National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for r7-compatible cumulative damage

  1. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Layton, Robert F.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Sanborn, Scott E.

    2011-07-01

    This is a working report drafted under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, describing statistical models of passives component reliabilities.

  2. Physics-Based Stress Corrosion Cracking Component Reliability Model cast in an R7-Compatible Cumulative Damage Framework

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching...

  3. Cumulative Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    parties to the complex issue of cumulative effects, outlines general principles, presents useful steps, and provides information on methods of cumulative effects analysis ...

  4. Report - Considering Cumulative Effects Under NEPA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act Council on Environmental Quality January 1997 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I INTRODUCTION TO CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Purpose of Cumulative Effect sAnalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Agency Experience with Cumulative Effects Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Principles of

  5. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Act Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act This handbook presents the results of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental...

  6. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 31, 2013. OE ARRA Payments August 2013 More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through October 31, 2013 Cumulative Federal...

  7. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through August 2015 More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments...

  8. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard; Piris, Mario

    2014-12-21

    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of ?S-^{sup 2}?, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall ?S{sup ^2}? values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, ?S{sup ^2}?.

  9. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    31, 2015 | Department of Energy Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through August 2015 (20.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act

  10. RESEARCH and RELATED BUDGET - Cumulative Budget

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cumulative Budget 0 Totals ($) Section A, Senior/Key Person - $ Section B, Other Personnel - $ Total Number Other Personnel 0 Total Salary, Wages and Fringe Benefits (A+B) - $ Section C, Equipment - $ Section D, Travel - $ 1. Domestic - $ 2. Foreign - $ Section E, Participant/Trainee Support Costs - $ 1. Tuition/Fees/Health Insurance - $ 2. Stipends - $ 3. Travel - $ 4. Subsistence - $ 5. Other - $ 6. Number of Participants/Trainees 0 Section F, Other Direct Costs - $ 1. Materials and Supplies -

  11. Orbital-optimized density cumulant functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, Alexander Yu. Schaefer, Henry F.

    2013-11-28

    In density cumulant functional theory (DCFT) the electronic energy is evaluated from the one-particle density matrix and two-particle density cumulant, circumventing the computation of the wavefunction. To achieve this, the one-particle density matrix is decomposed exactly into the mean-field (idempotent) and correlation components. While the latter can be entirely derived from the density cumulant, the former must be obtained by choosing a specific set of orbitals. In the original DCFT formulation [W. Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 171101 (2006)] the orbitals were determined by diagonalizing the effective Fock operator, which introduces partial orbital relaxation. Here we present a new orbital-optimized formulation of DCFT where the energy is variationally minimized with respect to orbital rotations. This introduces important energy contributions and significantly improves the description of the dynamic correlation. In addition, it greatly simplifies the computation of analytic gradients, for which expressions are also presented. We offer a perturbative analysis of the new orbital stationarity conditions and benchmark their performance for a variety of chemical systems.

  12. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    31, 2015 | Department of Energy January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through January 2015 (20.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31,

  13. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    31, 2015 | Department of Energy March 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through March 2015 (21.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31,

  14. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  15. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This handbook presents the results of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality concerning the consideration of cumulative effects in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). It introduces the NEPA practitioner and other interested parties to the complex issue of cumulative effects, outlines general principles, presents useful steps, and provides information on methods of cumulative effects analysis and data sources.

  16. Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Cumulative Index | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance & Requirements » Lessons Learned » Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Cumulative Index Lessons Learned Quarterly Report Cumulative Index The LLQR is produced as a means of disseminating NEPA program metrics, along with related guidance, case studies, analysis, references, litigation updates, and resource information. The LLQR Cumulative Index contains topical listings with citations to relevant articles included in past LLQR issues. LLQR_Index_Dec_2012.pdf (347.36 KB) More Documents

  17. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (CEQ, 1997) | Department of Energy Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (CEQ, 1997) Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (CEQ, 1997) This handbook presents the results of research and consultations by the Council on Environmental Quality concerning the consideration of cumulative effects in analyses prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). It introduces the NEPA practitioner and other interested

  18. Methods, techniques, and tools for analyzing cumulative effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southerland, M.T.

    1995-12-01

    One of the perceived impediments to successful cumulative effects analysis is the lack of readily available methods for addressing the wider boundaries, extended time frames, and more complex interactions involved. Many of the methods commonly used in environmental impact assessment can adequately address cumulative effects if used in combination. Other methods, specifically adapted to analyzing cumulative effects have also been developed. Performing cumulative effects analysis requires (1) an appropriate conceptual framework be developed and (2) the full range of impacts be determined and evaluated. Methods for both phases of cumulative effects analysis are needed, or special purpose methods that incorporate several methods and directly address cumulative effects can be used. The primary methods for developing a cumulative effects conceptual model are often those used in scoping, and are generally qualitative. Foremost among these methods are information gathering techniques. More specific methods are often needed for identifying resources (e.g., checklist), setting boundaries (e.g., mapping), identifying past, present, and future actions (e.g., checklists and trends analysis), and identifying cause and effect pathways (e.g., networks). The primary methods for evaluating impacts include modeling resource response and interactions, determining resource-specific impacts, determining cumulative impacts, determining significance of impacts, and, if appropriate, determining overall cumulative impact. Special purpose methods for performing cumulative effects analysis can be used when conditions warrant and information is available. Such methods include carrying capacity analysis, ecosystem analysis, the synoptic landscape approach, economic impact assessment, and social impact assessment. Two important tools with applications to the analysis of cumulative effects are geographic information systems and remote sensing.

  19. Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCold, L. ); Holman, J. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyzed 89 environmental assessments published in the Federal Register from January 1 through June 30, 1992, to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1500-1508. Only 35 (39%) EAs mentioned cumulative impacts. Nineteen EAs addressed cumulative impacts of some resources, but not others. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) past, present and reasonable foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and be listed with, the proposed action. (2) for each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

  20. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  1. Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy July 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through July 31, 2015. OE ARRA Payments through July 2015 (20.72 KB) More Documents & Publications Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through January 31, 2015 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through March 31,

  2. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2009-12-17

    Draft annual report for the Cumulative Effects Study for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District

  3. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

  4. Consideration Of Cumulative Impacts In EPA Review of NEPA Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on specific issues that are critical in EPA's review of NEPA documents under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act. The guidance offers information on what issues to look for in the analysis, what practical considerations should be kept in mind when reviewing the analysis, and what should be said in EPA comments concerning the adequacy of the analysis.

  5. Power plant cumulative environmental impact report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted by the Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) to determine the cumulative impact of power plants on Maryland's environment. Included in this report are: (1) current and projected power demands and consumption in Maryland; (2) current and planned power generation; (3) air impacts; (4) aquatic effects; (5) radiological effects; (6) social and economic considerations; (7) noise impacts; (8) groundwater effects; (9) solid waste management concerns; (10) transmission line impacts; and (11) descriptions of cooling towers in Maryland. Also contained is the 1982 Ten Year Plan of Maryland Electric Utilities.

  6. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  7. Documentation of cumulative impacts in environmental impact statements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, T.A.; Canter, L.W.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations in the United States require federal agencies to apply an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in decision-making related to their actions. One aspect requires an examination of direct, indirect and cumulative impacts (CIs). Historically, cumulative impact assessment (CIA) has been given limited attention in EIA and resultant environmental impact statements (EISs), not because of its lack of importance, but owing to limitations in methodologies and procedures, including documentation consistency. The objectives of this study were to identify deficiencies in the documentation of CIs and CIA in EISs and to formulate appropriate recommendations (potential solutions) related to such deficiencies. The study involved the systematic review of 33 EISs. The results indicate that improvements have been made in documentation practices since 1990; however, inconsistencies and inadequacies still exist. Therefore, the following recommendations were developed: (1) CIs should be reported in a separate part of the Environmental Consequences section, and they should be addressed for each pertinent environmental resource; (2) a summary of CIs should be included; (3) any CIs considered not significant should be mentioned plus the reason(s) for their non-significance; (4) spatial and temporal boundaries addressed within the CIA process should be defined for pertinent environmental resources; and (5) utilized guidelines and methodologies should be described.

  8. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-02-15

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  9. May 19, 2011, HSS/Union Focus Group Meeting - HSS Project, Cumulative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HSS total directives: 107 (as of 312010) Safety and Security Directives Reform - Cumulative Progress (June 15, 2011) 90 100 Total - Directives with JMs Approved by DRB Total - ...

  10. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demi, Libertario Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  11. Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sage-Grouse | Department of Energy Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater Sage-Grouse Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on the Greater Sage-Grouse March 31, 2014 - 11:34am Addthis Photo of a sage grouse. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory developed a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater

  12. Consideration of Cumulative Impacts in EPA Review of NEPA Documents, EPA Office of Federal Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on...

  13. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  15. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction | Department of Energy 3: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market

  16. Production of cumulative jets by ablatively-driven implosion of hollow cones and wedges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikitin, S. P.; Manka, C.; Miller, C.; Grun, J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zabetakis, D.

    2008-05-15

    Cumulative plasma jets formed by hollow cones imploded via laser ablation of their outer surfaces were observed. The velocity, shape, and density of the jets are measured with monochromatic 0.65 keV x-ray imaging. Depending on cone geometry, cumulative jets with ion density {approx}2x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and propagation velocities >10 km/s are formed. Similar results are observed when jets are formed by imploding wedges. Such jets can be used to simulate hydrodynamics of astrophysical jets interacting with stellar or interstellar matter.

