated point defects (like F+-type color centers) and point-defect clusters are produced by nuclear collisions with charged particles or neutrons. Further increase of damage leads to dislocation-loop formation, then to collapse of the dislocation network into a polygonization structure. For swift heavy ion irradiations, a similar polygonization structure is obtained above a threshold stopping power value of about 20-30 keV nm-1.

  10. Salvaging Timber: What should I do with my damaged timber? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-31

    preparation costs. Wind-damaged trees may not qualify as sawtimber because of the internal damage they suf- fered. Estimating in Damage Landowners should get help from professional foresters to determine the value of damaged tim- ber. However, if you... representative may be able to obtain this information for you. Determine the value of tim- ber lost as Timber value = acreage x timber value per acre Determining timber value per acre requires a tim- ber inventory. Wind storms tend to blow down trees...

  11. Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface in Forested Landscapes Andrew A- tems. In 1998, a severe ice storm damaged over ten million hectares of forest across northern New York investigated the spatial arrangement of forest damage at the terrestrial-aquatic interface, an ecological edge

  12. Tensile damage response from discrete element virtual testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tensile damage response from discrete element virtual testing A. DELAPLACE LMT-Cachan, ENS Cachan conditions on brittle materials, damage can generally not be re- duced to a simple scalar. Microcrack into account the damage anisotropy in phenomenological models is a possible option, but the identification

  13. Probabilistic Damage Detection Based on Large Area Electronics Sensing Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probabilistic Damage Detection Based on Large Area Electronics Sensing Sheets Yao Yao and Branko-stage damage detection and characterization requires continuous sensing over large areas of structure are not sensitive to damage. In this research, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations

  14. Photogrammetry Assisted Rapid Measurement of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Photogrammetry Assisted Rapid Measurement of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Fei Dai, PhD Hong for rapidly measuring structural damage induced in tall buildings by seismic events such as earthquakes) sustained at key floors along the edge of a damaged building. The measured drift can then be used to compute

  15. DAMAGE AND ROCKVOLATILE MIXTURE EFFECTS ON IMPACT CRATER FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    DAMAGE AND ROCK­VOLATILE MIXTURE EFFECTS ON IMPACT CRATER FORMATION JOHN D. O'KEEFE, SARAH T models for material damage, dilatancy, and inhomogeneous materials (mixtures). We found that a strength degradation (damage) model was necessary to produce faulting in homogeneous materials. Both normal and thrust

  16. Damage Detection and Characterization in Smart Material Structures \\Lambda y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damage Detection and Characterization in Smart Material Structures \\Lambda y H.T. Banks and Y. Wang Nos. NAS1­ 18605 and NAS1­19480. #12; 1 Introduction It has been known for some time that damage­maps'' as done in the thermal based tomography techniques of [BK1, BK2, BKW] wherein the damaged physical domain

  17. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION IN PLATES USING DLVs Dionisio Bernal1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION IN PLATES USING DLVs Dionisio Bernal1 and Ariel Levy2 Department of Civil Associate Professor, 2 Graduate Student ABSTRACT The performance of a technique to localize damage based on the computation of load vectors that create stress fields that bypass the damaged region is investigated

  18. Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences of Aerodynamics and Debris Laboratory University of Notre Dame The Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences east of the city of Houston. Initial reconnaissance suggested that the observed glass/cladding damage

  19. Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project 26 August 2014 ABSTRACT: The proposed Flagler County hurricane and storm damage reduction project is located on the northeast coast miles of shoreline to assess the feasibility of providing Federal Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction

  20. STOCHASTIC MODELING OF HURRICANE DAMAGE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    STOCHASTIC MODELING OF HURRICANE DAMAGE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE Rick Katz Institute for Study from Hurricanes (2) Stochastic Model for Damage (3) Effects of El Niño (4) Trends in Extreme Hurricanes (5) Unresolved Issues #12;(1) Economic Damage from Hurricanes · Data -- Pielke and Landsea (1998) Web

  1. Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Hope

    2012-01-01

    for Mechanical Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3.3 Connection to Mechanical Damage . . . . . . 3.41.2.5 Assessing mechanical damage . . 1.3 Bubble

  2. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    male germ cells handle DNA damage? Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.strand breaks and DNA base damage at different cellularrelationship to genetic damage, Mutat. Res. 216 (1989) 221-

  3. Abdominal damage control surgery and reconstruction: world society of emergency surgery position paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godat, Laura; Kobayashi, Leslie; Costantini, Todd; Coimbra, Raul

    2013-01-01

    as: Godat et al. : Abdominal damage control surgery andAD, Feliciano DV: Trauma damage control. In Trauma. 6thpatient which indicate damage control and predict outcome.

  4. Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iiiMethod for Estimation of Cavitation Damage for an EmbeddedMethod for Estimation of Cavitation Damage for an Embedded

  5. Damage, Fear, and Transformation: International Currency Systems and Postwar Japan's Currency Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sangbaik

    2012-01-01

    will suffer a serious damage. ” 291 Above, we have surveyedparticularly for alleviating the damage incurred by the yenDamage, Fear, and Transformation: International Currency

  6. Damage Identification of a Composite Beam Using Finite Element Model Updating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak; He, Xianfei; Conte, Joel P; De Callafon, Raymond A.

    2008-01-01

    Shevitz, D. W. (1996), Damage identification in structuresreview of vibration-based damage identification methods, TheM. , & Samman, M. M. (1991), Damage detection from changes

  7. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    male germ cells handle DNA damage? Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.strand breaks and DNA base damage at different cellularrelationship to genetic damage, Mutat. Res. 216 (1989) 221-

  8. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, but instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  9. Chapter 26 Cumulative Impacts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Public Works near Battleground, WA 109 Under Construction Road, Bridge, Bicycle and Pedestrian Improvements: improve various roads, bridges, and bicycle and...

  10. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

    1999-06-28

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

  11. Calculation of complex DNA damage induced by ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene Surdutovich; David C. Gallagher; Andrey V. Solov'yov

    2012-01-27

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of the complex damage of DNA irradiated by ions. The analysis and assessment of complex damage is important because cells in which it occurs are less likely to survive because the DNA repair mechanisms may not be sufficiently effective. We studied the flux of secondary electrons through the surface of nucleosomes and calculated the radial dose and the distribution of clustered damage around the ion's track. The calculated radial dose distribution is compared to simulations. The radial distribution of the complex damage is found to be different from that of the dose. Comparison with experiments may solve the question of what is more lethal for the cell, damage complexity or absorbed energy. We suggest a way to calculate the probability of cell death based on the complexity of the damage. This work is done within the framework of the phenomenon-based multiscale approach to radiation damage by ions.

  12. Damage detection for applications undergoing axial (membrane) response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffey (T.A.), Tijeras, NM (United States); Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper extends and applies recently reported damage identification methods, previously utilized for flexural vibrations only, to axial-type vibrations. The methods are applied to an 8-DOF linear spring-mass system, which models a multi-degree-of-freedom axial or membrane system. The goal of the work is to detect damage (as indicated by reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the damage elements. Two damage detection methods were investigated--the change-in-flexibility method and the damage-index method. Both were found to successfully locate the damaged element(s) for 10% reduction in element stiffness. The change-in-flexibility method indicated damage location even when only a limited number of lower modes were included.

  13. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2005-01-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  14. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2004-11-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  15. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cockroft, Nigel J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  16. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  17. Cumulative fission yields of short-lived isotopes under natural-abundance-boron-carbide-moderated neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce; Wittman, Richard S.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2015-04-09

    The availability of gamma spectroscopy data on samples containing mixed fission products at short times after irradiation is limited. Due to this limitation, data interpretation methods for gamma spectra of mixed fission product samples, where the individual fission products have not been chemically isolated from interferences, are not well-developed. The limitation is particularly pronounced for fast pooled neutron spectra because of the lack of available fast reactors in the United States. Samples containing the actinide isotopes 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu individually were subjected to a 2$ pulse in the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. To achieve a fission-energy neutron spectrum, the spectrum was tailored using a natural abundance boron carbide capsule to absorb neutrons in the thermal and epithermal region of the spectrum. Our tailored neutron spectrum is unique to the WSU reactor facility, consisting of a soft fission spectrum that contains some measurable flux in the resonance region. This results in a neutron spectrum at greater than 0.1 keV with an average energy of 70 keV, similar to fast reactor spectra and approaching that of 235U fission. Unique fission product gamma spectra were collected from 4 minutes to 1 week after fission using single-crystal high purity germanium detectors. Cumulative fission product yields measured in the current work generally agree with published fast pooled fission product yield values from ENDF/B-VII, though a bias was noted for 239Pu. The present work contributes to the compilation of energy-resolved fission product yield nuclear data for nuclear forensic purposes.

  18. Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Adare; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; R. Akimoto; H. Al-Bataineh; J. Alexander; H. Al-Ta'ani; A. Angerami; K. Aoki; N. Apadula; Y. Aramaki; H. Asano; E. C. Aschenauer; E. T. Atomssa; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; B. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; M. Bai; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; B. Bannier; K. N. Barish; B. Bassalleck; A. T. Basye; S. Bathe; V. Baublis; C. Baumann; S. Baumgart; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; R. Belmont; R. Bennett; A. Berdnikov; Y. Berdnikov; A. A. Bickley; D. Black; D. S. Blau; J. S. Bok; K. Boyle; M. L. Brooks; J. Bryslawskyj; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; S. Butsyk; C. M. Camacho; S. Campbell; P. Castera; C. -H. Chen; C. Y. Chi; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; J. B. Choi; S. Choi; R. K. Choudhury; P. Christiansen; T. Chujo; P. Chung; O. Chvala; V. Cianciolo; Z. Citron; B. A. Cole; M. Connors; P. Constantin; N. Cronin; N. Crossette; M. Csanád; T. Csörg?; T. Dahms; S. Dairaku; I. Danchev; K. Das; A. Datta; M. S. Daugherity; G. David; K. Dehmelt; A. Denisov; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; K. V. Dharmawardane; O. Dietzsch; L. Ding; A. Dion; J. H. Do; M. Donadelli; L. D'Orazio; O. Drapier; A. Drees; K. A. Drees; J. M. Durham; A. Durum; D. Dutta; S. Edwards; Y. V. Efremenko; F. Ellinghaus; T. Engelmore; A. Enokizono; H. En'yo; S. Esumi; K. O. Eyser; B. Fadem; D. E. Fields; M. Finger; M. Finger; \\, Jr.; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; K. Fujiwara; Y. Fukao; T. Fusayasu; K. Gainey; C. Gal; P. Garg; A. Garishvili; I. Garishvili; F. Giordano; A. Glenn; H. Gong; X. Gong; M. Gonin; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; Y. Gu; T. Gunji; L. Guo; H. -Å. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; J. S. Haggerty; K. I. Hahn; H. Hamagaki; J. Hamblen; R. Han; J. Hanks; E. P. Hartouni; K. Hashimoto; E. Haslum; R. Hayano; S. Hayashi; X. He; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; T. Hester; J. C. Hill; M. Hohlmann; R. S. Hollis; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; T. Horaguchi; Y. Hori; D. Hornback; S. Huang; T. Ichihara; R. Ichimiya; J. Ide; H. Iinuma; Y. Ikeda; K. Imai; Y. Imazu; J. Imrek; M. Inaba; A. Iordanova; D. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; A. Isinhue; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; D. Ivanishchev; B. V. Jacak; M. Javani; J. Jia; X. Jiang; J. Jin; B. M. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; D. S. Jumper; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; J. Kamin; S. Kaneti; B. H. Kang; J. H. Kang; J. S. Kang; J. Kapustinsky; K. Karatsu; M. Kasai; D. Kawall; M. Kawashima; A. V. Kazantsev; T. Kempel; J. A. Key; P. K. Khandai; A. Khanzadeev; K. M. Kijima; B. I. Kim; C. Kim; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; E. Kim; E. -J. Kim; H. J. Kim; K. -B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. -J. Kim; Y. K. Kim; E. Kinney; K. Kiriluk; Á. Kiss; E. Kistenev; J. Klatsky; D. Kleinjan; P. Kline; L. Kochenda; Y. Komatsu; B. Komkov; M. Konno; J. Koster; D. Kotchetkov; D. Kotov; A. Kozlov; A. Král; A. Kravitz; F. Krizek; G. J. Kunde; K. Kurita; M. Kurosawa; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; Y. S. Lai; J. G. Lajoie; A. Lebedev; B. Lee; D. M. Lee; J. Lee; K. Lee; K. B. Lee; K. S. Lee; S. H. Lee; S. R. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; M. Leitgab; E. Leitner; B. Lenzi; B. Lewis; X. Li; P. Liebing; S. H. Lim; L. A. Linden Levy; T. Liška; A. Litvinenko; H. Liu; M. X. Liu; B. Love; R. Luechtenborg; D. Lynch; C. F. Maguire; Y. I. Makdisi; M. Makek; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; A. Manion; V. I. Manko; E. Mannel; Y. Mao; T. Maruyama; H. Masui; S. Masumoto; F. Matathias; M. McCumber; P. L. McGaughey; D. McGlinchey; C. McKinney; N. Means; A. Meles; M. Mendoza; B. Meredith; Y. Miake; T. Mibe; J. Midori; A. C. Mignerey; P. Mikeš; K. Miki; A. Milov; D. K. Mishra; M. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; Y. Miyachi; S. Miyasaka; A. K. Mohanty; S. Mohapatra; H. J. Moon; Y. Morino; A. Morreale; D. P. Morrison; M. Moskowitz; S. Motschwiller; T. V. Moukhanova; T. Murakami; J. Murata; A. Mwai; T. Nagae; S. Nagamiya; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; M. I. Nagy; I. Nakagawa; Y. Nakamiya; K. R. Nakamura; T. Nakamura; K. Nakano; C. Nattrass; A. Nederlof; P. K. Netrakanti; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; M. Nihashi; T. Niida; R. Nouicer; N. Novitzky; A. Nukariya; A. S. Nyanin; H. Obayashi; E. O'Brien; S. X. Oda; C. A. Ogilvie; M. Oka; K. Okada; Y. Onuki; A. Oskarsson; M. Ouchida; K. Ozawa; R. Pak; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; B. H. Park; I. H. Park; J. Park; S. Park; S. K. Park; W. J. Park; S. F. Pate; L. Patel; H. Pei; J. -C. Peng; H. Pereira; D. V. Perepelitsa; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; R. Petti; C. Pinkenburg; R. P. Pisani; M. Proissl; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. Rak; A. Rakotozafindrabe; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; K. Reygers; D. Reynolds; V. Riabov; Y. Riabov; E. Richardson; N. Riveli; D. Roach; G. Roche; S. D. Rolnick; M. Rosati; C. A. Rosen; S. S. E. Rosendahl; P. Rosnet; P. Rukoyatkin; P. Ruži?ka; M. S. Ryu; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; T. Sakaguchi; K. Sakashita; H. Sako; V. Samsonov; M. Sano; S. Sano; M. Sarsour; S. Sato; T. Sato; S. Sawada; K. Sedgwick

    2015-06-25

    We report the measurement of cumulants ($C_n, n=1\\ldots4$) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity ($|\\eta|energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of $C_1/C_2 = \\mu/\\sigma^2$ and $C_3/C_1 = S\\sigma^3/\\mu$ can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy.

  19. Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Getter-Doped Polymer Transducer for Monitoring Cumulative Exposure: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Maitland, D J; Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Letts, S A; Trebes, J E

    2008-06-05

    A novel prototype optical sensor for monitoring cumulative hydrogen gas exposure was fabricated and evaluated. Chemical-to-optical transduction was accomplished by detecting the intensity of 670 nm laser light transmitted through a hydrogen getter-doped polymer film mounted at the end of an optical fiber; the transmittance of the composite film increased with uptake of hydrogen by the embedded getter. The composite film consisted of the hydrogen getter 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene, also known as DEB, with carbon-supported palladium catalyst embedded in silicone elastomer. Because the change in transmittance was irreversible and occurred continuously as the getter captured hydrogen, the sensor behaved like a dosimeter, providing a unique indication of the cumulative gas exposure.