  17. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Sensitive Species

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Argonne National Laboratory recently developed the prototype of a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)—an important wildlife species that has been affected by energy development in the western United States.

  18. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  19. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masden, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Furness, Robert W.; Bullman, Rhys; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2010-01-15

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  20. Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis (CEQ, 2005)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this Memorandum, the Council on Environmental Quality provides guidance on the extent to which agencies of the Federal government are required to analyze the environmental effects of past actions when they describe the cumulative environmental effect of a proposed action.

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  2. Assessing cumulative impacts within state environmental review frameworks in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Zhao; Becker, Dennis R.; Kilgore, Michael A.

    2009-11-15

    Cumulative impact assessment (CIA) is the process of systematically assessing a proposed action's cumulative environmental effects in the context of past, present, and future actions, regardless of who undertakes such actions. Previous studies have examined CIA efforts at the federal level but little is known about how states assess the cumulative impacts of nonfederal projects. By examining state environmental review statutes, administrative rules, agency-prepared materials, and a national survey of the administrators of state environmental review programs, this study identifies the legal and administrative frameworks for CIA. It examines current CIA practice, discusses the relationship between CIA policy and its implementation, and explores the opportunities for improvement. The results of the study show that twenty-nine state environmental review programs across twenty-six states required the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts. More than half of these programs have adopted specific procedures for implementing their policies. Some programs assessed cumulative impacts using a standard review document, and others have created their own documentations incorporated into applications for state permits or funding. The majority of programs have adopted various scales, baselines, significance criteria, and coordination practices in their CIA processes. Mixed methods were generally used for data collection and analysis; qualitative methods were more prevalent than quantitative methods. The results also suggest that a program with comprehensive and consistent environmental review policies and procedures does not always imply extensive CIA requirements and practices. Finally, this study discusses the potential for improving existing CIA processes and promoting CIA efforts in states without established environmental review programs.

  3. Evidence-based evaluation of the cumulative effects of ecosystem restoration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Buenau, Kate E.; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Borde, Amy B.; Kropp, Roy K.

    2016-03-18

    Evaluating the cumulative effects of large-scale ecological restoration programs is necessary to inform adaptive ecosystem management and provide society with resilient and sustainable services. However, complex linkages between restorative actions and ecosystem responses make evaluations problematic. Despite long-term federal investments in restoring aquatic ecosystems, no standard evaluation method has been adopted and most programs focus on monitoring and analysis, not synthesis and evaluation. In this paper, we demonstrate a new transdisciplinary approach integrating techniques from evidence-based medicine, critical thinking, and cumulative effects assessment. Tiered hypotheses are identified using an ecosystem conceptual model. The systematic literature review at the core ofmore » evidence-based assessment becomes one of many lines of evidence assessed collectively, using critical thinking strategies and causal criteria from a cumulative effects perspective. As a demonstration, we analyzed data from 166 locations on the Columbia River and estuary representing 12 indicators of habitat and fish response to floodplain restoration actions intended to benefit threatened and endangered salmon. Synthesis of seven lines of evidence showed that hydrologic reconnection promoted macrodetritis export, prey availability, and fish access and feeding. The evidence was sufficient to infer cross-boundary, indirect, compounding and delayed cumulative effects, and suggestive of nonlinear, landscape-scale, and spatial density effects. On the basis of causal inferences regarding food web functions, we concluded that the restoration program has a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. As a result, this evidence-based approach will enable the evaluation of restoration in complex coastal and riverine ecosystems where data have accumulated without sufficient synthesis.« less

  4. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation damage materials modification Radiation Damage/Materials Modification High-energy ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade their physical properties to the point of failure. For example, alpha-decay in nuclear fuels results in dislocation damage to and accumulation of helium and fission gasses in the material. Similarly, neutrons interacting with

  5. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories thatmore » skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.« less

  6. Real time evolution of non-Gaussian cumulants in the QCD critical regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2015-09-23

    In this study, we derive a coupled set of equations that describe the nonequilibrium evolution of cumulants of critical fluctuations for spacetime trajectories on the crossover side of the QCD phase diagram. In particular, novel expressions are obtained for the nonequilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian skewness and kurtosis cumulants. UBy utilizing a simple model of the spacetime evolution of a heavy-ion collision, we demonstrate that, depending on the relaxation rate of critical fluctuations, skewness and kurtosis can differ significantly in magnitude as well as in sign from equilibrium expectations. Memory effects are important and shown to persist even for trajectories that skirt the edge of the critical regime. We use phenomenologically motivated parametrizations of freeze-out curves and of the beam-energy dependence of the net baryon chemical potential to explore the implications of our model study for the critical-point search in heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Role of slope stability in cumulative impact assessment of hydropower development: North Cascades, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Two environmental assessments considered the potential cumulative environmental impacts resulting from the development of eight proposed hydropower projects in the Nooksack River Basin and 11 proposed projects in the Skagit River Basin, North Cascades, Washington, respectively. While not identified as a target resource, slope stability and the alteration of sediment supply to creeks and river mainstems significantly affect other resources. The slope stability assessment emphasized the potential for cumulative impacts under disturbed conditions (e.g., road construction and timber harvesting) and a landslide-induced pipeline rupture scenario. In the case of small-scale slides, the sluicing action of ruptured pipeline water on the fresh landslide scarp was found to be capable of eroding significantly more material than the original landslide. For large-scale landslides, sluiced material was found to be a small increment of the original landslide. These results predicted that hypothetical accidental pipeline rupture by small-scale landslides may result in potential cumulative impacts for 12 of the 19 projects with pending license applications in both river basins. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  9. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  10. Consideration Of Cumulative Impacts In EPA Review of NEPA Documents (EPA, 1999)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this guidance is to assist EPA reviewers of NEPA documents in providing accurate, realistic, and consistent comments on the assessment of cumulative impacts. The guidance focuses on specific issues that are critical in EPA's review of NEPA documents under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act. The guidance offers information on what issues to look for in the analysis, what practical considerations should be kept in mind when reviewing the analysis, and what should be said in EPA comments concerning the adequacy of the analysis.

  11. OSTIblog Articles in the cumulative energy Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information cumulative energy Topic Enjoy the benefits of LED lighting by Kathy Chambers 30 Dec, 2013 in Products and Content 13966 Photographic%20credit%E2%80%9CArchitect%20of%20the%20Capitol.%E2%80%9D%202010%20LED%20Tree.jpg Enjoy the benefits of LED lighting Read more about 13966 Every day we are bombarded with advertisements in every form and format telling us that our lives will be improved if we buy a particular product because it will save us money,

  12. Real time cumulant approach for charge-transfer satellites in x-ray photoemission spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-01

    X-ray photoemission spectra generally exhibit satellite features in addition to quasi-particle peaks due to many-body excitations which have been of considerable theoretical and experimental interest. However, the satellites attributed to charge-transfer (CT) excitations in correlated materials have proved difficult to calculate from first principles. Here we report a real-time, real-space approach for such calculations based on a cumulant representation of the core-hole Green’s function and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach also yields an interpretation of CT satellites in terms of a complex oscillatory, transient response to a suddenly created core hole. Illustrative results for TiO2 and NiO are in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  14. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  15. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senner, Robert

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  16. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  17. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  18. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  19. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed betweenmore » different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.« less

  20. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed between different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.

  1. Table 4.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil and Natural Gas Cumulative Production and Proved Reserves, 1977-2010 Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate 1 Natural Gas (Dry) Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 2 Cumulative Production Proved Reserves 3 Million Barrels Billion Cubic Feet 1977 118,091 31,780 514,439 207,413 1978 121,269 31,355 533,561 208,033 1979 124,390 31,221 553,224 200,997 1980 127,537 31,335 572,627 199,021 1981 130,665 31,006 591,808 201,730 1982 133,822 29,459 609,628 201,512 1983 136,993 29,348 625,722

  2. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola dEnginyeria dIgualada (EEI), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaa del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comer Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola dEnginyeria dIgualada (EEI), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaa del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comer Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  3. Cumulative impacts study of The Geysers KGRA: public-service impacts of geothermal development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1982-05-01

    Geothermal development in The Geysers KGRA has affected local public services and fiscal resources in Sonoma, Lake, Mendocino, and Napa counties. Each of these counties underwent rapid population growth between 1970 and 1980, some of which can be attributed to geothermal development. The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in The Geysers is identified. Using three different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in The Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdictions are examined and compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed, and a framework is presented for calculating mitigation costs per unit of public service.

  4. LANL Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Performance Work Statement (PWS) sets forth the tasks to be performed to complete a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) and Restoration Plan based on injuries to natural resources from the release of hazardous substances from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  6. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Wegner, Paul J.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Feit, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  7. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.

    2015-04-14

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmorethan for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)less

  8. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  9. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  10. Simulation of dependence of the cross section of deuterons beam fragmentation into cumulative pions and protons on the mass of the target nucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, A. G.; Litvinenko, E. I.

    2015-03-15

    We have studied the mechanisms influencing production of cumulative pions and protons in the fragmentation of the incident deuterons into cumulative pions and protons emitted at zero angle. We argue that the peripheral dependence on the atomic mass of the target nucleus, which was obtained in the experiments for medium and heavy nuclei, can be explained by scattering on target nucleons without introducing additional parameters.

  11. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the project from initiation through the second quarter of 2013.

  12. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country. This cumulative report covers the period through the third quarter of 2013.

  13. Earthquake damage to underground facilities (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the ... Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. ...

  14. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  15. Candidate wind-turbine generator site cumulative meteorological data summary and data for January 1982 through September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.; Bradymire, S.L.; Gregory, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    Summarized cumulative hourly meteorological data for 20 new sites selected in early 1980 as part of the expanded candidate site program are presented. The reporting period is July 1980 through September 1982. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and to provide data that could be considered representative of longer-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and in a topographic map showing the approximated location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of the information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for longer-term average wind energy production at each site. Two appendices of other data are provided. Appendix A contains summarized data collected at new and original sites during the period January 1982 through September 1982. Appendix B contains cumulative summarized data for those original sites selected in 1976 with data collection programs continuing into 1982.

  16. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. . Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Stark, A.; Ju, C. . Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology)

    1990-10-01

    The feasibility of measuring Pb-210 in vivo in the skulls of those individuals who have resided in homes with above average levels of radon/radon daughters, has now been successfully demonstrated. These values, when incorporated into metabolic models of Pb-210 in the body including other related physical parameters, can be used for the calculation of a realistic estimate of a resident's cumulative exposure to radon and its' decay products. Data are presented for 26 subjects exposed to higher than average concentrations of radon i.e. ranging from 10 to 120 pCi/l, for various periods of time. Their skeletal Pb-210 burdens are compared to measurement results of a population of individuals presumed to have been exposed to values which are more representative of average levels i.e. <1pCi/1. Results of a study to determine the biological retention of Pb-210 in the human skeleton for use in the metabolic model relating skull burdens of this nuclide to cumulative radon/daughter exposure, are also described. At the present time, our measurements, made over a period of 10 years, of an individual with a significant Pb-210 burden, indicate a biological half-time of approximately 57 years and an effective half-life of 16 years. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Special Section Guest Editorial: Laser Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzdev, Vitaly E.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2012-11-09

    Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mühlig and S

  18. Testing model for predicting spillway cavitation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.; Hoopes, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Using fuzzy mathematics a comprehensive model has been developed to predict the time, location and level (intensity) of spillway cavitation damage. Five damage levels and four factors affecting damage are used. Membership functions express the degree that each factor effects damage, and weights express the relative importance of each factor. The model has been calibrated and tested with operating data and experience from the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway, which had major cavitation damage in 1983. An error analysis for the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway gave the best ranges for model weights. Prediction of damage at other spillways (4 tunnels, 3 chutes) with functions and parameters as for the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway gave reasonable predictions of damage intensity and location and poor estimates of occurrence time in the tunnels. Chute predictions were in poor agreement with observations, indicating need for different parameter values. Finally, two membership functions with constant or time varying parameters are compared with observed results from the Glen Canyon Dam left tunnel spillway.

  19. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J.; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  20. Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

    2009-11-11

    There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

  1. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  2. Quantitative damage evaluation of localized deep pitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Beed, A.A.; Al Garni, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    Localized deep pitting is considered difficult to precisely measure and evaluate using simple techniques and daily-use analysis approaches. A case study was made of carbon steel heat exchangers in a typical fresh cooling water environment that experienced severe pitting. To effectively and precisely evaluate the encountered pitting damage, a simple measurement and analyses approach was devised. In this article, the pitting measurement technique and the damage evaluation approach are presented and discussed in detail.

  3. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., George W.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  4. Damaged Surface Hydrodynamics (DSH) Flash Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Damaged Surface Hydrodynamics (DSH) Flash Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Damaged Surface Hydrodynamics (DSH) Flash Report You are accessing ...

  5. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  6. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  7. Structural damage detection using the holder exponent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R.; Do, N. B.; Green, S. R.; Schwartz, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper implements a damage detection strategy that identifies damage sensitive features associated with nonlinearities. Some rion-linezlrities result from discontinuities introduced into the data by certain types of darnage. These discontinuities may also result from noise in the measured dynamic response data or can be caused by random excitation of the system. The Holder Exponent, which is a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is used to detect the discontinuities. By studying the Holder bponent as a function af time, a statistical model is developed that classifies changes in the Holder Exponent that are associated with clamage-induced discontinuities. The results show that for certain cases, the Holder Exponent is an effective technique to detect damage.

  8. Probing Radiation Damage at the Molecular Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, N. J.; Smialek, M. A.; Moore, S. A.; Folkard, M.; Hoffmann, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Radiation damage of DNA and other cellular components has traditionally been attributed to ionisation via direct impact of high-energy quanta or by complex radical chemistry. However recent research has shown that strand breaks in DNA may be initiated by secondary electrons and is strongly dependent upon the target DNA base identity. Such research provides the fascinating perspective that it is possible that radiation damage may be described and understood at an individual molecular level introducing new possibilites for therapy and perhaps providing an insight into the origins of life.

  9. Physics-Based Multi-State Models of Passive Component Degradation for the R7 Reactor Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Layton, Robert F.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lowry, Peter P.

    2012-06-25

    Abstract: The Next Generation Systems Analysis Code - referred to as R7 - is reactor systems simulation software being developed to support the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. It will provide an integrated multi-physics environment, implemented in an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework that can produce risk and other performance insights on long-term reactor operations. An element of this simulation environment will be the performance of passive components and materials. Conventional models of component reliability are largely parametric, relying on plant service data to estimate component lifetimes and failure rates. This type of model has limited usefulness in the R7 environment where the intent is to explicitly determine the influence of physical stressors on component degradation. In this paper, we describe a new class of multi-state physics-based component models designed to be R7-compatible. These models capture the physics of materials degradation while also incorporating the effects of interventions and component rejuvenation. The models are implemented in a cumulative damage framework that allows the impact of an evolving physical environment to be addressed without recourse to resampling within the Monte Carlo-based UQ framework. The paper describes an application to stress corrosion cracking in dissimilar metal welds - a principal contributor to potential loss of coolant accidents. So while R7 will have the more conventional capability of reactor simulation codes to model the impact of degraded components and systems on plant performance, the methodology described here allows R7 to model the inverse effect; the impact of the physical environment on component degradation and performance.

  10. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore » (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.« less

  11. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films with (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.

  12. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  13. Cumulative fission yields of short-lived isotopes under natural-abundance-boron-carbide-moderated neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce; Wittman, Richard S.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2015-04-09

    The availability of gamma spectroscopy data on samples containing mixed fission products at short times after irradiation is limited. Due to this limitation, data interpretation methods for gamma spectra of mixed fission product samples, where the individual fission products have not been chemically isolated from interferences, are not well-developed. The limitation is particularly pronounced for fast pooled neutron spectra because of the lack of available fast reactors in the United States. Samples containing the actinide isotopes 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu individually were subjected to a 2$ pulse in the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. To achieve a fission-energy neutron spectrum, the spectrum was tailored using a natural abundance boron carbide capsule to absorb neutrons in the thermal and epithermal region of the spectrum. Our tailored neutron spectrum is unique to the WSU reactor facility, consisting of a soft fission spectrum that contains some measurable flux in the resonance region. This results in a neutron spectrum at greater than 0.1 keV with an average energy of 70 keV, similar to fast reactor spectra and approaching that of 235U fission. Unique fission product gamma spectra were collected from 4 minutes to 1 week after fission using single-crystal high purity germanium detectors. Cumulative fission product yields measured in the current work generally agree with published fast pooled fission product yield values from ENDF/B-VII, though a bias was noted for 239Pu. The present work contributes to the compilation of energy-resolved fission product yield nuclear data for nuclear forensic purposes.

  14. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume II, Technical Information, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes a study to determine the potential cumulative effects of proposed small hydro development on the fisheries of the Swan River drainage. This report contains technical information and is a support document for the main report (Leathe and Enk, 1985). Consequently, discussion of results was minimized. The sections on fish population monitoring, streambed monitoring, habitat survey comparisons, and water temperature are the only portions that were not discussed in the main report. 5 refs., 55 figs., 44 tabs.

  15. Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at sNN=7.7–200GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Angerami, A.; et al

    2016-01-19

    Our report presents the measurement of cumulants (Cn,n=1,...,4) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity (|η|<0.35) in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=7.7–200GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g., C1/C2, C3/C1) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in themore » ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. These measured values of C1/C2 and C3/C1 can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy. Moreover, the extracted baryon chemical potentials are in excellent agreement with a thermal-statistical analysis model.« less

  16. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  17. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haiyong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Teng, Lisong; Legerski, Randy J.

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  18. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  19. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  20. Radiation damage in cubic-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) can be used for nuclear applications as an inert matrix for actinide immobilization or transmutation. Indeed, the large amount of native oxygen vacancies leads to a high radiation tolerance of this material owing to defect recombination occurring in the atomic displacements cascades induced by fast neutron irradiation or ion implantations, as showed by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Amorphization cannot be obtained in YSZ either by nuclear-collision or electronic-excitation damage, just like in urania. A kind of polygonization structure with slightly disoriented crystalline domains is obtained in both cases. In the first steps of damage, specific isolated point defects (like F+-type color centers) and point-defect clusters are produced by nuclear collisions with charged particles or neutrons. Further increase of damage leads to dislocation-loop formation, then to collapse of the dislocation network into a polygonization structure. For swift heavy ion irradiations, a similar polygonization structure is obtained above a threshold stopping power value of about 20-30 keV nm-1.