  20. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  1. Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Slifer

    2007-11-28

    Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

  2. The application of ultrasonics to assess damage in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, John Gregory

    1985-01-01

    of the plies in the laminate, the loading history, and the current state of damage in the laminate. Reifsnider [1] describes damage in terms of 'critical elements' and 'subcr itical elements'. Critical elements are defined as damage which results... in the final failure of a laminate (i. e, , 0 degree ply failure in tensile loading, unstable plies that have not buckled under compressive loading, etc. ). Subcritical elements include porosity, micr ovoid growth, matrix or ack- ing, matrix/fiber debonding...

  3. Continuum-based Multiscale Computational Damage Modeling of Cementitous Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sun-Myung

    2011-08-08

    , aggregates, and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and interaction among components at meso-scale, and the interaction between reinforcements, such as fiber and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mortar matrix or the ITZ at nano scale in order to predict more... of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), an isotropic and anisotropic damage model coupled with a novel plasticity model for plain concrete is proposed in this research. Two different damage evolution laws...

  4. A matrix damage accumulation model for laminated composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, David Chi Shing

    1990-01-01

    and the damage variable. A complementary scalar valued dairiage variable was proposed by Rabotnov [33] as an extension. This damage variable & quantif'ying the reduction in load carrying area due to void formation. , was defined as The influence of the current... The aforeurentioned damage growth laws are representative of those found in the current literature. the nxajority of winch are of the evolutions rv type and share 22 a phenomenological basis. Some of these have been extensively modified for specific applications...

  5. 01-07-2000 - Undergroud Cables Damaged during Excavation Work...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 - Undergroud Cables Damaged during Excavation Work Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012000 File (public): 01-07-2000bluealert(2)...

  6. Demonstration of damage with a wireless sensor network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, Neal A.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2001-01-01

    A damage detection system was developed with commercially available wireless sensors. Statistical process control methods were used to monitor the correlation of vibration data from two accelerometers mounted across a joint. Changes in correlation were used to detect damage to the joint. All data processing was done remotely on a microprocessor integrated with the wireless sensors to allow for the transmission of a simple damaged or undamaged status for each monitored joint. Additionally, a portable demonstration structure was developed to showcase the capabilities of the damage detection system to monitor joint failure in real time.

  7. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High-Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alloy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High-Strength Al Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ;...

  8. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alloy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High Strength A1 Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ;...

  9. IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA AND CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE ACTIVITY BY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA AND CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE ACTIVITY BY SURFACTANT DISPERSION OR SOLVENT EXTRACT OF A REFERENCE DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATERIAL IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA...

  10. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is extended to October 27, 2010. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation More Documents & Publications CSCExtension.PDF...

  11. Thermomechanics of damage and fatigue by a phase field model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovambattista Amendola; Mauro Fabrizio

    2014-10-26

    In the paper we present an isothermal model for describing damage and fatigue by the use of the Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equation. Fatigue produces progressive damage, which is related with a variation of the internal structure of the material. The G-L equation studies the evolution of the order parameter, which describes the constitutive arrangement of the system and, in this framework, the evolution of damage. The thermodynamic coherence of the model is proved. In the last part of the work, we extend the results of the paper to a non-isothermal system, where fatigue contains thermal effects, which increase the damage of materials.

  12. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on...

  13. Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bataviciute, Gintare; Grigas, Povilas; Smalakys, Linas; Melninkaitis, Andrius [Laser Research Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the applicability of commonly used Damage Frequency Method (DFM) is addressed in the context of Laser-Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing with pulsed lasers. A simplified computer model representing the statistical interaction between laser irradiation and randomly distributed damage precursors is applied for Monte Carlo experiments. The reproducibility of LIDT predicted from DFM is examined under both idealized and realistic laser irradiation conditions by performing numerical 1-on-1 tests. A widely accepted linear fitting resulted in systematic errors when estimating LIDT and its error bars. For the same purpose, a Bayesian approach was proposed. A novel concept of parametric regression based on varying kernel and maximum likelihood fitting technique is introduced and studied. Such approach exhibited clear advantages over conventional linear fitting and led to more reproducible LIDT evaluation. Furthermore, LIDT error bars are obtained as a natural outcome of parametric fitting which exhibit realistic values. The proposed technique has been validated on two conventionally polished fused silica samples (355 nm, 5.7 ns).

  14. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Aleksandr [University of Liverpool; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

  15. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #843: Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction

  16. EP 1165-2-1 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EP 1165-2-1 30 Jul 99 13-1 CHAPTER 13 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION 13-1. The Federal Interest. Congress, in the Flood Control Act of 1936, established as a nationwide policy that flood control (i.e., flood damage consideration of all alternatives in controlling flood waters, reducing the susceptibility of property to flood

  17. Damage detection in mechanical structures using extreme value statistic.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worden, K.; Allen, D. W. (David W.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01

    The first and most important objective of any damage identification algorithms is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not. Many methods have been proposed for damage detection based on ideas of novelty detection founded in pattern recognition and multivariate statistics. The philosophy of novelty detection is simple. Features are first extracted from a baseline system to be monitored, and subsequent data are then compared to see if the new features are outliers, which significantly depart from the rest of population. In damage diagnosis problems, the assumption is that outliers are generated from a damaged condition of the monitored system. This damage classification necessitates the establishment of a decision boundary. Choosing this threshold value is often based on the assumption that the parent distribution of data is Gaussian in nature. While the problem of novelty detection focuses attention on the outlier or extreme values of the data i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution, the threshold selection using the normality assumption weighs the central population of data. Therefore, this normality assumption might impose potentially misleading behavior on damage classification, and is likely to lead the damage diagnosis astray. In this paper, extreme value statistics is integrated with the novelty detection to specifically model the tails of the distribution of interest. Finally, the proposed technique is demonstrated on simulated numerical data and time series data measured from an eight degree-of-freedom spring-mass system.

  18. Melt-band instabilities with two-phase damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudge, John F.; Bercovici, David

    2015-03-09

    phase. For the damage partitioning frac- tion we assume small values within the range 10?4 ? fI ? 10 ?2, which is comparable to that inferred by Rozel et al. (2011) and Austin & Evans (2007), although these studies were more rele- vant for damage...

  19. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore »that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  20. Proton Irradiation Damage Assessment of Carbon Reinforced Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Proton Irradiation Damage Assessment of Carbon Reinforced Composites: 2-D & 3-D Weaved Structures. of thermal expansion (CTE). #12;Positive news regarding 3D Carbon composite kept coming !! Irradiation damage-carbon under heavy irradiation (LHC Phase-I collimator material) Phase 2 Expose 2D & 3D carbon

  1. Walton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to reduce coastal storm damages by constructing berms and dunes along 18.8 miles of Walton County shoreline;vegetation and replacement of dune walkover structures as required. Material for the berm and duneWalton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL 13 December 2012 ABSTRACT

  2. Viscoelastic damage modeling of sinkhole formation Eyal Shalev*, Vladimir Lyakhovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Viscoelastic damage modeling of sinkhole formation Eyal Shalev*, Vladimir Lyakhovsky Geological 2012 Keywords: Sinkholes Damage Viscoelasticity Modeling a b s t r a c t The sinkholes along the Dead Sea coast are observed in two main sedimentary environments: alluvial fan sinkholes, which usually

  3. Solution found to chronic trim damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirl, P.A. [Design Engineering Control Components Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, CA (United States); Edwards, T.W. [Edwards (T.W.), Sun City, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    For some time, 2-inch single-stage gas-pressure letdown valve trim at a large Mideast oil and gas production facility suffered severe erosion damage, and experienced noise/vibration problems both within the valves themselves and the downstream piping. It was determined that the trim erosion which caused the problem was due to high oxide corrosion products from the upstream piping passing at high velocity (1,020 ft/sec) through the single-stage, drilled-hole-cage valve trim. This was also the source of the noise/vibration problems. Since it takes into account fluid density, it has been established that velocity head (V2/2) is a better criterion than just pure fluid velocity in judging design adequacy in pressure-reducing valves. It is very useful in eliminating the destructive effects of high fluid velocity and noise/vibration problems. In this case, the actual velocity head equaled 360 psi. For these reasons, it was decided to replace these single-stage pressure-reduction valves with multi-stage pressure-reduction valves capable of limiting this high velocity. These valves are described.

  4. How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

  5. Plate damage identification using wave propagation and impedance methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wait, J. R. (Jeannette R.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage in an aluminum plate. Piezoelectric (PZT) materials are used to actuatehense the dynamic response of the structure. Two damage identification techniques are integrated in this study, including Lamb wave propagations and impedance methods. In Lamb wave propagations, one PZT launches an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of PZT sensors. The changes in both wave attenuation and reflection are used to detect and locate the damage. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Both methods operate in high frequency ranges at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks or loose connections. This paper summarizes two methods used for damage identification, experimental procedures, and additional issues that can be used as a guideline for future investigations.

  6. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  7. Uncertainty of silicon 1-MeV damage function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danjaji, M.B.; Griffin, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the ASTM E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma as calculated from the ORNL Si cross-section evaluation. Experimental work has shown that observed damage ratios at various test facilities agree with the defined response function to within 5%. Here, a covariance matrix for the silicon 1-MeV neutron displacement damage function is developed. This uncertainty data will support the electronic radiation hardness-testing community and will permit silicon displacement damage sensors to be used in least squares spectrum adjustment codes.

  8. An analysis of the kinetics of thermal damage and movement of damage front in laser irradiated egg white 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeemi, Aamer Amjed

    1993-01-01

    the process of thermal coagulation. This study assumes tissue to be composed of two or more components, having different rates of damage. The results of this model are then used to find an effective rate of damage for a single rate model which would yield...

  9. Tsai, Hsiao, Bruneau: Overview of building damages in 921 Chi-Chi earthquake 93 Overview of Building Damages in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    Tsai, Hsiao, Bruneau: Overview of building damages in 921 Chi-Chi earthquake 93 Overview of Building Damages in 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake K.C. Tsai 1) Chiang Pi Hsiao 2) Michel Bruneau 3) 1) Professor, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of Interior, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3) Professor

  10. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening approach.

  11. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  12. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete [1]. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete [2] does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure [3]. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  13. Structural health monitoring (SHM) entails the use of structural response data to identify the existence, location, and severity of structural damage. However, damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    the existence, location, and severity of structural damage. However, damage detection is a challenging problem because damage is a local phenomenon difficult to observe using global measures of structural response. With the existence and location of damage unknown a priori, sensor strategies monitoring the structure

  14. Calibration of damage parameters is an important issue for the use of damage laws, and particularly for industrial manufacturing processes. This paper deals with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Abstract Calibration of damage parameters is an important issue for the use of damage laws Lemaitre damage parameters using tensile tests. An adapted objective function is built, and Efficient, ductile damage, global measurement. 1 Introduction An actual industrial issue is the study of material

  15. Characterization of Damage in Sandstones along the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for the Shallow Extent of Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    Characterization of Damage in Sandstones along the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for the Shallow Extent of Damage Generation ORY DOR,1,5 JUDITH S. CHESTER,2 YEHUDA BEN-ZION,1 shallow generation of rock damage during an earthquake rupture, we measure the degree of fracture damage

  16. Freeze-out radii extracted from three-pion cumulants in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALICE Collaboration

    2015-06-25

    In high-energy collisions, the spatio-temporal size of the particle production region can be measured using the Bose-Einstein correlations of identical bosons at low relative momentum. The source radii are typically extracted using two-pion correlations, and characterize the system at the last stage of interaction, called kinetic freeze-out. In low-multiplicity collisions, unlike in high-multiplicity collisions, two-pion correlations are substantially altered by background correlations, e.g. mini-jets. Such correlations can be suppressed using three-pion cumulant correlations. We present the first measurements of the size of the system at freeze-out extracted from three-pion cumulant correlations in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with ALICE. At similar multiplicity, the invariant radii extracted in p-Pb collisions are found to be 5-15% larger than those in pp, while those in Pb-Pb are 35-55% larger than those in p-Pb. Our measurements disfavor models which incorporate substantially stronger collective expansion in p-Pb as compared to pp collisions at similar multiplicity.

  17. Mathematical analysis of fully coupled approach to creep damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Shutov; A. -M. Saendig

    2006-01-25

    We prove the existence and uniqueness of solution to a classical creep damage problem. We formulate a sufficient condition for the problem to have a unique smooth solution, locally in time. This condition is stated in terms of smoothness of given data, such as solid geometry, boundary conditions, applied loads, and initial conditions. Counterexamples with an arbitrary small lifetime of a structure are also given, showing the mechanical interpretation of imposed smoothness conditions. The proposed theory gives a rigorous framework for a strain localization analysis. The influence of the damage gradient on the strain localization process is characterized within this framework and a measure of the damage localization is proposed.

  18. Assessing Hail and Freeze Damage to Field Corn and Sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen

    1995-11-30

    New Growth. Physical damage to young corn can be experienced from a freeze or heavy frost, from blowing sand and whipping in high winds, and from hail. Sometimes it may be a combination of several events. With each of these the growing point has... sunshine and temperatures above 55?F to support photosynthesis and to grow through any extended stress period once seed stores are depleted. Frost Damage (27 to 32?F). Tissue loss from frost damage is directly proportional to how low the temperature falls...

  19. Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Deepwater Horizon Trustees Announce Agreement in Principle for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ------- The Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustees (Trustees) today announced another Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment and restoration will continue until the publicDeepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Deepwater Horizon Trustees Announce Agreement

  20. Damage to HDPE geomembrane from interface shear over gravelly compacted clay liner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thielmann, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    R. S. (2011). “Geomembrane damage due to static and cyclic66 Figure 4.10. GM damage results after shearing for Testsshear displacement on shear strength and GM damage for test

  1. DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER degrees of damage. Excitation was performed in two ways: near the delamination zone to demonstrate their performance. We explore methods for determining damage. We first explore results

  2. RhoJ Regulates Melanoma Chemoresistance by Suppressing Pathways that Sense DNA Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Hsiang; Aruri, Jayavani; Kapadia, Rubina; Mehr, Hootan; White, Michael A.; Ganesan, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Pathways that Sense DNA Damage $watermark-text Hsiang Ho 1 ,16. Roos WP, Kaina B. DNA damage-induced apoptosis: FromDNA lesions to the DNA damage response and apoptosis. Cancer

  3. SUBSPACE-BASED DETECTION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE ON JACKET SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUBSPACE-BASED DETECTION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE ON JACKET SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines. KEYWORDS : Damage detection, Offshore wind turbines, Numerical response simulation. INTRODUCTION Offshore wind turbines are exposed

  4. Probabilistic aspects of progressive damage in composite structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynante, Brandon M

    2011-01-01

    The effects and importance of incorporating probabilistic aspects of the progression of damage in the analysis of composite structures are assessed. Two specific cases of graphite/epoxy with centrally-located holes are ...

  5. Obstacles to Determining Punitive Damages in Class Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Courts and commentators have often embraced the class action device as an ideal means of assessing punitive damages fairly in mass tort cases. In this Article, Professor Hines sounds a cautionary note by identifying a number of procedural...

  6. Embedded Damage Detection in Water Pipelines Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Embedded Damage Detection in Water Pipelines Using Wireless Sensor Networks Hadil Mustafa real-time detec- tion algorithm for detecting rupture events in water pipelines noninvasively reducing the total energy consumption significantly. Index Terms--Water pipeline monitoring, ruptures

  7. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  8. Activation and radiation damage in the environment of hadron accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiselev, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A component which suffers radiation damage usually also becomes radioactive, since the source of activation and radiation damage is the interaction of the material with particles from an accelerator or with reaction products. However, the underlying mechanisms of the two phenomena are different. These mechanisms are described here. Activation and radiation damage can have far-reaching consequences. Components such as targets, collimators, and beam dumps are the first candidates for failure as a result of radiation damage. This means that they have to be replaced or repaired. This takes time, during which personnel accumulate dose. If the dose to personnel at work would exceed permitted limits, remote handling becomes necessary. The remaining material has to be disposed of as radioactive waste, for which an elaborate procedure acceptable to the authorities is required. One of the requirements of the authorities is a complete nuclide inventory. The methods used for calculation of such inventories are presented,...

  9. Atomistic simulations of radiation damage in amorphous metal alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumer, Richard E. (Richard Edward)

    2013-01-01

    While numerous fundamental studies have characterized the atomic-level radiation response mechanisms in irradiated crystalline alloys, comparatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of radiation damage in amorphous ...

  10. Lengthscale effects in the damage and failure of composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Jeffrey Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to investigate and identify lengthscale effects associated with damage in composite materials and their structures, and to determine how these lengthscales vary across levels of ...

  11. Multiscale Computational Modeling of Multiphase Composites with Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Feifei

    2013-11-01

    A multiscale computational framework for multiphase composites considering damage is developed in this research. In micro-scale, micromechanics based homogenization methods are used to estimate effective elastic moduli of graded Ti_(2)Al...

  12. Secondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culled cohorts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    9. Lazarus, J. (2002) in Sex Ratios: Concepts and ResearchSecondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culledreduce the human secondary sex ratio (i.e. , the odds of a

  13. Viscoelastic{Viscoplastic Damage Model for Asphalt Concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Michael A.

    2010-10-12

    in experiments, and their model was limited to uniaxial loading. Chehab et al. (2003) developed a continuum viscoelastoplastic model for undamaged asphalt concrete, but its scope was also limited to uniaxial characterization. Uzan (2005) developed a damaged...

  14. Nondestrutive damage detection by simultaneous identification of stiffness and damping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyung, Sang Su

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a nondestructive damage evaluation methodology that can identify simultaneously both stiffness and damping changes in a structure. Two approaches are used to meet the stated objectives. First, a method...

  15. Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Brij D.

    2004-09-30

    (Member) (Head of Department) August 2003 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Evaluation of Moisture Damage within Asphalt Concrete Mixes. (August 2003) Brij D. Shah, B.E., Gujarat University Chair...

  16. Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressureof excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, andrange of approaches to model damage and permeability changes

  17. 2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, MC; Mansoor, S; Gupta, N; Falatoonzadeh, P; Kuppermann, BD

    2014-01-01

    a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage ina cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage ina cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in

  18. Development of a failure prediction method for damaged tubular members 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, James Edward

    1992-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A FAILURE PREDICTION METHOD FOR DAMAGED TUBULAR MEMBERS A Thesis by ZAMES EDWARD RITTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DEVELOPMEMT OF A FAILURE PREDICTION METHOD FOR DAMAGED TUBULAR MEMBER8 A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD RITTER Approved as to style and content by: T ry L. Kohutek (Chair of Committee) Loren D. Lutes...

  19. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert (Berkeley, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  20. An investigation of damage accumulation in graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norvell, Robert Gerald

    1985-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by ROBERT GERALD NORVELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by ROBERT GERALD NORVELL Approved as to style and content by: David H. Allen (Co-Chair of C mmitt. ) Richard A. Schap...

  1. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2014-12-22

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta $0.5flow, $v_2$, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, $v_3$ and $v_4$, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics $v_n$ measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to $v_n$ measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. Models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.

  2. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  3. West Shore Lake Pontchartrain Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project, LA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . There is a potential for direct, indirect and cumulative impacts to wetlands, wildlife, fisheries, and water quality of lands, easements, rights-of-way, relocations, and dredged or excavated material disposal areas (LERRD

  4. Three Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Weather Extremes on the United States' Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Phu Viet

    2013-01-01

    and Cumulative Damages of Weather Disasters in 1980-2003 •and Cumulative Damages of Weather Disasters in 1980-2003.Random Fluctuations in Weather”, American Economic Review,

  5. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond; Doug Adams

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

  6. STATISTICAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING SEQUENTIAL PROBABILITY RATIO TESTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOHN, HOON; ALLEN, DAVID W; WORDEN, KEITH; FARRAR, CHARLES R

    2002-02-16

    The primary objective of damage detection is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not within a structure of interest. In this study, a damage classification problem is cast in the context of the statistical pattern recognition paradigm. First, a time prediction model, called an autoregressive and autoregressive with exogenous inputs (AR-ARX) model, is fit to a vibration signal measured during a normal operating condition of the structure. When a new time signal is recorded from an unknown state of the system, the prediction errors are computed for the new data set using the time prediction model. When the structure undergoes structural degradation, it is expected that the prediction errors will increase for the damage case. Based on this premise, a damage classifier is constructed using a sequential hypothesis testing technique called the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The SPRT is one form of parametric statistical inference tests, and the adoption of the SPRT to damage detection problems can improve the early identification of conditions that could lead to performance degradation and safety concerns. The sequential test assumes a probability distribution of the sample data sets, and a Gaussian distribution of the sample data sets is often used. This assumption, however, might impose potentially misleading behavior on the extreme values of the data, i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution. As the problem of damage detection specifically focuses attention on the tails, the assumption of normality is likely to lead the analysis astray. To overcome this difficulty, the performance of the SPRT is improved by integrating extreme values statistics, which specifically models behavior in the tails of the distribution of interest into the SPRT.

  7. Isolation of flow and nonflow correlations by two- and four-particle cumulant measurements of azimuthal harmonics in ?sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdelwahab, N. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A data-driven method was applied to Au+Au collisions at ?sNN = 200 GeV made with the STAR detector at RHIC to isolate pseudorapidity distance ??-dependent and ??-independent correlations by using two- and four-particle azimuthal cumulant measurements. We identified a ??-independent component of the correlation, which is dominated by anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations. It was also found to be independent of ? within the measured range of pseudorapidity |?| T less than 2 GeV/c. The ??-dependent part, attributed to nonflow correlations, is found to be 5% ± 2%(sys.) relative to the flow of the measured second harmonic cumulant at |??| > 0.7. (author)

  8. An integrated active sensing system for damage identifcation and prognosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wait, J. R. (Jeannette R.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage. Two damage identification techniques, Lamb wave propagation and impedance-based methods, are investigated utilizing piezoelectric (PZT) actuators/sensors. The Lamb wave propagation and the impedance methods operate in high frequency ranges (typically > 30 kHz) at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks, debonding, delamination, and loose connections. In Lamb wave propagation, one PZT is used to launch an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of sensors. The technique used for the Lamb wave propagation method looks for the possibility of damage by tracking changes in transmission velocity and wave attenuation/reflections. Experimental results show that this method works well for surface anomalies. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Through monitoring the measured electrical impedance and comparing it to a baseline measurement, a decision can be made about whether or not structural damage has occurred or is imminent. In addition, significant advances have been made recently by incorporating advanced statistic-based signal processing techniques into the impedance methods. To date, several sets of experiments have been conducted on a cantilevered aluminum plate and composite plate to demonstrate the feasibility of this combined active sensing technology.

  9. Damage and Mortality Assessment of Redwood and Mixed Conifer Forest Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    347 Damage and Mortality Assessment of Redwood and Mixed Conifer Forest Types in Santa Cruz County left with tough decisions on how to treat tree damage and mortality compounded by the Pine Mountain a method for evaluating damage and mortality. Qualitative criteria for evaluating stand damage focused

  10. DNA Damage by Fasicularin Sanjay Dutta, Hideki Abe, Sakae Aoyagi, Chihiro Kibayashi, and Kent S. Gates*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Damage by Fasicularin Sanjay Dutta, Hideki Abe, Sakae Aoyagi, Chihiro Kibayashi, and Kent S that a DNA repair- deficient cell line is hypersensitive to fasicularin suggest that an ability to damage DNA of DNA damage. For example, oxidatiVe damage at guanine residues can also generate base-labile lesions.13

  11. DAMAGE DETECTION IN A WIND TURBINE BLADE BASED ON TIME SERIES Simon Hoell, Piotr Omenzetter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE DETECTION IN A WIND TURBINE BLADE BASED ON TIME SERIES METHODS Simon Hoell, Piotr Omenzetter (SHM) systems. Different methods have been developed for detection of damages in WT blades. However a damage detection method based on autocorrelations of response accelerations. The damage sensitive feature

  12. Damage In a Random Mlerstructure: Size Effects, Fractals, and Entropy Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    Damage In a Random Mler©structure: Size Effects, Fractals, and Entropy Maximization Martin Ostoja a micromechanical approach to damage growth in graph- representable microstructures is presented. Damage is denned in scatter of strength, and the fractal character of damage geometry, and thus provides a basis

  13. Radiation damage calculation in PHITS Y. Iwamoto1, K. Niita2, T. Sawai1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Radiation damage calculation in PHITS 1 Y. Iwamoto1, K. Niita2, T. Sawai1, R.M. Ronningen3, T Feb. ­ 15 Feb. 2012 #12;2 Introduction Radiation damage model in PHITS Radiation damage calculation As the power of proton and heavy-ion accelerators is increasing, the prediction of the structural damage

  14. Nonlinear damage rheology and wave resonance in rocks V. Lyakhovsky1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ampuero, Jean Paul

    1 Nonlinear damage rheology and wave resonance in rocks V. Lyakhovsky1 , Y. Hamiel1 , P. Ampuero2 of damaged materials with theoretical analyses and numerical simulations based on a nonlinear continuum damage model. Quasi-static simulations of damage accumulation under cyclic load reproduce the laboratory

  15. HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(2):205213, Fall 2007 Intrafield patterns of wildlife damage to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human­Wildlife Conflicts 1(2):205­213, Fall 2007 Intrafield patterns of wildlife damage to corn at reducing wildlife damage to row crops rely on information concerning the spatial nature of wildlife damage at local and landscape scales. In this study we explored spatial patterns of wildlife damage within

  16. DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A STEEL FRAME USING HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ji

    411 DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A STEEL FRAME USING HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE presents an experimental investigation of damage detection of a steel frame using electro damage in structures. Damages are introduced by completely loosening bolts over several locations

  17. Impurity Radiation from the LHCD Launcher During Operation in JET and Investigation of Launcher Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impurity Radiation from the LHCD Launcher During Operation in JET and Investigation of Launcher Damage

  18. A Review of Damage Detection and Health Monitoring of Mechanical Systems from Changes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Review of Damage Detection and Health Monitoring of Mechanical Systems from Changes of Damage Detection and Health Monitoring... 1 1. Introduction Damage are a main cause of structural failure of structural components by detection damage in structures in the early state. More specifically, structural

  19. A Novel Damage Sensitive Feature Based on State-Space Representation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Novel Damage Sensitive Feature Based on State-Space Representation1 ABSTRACT Damage detection and the variable and unknown excitation. There is still a lack of a robust damage detection process. Taking in a reconstructed state-space, a novel damage sensitive feature vector is proposed. Statistical modelling using

  20. Microfracturing, damage, and failure of brittle granites and Ze'ev Reches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Microfracturing, damage, and failure of brittle granites Oded Katz1 and Ze'ev Reches Institute; accepted 17 October 2003; published 20 January 2004. [1] The evolution of stress-induced damage the damage intensity in two methods and directly compare model predictions and actual damage. The 14 samples

  1. Bridge Damage and Repair Costs from Hurricane Katrina Jamie Padgett1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padgett, Jamie Ellen

    Bridge Damage and Repair Costs from Hurricane Katrina Jamie Padgett1 ; Reginald DesRoches2 ; Bryant to repair or replace the bridges damaged during the hurricane is estimated at over $1 billion. This paper describes the observed damage patterns to bridges, including damage attributed to storm surge, wind, impact

  2. Impact damage of carbon fiber polymermatrix composites, studied by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    properties; D. Non-destructive testing; Damage 1. Introduction Impact is a commonly encountered cause measurement, which is non-destructive, to evaluate impact damage after damage affliction. Although, resistance of the techniques, such as residual strength measurement, are destructive. Study of the impact damage process has

  3. The dynamic interplay between DNA damage and metabolism : the metabolic fate and transport of DNA lesions and novel DNA damage derived from intermediary metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jumpathong, Watthanachai

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores two novel and complementary facets of endogenous DNA damage: the development of biomarkers of inflammation based on metabolites of DNA damage products and the formation of DNA ...

  4. Analysis of bending properties for damaged laminated pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, A.; Nishiwaki, T.; Nakai, A.; Hamada, H.

    1996-12-01

    Various composite cylinders, such as braided cylinders, could be fabricated with a high volume fabrication method, using thermoplastic composites and so on. If so, usage of composite cylinder would be extended. In this paper, a new analytical model named Quasi-Three-Dimensional model was proposed and applied to a two-layered composite cylinder. Under various service environments, a damaged cylinder with interlaminar fracture often appeared. The calculated elastic modulus was decreased with an increase of the damaged area. From deformation states and stress distribution of interlaminae, some coupling effects were recognized, even if the analytical cylinder without any damage never showed any coupling effects. This result showed the usefulness of the Quasi-Three-Dimensional model.

  5. Thermomechanics of damageable materials under diffusion:modeling and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

    2014-12-16

    We propose a thermodynamically consistent general-purpose model describing diffusion of a solute or a fluid in a solid undergoing possible phase transformations and damage, beside possible visco-inelastic processes. Also heat generation/consumption/transfer is considered. Damage is modelled as rate-independent. The applications include metal-hydrogen systems with metal/hydride phase transformation, poroelastic rocks, structural and ferro/para-magnetic phase transformation, water and heat transport in concrete, and, if diffusion is neglected, plasticity with damage and viscoelasticity, etc. For the ensuing system of partial differential equations and inclusions, we prove existence of solutions by a carefully devised semi-implicit approximation scheme of the fractional-step type.

  6. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, E.; Devanathan, R.; Weber, W. J.; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Nordlund, K.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5?MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  7. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  8. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J; Seaton, M; Todorov, I T; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  9. Statistical damage identification techniques applied to the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    The statistical significance of vibration-based damage identification parameters is studied via application to the data from the tests performed on the Interstate 40 highway bridge in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A test of statistical significance is applied to the mean and confidence interval estimates of the modal properties and the corresponding damage indicators. The damage indicator used in this study is the change in the measured flexibility matrix. Previously presented deterministic results indicate that damage is detectable in all of the damage cases from these data sets. The results of this study indicate that the changes in both the modal properties and the damage indicators are statistically significant for all of the damage cases. However, these changes are distributed spatially for the first three damage cases and do not localize the damage until the fourth and final damage case.

  10. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  11. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  12. 1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C Dobson #12;2 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 S a l t D a m a g e De-icing Salt Damage Introduction Rock salt

  13. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Buenau, Kate E.; Kropp, Roy K.