  1. Development of subsidence damage criteria. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Singh, M.M.

    1985-10-01

    In the process of coal mining it is certain that some degree of disturbance of the overlying strata and consequent subsidence of the surface will result. The problem of land subsidence has faced engineers and geologists for many years and, when widespread movements and damage to surface structures occurred, systematic investigations were undertaken. The term subsidence, as used in the report, implies the total phenomenon of surface effects associated with the mining of minerals, and not only vertical displacement of the surface as is sometimes inferred in the literature.

  2. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  3. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  4. Survey of four damage models for concrete.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavanichkul, Seubpong; Brannon, Rebecca Moss

    2009-08-01

    Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to statistical variability of material

  5. Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Mezzanotte, D.A. Jr.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with increasing He-3 concentration. Sustained-load cracking tests indicate that the stress intensity required to initiate and propagate a crack also decreases with increasing He-3 concentration. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, but instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  7. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #843: Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction

  8. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-24

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratio is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Finally, our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries.

  9. High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Wang, Haoran; Tao, Siyu; Yang, Avery; Liu, Yang; Beng Chew, Huck; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; et al

    2015-09-24

    Mechanical degradation and resultant capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance rechargeable batteries. Despite tremendous efforts devoted to the study of the electro–chemo–mechanical behaviours of high-capacity electrode materials, their fracture properties and mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report a nanomechanical study on the damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy experiments reveal a striking contrast of brittle fracture in pristine silicon versus ductile tensile deformation in fully lithiated silicon. Quantitative fracture toughness measurements by nanoindentation show a rapid brittle-to-ductile transition of fracture as the lithium-to-silicon molar ratiomore » is increased to above 1.5. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings of the brittle-to-ductile transition governed by atomic bonding and lithiation-induced toughening. Finally, our results reveal the high damage tolerance in amorphous lithium-rich silicon alloys and have important implications for the development of durable rechargeable batteries.« less

  10. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2005-01-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  11. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2004-11-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  12. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 μb–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 T n, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients aremore »presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.« less

  13. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 μb–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 < pT < 20 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.5. The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, vn, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients aremore » presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.« less

  14. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  15. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  16. Final report on optical damage tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-18

    This report presents the data resulting from a series of mirror damage tests conducted with the FLEX laser at KMS Fusion on March 14 through March 20, 1990 for Los Alamos National Laboratory. The FLEX laser consists of a ND:YLF master oscillator and four Nd:glass rod amplifiers operating at 1.05 {mu}m. For this program, the laser was configured to produce a 3 ms long square wave envelope of mode locked pulses which was focused onto Los Alamos supplied targets via a 1200 mm focal length (f/20) lens at approximately normal incidence. The pulse energy and spot size were specified by Los Alamos personnel, the energy varying from approximately 10--40 Joules and the spot size ranging from approximately 100--300 {mu}m. A total of 63 target shots and 19 calibration and/or test shots were conducted.

  17. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  18. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  19. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The ...

  1. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on...

  2. Performance of Damaged Soil-Concrete Wraparound Dam Sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting seismic or shock loading damage of the soil-concrete interface where an ... erosion process, and deposition within interface cracks; and (2) to investigate the ...

  3. Guest Editorial: Laser Damage (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the output energy and power of pulsed and ... studies based on third-harmonic generation microscopy). ... Another paper is devoted to thermal annealing of damage ...

  4. Structural Damage Detection Using Slopes of Longitudinal Vibration Shapes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, W.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.; Cao, M. S.

    2016-03-18

    While structural damage detection based on flexural vibration shapes, such as mode shapes and steady-state response shapes under harmonic excitation, has been well developed, little attention is paid to that based on longitudinal vibration shapes that also contain damage information. This study originally formulates a slope vibration shape for damage detection in bars using longitudinal vibration shapes. To enhance noise robustness of the method, a slope vibration shape is transformed to a multiscale slope vibration shape in a multiscale domain using wavelet transform, which has explicit physical implication, high damage sensitivity, and noise robustness. These advantages are demonstrated in numericalmore » cases of damaged bars, and results show that multiscale slope vibration shapes can be used for identifying and locating damage in a noisy environment. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal steady-state response shape of an aluminum bar with damage due to reduced cross-sectional dimensions under harmonic excitation, and results show that the method can successfully identify and locate the damage. Slopes of longitudinal vibration shapes are shown to be suitable for damage detection in bars and have potential for applications in noisy environments.« less

  5. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Aleksandr; Golubov, Stanislav I

    2008-09-01

    Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

  6. Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bataviciute, Gintare; Grigas, Povilas; Smalakys, Linas; Melninkaitis, Andrius

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the applicability of commonly used Damage Frequency Method (DFM) is addressed in the context of Laser-Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing with pulsed lasers. A simplified computer model representing the statistical interaction between laser irradiation and randomly distributed damage precursors is applied for Monte Carlo experiments. The reproducibility of LIDT predicted from DFM is examined under both idealized and realistic laser irradiation conditions by performing numerical 1-on-1 tests. A widely accepted linear fitting resulted in systematic errors when estimating LIDT and its error bars. For the same purpose, a Bayesian approach was proposed. A novel concept of parametric regression based on varying kernel and maximum likelihood fitting technique is introduced and studied. Such approach exhibited clear advantages over conventional linear fitting and led to more reproducible LIDT evaluation. Furthermore, LIDT error bars are obtained as a natural outcome of parametric fitting which exhibit realistic values. The proposed technique has been validated on two conventionally polished fused silica samples (355 nm, 5.7 ns).

  7. Modeling and characterization of recompressed damaged materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, R; Cazamias, J U; Kalantar, D H; LeBlanc, M M; Springer, H K

    2004-02-11

    Experiments have been performed to explore conditions under which spall damage is recompressed with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model. Spall is introduced through traditional gas gun techniques or with laser ablation. Recompression techniques producing a uniaxial stress state, such as a Hopkinson bar, do not create sufficient confinement to close the porosity. Higher stress triaxialities achieved through a gas gun or laser recompression can close the spall. Characterization of the recompressed samples by optical metallography and electron microscopy reveal a narrow, highly deformed process zone. At the higher pressures achieved in the gas gun, little evidence of spall remains other than differentially etched features in the optical micrographs. With the very high strain rates achieved with laser techniques there is jetting from voids and other signs of turbulent metal flow. Simulations of spall and recompression on micromechanical models containing a single void suggest that it might be possible to represent the recompression using models similar to those employed for void growth. Calculations using multiple, randomly distributed voids are needed to determine if such models will yield the proper behavior for more realistic microstructures.

  8. C–IBI: Targeting cumulative coordination within an iterative protocol to derive coarse-grained models of (multi-component) complex fluids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    de Oliveira, Tiago E.; Netz, Paulo A.; Kremer, Kurt; Junghans, Christoph; Mukherji, Debashish

    2016-05-03

    We present a coarse-graining strategy that we test for aqueous mixtures. The method uses pair-wise cumulative coordination as a target function within an iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) like protocol. We name this method coordination iterative Boltzmann inversion (C–IBI). While the underlying coarse-grained model is still structure based and, thus, preserves pair-wise solution structure, our method also reproduces solvation thermodynamics of binary and/or ternary mixtures. In addition, we observe much faster convergence within C–IBI compared to IBI. To validate the robustness, we apply C–IBI to study test cases of solvation thermodynamics of aqueous urea and a triglycine solvation in aqueous urea.

  9. Micro-mechanical modeling of perforating shock damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, R.P.; Krogh, K.E.; Behrmann, L.A.; Halleck, P.M.

    1997-11-17

    Shaped charge jet induced formation damage from perforation treatments hinders productivity. Manifestation of this damage is in the form of grain fragmentation resulting in fines that plug up pore throats along with the breakdown of inter-grain cementation. The authors use the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) computational method as a way to explicitly model, on a grain pore scale, the dynamic interactions of grains and grain/pores to calculate the damage resulting from perforation type stress wave loading. The SPH method is a continuum Lagrangian, meshless approach that features particles. Clusters of particles are used for each grain to provide representation of a grain pore structure that is similar to x-ray synchrotron microtomography images. Numerous damage models are available to portray fracture and fragmentation. In this paper the authors present the results of well defined impact loading on a grain pore structure that illustrate how the heterogeneity affects stress wave behavior and damage evolution. The SPH approach easily accommodates the coupling of multi-materials. Calculations for multi-material conditions with the pore space treated as a void, fluid filled, and/or clay filled show diverse effects on the stress wave propagation behavior and damage. SPH comparisons made with observed damage from recovered impacted sandstone samples in gas gun experiments show qualitatively the influence of stress intensity. The modeling approach presented here offers a unique way in concert with experiments to define a better understanding of formation damage resulting from perforation completion treatments.

  10. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.

  11. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore » that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  12. Analysis of 1w Bulk Laser Damage in KDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D A; Carr, C W

    2011-04-11

    The influence of laser parameters on laser-induced damage in the bulk of KDP is difficult to determine because the damage manifests as discrete sites a few microns in diameter distributed throughout a relatively large volume of material. Here, they present a method to directly measure the size and location of many thousands of such sites and correlate them to the laser conditions which produced them. This technique is used to characterize the effects of pulse duration on damage initiated by 1053 nm light in the bulk of KDP crystals. They find that the density of damage sites produced by 1053 nm light is less sensitive to pulse duration than was previously reported for 526 nm and 351 nm light. In addition, the effect of pulse duration on the size of the damage sites produced appears insensitive to wavelength.