    2013-12-01

    The listing of 13 salmon and steelhead stocks in the Columbia River basin (hereafter collectively referred to as “salmon”) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, has stimulated tidal wetland restoration in the lower 235 kilometers of the Columbia River and estuary for juvenile salmon habitat functions. The purpose of the research reported herein was to evaluate the effect on listed salmon of the restoration effort currently being conducted under the auspices of the federal Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Linking changes in the quality and landscape pattern of tidal wetlands in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) to salmon recovery is a complex problem because of the characteristics of the ecosystem, the salmon, the restoration actions, and available sampling technologies. Therefore, we designed an evidence-based approach to develop, synthesize, and evaluate information to determine early-stage (~10 years) outcomes of the CEERP. We developed an ecosystem conceptual model and from that, a primary hypothesis that habitat restoration activities in the LCRE have a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. There are two necessary conditions of the hypothesis: • habitat-based indicators of ecosystem controlling factors, processes, and structures show positive effects from restoration actions, and • fish-based indicators of ecosystem processes and functions show positive effects from restoration actions and habitats undergoing restoration. Our evidence-based approach to evaluate the primary hypothesis incorporated seven lines of evidence, most of which are drawn from the LCRE. The lines of evidence are spatial and temporal synergies, cumulative net ecosystem improvement, estuary-wide meta-analysis, offsite benefits to juvenile salmon, landscape condition evaluation, and evidence-based scoring of global literature. The general methods we used to develop information for the lines of evidence included field measurements, data analyses, modeling, meta-analysis, and reanalysis of previously collected data sets. We identified a set of 12 ancillary hypotheses regarding habitat and salmon response. Each ancillary hypothesis states that the response metric will trend toward conditions at relatively undisturbed reference sites. We synthesized the evidence for and against the two necessary conditions by using eleven causal criteria: strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, complete exposure pathway, and predictive performance. Our final evaluation included cumulative effects assessment because restoration is occurring at multiple sites and the collective effect is important to salmon recovery. We concluded that all five lines of evidence from the LCRE indicated positive habitat-based and fish-based responses to the restoration performed under the CEERP, although tide gate replacements on small sloughs were an exception. Our analyses suggested that hydrologic reconnections restore access for fish to move into a site to find prey produced there. Reconnections also restore the potential for the flux of prey from the site to the main stem river, where our data show that they are consumed by salmon. We infer that LCRE ecosystem restoration supports increased juvenile salmon growth and enhanced fitness (condition), thereby potentially improving survival rates during the early ocean stage.

  14. Microwave Cylindrical Reflection Imaging Array For Structural Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    States and elsewhere. However, seismic damage such as debonding between the jacket and the column, can signifi- cantly degrade the structural integrity and safety that could otherwise be attainable cylindrical array is developed and verified for its capabilities to assess the bonding condition of FRP

  15. Communication Damage monitoring of cement paste by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    on the use of electrical resistance measurement to sense strain in cement reinforced with short carbon fibers of curing [2±5]. How- ever, this paper is not concerned with carbon fiber-rein- forced cement. 2 in the elastic deformation regime. However, damage in the plastic deformation regime is much more significant

  16. AN EXPERIMENTALCOMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO THE INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Somnath

    Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Aviation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, U.S.A. and 2 ALCOA the in¯uence of morphological parameters on damage. Micro- mechanical modeling of two. INTRODUCTION The commercial use of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites in automotive, aerospace

  17. Abundance and genetic damage of barn swallows from Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    dose ionizing radiation increased genetic damage to their peripheral erythrocytes. We estimated,21 . A study on earthworms also demonstrated that animals from sites where radiation level was as low as 2.8 m Japan Bird Research Association, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan, 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University

  18. Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, H. (Hoon); Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01

    Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

  19. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-02-07

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

  20. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STEEL BUILDING DAMAGE FROM THE DARFIELD EARTHQUAKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    351 PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STEEL BUILDING DAMAGE FROM THE DARFIELD EARTHQUAKE OF SEPTEMBER 4, 2010 the Darfield earthquake of September 4, 2010, including concentrically braced frames, eccentrically braced this earthquake, but much of this is attributed to the fact that seismic demands from the Darfield earthquake were

  1. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  2. Specific grinding energy causing thermal damage in precision gear steels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatathodi, Srinivas

    2002-01-01

    This project is aimed at developing a better understanding of thermal damage caused by grinding of precision gear materials and also a model to predict the onset of burn in AISI 9310 gear steel. This study is concerned with the thermal aspects...

  3. Wildlife damage management professionals deal with very few

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , environmental degradation, or disease transmission, feral hogs play a substantial role. Earlier this year damage caused by feral hogs, a growing threat is transmission of diseases, primarily pseudorabies, Washington, DC 20250-3402, USA William H. Clay #12;138 Human­Wildlife C

  4. Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located and reservoirs that provides flood risk management benefits to the Kansas River basin. During project analysisTopeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan

  5. MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS* N. Simos# , H. Kirk, L. Trung, H under severe shock and high irradiation exposure. The limitations of solid materials to function as high performance targets and in particular the effects of irradiation on key material properties are assessed

  6. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

  7. Building Damage, Death and Downtime Risk Attenuation in Earthquakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinghui

    2012-07-16

    Whether it is for pre-event prevention and preparedness or for post-event response and recovery of a catastrophic earthquake, estimates of damage, death and downtime (3d) losses are needed by engineers, owners, and policy makers. In this research, a...

  8. Applying nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to improving thermal damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at interrogating the mechanical damage influence on the nonlinear response, applying bend- ing, or longitudinal in this paper. In addition, feasibility and sensitivity of applying shear modes for the NRUS method are explored modulus9 in the stress strain relationship in one dimension can be written M , = M0 1 - - 2 - ¯ - + sign

  9. Dynamics and Fatigue Damage of Wind Turbine Rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6 3 RiS0-Rr512 Dynamics and Fatigue Damage of Wind Turbine Rotors during Steady Operation Peter OF WIND TURBINE ROTORS DURING STEADY OPERATION Peter Hauge Madsen, Sten Frandsen, William E. Holley-carrying capacity of a wind turbine rotor with respect to short-term strength and material fatigue are presented

  10. Model-based Prognostics with Concurrent Damage Progression Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    and wear processes contribute to the overall component degradation. We develop a model- based prognostics-based model of a centrifugal pump that includes damage progression models, to which we apply our model Terms--model-based prognostics, particle filters, vari- ance control, centrifugal pumps I. INTRODUCTION

  11. ELECTROMECHANICAL IMPEDANCE METHOD FOR DAMAGE DETECTION IN MECHANICAL STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELECTROMECHANICAL IMPEDANCE METHOD FOR DAMAGE DETECTION IN MECHANICAL STRUCTURES MATEUSZ ROSIEK@agh.edu.pl Abstract Non-destructive measurements of an electromechanical impedance allow for the effective assessment structure was excited to vibrate at high frequency range and electromechanical impedance plots were obtained

  12. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  13. CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage in Eleven and is exceeding its ambitious Kyoto commitment. Hence, it is commonly portrayed as a climate-policy success story. Third, researchers on climate policies should more often begin with outcomes, work backward to policies

  14. Collateral damage of Facebook Apps: an enhanced privacy scoring model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Collateral damage of Facebook Apps: an enhanced privacy scoring model Iraklis Symeonidis1 , Filipe relationships on Facebook often entails in- formation sharing which is based on the social trust and implicit con- tract between users and their friends. In this context, Facebook of- fers applications (Apps

  15. Multiscale modeling of damage in multidirectional composite laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Chandra Veer

    2009-05-15

    n= p]s laminates. : : : : : : : 166 xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Market expansion of carbon bers in the past few decades (source: [9]). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 Percentage of composite...]). : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 4 Various mechanisms of damage in composite laminates. : : : : : : : : 6 5 The stress strain curves for borosilicate glass alone (dotted line) and reinforced with aligned carbon bers (source: [12]). : : : : : : : : 7 6 Strain to initiate...

  16. Estimating Hurricane Outage and Damage Risk in Power Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Seung Ryong

    2009-05-15

    Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the U.S., and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing...

  17. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  18. Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2008-01-15

    This is the second of two papers on the results of radiation-induced damage accumulation in titanate ceramics that potentially could be used for weapons grade plutonium disposition. In the first paper we discussed the results from pyrochlore (betafite) based ceramics. In this paper, we discuss the effects of radiation-induced damage on the density and crystal structure of a nominally phase-pure zirconolite and two other zirconolite-bearing ceramics from the alpha decay of 238Pu. Macro (bulk) and micro (X-ray diffraction) swelling were found to be temperature independent, whereas the density determined with He gas pycnometry was temperature dependent. It took approximately 740 days (2.6?1018 ?/g) for the specimens to become X-ray amorphous—longer for the swelling to saturate. Unlike what we observed for the pyrochlore-based ceramics, we did not observe any phase changes associated with storage temperature and damage ingrowth. The forward dissolution rate at a pH value of 2 for material containing essentially all zirconolite is 1.7(4)?10-3 g/(m2?d). Very little pH dependence was observed for zirconolite specimens and, like we observed for the pyrochlore-bearing ceramics in this study, there was no dependence on the amount of radiation-induced damage. As with the pyrochlore, these materials did not become substantially friable with increasing radiation-induced damage. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, the material remains physically a viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  19. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  20. MICROWAVE IMAGING FOR DAMAGE DETECTION Microwave imaging technology has been developed to detect invisible damage such as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    MICROWAVE IMAGING FOR DAMAGE DETECTION By ABSTRACT Microwave imaging technology has been developed to construct 2D and 3D objects from the scattered microwave fields. Both numerical simulation and experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed microwave imaging technology in detecting voids inside

  1. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is summarized as follows: Step 1, Cable Modeling: Given input-output TDR signals s(n) and x{sub U}(n) for a cable known to be free of damage, system identification algorithms are used to compute a dynamic prediction-error cable model that has output {cflx x}{sub U}(n). The model is declared valid when the innovations e{sub U}(n) = x{sub U}(n) {cflx x}{sub U}(n) satisfy a statistical zero-mean whiteness test. This validated model output is then used as a known reference to which other cables can be compared. Step 2, Cable Testing: The TDR output signal x{sub D}(n) from a cable under test is compared with the model output {cflx x}{sub U}(n) by computing the innovations e{sub D}(n) = x{sub D}(n) {cflx x}{sub U}(n). The innovations are tested using a short-term whiteness test statistic, which employs a statistical confidence interval. If the cable passes the test, this implies that the model is valid and the cable is declared undamaged. If the cable fails the test, this indicates a model mismatch, which means that the cable's dielectric properties have changed; and this implies that the cable is damaged. The test threshold is adjusted to maximize probability of detection and minimize probability of false alarm according to an empirically determined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. An associated confidence interval on the probability of correct classification is also provided. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated using measured TDR signals for undamaged and damaged cables. Experimental and algorithmic methods for coping with repeatability issues are presented. The model-based damage detection algorithms have been shown to perform well for some representative examples of real TDR signals acquired using the two-dimensional (2D) mockup fixture. If the damage causes a short circuit, then damage detection performance is generally good to excellent. Examples include the cases demonstrated in this report for cuts and pinholes. If the damage does not cause a short circuit, then damage detection performance is generally poor to fair. Examples include

  2. K. Pham et alii, Frattura ed Integrit Strutturale, 19 (2012) 5-19; DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.19.01 Damage localization and rupture with gradient damage models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2012-01-01

    Damage localization and rupture with gradient damage models K. Pham Université Pierre et Marie Curie of an elastic-damaging material whose softening behavior is regularized by a gradient damage model. We show that at the center of the localization zone when the damage reaches there the critical value corresponding

  3. Damage mechanics characterization on fatigue behavior of a solder joint material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, C.L.; Yang, F. [Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fang, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics Dept.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the first part of a comprehensive mechanics approach capable of predicting the integrity and reliability of solder joint material under fatigue loading without viscoplastic damage considerations. A separate report will be made to present a comprehensive damage model describing life prediction of the solder material under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The method is based on a theory of damage mechanics which makes possible a macroscopic description of the successive material deterioration caused by the presence of microcracks/voids in engineering materials. A damage mechanics model based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes with internal state variables is proposed and used to provide a unified approach in characterizing the cyclic behavior of a typical solder material. With the introduction of a damage effect tensor, the constitutive equations are derived to enable the formulation of a fatigue damage dissipative potential function and a fatigue damage criterion. The fatigue evolution is subsequently developed based on the hypothesis that the overall damage is induced by the accumulation of fatigue and plastic damage. This damage mechanics approach offers a systematic and versatile means that is effective in modeling the entire process of material failure ranging from damage initiation and propagation leading eventually to macro-crack initiation and growth. As the model takes into account the load history effect and the interaction between plasticity damage and fatigue damage, with the aid of a modified general purpose finite element program, the method can readily be applied to estimate the fatigue life of solder joints under different loading conditions.

  4. CUMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (CEMA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Project Description: "An Introduction to Groundwater and Oil Sands Operations." Plain language report about groundwater in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Includes an overview of basic hydrology, groundwater monitoring, and basic oil sands operations as they relate to groundwater. Video illustration

  5. Five-Year Cumulative Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    202 Number 2, February, 1978 "Eros, Freedom, and Constraint in Plato's Symposium and Phaedrus" by VeVonique Fo'ti, Boston College "Toward a Defense of Direct Realism" by Lawrence Richard Carleton, University of Minnesota "Quinn on Ethical Egoism... 202 Number 2, February, 1978 "Eros, Freedom, and Constraint in Plato's Symposium and Phaedrus" by VeVonique Fo'ti, Boston College "Toward a Defense of Direct Realism" by Lawrence Richard Carleton, University of Minnesota "Quinn on Ethical Egoism...

  6. Considering Cumulative Effects under NEPA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) AugustA. Geographic Available for saleCHAPTER

  7. Cumulative Impacts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June2012environment 3D31, 2015 |

  8. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-03-28

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  9. Acoustic emission from fiber reinforced plastic damaged hoop wrapped cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhtar, A.; Kung, D.; Westbrook, D.R.

    2000-03-01

    Metal lined continuous fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) hoop wrapped cylinders with axial cuts to the FRP were modeled mathematically and tested experimentally. Steel lined and aluminum alloy lined glass FRP vessels were subjected to acoustic emission tests (AE) and hydraulic burst tests. The burst pressure decreased monotonically with the length of the axial cut. Acoustic emission increased initially with a decrease in burst pressure, and attained a maximum at an intermediate level of damage to the FRP. However, acoustic emission decreased when the level of damage was higher and the burst pressure was lower. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the search for an acoustic emission test method to inspect periodically the vessels used for the storage of compressed gaseous fuels on natural gas vehicles (NGV) and hydrogen vehicles.

  10. Evaluation of ATWS core damage frequency for a BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, K.; Ilberg, D.; Hanan, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a study performed to evaluate the core damage frequency contribution from Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) in a BWR/4 plant. Discussions on improvements in the design and operation of BWR plants to reduce the likelihood of occurrence and core damage frequency of ATWS have continued for years. In November 1981, subsequent to the issuance of three alternate proposed ATWS rules, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission invited comments on these rules. In June 1984, a final rule on the reduction of risk from ATWS events was issued. In the study, it is assumed that the BWR/4 reactor is of an earlier vintage. However, only two of the modifications have been implemented in accordance with the final rule: a diverse scram system and automatic recirculation pump trip. It is further assumed that the setpoint for Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) closure is at reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level 1 and that the BWR emergency procedure guidelines are implemented.

  11. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore »density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  12. Scientists Assess Damage Caused by Earthquake near Amchitka | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTIONEnergy Scientists Assess Damage Caused by

  13. Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China Mun S. Ho andEconomic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, MA:the assessment of air pollution and its health and economic

  14. Alkbh8 Regulates Selenocysteine-Protein Expression to Protect against Reactive Oxygen Species Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres, Lauren

    Environmental and metabolic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage DNA, proteins and lipids to promote disease. Regulation of gene expression can prevent this damage and can include increased transcription, ...

  15. Engineering a single cell microarray platform for high throughput DNA damage and repair analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weingeist, David McGregor

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to cancer, aging, and heritable diseases. Ironically, DNA damaging agents are also commonly used in current cancer treatment. We therefore need robust, high throughput, and inexpensive tools for ...

  16. Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

  17. Predictive storm damage modeling and optimizing crew response to improve storm response operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whipple, Sean David

    2014-01-01

    Utility infrastructures are constantly damaged by naturally occurring weather. Such damage results in customer service interruption and repairs are necessary to return the system to normal operation. In most cases these ...