  13. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  14. Uncertainty of silicon 1-MeV damage function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danjaji, M.B.; Griffin, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the ASTM E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma as calculated from the ORNL Si cross-section evaluation. Experimental work has shown that observed damage ratios at various test facilities agree with the defined response function to within 5%. Here, a covariance matrix for the silicon 1-MeV neutron displacement damage function is developed. This uncertainty data will support the electronic radiation hardness-testing community and will permit silicon displacement damage sensors to be used in least squares spectrum adjustment codes.

  15. Electronic effects in high-energy radiation damage in tungsten

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Nordlund, Kai; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Weber, William J.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2015-01-01

    Even though the effects of the electronic excitations during high-energy radiation damage processes are not currently understood, it is shown that their role in the interaction of radiation with matter is important. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collision cascades in bcc-tungsten using the coupled two-temperature molecular dynamics (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the effects of electronic stopping and electron–phonon interaction. We compare the combination of these effects on the induced damage with only the effect of electronic stopping, and conclude in several novel insights. In the 2T-MD model, the electron–phonon coupling results in less damage production in themore » molten region and in faster relaxation of the damage at short times. We show these two effects lead to a significantly smaller amount of the final damage at longer times.« less

  16. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete [1]. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete [2] does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure [3]. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  17. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  18. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  19. Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.

    2014-11-26

    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7 μb–1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transverse momenta 0.5 < pT < 20 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.5. The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, vn, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients are presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multi-particle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. As a result, models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements.

  20. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening

  1. An Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Cumulative Effects of Tidal Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystem Restoration on Endangered Juvenile Salmon in the Columbia River: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Buenau, Kate E.; Kropp, Roy K.

    2013-12-01

    The listing of 13 salmon and steelhead stocks in the Columbia River basin (hereafter collectively referred to as “salmon”) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, has stimulated tidal wetland restoration in the lower 235 kilometers of the Columbia River and estuary for juvenile salmon habitat functions. The purpose of the research reported herein was to evaluate the effect on listed salmon of the restoration effort currently being conducted under the auspices of the federal Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). Linking changes in the quality and landscape pattern of tidal wetlands in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) to salmon recovery is a complex problem because of the characteristics of the ecosystem, the salmon, the restoration actions, and available sampling technologies. Therefore, we designed an evidence-based approach to develop, synthesize, and evaluate information to determine early-stage (~10 years) outcomes of the CEERP. We developed an ecosystem conceptual model and from that, a primary hypothesis that habitat restoration activities in the LCRE have a cumulative beneficial effect on juvenile salmon. There are two necessary conditions of the hypothesis: • habitat-based indicators of ecosystem controlling factors, processes, and structures show positive effects from restoration actions, and • fish-based indicators of ecosystem processes and functions show positive effects from restoration actions and habitats undergoing restoration. Our evidence-based approach to evaluate the primary hypothesis incorporated seven lines of evidence, most of which are drawn from the LCRE. The lines of evidence are spatial and temporal synergies, cumulative net ecosystem improvement, estuary-wide meta-analysis, offsite benefits to juvenile salmon, landscape condition evaluation, and evidence-based scoring of global literature. The general methods we used to develop information for the lines of evidence included field

  2. Minimizing damage to a propped fracture by controlled flowback procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, B.M.; Holditch, S.A.; Whitehead, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    Severe fracture-conductivity damage can result from proppant crushing and/or proppant flowback into the wellbore. Such damage is often concentrated near the wellbore and can directly affect postfracture performance. Most of the time severe fracture-conductivity damage can be minimized by choosing the correct type of proppant for a particular well. In many cases, however, this is not enough. To minimize excessive crushing or to prevent proppant flowback, it is also necessary to control carefully the flowback of the well after the treatment. Specific procedures can be followed to minimize severe fracture-conductivity damage. These procedures involve controlling the rates at which load fluids are recovered and maximizing backpressure against the formation. These procedures require much more time and effort than is normally spent on postfracture cleanup; however, the efforts could result in better performance.

  3. Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    used for optics for self-seeding of soft x-ray free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for ...

  4. NMSLO Water Lease Damage Bond | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Lease Damage BondLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  5. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  6. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Damage Evolution in High Strength A1 Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ; Foulk, James W., III ; johnson, george Publication Date: 2012-09-01 OSTI...

  7. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High-Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Damage Evolution in High-Strength Al Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ; Foulk, James W., III Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1072668...

  8. Los Alamos offers new insights into radiation damage evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two reports are helping crack the code of how certain materials respond in the highly-damaging radiation environments within a nuclear reactor. March 16, 2015 Researchers at Los ...

  9. Scientists Assess Damage Caused by Earthquake near Amchitka

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contractor scientists for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) traveled to the Amchitka, Alaska, Site in late August to assess the damage caused by a recent earthquake....

  10. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monitoring stations, canyons Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage Los Alamos National Laboratory describes storm damage to environmental monitoring stations, canyons Stations supporting Santa Fe water utility returned to service September 18, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to

  12. PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps2_dow_gaston.pdf (1.26 MB) More Documents & Publications FY2015 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of High-Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Rods from Pressurized Water Reactor and BWR Environments 2014 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual

  13. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  14. The U.S. Forest Service's analysis of cumulative effects to wildlife: A study of legal standards, current practice, and ongoing challenges on a National Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Courtney A.

    2012-01-15

    Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) allows natural resource managers to understand the status of resources in historical context, learn from past management actions, and adapt future activities accordingly. U.S. federal agencies are required to complete CEA as part of environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Past research on CEA as part of NEPA has identified significant deficiencies in CEA practice, suggested methodologies for handling difficult aspects of CEA, and analyzed the rise in litigation over CEA in U.S. courts. This article provides a review of the literature and legal standards related to CEA as it is done under NEPA and then examines current practice on a U.S. National Forest, utilizing qualitative methods in order to provide a detailed understanding of current approaches to CEA. Research objectives were to understand current practice, investigate ongoing challenges, and identify impediments to improvement. Methods included a systematic review of a set of NEPA documents and semi-structured interviews with practitioners, scientists, and members of the public. Findings indicate that the primary challenges associated with CEA include: issues of both geographic and temporal scale of analysis, confusion over the purpose of the requirement, the lack of monitoring data, and problems coordinating and disseminating data. Improved monitoring strategies and programmatic analyses could support improved CEA practice.

  15. Considering Cumulative Effects under NEPA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Adamus, P. R., E.J. Clairain, Jr., R.D. Smith, and R,E. Young. 1987. Wetland Evaluation ... managers have been conducting carrying capacity analyses for many years (Smith 1974). ...

  16. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond; Doug Adams

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the

  17. CO/sub 2/ formation damage study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, J.T.

    1983-07-01

    The literature did provide insight into four possible damage mechanisms, namely: (1) precipitation of reservoir mineral in the vicinity around the producing well as carbon dioxide escapes from the water phase due to pressure draw down; (2) plugging of reservoir interstices by insoluble organic solids precipitated as the carbon dioxide dissolves in crude oil; (3) formation of an immobile gas phase, predominately CO/sub 2/, which would drastically lower the effective permeability to oil and, especially water; and (4) dissolution of cementation, especially carbonates or feldspars, that could allow fines to migrate in the reservoir and plug tiny flow passages. Each of these mechanisms was investigated in depth during the laboratory experiments. Occasional reports from industry suggested that the use of carbon dioxide to enhance the recovery of tertiary oil might be causing formation damage. This project was undertaken to define the mechanisms responsible for such occurrences. The objectives were threefold: (1) provide a comprehensive literature survey to elicit all that is currently known or suspected, relative to formation damage that might occur during the injection of carbon dioxide into an oil reservoir; (2) under simulated reservoir conditions, demonstrate in the laboratory each of the damage mechanisms and quantify the degree to which each mechanism could cause damage; and (3) for those damage mechanisms identified to be significant, develop a feasible remedy, easily applied in actual field operations. The third mechanism, related to the presence of an immobile gas phase, is a real problem but not unique to the injection of carbon dioxide. In the case of carbon dioxide, the damage should be self-correcting, as the solubility of carbon dioxide in water will eventually allow the water to dissolve away the gas and, hence, the blocking effect.

  18. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    2004-03-23

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model

  19. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bude, J. D.; Carr, C. W.; Conder, A. D.; DiNicola, J. M. G.; Dixit, S. N.; Feigenbaum, E.; et al

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of themmore » anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.« less

  20. Investigation of subsidence damages above abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Po-Ming.

    1988-01-01

    Abandoned mine lands (AML) subsidence is one of the most hazardous problems for personal property and community development. In order to improve the technique for subsidence diagnosis and the effectiveness of remedial measures, several methods and techniques have been developed in this research. A subsidence site investigation checklist is developed to guide the investigators with or without hands-on experience to collect a complete and necessary information for subsidence analysis during site investigation. A subsidence cause identification system is developed to streamline the process of analysis and for subsidence cause differentiation and identification over AML. A damage severity system is developed to evaluate the intensity of the damage to structures. A subsidence deduction model is developed based on the probability function integration method to reconstruct subsidence profile and subsurface failure zone for AML subsidence. The study is based on the case studies which include site investigation, surface subsidence survey, subsurface instrumentation, damage severity evaluation, subsidence deduction and statistical analysis. The results show that geologic conditions such as seam depth, seam height, ratios of strong and weak rocks do affect the subsidence damage area, subsidence factor, and damage severity. The relationship between above parameters can be expressed by a second order polynomial with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  1. Damage rates for FFTF structural components and surveillance assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) surveillance program provides coupon surveillance materials that are irradiated to the expected lifetime damage dose that the represented component will experience. This methodology requires a knowledge of the damage dose rates to the surveillance assemblies and to the critical locations of the structural components. This analysis updates the predicted exposures from a total fluence to a displacement per atom (dpa) basis using Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) code (MCNP). The MCNP calculation improves the relative consistency and lowers the predicted damage rates uncertainty in a number of out-of-core locations. The results were used an part of the evaluation to extend the lifetime of the invessel components to 30 years in support of multiple missions for FFTF.