  18. A Performance Comparison of Condition Based Monitoring Damage Features Used in Rotating Machines under Variable Conditions /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Luke Thomas

    2013-01-01

    on the top of the second main bearing housing closest to thePower Spectra for Main Shaft Bearing Ball Fault Damage @Distributions for Main Shaft Bearing Ball Fault Damage @

  19. Regulation of DNA damage tolerance : studies of the translesion synthesis DNA ploymerase eta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Rachel Van Etten

    2008-01-01

    All organisms must control the effects of DNA damage to protect the integrity of their genomes. In addition to DNA repair, this requires DNA damage tolerance pathways, which allow the continuation of essential processes ...

  20. Statutory Damages in Copyright Law: A Remedy in Need of Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela; Wheatland, Tara

    2009-01-01

    license was terminated) obtained statutory damage awards ofdamage award which was more than 200 times the lost licenselicense fee to which the plaintiff was entitled). Courts sometimes also segment statutory damage awards

  1. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Engineering survey building damage assessment training manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The training objectives are: differentiate between the various levels of damage caused to buildings and structures by an earthquake and classify them as to their safety of occupancy, extent of damage, and resources needed for recovery/repair.

  2. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Tucson, AZ); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Popovich, Dragan (Redmond, WA); Halloran, Joseph P. (Tucson, AZ); Fulcher, Michael L. (Tucson, AZ); Cook, Randy C. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  3. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Dragony

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including ...

  4. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2005-12-13

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  5. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Mulligan, Anthony C.; Popovich, Dragan

    2004-03-23

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  6. Piezoelectric-based in-situ damage detection of composite materials for structural health monitoring systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Seth Stovack, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This thesis presents the conclusions of an analytical and experimental survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage ...

  7. An overview of modal-based damage identification methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Analysis Group

    1997-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of methods that examine changes in measured vibration response to detect, locate, and characterize damage in structural and mechanical systems. The basic idea behind this technology is that modal parameters (notably frequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping) are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, damping, and stiffness). Therefore, changes in the physical properties will cause detectable changes in the modal properties. The motivation for the development of this technology is first provided. The methods are then categorized according to various criteria such as the level of damage detection provided, model-based vs. non-model-based methods and linear vs. nonlinear methods. This overview is limited to methods that can be adapted to a wide range of structures (i.e., are not dependent on a particular assumed model form for the system such as beam-bending behavior and methods and that are not based on updating finite element models). Next, the methods are described in general terms including difficulties associated with their implementation and their fidelity. Past, current and future-planned applications of this technology to actual engineering systems are summarized. The paper concludes with a discussion of critical issues for future research in the area of modal-based damage identification.

  8. [Localized fracture damage effects in toughened ceramics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The primary research goal was to investigate localized fracture damage due to single point cutting of ceramic materials and then to compare this to multipoint cutting during precision grinding of the same materials. Two test systems were designed and constructed for the single-point cutting tests. The first system used a PZT actuator for closed-loop load control. An acoustic emission data acquisition system was used for crack initiation detection. The second test system employed a high-precision diamond-turning machine for closed-loop position (cutting depth) control. A high stiffness load cell and data acquisition system were used for crack initiation detection. Microcutting tests were carried out on silicon, borosilicate glass and CVD silicon carbide. The crack initiation thresholds and the fracture damage distribution were determined as a function of the loading conditions using a Vickers diamond as the cutting tool. The grinding tests were done using a plunge-grinding technique with metal-bonded diamond wheels. Optical microscopy, surface roughness and specific cutting energy were measured in order to characterize the fracture damage as a function of the grinding infeed rate. Simulation models were developed in order to estimate the average grain-depth of cut in grinding so that the response could be compared to the single-point microcutting tests.

  9. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  10. Assessment of Natural Hazard Damage and Reconstruction: A Case Study from Band Aceh, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Thomas; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Braughton, Matt; Cooke, Abigail M.; Armenta, Tiffany; Thomas, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    mapping to assist flood risk and flood damage assessment.Banda Aceh. Flood estimations of populations at risk depend

  11. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  12. Isolation of flow and nonflow correlations by two- and four-particle cumulant measurements of azimuthal harmonics in ?sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdelwahab, N. M.

    2015-04-21

    A data-driven method was applied to Au+Au collisions at ?sNN = 200 GeV made with the STAR detector at RHIC to isolate pseudorapidity distance ??-dependent and ??-independent correlations by using two- and four-particle azimuthal cumulant measurements. We identified a ??-independent component of the correlation, which is dominated by anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations. It was also found to be independent of ? within the measured range of pseudorapidity |?| T less than 2 GeV/c. The ??-dependent part, attributed tomore »nonflow correlations, is found to be 5% ± 2%(sys.) relative to the flow of the measured second harmonic cumulant at |??| > 0.7. (author)« less

  13. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage Independent External Peer Review Report for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage Reduction Plan PEER REVIEW REPORT for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage Reduction Plan EXECUTIVE SUMMARY White

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Augmented Reality-Assisted Building Damage Reconnaissance Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    .1 Reconfigurable Virtual Prototype of Seismically Damaged Building 11 4.2 Damage Modeling 13 4.3 Camera with Instrument Error 29 6. Conclusion 32 #12;4 ABASTRCT The timely and accurate assessment of the damage in determining the building's structural safety and suitability for future occupancy. Among many indicators

  15. SIMULTANEOUS DAMAGE DETECTION AND DEFLECTION MEASUREMENT OF MORPHING WING STRUCTURES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of an EU-FP7 project named "Fiber Optic System for Deflection and Damage Detection (FOS3D)" [5]. The systemSIMULTANEOUS DAMAGE DETECTION AND DEFLECTION MEASUREMENT OF MORPHING WING STRUCTURES BY FIBER OPTIC of simultaneous damage detection and deflection measurement of morphing CFRP honeycomb structure by fiber optic

  16. An elasto-plastic damage model cast in a co-rotational kinematic framework for large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masud, Arif

    An elasto-plastic damage model cast in a co-rotational kinematic framework for large deformation an elasto-plastic damage model that is based on irreversible thermodynamics and internal state variable that is defined in terms of an internal damage variable of energy, along with a set of rate-independent elasto-plastic

  17. IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES OF HIGH POWER ACCELERATOR MATERIALS Nicholas Simos1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IWSMT8 IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES OF HIGH POWER ACCELERATOR MATERIALS Nicholas Simos1 , H.G. Kirk@bnl.gov, telephone: 631-344-7229, fax: 631 344-7650) #12;IWSMT8 IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES OF HIGH-POWER ACCELERATOR which leads to accumulated irradiation damage, also endure short exposure that manifests itself

  18. DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence That the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin Tirapazamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence That the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2

  19. DAMAGE DETECTION AND LOCALISATION USING MODE-BASED METHOD AND PERTURBATION THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DAMAGE DETECTION AND LOCALISATION USING MODE-BASED METHOD AND PERTURBATION THEORY Alaa Hamze1 analysis technique. The damage is considered as a local perturbation of Young's modulus. Finally, the localisation of damage is done using classical modal-based methods and perturbation theory. The frequency

  20. Anisotropic damage modelling of biaxial behaviour and rupture of concrete structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anisotropic damage modelling of biaxial behaviour and rupture of concrete structures Ragueneau F with damage induced anisotropy modelling for concrete-like materials. A thermodynamics based constitutive relationship is presented coupling anisotropic damage and elasticity. The biaxial behaviour of such a model

  1. A QUASISTATIC EVOLUTION MODEL FOR THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FRACTURE AND DAMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A QUASISTATIC EVOLUTION MODEL FOR THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FRACTURE AND DAMAGE JEAN- tinuum which undergoes damage and possibly fracture. In both cases, the model appears to be ill posed so that the material prefers to form microstructures through the creation of fine mix- tures between the damaged

  2. Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Heather M.

    Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault damage zones Heather M. Savage1,2 and Emily E. Brodsky1 Received 22 April 2010; revised 10 of fracture distributions as a function of displacement to determine whether damage around small and large

  3. EFFECT OF A DAMAGE TO MODAL PARAMETERS OFA WIND TURBINE Gunner Chr. Larsen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EFFECT OF A DAMAGE TO MODAL PARAMETERS OFA WIND TURBINE BLADE Gunner Chr. Larsen1 , Peter Berring1 detailed FE model of the same blade using 3D solid elements. Both an undamaged and a damaged blade little due to a significant artificial damage imposed in trailing edge, whereas the mode shapes

  4. Identifying damage locations under ambient vibrations utilizing vector autoregressive models and Mahalanobis distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identifying damage locations under ambient vibrations utilizing vector autoregressive models Keywords: Damage location Ambient vibration Vector Autoregressive model Statistical pattern recognition Bridges Structural health monitoring a b s t r a c t This paper presents a study for identifying damage

  5. DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A BENCHMARK CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE USING THE INTERPOLATION METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A BENCHMARK CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE USING THE INTERPOLATION METHOD Marco mariagiuseppina.limongelli@polimi.it ABSTRACT In this paper the damage localization algorithm based on Operational Deformed Shapes (ODS) and known as Interpolation Damage Detection Method (IDDM), is applied

  6. Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation 2012, Nantes, France 2045 #12;Presented in this paper, a time-frequency damage characterization Emission (AE) signals by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). It is to be noted that the study of damage

  7. Damage Identification for Bridges Using Frequency and Time Domain Data Amir Ardalan Mosavi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damage Identification for Bridges Using Frequency and Time Domain Data Amir Ardalan Mosavi1 Error predictions of the ARX model x , y Standard deviations of the prediction errors DF,H , DF,D Damage Features calculated for healthy and damaged conditions of the structure f(DF,H) , g(DF,D) Probability

  8. Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors VICTOR of structural damage such as fatigue cracks and corrosion. Two main detection strategies are considered: (a) the wave propagation method for far-field damage detection; and (b) the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance

  9. Damage to nearby divertor components of ITER-like devices during giant ELMs and disruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Damage to nearby divertor components of ITER-like devices during giant ELMs and disruptions. Fusion 50 (2010) 115004 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/50/11/115004 Damage to nearby divertor components. The simulation results of the integrated modelling indicate a significant potential damage of the divertor nearby

  10. Damage Rate in V.V. -1 -M. Youssef, UCLA MZY_APEX_98_1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Damage Rate in V.V. -1 - M. Youssef, UCLA MZY_APEX_98_1 APEX Study Memorandum March 24.1998 Title: Damage Rate in V.V. as a Function of Convective Layer Thickness To: APEX Study Participants From: Mahmoud: Preliminary calculations were performed to access the damage rate in the vacuum vessel as a function

  11. STRUCTURAL-DAMAGE DETECTION BY DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS AND TUNED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STRUCTURAL-DAMAGE DETECTION BY DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS AND TUNED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS F Geotecnica, Rome, Italy A novel technique for damage detection of structures is introduced and discussed measurements, it allows for accurate results in the identification and localization of damages. Use

  12. Urban damage assessment using multimodal QuickBird images and ancillary data: the Bam and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Urban damage assessment using multimodal QuickBird images and ancillary data: the Bam proved its usefulness for the crisis mitigation through situation report and damage assessment. Visual. We propose a semi-automatic damage assessment method based on a pair of very high spatial resolution

  13. A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage systems can become unavailable due to system failures or damage to the system; in both cases, system the more specific availability studies take battlefield damage into account. This paper aims to define

  14. Damage and seismic velocity structure of pulverized rocks near the San Andreas Fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    Damage and seismic velocity structure of pulverized rocks near the San Andreas Fault Marieke Rempe south of Littlerock, California. The examined site has a strongly asymmetric damage structure with respect to the SAF core. The conglomerates to the southwest show little to no damage, whereas a ~100 m

  15. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Protects the Kidney from Hypertension-Induced Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Protects the Kidney from Hypertension-Induced Damage XUEYING hypertension in- duced renal damage. Chronic administration of the specific SEH inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-3 by histol- ogy. Urinary albumin excretion, an index of renal damage, was also lower in CDU

  16. Antaphid interactions on Asclepias syriaca are mediated by plant genotype and caterpillar damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, Kailen A.

    1 Ant­aphid interactions on Asclepias syriaca are mediated by plant genotype and caterpillar damage in induced responses to herbivory. Here we test whether induced responses to leaf damage and genotypic-way factorial field experiment manipulating plant genotype, leaf damage by specialist monarch caterpillars

  17. STRUCTURAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION COMPARISON USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND BAYESIAN MODEL SELECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    STRUCTURAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION COMPARISON USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND BAYESIAN MODEL, CA, USA 92093-0085 mdtodd@ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Since all damage identification strategies inevitably in the decision-making process of damage detection, classification, and prognosis, which employs training data (or

  18. Upregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase in proximal tubular cells mediated proteinuria-induced renal damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    -induced renal damage Qian Wang,1,3 * Wei Pang,2 * Zhuan Cui,1 Junbao Shi,1 Yan Liu,2 Bo Liu,2 Yunfeng Zhou,2- lase in proximal tubular cells mediated proteinuria-induced renal damage. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. To investigate the role of sEH in proteinuria-induced renal damage, we incubated purified urine protein from

  19. Robust damage assessment of multiple cracks based on the Frequency Response Function and the Constitutive Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Robust damage assessment of multiple cracks based on the Frequency Response Function a damage assessment technique for the non destructive detection and sizing of multiple open cracks in beams, many researchers have performed extensive investigations and damage assess- ment techniques based

  20. Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors VICTOR the onset and progress of structural damage such as fatigue cracks and corrosion. Two main detection strategies are considered: (a) the wave propagation method for far-field damage detection; and (b

  1. DAMAGE DETECTION BASED ON STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND MODEL UPDATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE DETECTION BASED ON STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND MODEL UPDATING Marian The paper proposes use of measured structural response to temperature loads for purposes of damage identification. As opposed to the most common approaches, which rely on suppressing temperature effects in damage

  2. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed. Ó 2010Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems M spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters

  3. DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES burdens of wind turbines. To detect damage of rotor blades, several research projects focus on an acoustic, rotor blade, wind turbine INTRODUCTION There are several publications of non destructive damage

  4. A conceptual model for the origin of fault damage zone structures in high-porosity sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowie, Patience

    A conceptual model for the origin of fault damage zone structures in high-porosity sandstone Zoe K-porosity sandstones. Damage zone deformation has been particularly well constrained for two 4-km-long normal faults formed in the Navajo Sandstone of central Utah, USA. For these faults the width of the damage zone

  5. LABORATORY TESTING OF STRESS-INDUCED BRITTLE FRACTURE DAMAGE THROUGH INCREMENTAL LOADING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhardt, Erik

    LABORATORY TESTING OF STRESS-INDUCED BRITTLE FRACTURE DAMAGE THROUGH INCREMENTAL LOADING Erik-induced brittle fracture damage as a function of the applied load. Strain gauge and acoustic emission measurements of brittle fracture development and to quantify the corresponding permanent strain damage. This paper reports

  6. Probabilistic Assessment of Structural Seismic Damage for Buildings in Mid-America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Jong-Wha; Hueste, Mary Beth D.; Gardoni, Paolo [Zachry Dept. of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    This paper provides an approach to conduct a probabilistic assessment of structural damage due to seismic events with an application to typical building structures in Mid-America. The developed methodology includes modified damage state classifications based on the ATC-13 and ATC-38 damage states and the ATC-38 database of building damage. Damage factors are assigned to each damage state to quantify structural damage as a percentage of structural replacement cost. To account for the inherent uncertainties, these factors are expressed as random variables with a Beta distribution. A set of fragility curves, quantifying the structural vulnerability of a building, is mapped onto the developed methodology to determine the expected structural damage. The total structural damage factor for a given seismic intensity is then calculated using a probabilistic approach. Prediction and confidence bands are also constructed to account for the prevailing uncertainties. The expected seismic structural damage is assessed for a typical building structure in the Mid-America region using the developed methodology. The developed methodology provides a transparent procedure, where the structural damage factors can be updated as additional seismic damage data becomes available.

  7. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Kastan, M. B. (1997). DNA damage induces phosphorylation ofby ATM in response to DNA damage. Science 281, Barber, R. ,Nussenzweig, A. (2002). DNA damage-induced G2-M checkpoint

  8. Functional role of p53 N-terminal phosphorylation in regulating the p53 response to DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Connie

    2006-01-01

    the p53 Responses to DNA Damage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAapoptosis following DNA damage. EMBO J. 19, 4967-4975. Chao,Herrlich, P. (1999). DNA damage induced p53 stabilization:

  9. ATM Phosphorylates and Activates the Transcription Factor MEF2D for Neuronal Survival in Response to DNA Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Shing Fai

    2009-01-01

    by ATM in response to DNA damage. Science, 281, 1674-1677.J. and Kastan M. B. (2003). DNA damage activates ATM throughgene product causes oxidative damage in target organs. Proc.

  10. A damage mechanics assessment of the Larsen B ice shelf prior to collapse: Toward a physically-based calving law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    J. (1996), A Course on Damage Mechanics, Springer, New York.10.1029/2012GL053317, 2012 A damage mechanics assessment ofon con- tinuum damage mechanics coupled with the equations

  11. Damage Identification Study of a Seven-story Full-scale Building Slice Tested on the UCSD-NEES Shake Table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak; He, Xianfei; Resterpo, Jose I; Conte, Joel P

    2010-01-01

    Restrepo JI, Elgamal A. Damage identification of a seven-review of vibration-based damage identifi- cation methods.Detection of structural damage through changes in frequency:

  12. Laser-induced damage threshold of silicon in millisecond, nanosecond, and picosecond regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Shen, Z. H.; Lu, J.; Ni, X. W. [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Millisecond, nanosecond, and picosecond laser pulse induced damage thresholds on single-crystal are investigated in this study. The thresholds of laser-induced damage on silicon are calculated theoretically for three pulse widths based on the thermal damage model. An axisymmetric mathematical model is established for the transient temperature field of the silicon. Experiments are performed to test the damage thresholds of silicon at various pulse widths. The results indicate that the damage thresholds obviously increase with the increasing of laser pulse width. Additionally, the experimental results agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulation results.

  13. AFM pictures of the surfaces of glass RPC electrodes damaged by water vapor contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kubo; E. Nakano; Y. Teramoto

    2002-11-08

    We present surface pictures of the damaged electrodes from the Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) taken by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the test, a set of chambers were operated with freon mixed gas (damaged) and freonless gas (not damaged), contaminated with 1000 to 2000 ppm of water vapor. In the AFM pictures, clear differences in damage are seen between the electrodes in the chambers with the freon mixed gas and the freonless gas; a combination of freon and water vapor caused the damage.

  14. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-12

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, however instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  15. Correlating cookoff violence with pre-ignition damage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker; Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro

    2010-03-01

    Predicting the response of energetic materials during accidents, such as fire, is important for high consequence safety analysis. We hypothesize that responses of ener-getic materials before and after ignition depend on factors that cause thermal and chemi-cal damage. We have previously correlated violence from PETN to the extent of decom-position at ignition, determined as the time when the maximum Damkoehler number ex-ceeds a threshold value. We seek to understand if our method of violence correlation ap-plies universally to other explosive starting with RDX.

  16. Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  17. Radiation damage monitoring of the ATLAS pixel detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidel, Sally; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module record of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  18. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  19. The damage function approach for estimating fuel cycle externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the methodology used in a study of fuel cycle externalities sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. The methodology is the damage function approach. This paper describes that approach and discusses its application and limitations. The fuel cycles addressed are those in which coal, biomass, oil, hydro, natural gas and uranium are used to generate electric power. The methodology is used to estimate the physical impacts of these fuel cycles on environmental resources and human health, and the external costs and benefits of these impacts.

  20. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  1. Rehabilitating Damaged Urban SoilsRehabilitating Damaged Urban Soils to OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Functionto OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Rehabilitating Damaged Urban SoilsRehabilitating Damaged Urban Soils to OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Functionto OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Function Rachel of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences This project is funded in part by theTree Research and Education

  2. DDT of hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 in heavy confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Gary R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The research presented examines DDT of cylinders of PBX 9501 damaged above 180 C in heavy confinement for 0-3 hours and end-ignited or ramped until self-ignition (cookoff) occurred. Progression of luminous reaction was observed by streak photography through a glass-filled slit running the length of the cylinder. Post-mortem analysis of the steel DDT tubes was also done for correlation with the optical records. Results indicate that repeatable, Type I DDT was observed to occur in hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 with low levels of porosity. It was demonstrated that multiple parameters affect DDT behavior, most likely in a coupled fashion. These parameters are porosity, ignition temperature and thermal soak duration. Conditions leading up to cookoff were shown to sensitize the HE to DDT by increasing likelihood and decreasing run length. Over the range of porosities (0-37%) and ignition temperatures (180-235 C), run lengths and detonation velocities varied, respectively, from approximately 22-109 mm and 6.0-8.3 mm {micro}s{sup -1}. This work fills a valuable and realistic space in the understanding of high explosive violent reaction, including DDT, in abnormal thermal environments.

  3. The Role of Nickel in Radiation Damage of Ferritic Alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Anento, Napoleon [Universitat Politechnica de Catalunia; Serra, Anna [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; Terentyev, Dmitry [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN

    2015-01-01

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content from 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T<500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. This effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.

  4. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  5. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  6. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide,more »irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.« less

  7. Damage mechanisms in the dynamic fracture of nominally brittle polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davy Dalmas; Claudia Guerra; Julien Scheibert; Daniel Bonamy

    2013-04-23

    Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) provides a consistent framework to evaluate quantitatively the energy flux released to the tip of a growing crack. Still, the way in which the crack selects its velocity in response to this energy flux remains far from completely understood. To uncover the underlying mechanisms, we experimentally studied damage and dissipation processes that develop during the dynamic failure of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), classically considered as the archetype of brittle amorphous materials. We evidenced a well-defined critical velocity along which failure switches from nominally-brittle to quasi-brittle, where crack propagation goes hand in hand with the nucleation and growth of microcracks. Via post-mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces, we were able to reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics with micrometer/nanosecond resolution. We demonstrated that the true local propagation speed of individual crack fronts is limited to a fairly low value, which can be much smaller than the apparent speed measured at the continuum-level scale. By coalescing with the main front, microcracks boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor of geometrical origin. We discuss the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics.

  8. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  9. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

    2014-10-01

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  10. Catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in the bulk of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Frank R., E-mail: frank.wagner@fresnel.fr; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Akhouayri, Hassan; Commandré, Mireille [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Campus de St Jérôme, 13013 Marseille (France); Duchateau, Guillaume [CELIA, UMR 5107 Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-28

    Due to its high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to produce periodically poled crystals, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, KTP) is still one of the economically important nonlinear optical materials. In this overview article, we present a large study on catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in this material and the very similar RbTiOPO{sub 4} (RTP). Several different systematic studies are included: multiple pulse laser damage, multi-wavelength laser damage in KTP, damage resistance anisotropy, and variations of the laser damage thresholds for RTP crystals of different qualities. All measurements were carried out in comparable experimental conditions using a 1064?nm Q-switched laser and some were repeated at 532?nm. After summarizing the experimental results, we detail the proposed model for laser damage in this material and discuss the experimental results in this context. According to the model, nanosecond laser damage is caused by light-induced generation of transient laser-damage precursors which subsequently provide free electrons that are heated by the same nanosecond pulse. We also present a stimulated Raman scattering measurement and confront slightly different models to the experimental data. Finally, the physical nature of the transient damage precursors is discussed and similarities and differences to laser damage in other crystals are pointed out.

  11. DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE USING THE MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE TECHNIQUE L. Clapham, V. Babbar, and James Byrne.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clapham, Lynann

    DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE USING THE MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE TECHNIQUE L. Clapham, V. Babbar mechanical damage in pipelines. However, MFL application to mechanical damage detection faces hurdles which effects, 2) the stress distribution around a mechanically damaged region is very complex, consisting

  12. Damage monitoring in sandwich beams by modal parameter shifts: A comparative study of burst random and sine dwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    1 Damage monitoring in sandwich beams by modal parameter shifts: A comparative study of burst Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of multi-site damage on the vibration response of honeycomb sandwich beams, damaged by two different ways i.e., impact damage and core

  13. Application of petrographic examination techniques to the assessment of fire-damaged concrete and masonry structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingham, Jeremy P., E-mail: inghamjp@halcrow.com [Halcrow Group Limited, Vineyard House, 44 Brook Green, Hammersmith, London W6 7BY (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The number of building fires has doubled over the last 50 years. There has never been a greater need for structures to be assessed for fire damage to ensure safety and enable appropriate repairs to be planned. Fortunately, even after a severe fire, concrete and masonry structures are generally capable of being repaired rather than demolished. By allowing direct examination of microcracking and mineralogical changes, petrographic examination has become widely used to determine the depth of fire damage for reinforced concrete elements. Petrographic examination can also be applied to fire-damaged masonry structures built of materials such as stone, brick and mortar. Petrography can ensure accurate detection of damaged geomaterials, which provides cost savings during building repair and increased safety reassurance. This paper comprises a review of the role of petrography in fire damage assessments, drawing on a range of actual fire damage investigations.

  14. Critique of the carbonate mass loss model for paint damage functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    One of the key questions concerning the assessment of acid deposition damage is its effect on painted surfaces. In order to determine this it is necessary to have a paint damage function that expresses the quantity of physical damage associated with a given level of acid deposition. This problem is now a major focus of EPA's current research; however, results are not yet available. Consequently, the NAPAP paint damage function was derived from data collected in several studies that substantially predated the acid rain research program. Although this damage function may appear plausible at first glance, it has been criticized, in part because paint damage constitutes such an important part of the total, but mainly because it is based largely on a conceptual model involving erosion due to dissolution loss of carbonate extenders in the paint formulation.

  15. Monitoring genetic damage to ecosystems from hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.L.

    1992-03-01

    Applications of ecological toxicity testing to hazardous waste management have increased dramatically over the last few years, resulting in a greater awareness of the need for improved biomonitoring techniques. Our laboratory is developing advanced techniques to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental contamination on ecosystems. We have developed a novel mutagenesis assay using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is potentially applicable for multimedia studies in soil, sediment, and water. In addition, we are conducting validation studies of a previously developed anaphase aberration test that utilizes sea urchin embryos. Other related efforts include field validation studies of the new tests, evaluation of their potential ecological relevance, and analysis of their sensitivity relative to that of existing toxicity tests that assess only lethal effects, rather than genetic damage.

  16. Compensation for TID Damage in SOI Pixel Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobita, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiko; Aoyagi, Wataru; Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Kurachi, Ikuo; Hatsui, Takaki; Kudo, Togo; Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We are investigating adaption of SOI pixel devices for future high energy physic(HEP) experiments. The pixel sensors are required to be operational in very severe radiation environment. Most challenging issue in the adoption is the TID (total ionizing dose) damage where holes trapped in oxide layers affect the operation of nearby transistors. We have introduced a second SOI layer - SOI2 beneath the BOX (Buried OXide) layer - in order to compensate for the TID effect by applying a negative voltage to this electrode to cancel the effect caused by accumulated positive holes. In this paper, the TID effects caused by Co gamma-ray irradiation are presented based on the transistor characteristics measurements. The irradiation was carried out in various biasing conditions to investigate hole accumulation dependence on the potential configurations. We also compare the data with samples irradiated with X-ray. Since we observed a fair agreement between the two irradiation datasets, the TID effects have been investigated...

  17. Severe fuel-damage scoping test performance. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, G.E.; Buescher, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. The first test of Phase I of this series has been successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Following the first test, calculations were performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code with actual experimental boundary conditions. This paper discusses the test conduct and performance and presents the calculated and measured test bundle results. The test resulted in a slow heatup to 2000 K over about 4 h, with an accelerated reaction of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1600 K in the lower part or the bundle and 2000 K in the upper portion of the bundle.

  18. Compensation of radiation damages for SOI pixel detector via tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Miho; Kurachi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detectors based on SOI technology for high energy physics, X-ray applications and so on.To employ SOI pixel detector on such radiation environments, we have to solve effects of total ionization damages (TID) for transistors which are enclosed in oxide layer.The holes which are generated and trapped in the oxide layers after irradiation affect characteristics of near-by transistors due to its positive electric field.Annealing and radiation of ultraviolet are not realistic to remove trapped holes for a fabricated detector due to thermal resistance of components and difficulty of handling. We studied compensation of TID effects by tunneling using a high-voltage. For decrease of trapped holes, applied high-voltage to buried p-well which is under oxide layer to inject the electrons into the oxide layer.In this report, recent progress of this study is shown.

  19. Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2008-01-15

    Specimens of titanate ceramics containing approximately 10 mass% 238Pu were tested to determine the long-term effects of radiation-induced damage from the ? decay of 239Pu that would have been disposed of in the nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain. These tests provided information on the changes in bulk properties such as dimensions, densities, and chemical durability. Although these materials become amorphous at low doses, the specimens remained physically strong. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, in combination with results reported previously on similar materials, the material remains a physically viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  20. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  1. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Damage in Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Remec, Igor; Giorla, Alain B; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has resulted in a renewed focus on long-term aging of materials at nuclear power plants (NPPs) including concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Nuclear Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete (Graves et al., (2014)). Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete (Hilsdorf et al., (1978)) does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure (Kontani et al., (2011)). To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, the Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are working to better understand radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines recent progress toward: 1) assessing the radiation environment in concrete biological shields and defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield for extended operation, and estimating adsorbed dose, 2) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, 3) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete and its components under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish conservative bounds and inform damage models, 4) developing improved models to enhance the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete and 5) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge including developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in data obtained from various concretes and from accelerated irradiation experiments.

  2. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  3. Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, Veronica; Cerreta, Ellen K

    2010-03-18

    Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

  4. Isolation of Flow and Nonflow Correlations by Two- and Four-Particle Cumulant Measurements of Azimuthal Harmonics in $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} =$ 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. M. Abdelwahab; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. C. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; A. Banerjee; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; P. Bhattarai; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Calderóndela Barca Sánchez; J. M. Campbell; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; G. Contin; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; C. Dilks; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; J. Engelage; K. S. Engle; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; O. Eyser; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; P. Filip; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; M. Girard; S. Gliske; L. Greiner; D. Grosnick; D. S. Gunarathne; Y. Guo; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; X. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; H. Jang; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; D. Kalinkin; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; Z. H. Khan; D. P. Kikola; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. K. Kosarzewski; L. Kotchenda; A. F. Kraishan; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; R. A. Kycia; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; M. Lomnitz; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; D. A. Morozov; M. K. Mustafa; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; G. Nigmatkulov; L. V. Nogach; S. Y. Noh; J. Novak; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; D. L. Olvitt Jr.; B. S. Page; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; N. Poljak; K. Poniatowska; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; A. Quintero; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; O. Rusnakova; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; W. B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; P. V. Shanmuganathan; M. Shao; B. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; M. Simko; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; M. Sumbera; X. Sun; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; M. A. Szelezniak; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; M. Vandenbroucke; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; R. Vertesi; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; J. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; W. Yan; C. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; Z. Ye; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; N. Yu; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; J. B. Zhang; J. L. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

    2014-09-06

    A data-driven method was applied to measurements of Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} =$ 200 GeV made with the STAR detector at RHIC to isolate pseudorapidity distance $\\Delta\\eta$-dependent and $\\Delta\\eta$-independent correlations by using two- and four-particle azimuthal cumulant measurements. We identified a component of the correlation that is $\\Delta\\eta$-independent, which is likely dominated by anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations. It was also found to be independent of $\\eta$ within the measured range of pseudorapidity $|\\eta| 0.7$.