  2. Analysis of bending properties for damaged laminated pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, A.; Nishiwaki, T.; Nakai, A.; Hamada, H.

    1996-12-01

    Various composite cylinders, such as braided cylinders, could be fabricated with a high volume fabrication method, using thermoplastic composites and so on. If so, usage of composite cylinder would be extended. In this paper, a new analytical model named Quasi-Three-Dimensional model was proposed and applied to a two-layered composite cylinder. Under various service environments, a damaged cylinder with interlaminar fracture often appeared. The calculated elastic modulus was decreased with an increase of the damaged area. From deformation states and stress distribution of interlaminae, some coupling effects were recognized, even if the analytical cylinder without any damage never showed any coupling effects. This result showed the usefulness of the Quasi-Three-Dimensional model.

  3. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, E.; Devanathan, R.; Weber, W. J.; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Nordlund, K.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.10.5?MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  4. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  5. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J; Seaton, M; Todorov, I T; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  6. Dynamically Driven Phase Transformations in Damaged Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plohr, JeeYeon N.; Clements, Brad E.; Addessio, Frank L

    2006-07-28

    A model developed for composite materials undergoing dynamicaly driven phase transitions in its constituents has been extended to allow for complex material micro-structure and evolution of damage. In this work, damage is described by interfacial debonding and micro-crack growth. We have applied the analysis to silicon carbide-titanium (SiC-Ti) unidirectional metal matrix composites. In these composites, Ti can undergo a low pressure and temperature solid-solid phase transition. With these extensions we have carried out simulations to study the complex interplay between loading rates, micro-structure, damage, and the thermo-mechanical response of the system as it undergoes a solid-solid phase transitions.

  7. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  8. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-02-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  9. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  10. Laser damage in silicon: Energy absorption, relaxation, and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rämer, A. Rethfeld, B.; Osmani, O.

    2014-08-07

    Silicon irradiated with an ultrashort 800 nm-laser pulse is studied theoretically using a two temperature description that considers the transient free carrier density during and after irradiation. A Drude model is implemented to account for the highly transient optical parameters. We analyze the importance of considering these density-dependent parameters as well as the choice of the Drude collision frequency. In addition, degeneracy and transport effects are investigated. The importance of each of these processes for resulting calculated damage thresholds is studied. We report damage thresholds calculations that are in very good agreement with experimental results over a wide range of pulse durations.

  11. BDS Thin Film UV Antireflection Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2010-10-26

    UV antireflection coatings are a challenging coating for high power laser applications as exemplified by the use of uncoated Brewster's windows in laser cavities. In order to understand the current laser resistance of UV AR coatings in the industrial and university sectors, a double blind laser damage competition was performed. The coatings have a maximum reflectance of 0.5% at 355 nm at normal incidence. Damage testing will be performed using the raster scan method with a 7.5 ns pulse length on a single testing facility to facilitate direct comparisons. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes and coating materials will also be shared.

  12. A Mechanistic Approach to Damage in Short-Fiber Composites Based on Micromechanical and Continuum Damage Mechanics Descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-04-01

    A micro-macro mechanistic approach to matrix cracking in randomly oriented short-fiber composites is developed in this paper. At the micro-scale, the virgin and reduced elastic properties of the reference aligned fiber composite are determined using micromechanical models [1-5], and are then distributed over all possible orientations in order to compute the stiffness of the random fiber composite containing random matrix microcracks. After that the macroscopic response is obtained by means of a continuum damage mechanics formulation, which extends the thermodynamics based approach in [6] to randomly oriented short-fiber composites. Damage accumulations leading to initiation and propagation of a macroscopic crack are modeled using a vanishing element technique. The model is validated against the published experimental data and results [7]. Finally, its practical application is illustrated through the damage analysis of a random glass/epoxy composite plate containing a central hole and under tensile loading.

  13. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  14. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

  15. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-02-07

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

  16. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  17. Japanese Ratify Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "The Japanese ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) marks an important milestone towards creating a global nuclear liability regime that will assure prompt and meaningful compensation in the event of a nuclear accident and will facilitate international cooperation on nuclear projects such as ongoing clean-up work at the Fukushima site."

  18. DOE and State Sign Natural Resources Damages Settlement Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Officials from TDEC and DOE signed a Natural Resources Damages settlement agreement. The signed document designates DOE’s plans to compensate the state for ecological and human use impacts associated with contaminant releases from facilities at the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  19. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  20. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is

  1. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  2. Fractal mechanism for characterizing singularity of mode shape for damage detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M. S.; Ostachowicz, W.; Bai, R. B.; Radzieński, M.

    2013-11-25

    Damage is an ordinary physical phenomenon jeopardizing structural safety; damage detection is an ongoing interdisciplinary issue. Waveform fractal theory has provided a promising resource for detecting damage in plates while presenting a concomitant problem: susceptibility to false features of damage. This study proposes a fractal dimension method based on affine transformation to address this problem. Physical experiments using laser measurement demonstrate that this method can substantially eliminate false features of damage and accurately identify complex cracks in plates, providing a fundamental mechanism that brings the merits of waveform fractal theory into full play in structural damage detection applications.

  3. Evaluation of ATWS core damage frequency for a BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, K.; Ilberg, D.; Hanan, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a study performed to evaluate the core damage frequency contribution from Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) in a BWR/4 plant. Discussions on improvements in the design and operation of BWR plants to reduce the likelihood of occurrence and core damage frequency of ATWS have continued for years. In November 1981, subsequent to the issuance of three alternate proposed ATWS rules, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission invited comments on these rules. In June 1984, a final rule on the reduction of risk from ATWS events was issued. In the study, it is assumed that the BWR/4 reactor is of an earlier vintage. However, only two of the modifications have been implemented in accordance with the final rule: a diverse scram system and automatic recirculation pump trip. It is further assumed that the setpoint for Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) closure is at reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level 1 and that the BWR emergency procedure guidelines are implemented.

  4. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling.

  5. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore » density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  6. Sandia/Stanford Unified Creep Plasticity Damage Model for ANSYS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-03

    A unified creep plasticity (UCP) model was developed, based upon the time-dependent and time-independent deformation properties of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (wt.%) soldier that were measured at Sandia. Then, a damage parameter, D, was added to the equation to develop the unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model. The parameter, D, was parameterized, using data obtained at Sandia from isothermal fatigue experiments on a double-lap shear test. The softwae was validated against a BGA solder joint exposed tomore » thermal cycling. The UCPD model was put into the ANSYS finite element as a subroutine. So, the softwae is the subroutine for ANSYS 8.1.« less

  7. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in thismore » impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.« less

  8. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in this impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.

  9. Cryogenic and Fire Damage Analysis on Liquefied Natural Gas Ships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fire Damage Analysis on Liquefied Natural Gas Ships - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  10. [Localized fracture damage effects in toughened ceramics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The primary research goal was to investigate localized fracture damage due to single point cutting of ceramic materials and then to compare this to multipoint cutting during precision grinding of the same materials. Two test systems were designed and constructed for the single-point cutting tests. The first system used a PZT actuator for closed-loop load control. An acoustic emission data acquisition system was used for crack initiation detection. The second test system employed a high-precision diamond-turning machine for closed-loop position (cutting depth) control. A high stiffness load cell and data acquisition system were used for crack initiation detection. Microcutting tests were carried out on silicon, borosilicate glass and CVD silicon carbide. The crack initiation thresholds and the fracture damage distribution were determined as a function of the loading conditions using a Vickers diamond as the cutting tool. The grinding tests were done using a plunge-grinding technique with metal-bonded diamond wheels. Optical microscopy, surface roughness and specific cutting energy were measured in order to characterize the fracture damage as a function of the grinding infeed rate. Simulation models were developed in order to estimate the average grain-depth of cut in grinding so that the response could be compared to the single-point microcutting tests.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty in material damage from vibrational data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, T.; Huhtala, A.; Juntunen, M.

    2015-02-15

    The response of a vibrating beam to a force depends on many physical parameters including those determined by material properties. Damage caused by fatigue or cracks results in local reductions in stiffness parameters and may drastically alter the response of the beam. Data obtained from the vibrating beam are often subject to uncertainties and/or errors typically modeled using probability densities. The goal of this paper is to estimate and quantify the uncertainty in damage modeled as a local reduction in stiffness using uncertain data. We present various frameworks and methods for solving this parameter determination problem. We also describe a mathematical analysis to determine and compute useful output data for each method. We apply the various methods in a specified sequence that allows us to interface the various inputs and outputs of these methods in order to enhance the inferences drawn from the numerical results obtained from each method. Numerical results are presented using both simulated and experimentally obtained data from physically damaged beams.

  12. Natural resource damages: A legal, economic and policy overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connaughton, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Natural resource damages liability is a major development in environmental law. Government authorities are increasingly seeking damage claims for injury to natural resources, invoking the natural resource damages (NRD) provisions of the federal Superfund statute and the Oil Pollution Act. The number of Claims asserted is increasing, and the amounts sought range to hundreds of millions of dollars, with some claims exceeding $1 billion. Some assert that the federal NRD program is an awakening sleeping giant that could threaten to rival the Superfund cleanup program in cost and the potential for imposing far-reaching liabilities on a wide range of businesses as well as the federal government. Lawyers, economists, and other experts on NRD have become fully engaged in comprehensive analyses of the legal, economic and policy issues presented by NRD claims, including a full review of the NRD litigating record. Many critics find that existing NRD law and practice is flawed; produces excessive liability claims, skewed incentives and economic waste; and urgently needs reform. Changes have been recommended to improve the law and refocus the NRD program on achieving cost-effective restoration of injured natural resources. These analytical endeavors are especially timely because Congress is currently considering significant changes in NRD law. This overview will provide a brief background summary of the NRD program and highlight some of the central legal and scientific issues facing government policy makers and litigants in NRD cases.

  13. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2005-12-13

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  14. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Mulligan, Anthony C.; Popovich, Dragan

    2004-03-23

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  15. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  16. Damaged Material, Heal Thyself | U.S. DOE Office of Science ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    When the gel was damaged by slicing, the ruptured droplets in the immediate vicinity of the damage released oil and the gel network was squeezed. This squeezing allowed oil to be ...

  17. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Engineering survey building damage assessment training manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The training objectives are: differentiate between the various levels of damage caused to buildings and structures by an earthquake and classify them as to their safety of occupancy, extent of damage, and resources needed for recovery/repair.

  18. Laser damage threshold measurements of optical materials for direct laser accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soong, Ken; Byer, R. L.; Colby, E. R.; England, R. J.; Peralta, E. A.

    2012-12-21

    The laser-damage threshold is a fundamental limit for any dielectric laser-driven accelerator and is set by the material of the structure. In this paper, we present a theoretical model of the laser damage mechanism, in comparison with experimental data on the damage threshold of silicon. Additionally, we present damage threshold measurement data of various optical materials, most of which have not been previously characterized in the picosecond-regime.

  19. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  20. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume III, Fish and Habitat Inventory of Tributary Streams, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of the fisheries of the Swan River drainage in relation to potential small hydro development. This information was collected in order to obtain a reliable basin-wide database which was used to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of a number of proposed small hydro developments on the fisheries of the drainage. For each named tributary stream there is a reach-by-reach narrative summary of general habitat characteristics, outstanding features of the stream, and fish populations and spawning use. An attempt was made to rank many of the measured parameters relative to other surveyed stream reaches in the drainage. 3 refs.

  1. SuppCompensationNuclearDamage_ExtensionComments.PDF | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SuppCompensationNuclearDamage_ExtensionComments.PDF SuppCompensationNuclearDamage_ExtensionComments.PDF (131.46 KB) More Documents & Publications CSC_Extension.PDF Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Notice of extension of public comment period for reply comments.

  2. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  3. Correlating cookoff violence with pre-ignition damage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker; Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro

    2010-03-01

    Predicting the response of energetic materials during accidents, such as fire, is important for high consequence safety analysis. We hypothesize that responses of ener-getic materials before and after ignition depend on factors that cause thermal and chemi-cal damage. We have previously correlated violence from PETN to the extent of decom-position at ignition, determined as the time when the maximum Damkoehler number ex-ceeds a threshold value. We seek to understand if our method of violence correlation ap-plies universally to other explosive starting with RDX.

  4. Radiation damage in silicon trackers at the Tevatron experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the studies performed on the radiation damage affecting the silicon detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments is presented. These detectors have been exposed to a much larger radiation dose (and operating for a longer time) than originally planned and therefore these studies are fundamental to assess the status and future of the sensors. Results are summarized with special emphasis on the techniques used and their complementarity to achieve a complete picture of the effect of the radiation on the sensors and their performance for physics analysis.

  5. Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  6. Rapid Damage Assessment Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Imagery: Tools and Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Chandola, Varun; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to growing population, as well as human migration to disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid damage assessment and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques and tools are important in disaster damage assessment and reporting activities. In this review, we will look into the state of the art techniques in damage assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

  7. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-12

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB₆ single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, however instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  8. Laser damage resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, J; Roger Qiu, ,; Stolz, C; Thomas, M; Martinez, C; Ozkan, A

    2009-11-03

    Replacing growing damage sites with benign, laser damage resistant features in multilayer dielectric films may enable large mirrors to be operated at significantly higher fluences. Laser damage resistant features have been created in high reflecting coatings on glass substrates using femtosecond laser machining. These prototype features have been damage tested to over 40 J/cm{sup 2} (1064nm, 3ns pulselength) and have been shown not to damage upon repeated irradiation at 40J/cm{sup 2}. Further work to optimize feature shape and laser machining parameters is ongoing.

  9. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

    2014-10-01

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  10. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  11. Damage Identification of Wind Turbine Blades Using Piezoelectric Transducers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Seong-Won; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Taylor, Stuart G.; Light-Marquez, Abraham; Park, Gyuhae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of active-sensing structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, which utilize piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators, for determining the structural integrity of wind turbine blades. Specifically, Lamb wave propagations and frequency response functions at high frequency ranges are used to estimate the condition of wind turbine blades. For experiments, a 1 m section of a CX-100 blade is used. The goal of this study is to assess and compare the performance of each method in identifying incipient damage with a consideration given to field deployability. Overall, these methods yielded a sufficient damage detection capability to warrantmore » further investigation. This paper also summarizes the SHM results of a full-scale fatigue test of a 9 m CX-100 blade using piezoelectric active sensors. This paper outlines considerations needed to design such SHM systems, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.« less

  12. The role of nickel in radiation damage of ferritic alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Anento, Napoleon; Serra, Anna; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2014-11-26

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content frommore » 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T < 500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. Furthermore, this effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.« less

  13. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  14. Combined Effects of Temperature and Irradiation on Concrete Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Pape, Yann; Giorla, Alain; Sanahuja, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) is a predominant mechanism in the formation of mechanical damage in the hardened cement paste (hcp) of irradiated concrete under fast-neutron flux (Giorla et al. 2015). Among the operating conditions difference between test reactors and light water reactors (LWRs), the difference of irradiation flux and temperature is significant. While a temperature increase is quite generally associated with a direct, or indirect (e.g., by dehydration) loss of mechanical properties (Maruyama et al. 2014), we found that it causes a partial annealing of irradiation amorphization of α-quartz, hence, reducing RIVE rate. Based on data collected by Bykov et al. (1981), an incremental RIVE model coupling neutron fluence and temperature is developed. The elastic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of irradiated polycrystalline quartz are interpreted through analytical homogenization of experimental data on irradiated α-quartz published by Mayer and Lecomte (1960). Moreover, the proposed model, implemented in the meso-scale simulation code AMIE, is compared to experimental data obtained on ordinary concrete made of quartz/quartzite aggregate (Dubrovskii et al. 1967). Substantial discrepancy, in terms of damage and volumetric expansion developments, is found when comparing irradiation scenarios assuming constant flux and temperature, as opposed to more realistic test reactor operation conditions.

  15. The Role of Nickel in Radiation Damage of Ferritic Alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetskiy, Yury N; Anento, Napoleon; Serra, Anna; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content from 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T<500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. This effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.

  16. Combined Effects of Temperature and Irradiation on Concrete Damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Pape, Yann; Giorla, Alain; Sanahuja, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) is a predominant mechanism in the formation of mechanical damage in the hardened cement paste (hcp) of irradiated concrete under fast-neutron flux (Giorla et al. 2015). Among the operating conditions difference between test reactors and light water reactors (LWRs), the difference of irradiation flux and temperature is significant. While a temperature increase is quite generally associated with a direct, or indirect (e.g., by dehydration) loss of mechanical properties (Maruyama et al. 2014), we found that it causes a partial annealing of irradiation amorphization of α-quartz, hence, reducing RIVE rate. Based on data collected by Bykovmore » et al. (1981), an incremental RIVE model coupling neutron fluence and temperature is developed. The elastic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of irradiated polycrystalline quartz are interpreted through analytical homogenization of experimental data on irradiated α-quartz published by Mayer and Lecomte (1960). Moreover, the proposed model, implemented in the meso-scale simulation code AMIE, is compared to experimental data obtained on ordinary concrete made of quartz/quartzite aggregate (Dubrovskii et al. 1967). Substantial discrepancy, in terms of damage and volumetric expansion developments, is found when comparing irradiation scenarios assuming constant flux and temperature, as opposed to more realistic test reactor operation conditions.« less

  17. DDT of hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 in heavy confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Gary R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The research presented examines DDT of cylinders of PBX 9501 damaged above 180 C in heavy confinement for 0-3 hours and end-ignited or ramped until self-ignition (cookoff) occurred. Progression of luminous reaction was observed by streak photography through a glass-filled slit running the length of the cylinder. Post-mortem analysis of the steel DDT tubes was also done for correlation with the optical records. Results indicate that repeatable, Type I DDT was observed to occur in hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 with low levels of porosity. It was demonstrated that multiple parameters affect DDT behavior, most likely in a coupled fashion. These parameters are porosity, ignition temperature and thermal soak duration. Conditions leading up to cookoff were shown to sensitize the HE to DDT by increasing likelihood and decreasing run length. Over the range of porosities (0-37%) and ignition temperatures (180-235 C), run lengths and detonation velocities varied, respectively, from approximately 22-109 mm and 6.0-8.3 mm {micro}s{sup -1}. This work fills a valuable and realistic space in the understanding of high explosive violent reaction, including DDT, in abnormal thermal environments.