  5. Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage assessment/ Volcano remote sensing (Uni Cambridge) Geoinformatics for disaster risk management (hazard

  6. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Post-implantation annealing at 1000 C was also performed in order to study the damage evolution. Optical Absorption Spectrophotometry (OAS) was used for establishing the opacity...

  7. The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a seemingly paradoxical scenario in the relationship between plant growth and climate change: warming may actually increase the risk of plant frost damage. The...

  8. Sensitivity of silicon 1-MeV damage function to cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) {sup 28}Si cross-section evaluation and the NJOY code are used to define the standard response function to be used in reporting 1-MeV (silicon) neutron damage and in determining neutron damage equivalence between test facilities. This paper provides information for the precision and bias section of the E722 standard.

  9. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} federal nuclear facility, located in western South Carolina along the Savannah

  10. The waves of damage in elastic-plastic lattices with waiting links: design and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    The waves of damage in elastic-plastic lattices with waiting links: design and simulation A, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA Abstract We consider protective structures with elastic-plastic links: Protective structure, Elastic-plastic material, Necking, Bistability, Partial damage, Collision, Waves

  11. Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (Electrons Joanna Berdys,, Iwona-mail: simons@chemistry.utah.edu Abstract: Although electrons having enough energy to ionize or electronically suggested that even lower- energy electrons (most recently 1 eV and below) can also damage DNA. The findings

  12. Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage assessment) Geoinformatics for disaster risk management (hazard/risk/vulnerability/damage) www.unu-drm.nl Training of disaster risk management (my focus is on post-disaster response/ recovery) Use of object-oriented image

  13. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake Thomas Oommen1 , Umaa Rebbapragada2 , and Daniel Cerminaro3 1 Department of Geological Engineering Haiti earthquake provided a new opportunity to analyze earthquake-induced damage. Previous work has

  14. Use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition for Damage Location of Water Delivery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition for Damage Location of Water Delivery Systems Masanobu Shinozuka1 ; Jianwen Liang2 ; and Maria Q. Feng3 Abstract: Urban water delivery systems can, this paper develops a methodology to detect and locate the damage in a water delivery system by monitoring

  15. Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiore, S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

  16. Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants M. S. Tillack1 , S. A-1597 The final optics for laser-IFE (inertial fusion energy) power plants will be exposed to a variety of damage to be the most serious concerns for a power plant. 1. Introduction Survival of the final optic is one of the most

  17. Original Contrbution Induction of oxidative and nitrosative damage leads to cerebrovascular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Original Contrbution Induction of oxidative and nitrosative damage leads to cerebrovascular 2013 Available online 4 March 2013 Keywords: Mild traumatic brain injury Blood­brain barrier Oxidative the hypothesis that oxidative damage of the cerebral vascular barrier interface (the blood­brain barrier, BBB

  18. southeastern geographer, 49(2) 2009: pp. 108131 Florida Hurricanes and Damage Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsner, James B.

    southeastern geographer, 49(2) 2009: pp. 108­131 Florida Hurricanes and Damage Costs JILL MALMSTADT Florida has been visited by some of the most de- structive and devastating hurricanes on record and severity of hurricanes af- fecting Florida are examined from the best set of available data and the damages

  19. Bogue Banks Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Carteret County, North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    the need for hurricane and coastal storm damage reduction, as well as presenting the opportunity to protect existing habitat that would be lost otherwise. The Recommended Plan (which is also the National Economic are allocated to the authorized purpose of hurricane and storm damage reduction. Applying these cost

  20. Multiple-shot laser damage thresholds of ultraviolet reflectors at 248 and 308 nanometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltyn, S.R.; Newnam, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple-shot damage thresholds of dielectric reflectors have been measured at 248 and 308 nm. Standard irradiation conditions were a 10-ns pulsewidth, 0.6-mm spot diameter and 35-Hz pulse repetition frequency. The reflectors, from various sources, were composed of oxide and fluoride films. Although damage was generally initiated at visible film defects, there was no correlation between damage susceptibility and the appearance of these defects. At levels near threshold, damage was most often observed as an increase in white-light scatter of a site with no growth upon continued irradiation; at higher levels, the damage site grew with successive shots. Test sites were subjected to at least 10/sup 3/ shots and some sites received as many as 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ shots; however, with only one exception damage was found to occur within the first few shots or not at all. Reflectors at 248 nm typically had damage thresholds in the 1.0 to 1.8 J/cm/sup 2/ range with two samples exhibiting unexpectedly high thresholds of 2.8 and 3.0 J/cm/sup 2/. In some cases, a subthreshold pre-irradiation treatment resulted in a 20 to 25% enhancement in damage resistance.

  1. THRESHOLD-BASED QUASI-STATIC BRITTLE DAMAGE ADRIANA GARRONI AND CHRISTOPHER J. LARSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garroni, Adriana

    THRESHOLD-BASED QUASI-STATIC BRITTLE DAMAGE EVOLUTION ADRIANA GARRONI AND CHRISTOPHER J. LARSEN Abstract We introduce models for static and quasi-static damage in elastic materials, based on a strain definition, are also global minimizers. 1. Introduction Many phenomena in mechanics, such as fracture

  2. DNA Damage Causes p27^(Kip1) Accumulation Through COP1 Signaling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2014-05-06

    p27 is a critical CDK inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation, but its response to DNA damage remains unclear. Constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1), a p53- targeting E3 ubiquitin ligase, is downregulated by DNA damage, but the biological...

  3. Real-Time damage localization by means of MEMS sensors and use of wireless data transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    . INTRODUCTION Urban water delivery network systems, particularly the underground components such as pipeline networks, can be damaged due to earthquakes, pipe corrosion, severely cold weather, heavy traffic load WORK In recent years, real-time damage assessment and diagnosis of buried pipelines has attracted much

  4. Ouch! How Embodied Damage Indicators in First-Person Shooting Games Impact Gaming Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , a paper doll, and an x-ray mechanism, observing impact on gaming experience. 1 Introduction and Related in our study. #12;2 Damage Indicators We investigated three damage indicators, a red flash, paper doll doll indicator places a cut-out character silhouette at the top-left of the screen, flashing the screen

  5. EFFECT OF POROSITY ON DEFORMATION, DAMAGE, AND FRACTURE OF CAST STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    EFFECT OF POROSITY ON DEFORMATION, DAMAGE, AND FRACTURE OF CAST STEEL Richard Hardin1 , Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting, Porosity, Tensile Properties, Damage, Fracture Abstract A combined experimental and computational study is performed to investigate the effect of internal shrinkage porosity

  6. Effect of Porosity on Deformation, Damage, and Fracture of Cast Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    shrinkage porosity on deformation, damage, and fracture of cast steel under tensile testing. Steel plates containing shrinkage porosity are cast in sand molds, machined into test coupons, and tensile testedEffect of Porosity on Deformation, Damage, and Fracture of Cast Steel R.A. HARDIN and C. BECKERMANN

  7. Deformation, structural changes and damage evolution in nanotwinned copper under repeated frictional contact sliding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, Ming

    [1], fatigue crack growth resistance [2] and fracture toughness [3,4]. Nanotwinned (NT) metals have of having a combination of high strength as well as reasonable ductility and damage tolerance, ductility, wear and corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance under monotonic and cyclic loading

  8. NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    annealing the samples at 280' C. INTRODUCTION Reactor pressure-vessel steel embrittlement is one ofthe mostNEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME spectroscopy to study the development of damage and annealing behavior ofneutron-irradiated reactor pressure

  9. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited, Irvine, CA USA 92697-2700 ABSTRACT Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate

  10. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Daehak-ro 291, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701) (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  11. Radiation Damage Study for PHENIX Silicon Stripixel Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Asai; S. Batsouli; K. Boyle; V. Castillo; V. Cianciolo; D. Fields; C. Haegeman; M. Hoeferkamp; Y. Hosoi; R. Ichimiya; Y. Inoue; M. Kawashima; T. Komatsubara; K. Kurita; Z. Li; D. Lynch; M. Nguyen; T. Murakami; R. Nouicer; H. Ohnishi; R. Pak; K. Sakashita; T. -A. Shibata; K. Suga; A. Taketani; J. Tojo

    2007-10-14

    Silicon stripixel sensors which were developed at BNL will be installed as part of the RHIC-PHENIX silicon vertex tracker (VTX). RHIC II operations provide luminosity up to 2x10^32 /cm2/s so the silicon stripixel sensors will be exposed to a significant amount of radiation. The most problematic radiation effect for VTX is the increase of leakage current, which degrades the signal to noise ratio and may saturate the readout electronics. We studied the radiation damage using the same diodes as CERN-RD48. First, the proportionality between the irradiation fluence and the increase of leakage current of CERN-RD48 was reproduced. Then beam experiments with stripixel sensor were done in which leakage current was found to increase in the same way as that of thereference diode. A stripixel sensor was also irradiated at the PHENIX interaction region (IR) during the 2006 run. We found the same relation between the integrated luminosity and determined fluence from increase of leakage current. The expected fluence is 3-6x10^12 Neq/cm2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) in RHIC II operations for 10 years. Due to this expected exposure, setting the operating temperature in PHENIX to T< 0 deg. C to suppress leakage current is needed to avoid saturation of preamplifiers.

  12. Rapid Damage eXplorer (RDX): A Probabilistic Framework for Learning Changes From Bitemporal Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Recent decade has witnessed major changes on the Earth, for example, deforestation, varying cropping and human settlement patterns, and crippling damages due to disasters. Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to the growing population, as well as human migration to the disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid assessment of these changes and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Change detection using high-resolution satellite images is a primary tool in assessing damages, monitoring biomass and critical infrastructures, and identifying new settlements. In this demo, we present a novel supervised probabilistic framework for identifying changes using very high-resolution multispectral, and bitemporal remote sensing images. Our demo shows that the rapid damage explorer (RDX) system is resilient to registration errors and differing sensor characteristics.

  13. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  14. A Comparison of Multi-Scale 3D X-ray Tomographic Inspection Techniques for Assessing Carbon Fibre Composite Impact Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Composite Impact Damage D.J. Bull1* , L. Helfen2 , I. Sinclair1 , S.M. Spearing1 , T. Baumbach2 1 Materials-scale damage assessment of carbon fibre composites subjected to impact damage, allowing various internal damage for creating an overall 3D damage assessment at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Overall, microfocus

  15. Reducing Damage Assessment Latency in Survivable Indrakshi Ray1, Ross M. McConnell1, Monte Lunacek1, and Vijay Kumar2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Indrakshi

    Reducing Damage Assessment Latency in Survivable Databases Indrakshi Ray1, Ross M. McConnell1 on other data items can help spread the damage. To prevent the damage from spreading, it is important to assess the damage and confine it as quickly as possible. Algorithms providing fast damage assessment

  16. Effects of measurement statistics on the detection of damage in the Alamosa Canyon Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Goodman, R.S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a comparison of the statistics on the measured model parameters of a bridge structure to the expected changes in those parameters caused by damage. It is then determined if the changes resulting from damage are statistically significant. This paper considers the most commonly used modal parameters for indication of damage: modal frequency, mode shape, and mode shape curvature. The approach is divided into two steps. First, the relative uncertainties (arising from random error sources) of the measured modal frequencies, mode shapes, and mode shape curvatures are determined by Monte Carlo analysis of the measured data. Based on these uncertainties, 95% statistical confidence bounds are computed for these parameters. The second step is the determination of the measured change in these parameters resulting from structural damage. Changes which are outside the 95% bounds are considered to be statistically significant. It is proposed that this statistical significance can be used to selectively filter which modes are used for damage identification. The primary conclusion of the paper is that the selection of the appropriate parameters to use in the damage identification algorithm must take into account not only the sensitivity of the damage indicator to the structural deterioration, but also the uncertainty inherent in the measurement of the parameters used to compute the indicator.

  17. Damage identification algorithms applied to numerical modal data from a bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jauregui, D.V.; Farrar, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    This paper extends the work summarized in the accompanying paper {open_quotes}Comparison of Damage Identification Algorithms on Experimental Modal Data From A Bridge.{close_quotes} A finite element model of the continuous three-span portion of the I-40 bridges, which once crossed the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, NM, was constructed. Following the experimental modal analysis, the bridge tests are repeated analytically using benchmarked finite element models of the bridge. A combination of shell and beam elements form the bridge model. Damage was simulated by creating adjacent nodes and disconnecting the elements on either side of the crack. However, because of the discretization of the finite element models only the final three levels of damage were evaluated. In addition to the analytical simulation of the experiments, the girder crack was repositioned at other potential damage locations. Analytical modal parameters were extracted through signal processing techniques, similar to those used in the experimental investigation and subsequently fed into damage identification routines. These routines have been adapted from those presented at past IMAC conferences and are identical to the ones used in the experimental investigation reported in the accompanying paper. This study provides a direct comparison of the relative accuracy of these different damage identification methods when they are applied to a set of standard numerical problems. The numerical models allow a variety of damage scenarios to be studied once the models have been benchmarked against experimental data.

  18. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Off-fault Damage Associated with a Localized Bend in the North Branch San Gabriel Fault, California 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Andrew 1987-

    2012-08-15

    , such as bends and steps, are thought to affect earthquake rupture propagation and energy radiation, but the effects are not completely understood. We hypothesize that the rate of accumulation of new damage decreases as fault maturity increases, and damage...

  20. A novel role for the transcriptional modulator NusA in DNA repair/damage tolerance pathways in Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Susan E., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    All organisms must contend with the consequences of DNA damage, induced by a variety of both endogenous and exogenous sources. Mechanisms of DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance are crucial for cellular survival after DNA ...

  1. Scales Depencence of Fracture Density and Fabric in the Damage Zone of a Large Displacement Continental Transform Fault 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayyildiz, Muhammed

    2012-08-28

    Characterization of fractures in an arkosic sandstone from the western damage zone of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) was used to better understand the origin of damage and to determine the scale...

  2. Damage-prone regions in structural composite materials are difficult to detect and even harder to repair. Damage is preceded by complex spatial and temporal changes in stress state, and it is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Materials Seminar Damage-prone regions in structural composite materials are difficult to detect and even harder to repair. Damage is preceded by complex spatial and temporal changes in stress state about in response to damage or high-stress conditions include: (1) signal generation to warn of ensuing

  3. Development of an autonomous continuous monitoring system for mechanical damage detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, H. (Hoon); Allen, D. W. (David W.); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Worden, K.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of damage identification is to ascertain the existence of damage within a mechanical system. This study applies the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) to examine if damage is present or not. In the original formulation of the SPRT, the distribution of data is assumed Gaussian and thresholds for monitoring are set focusing on the center mass properties of the distribution. Decision-making for damage identification is, however, often sensitive to the tails of the distribution and the tails may not necessarily be governed by Gaussian characteristics. By modeling the tails using the technique of Extreme Value Statistics (EVS), the thresholds for the SPRT may be set more accurately avoiding the unnecessary normality assumption. The proposed combination of the SPRT and the EVS is demonstrated using experimental data collected from a three-story frame structure with bolted connections. The primary goal of structural health monitoring is simply to identify from measured data if a structure has deviated from a normal operational condition. Particularly, vibration-based damage detection techniques assume that changes of the structure's integrity affect characteristics of the measured vibration signals enabling one to detect damage. Many current approaches to this problem involve methods that leave much to the interpretation of analysts. These methods may enable a trained eye to discern and locate damage but are not easily automated or objective. In an attempt to automate the damage identification procedure, the SPRT is employed for the decision-making procedure. The original SPRT assumes that the extracted features have a Gaussian distribution. This normality assumption, however, may place misleading constraints on the tails of the distribution. As the problem of damage detection specifically focuses attention on the tails, the assumption of normality is likely to lead the analysis astray. To overcome this difficulty, the performance of the SPRT is improved by integrating the EVS, which specifically models behavior in the tails of the distribution of interest, into the SPRT.

  4. Mechanical failure characterization of optical components caused by laser induced damage initiated at contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faux, D. R., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify by numerical techniques the effects of surface and subsurface absorbing defects on damage initiation and growth in high power laser optical components. The defects include laser absorbing spots (e.g., surface particulate contamination) and surface damage regions (e.g., micro-cracks and voids) which are present due to environmental exposure and fabrication processes. This report focuses on three sources of contamination that can cause damage to optical components: (1) Front surface particle contamination, (2) Back surface particle contamination, and (3) Subsurface particle contamination. The DYNA2D (non-linear structural mechanics) code was used to model the growth of damage in the glass substrate. The damage in the nominally transparent glass substrate as a result of front surface particle contamination was found to be dependent on the magnitude of the resultant pressure pulse applied to the particle and the initial area of contact between the particle and glass substrate. The pressures generated from a back surface particle being blown off the surface provided sufficient loading to severely damage (crack) the glass substrate. A subsurface Ceria dioxide particle showed a strong surface interaction that influenced the formation and direction of the damage (cracking) that ultimately resulted in the blow-out of the damaged material leaving a relatively clean crater in the glass. Crater shape and size was determined. Since fused silica is the most transparent, and therefore laser damage resistant, of the optical materials, it is used for the most at-risk optical elements. The present studies are for a fused silica substrate. Some oxides such as Ceria are transparent in the infrared and visible, but absorbing in the UV part of the spectrum. Because ICF lasers like NIF use frequency tripling, effects of such oxides must be included.

  5. An investigation of the effects of history dependent damage in time dependent fracture mechanics: nano-scale studies of damage evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brust, F.W. (Bud) Jr; Mohan, R.; Yang, Y.P.; Oh, J.; Katsube, N.

    2002-12-01

    High-temperature operation of technical engineering systems is critical for system efficiency, and will be a key driver in the future US DOE energy policy. Developing an understanding of high-temperature creep and creep-fatigue failure processes is a key driver for the research work described here. The focus is on understanding the high-temperature deformation and damage development on the nano-scale (50 to 500 nm) level. The high-temperature damage development process, especially with regard to low and high cyclic loading, which has received little attention to date, is studied. Damage development under cyclic loading develops in a fashion quite different from the constant load situation. The development of analytical methodologies so that high-temperature management of new systems can be realized is the key goal of this work.

  6. Res. Nondestr. Eval. 12/1, 31-42, 2000 Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) techniques to discern material damage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for non-destructive material testing has been developed and applied in the field of damage detection

  7. Modelling of Melt Damage of Tungsten Armour under Multiple Transients Expected in ITER and Validations Against JET-ILW Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling of Melt Damage of Tungsten Armour under Multiple Transients Expected in ITER and Validations Against JET-ILW Experiments

  8. Assessment of damage identification algorithms on experimental and numerical bridge data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jauregui, D.V.; Farrar, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    Over the past 25 years, the use of vibrational parameters for detecting damage in a structure has received considerable attention from the civil, aerospace, and mechanical engineering communities. The general idea is that changes in the structure`s physical properties, primarily stiffness, will alter the dynamic properties of the structure such as resonant frequencies and mode shapes. Properties such as the flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and mode shape curvature, which are obtained through manipulation of the modal parameters, have shown promise in localizing structural damage. In this paper, five techniques for damage assessment are demonstrated and compared using experimental and analytical data from a highway bridge.

  9. Modeling crater formation in femtosecond-pulse laser damage from basic principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A; Chowdhury, Enam A

    2015-01-01

    We present the first fundamental simulation method for the determination of crater morphology due to femtosecond-pulse laser damage. To this end we have adapted the particle-in-cell (PIC) method commonly used in plasma physics for use in the study of laser damage, and developed the first implementation of a pair-potential for PIC codes. We find that the PIC method is a complementary approach to modeling laser damage, bridging the gap between fully ab-initio molecular dynamics approaches and empirical models. We demonstrate our method by modeling a femtosecond-pulse laser incident on a flat copper slab, for a range of intensities.

  10. Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.; Lichtenstein, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-ns, 248-nm KrF laser pulses were used to measure laser damage thresholds for halfwave-thick layers of 15 oxide and fluoride coating materials, and for high reflectance coatings made with 13 combinations of these materials. The damage thresholds of the reflectors and single-layer films were compared to measurements of several properties of the halfwave-thick films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films were useful for identifying materials for fabrication of damage resistant coatings.

  11. DNA Base Damage by the Antitumor Agent 3-Amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-Dioxide (Tirapazamine)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Base Damage by the Antitumor Agent 3-Amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-Dioxide (Tirapazamine: Tirapazamine is a bioreductively activated DNA-damaging agent that selectively kills the hypoxic cells found cellular target for tirapazamine; however, the structural nature of the DNA damage inflicted by this drug

  12. 25.99.99.Q0.05 Damage to University Property Page 1 of 2 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25.99.99.Q0.05 Damage to University Property Page 1 of 2 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 25.99.99.Q0.05 Damage to University Property Approved October 11, 2012 Next scheduled review: October 11 every reasonable precaution to prevent loss or damage to University property while it is in use

  13. Res. Nondestr. Eval. 12/1, 31-42, 2000 Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) techniques to discern material damage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to discern material damage. Part II: Single Mode Nonlinear Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy. Koen E-A. Van Den: koen.vandenabeele@bwk.kuleuven.ac.be ABSTRACT: The presence of mesoscopic features and damage in quasi for non-destructive material testing has been developed and applied in the field of damage detection

  14. Earthquake Damage Detection in the Imperial County Services Building III: Analysis of Wave Travel Times via Impulse Response Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    1 Earthquake Damage Detection in the Imperial County Services Building III: Analysis of Wave Travel characteristics of the structure, and are not sensitive to local damage. Wave travel times between selected changes in such characteristics of response are potentially more sensitive to local damage. In this paper

  15. EXAMPLES OF DAMAGE DETECTION IN REAL-LIFE SETTINGS BASED ON THE POSITION OF THE NEUTRAL AXIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EXAMPLES OF DAMAGE DETECTION IN REAL-LIFE SETTINGS BASED ON THE POSITION OF THE NEUTRAL AXIS discussed in this paper is to create damage detection methods based on universal parameters an appropriate parameter and validate that it can be used to detect damage in real-life settings. The centroid

  16. Radiation Damage Monitoring in the ATLAS Pixel Detector1 Sally Seidel, on behalf of the ATLAS Collaborationa,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidel, Sally

    Radiation Damage Monitoring in the ATLAS Pixel Detector1 Sally Seidel, on behalf of the ATLAS; radiation damage; silicon10 1. Introduction11 The innermost detection system of the ATLAS Detector [1 to respond to these changes, the radiation damage sustained by detector22 elements must be monitored.23

  17. West Shore Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction Study Integrated Draft Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;1 West Shore Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction Study of the West Shore Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction Study, Integrated Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction study is a Coastal Storm

  18. Functional analysis of p53 N-terminal phosphorylation and C-terminal multiple posttranslational modifications in regulating p53 responses to DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Lijin

    2006-01-01

    C. W. , and Appella, E. DNA damage activates p53 through aby ATM in Response to DNA Damage. Science 133.Shieh, S. Y. ,Y. , and Prives, C. DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of

  19. Damage detection using frequency domain ARX models and extreme value statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasel, T. R. (Timothy R.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is fast becoming a field of great importance as engineers seek for new ways to ensure the safety of structures throughout their designed lifetime. Current methods for analyzing the dynamic response of structures often use standard frequency response functions to model linear system input/output relationships. However, these functions do not account for the nonlinear response of a system, which damage often introduces. In this study, an auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) in the frequency domain is used to extract damage sensitive features, explicitly considering the nonlinear effect in the frequency domain. Furthermore, because of the non-Gaussian nature of the extracted features, extreme value statistics (EVS) is employed to develop a robust damage classifier. The applicability of the ARX model combined with EVS to nonlinear damage detection is demonstrated using vibration data obtained from a laboratory experiment of a three-story building model.

  20. Neural network based system for damage identification and location in structural and mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Cornwell, P.; Kam, M. [Rose-Hulman Inst. of Tech., Terre Haute, IN (US); Straser, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (US); Hoerst, B.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recent advances in wireless, remotely monitored data acquisition systems coupled with the development of vibration-based damage detection algorithms make the possibility of self- or remotely-monitored structures and mechanical systems appear to be within the capabilities of current technology. However, before such a system can be relied upon to perform this monitoring, the variability of the vibration properties that are the basis for the damage detection algorithm must be understood and quantified. This understanding is necessary so that the artificial intelligence/expert system that is employed to discriminate when changes in modal properties are indicative of damage will not yield false indications of damage. To this end, this project has focused on developing statistical methods for quantifying variability in identified vibration proper ties of structural and mechanical systems.

  1. Comparison of damage identification algorithms on experimental modal data from a bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jauregui, D.V.; Farrar, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past 25 years detecting damage in a structure from changes in dynamic parameters has received a considerable amount of attention from the aerospace, civil, and mechanical engineering communities. The general idea is that changes in the structure`s physical properties (i.e., stiffness, mass, and/or damping) will, in turn, alter the dynamic characteristics (i.e., resonant frequencies, modal damping, and mode shapes) of the structure. Properties such as the flexibility matrix, stiffness matrix, and mode shape curvature, which are obtained from modal parameters, have shown promise for localizing structural damage. In this paper, several different techniques for damage assessment are demonstrated and compared using experimental modal data from an undamaged and damaged bridge.

  2. Vibration testing of the I-40 bridge before and after the introduction of damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Cone, K.M.

    1994-11-01

    Because the bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed, the investigators were able to introduce simulated cracks in four stages of increasing length into the structure. This paper summarizes the results of ambient and conventional, measured-input, modal analyses, performed on the undamaged structure. Also summarized are the results of conventional modal analyses performed after each stage of damage had been introduced. These tests were intended to quantify the amount of damage necessary to produce changes in the global dynamic properties of the bridge and to form a data base that can be used by other investigators to develop damage identification algorithms. Conventional modal analysis identified changes in the global dynamic properties of the structure only after the final stage of a damage.

  3. An investigation of the effectiveness of anhydrous mud acid to remove damage in sandstone formations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Dalan David

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this experimental research was to determine the reactivity of anhydrous mud acid with clay minerals present in sandstone formations and its ability to remove damage in sandstone acidizing. Berea core flood experiments were conducted...

  4. A CRTC2 Repressor Role Regulates DNA Damage Response Genes in Germinal Center B-cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schontzler, Olivia Tersa

    2012-01-01

    as DNA damage response (DDR) genes throughout this proposal.binding to and repression of DDR genes. Secondly, repressorcontextual repressor role on DDR genes as part of an ATM

  5. IH Report #04-010 April 2004 Water Damage Response (Mold Prevention)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , discard books and papers Photocopy important/valuable items, discard originals or Freeze in frost-free freezer or meat locker and consult with a restoration/water damage professional. Carpet and backing ­ dry

  6. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  7. DNA-damage-mediated remodeling of normal and tumor microenvironments modulates cell survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Luke A. (Luke Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens involve the systemic administration of genotoxic compounds that induce cancer cell death via well-established DNA damage response signaling networks. While modern chemotherapeutic regimens can be ...

  8. Anc1 : a new player in the cellular response to DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlich, Rachel L

    2007-01-01

    The continuity of living organisms depends on their ability to protect their genomes from a constant assault by internal and external sources of damage. To this end, cells have developed a variety of mechanisms to avoid ...

  9. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Citrus Rust Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Damage Effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    a cause-effect relationship between rust mite damage and small fruit size at harvest, I Citrus Researchand) showed that, after picking, fresh fruit were found to lose water faster and develop an abscis- sion zone

  10. Telomere Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana by the CST Capping Complex and DNA Damage Response Proteins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boltz, Kara A.

    2013-09-11

    The ends of chormosomes are capped by telomeres, which distinguish the termini from damaged DNA. Paradoxically, DNA repair proteins are also required for telomere maintenance. How DNA repair pathways are regulated to ...

  11. Mechanistic investigation of anticancer agents that damage DNA and interact with the estrogen receptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Sreeja

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary goals of cancer chemotherapy is the design of antitumor agents that achieve selective targeting of tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. We have synthesized a series of DNA damaging ...

  12. Structural-Damage Detection by Distributed Piezoelectric Transducers and Tuned Electric Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. dell'Isola; F. Vestroni; S. Vidoli

    2010-07-13

    A novel technique for damage detection of structures is introduced and discussed. It is based on purely electric measurements of the state variables of an electric network coupled to the main structure through a distributed set of piezoelectric patches. The constitutive parameters of this auxiliary network are optimized to increase the sensitivity of global measurements- as the frequency, response functions relative to selected electric degrees of freedom-with respect to a given class of variations in the structural-mechanical properties. Because the proposed method is based on purely electric input and output measurements, it allows for accurate results in the identification and localization of damages. Use of the electric frequency-response function to identify the mechanical damage leads to nonconvex optimization problems; therefore the proposed sensitivity-enhanced identification procedure becomes computationally efficient if an a priori knowledge about the damage is available.

  13. Identifying the Impact of the Built Environment on Wildfire Property Damage in California 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makino, Takashi Michael

    2013-05-08

    Wildfires are a natural hazard that present an increasing risk to communities in fire-prone areas. This study examines the impacts of the municipal-level built environment upon fire damages in California, a particularly fire-vulnerable state...

  14. A creep-damage model for mesoscale simulations of concrete expansion-degradation phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B; Le Pape, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Long-term performance of aging concrete in nuclear power plants (NPPs) requires a careful examination of the physical phenomena taking place in the material. Concrete under high neutron irradiation is subjected to large irreversible deformations as well as mechanical damage, caused by a swelling of the aggregates. However, these results, generally obtained in accelerated conditions in test reactors, cannot be directly applied to NPP irradiated structures, i.e., the biological shield, operating conditions due to difference in time scale and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity). Mesoscale numerical simulations are performed to separate the underlying mechanisms and their interactions. The cement paste creep-damage model accounts for the effect of the loading rate on the apparent damage properties of the material and uses an event-based approach to capture the competition between creep and damage. The model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the literature and shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin

    2012-07-16

    of stimulation of sandstone reservoirs is to remove the damage caused to the production zone during drilling or completion operations. Many problems may occur during sandstone acidizing with Hydrochloric/Hydrofluoric acids (HCl/HF) mud acid. Among those problems...

  16. Reliability-based framework for fatigue damage prognosis of bonded structural elements in aerospace composite structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobbato, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    and J.D. Achenbach, Structural health monitoring and damagein fatigue, Structural Health Monitoring, 7(1), 37-49, 2008.and J.D. Achenbach, Structural health monitoring and damage

  17. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey; Najafi, Mohammand

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

  18. ALS-associated mutation FUS-R521C causes DNA damage and RNA splicing defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    ALS-associated mutation FUS-R521C causes DNA damage and RNAof human wild- type FUS causes progressive motor neuronof human wild- type FUS causes progressive motor neuron

  19. Use of CFRP Overlays to Repair Fatigue Damage in Steel Bridge Girders and Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangel, Regan Elisabeth

    2012-05-31

    Fatigue damage in steel girder bridges built prior to the mid-1980s is common due to distortion-induced fatigue. Different repair techniques have been developed and implemented to retrofit bridges of this era with existing ...

  20. REPAIR OF BRIDGE STEEL GIRDERS DAMAGED BY DISTORTION-INDUCED FATIGUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alemdar, Fatih

    2011-12-31

    This study investigates the repair of steel bridge girders damaged by distortion-induced fatigue. The study is presented in three parts. The first part describes finite element modeling techniques used to evaluate the ...