  18. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide,more » irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.« less

  19. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  20. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  1. Catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in the bulk of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Frank R. Natoli, Jean-Yves; Akhouayri, Hassan; Commandré, Mireille; Duchateau, Guillaume

    2014-06-28

    Due to its high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to produce periodically poled crystals, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, KTP) is still one of the economically important nonlinear optical materials. In this overview article, we present a large study on catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in this material and the very similar RbTiOPO{sub 4} (RTP). Several different systematic studies are included: multiple pulse laser damage, multi-wavelength laser damage in KTP, damage resistance anisotropy, and variations of the laser damage thresholds for RTP crystals of different qualities. All measurements were carried out in comparable experimental conditions using a 1064 nm Q-switched laser and some were repeated at 532 nm. After summarizing the experimental results, we detail the proposed model for laser damage in this material and discuss the experimental results in this context. According to the model, nanosecond laser damage is caused by light-induced generation of transient laser-damage precursors which subsequently provide free electrons that are heated by the same nanosecond pulse. We also present a stimulated Raman scattering measurement and confront slightly different models to the experimental data. Finally, the physical nature of the transient damage precursors is discussed and similarities and differences to laser damage in other crystals are pointed out.

  2. Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Karim, Julia Abdul

    2011-03-30

    Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

  3. Severe fuel-damage scoping test performance. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, G.E.; Buescher, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. The first test of Phase I of this series has been successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Following the first test, calculations were performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code with actual experimental boundary conditions. This paper discusses the test conduct and performance and presents the calculated and measured test bundle results. The test resulted in a slow heatup to 2000 K over about 4 h, with an accelerated reaction of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1600 K in the lower part or the bundle and 2000 K in the upper portion of the bundle.

  4. Monitoring genetic damage to ecosystems from hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.L.

    1992-03-01

    Applications of ecological toxicity testing to hazardous waste management have increased dramatically over the last few years, resulting in a greater awareness of the need for improved biomonitoring techniques. Our laboratory is developing advanced techniques to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental contamination on ecosystems. We have developed a novel mutagenesis assay using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is potentially applicable for multimedia studies in soil, sediment, and water. In addition, we are conducting validation studies of a previously developed anaphase aberration test that utilizes sea urchin embryos. Other related efforts include field validation studies of the new tests, evaluation of their potential ecological relevance, and analysis of their sensitivity relative to that of existing toxicity tests that assess only lethal effects, rather than genetic damage.

  5. One call systems can limit third party damage exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, R.C.; Sage, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes how the Olympic Pipeline Co., in Washington, uses computers to handle more than 13,000 One Call messages annually. One call systems give contractors and the general public the ability to make one phone call and have all the utilities contacted in the general area of planned work. All the 1984 One Call messages were hand-researched and checked against system maps to determine if conflicts existed. Out of the 13,262 messages received, 12,763 were determined by a map search to be outside of the pipe line right of way. This represents, on the average, 4.4 man hours per day of clerical time spent checking the messages on the maps. Participating in a One Call system will definitely increase the work load of existing company personnel, and the system does not guarantee a company will never notified of all encroachment activity or never incur line damage as a result of encroachment.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchan, J. T.; Robinson, M.; Christie, H. J.; Roach, D. L.; Ross, D. K.; Marks, N. A.

    2015-06-28

    Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%.

  7. Sirtuin 6 protects the heart from hypoxic damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Kanfi, Yariv; Hochhauser, Edith; Isak, Ahuva; Cohen, Haim Y.; Shainberg, Asher

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. We investigated whether life extension is associated with cardioprotection against hypoxia. The proposed study is to develop approaches to reduce hypoxic damage through the use of the sirtuin pathway and to elucidate the mechanism involved. For that purpose we subjected cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice (TG) with over-expression of SIRT6, to hypoxic stress in cell cultures. We hypothesized that cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice subjected to prolonged hypoxia may release survival factors or fewer damage markers to protect them from hypoxic stress compared with wild type (WT) mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released to the medium and propidium iodide (PI) binding, were markedly decreased following hypoxia in TG cardiomyocytes. The protective mechanism of SIRT6 over-expression includes the activation of pAMPKα pathway, the increased protein level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), the decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction in the protein level of phospho-protein kinase B (pAkt) during hypoxia. Together, all these processes impede the necrosis/apoptosis pathways leading to the improved survival of cardiomyocytes following hypoxia, which might explain life extension. - Highlights: • Sirtuin 6 is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 protects cardiocytes from hypoxia and oxidative stress. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 activates the pAMPKα pathway and the Bcl2 expression. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 decreases ROS formation and pAkt level during hypoxia. • These pathways protect cardiocytes from hypoxia and might explain lifespan extension.

  8. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  9. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Damage in Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Remec, Igor; Giorla, Alain B; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has resulted in a renewed focus on long-term aging of materials at nuclear power plants (NPPs) including concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Nuclear Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete (Graves et al., (2014)). Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete (Hilsdorf et al., (1978)) does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure (Kontani et al., (2011)). To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, the Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are working to better understand radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines recent progress toward: 1) assessing the radiation environment in concrete biological shields and defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield for extended operation, and estimating adsorbed dose, 2) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, 3) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete and its components under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish conservative bounds and inform damage models, 4) developing improved models to enhance the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete and 5) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge including developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in data obtained from various concretes and from accelerated irradiation experiments.

  10. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  11. Fracture Induced Sub-Band Absorption as a Precursor to Optical Damage on Fused Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Suratwala, T I; Shen, N; Laurence, T A; Steele, W A; Menapace, J; Feit, M D; Wong, L L

    2010-03-05

    The optical damage threshold of indentation induced flaws on fused silica surfaces was explored. Mechanical flaws were characterized by laser damaged testing, SEM, optical, and photoluminescence microscopy. Localized polishing, chemical etching, and the control of indentation morphology were used to isolate the structural features which limit optical damage. A thin defect layer on fracture surfaces, including those smaller than the wavelength of visible light, was found to be the dominant source of laser damage initiation during illumination with 355nm, 3ns laser pulses. Little evidence was found that either displaced or densified material or fluence intensification plays a significant role in optical damage at fluences >35J/cm{sup 2}. Elimination of the defect layer was shown to increase the overall damage performance of fused silica optics.

  12. Critique of the carbonate mass loss model for paint damage functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    One of the key questions concerning the assessment of acid deposition damage is its effect on painted surfaces. In order to determine this it is necessary to have a paint damage function that expresses the quantity of physical damage associated with a given level of acid deposition. This problem is now a major focus of EPA's current research; however, results are not yet available. Consequently, the NAPAP paint damage function was derived from data collected in several studies that substantially predated the acid rain research program. Although this damage function may appear plausible at first glance, it has been criticized, in part because paint damage constitutes such an important part of the total, but mainly because it is based largely on a conceptual model involving erosion due to dissolution loss of carbonate extenders in the paint formulation.

  13. Direct comparison of defect ensembles extracted from damage probability and raster scan measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batavičiūtė, G. Ščiuka, M.; Melninkaitis, A.

    2015-09-14

    The presented study addresses the characterization of nanometer sized defects acting as damage precursors in nanosecond laser pulse duration regime. Two approaches are used to extract distributions of localized damage precursors, namely, damage probability and damage density measurements. Testing is performed on uncoated and SiO{sub 2} monolayer film deposited fused silica substrate exposed with pulsed UV irradiation (355 nm, 4.8 ns). Then, a direct comparison of damage precursor ensembles obtained from both methods is carried out. Our analysis indicates apparent differences between both methods that are discussed in detail. Contamination by ablation products is identified as one of the key factors that influence damage density measurements.

  14. Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, Veronica; Cerreta, Ellen K

    2010-03-18

    Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

  15. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  16. Sensitivity of silicon 1-MeV damage function to cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) {sup 28}Si cross-section evaluation and the NJOY code are used to define the standard response function to be used in reporting 1-MeV (silicon) neutron damage and in determining neutron damage equivalence between test facilities. This paper provides information for the precision and bias section of the E722 standard.

  17. Structural Basis of UV DNA-Damage Recognition by the DDB1-DDB2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DDB2 to detect lesions refractory to detection by other damage surveillance proteins. ... Issue: (7) ; 12, 2008 Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National ...

  18. Structure and Activation Mechanism of the CHK2 DNA Damage Checkpoint...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and Activation Mechanism of the CHK2 DNA Damage Checkpoint Kinase Citation ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud ...

  19. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

  20. Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ENERGYSOLUTIONS' Comment in Response to Notice of Inquiry, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation -75 FR 43945

  1. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  2. Capturing snapshots of APE1 processing DNA damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Cuneo, Matthew J.; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda S.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-10-12

    DNA apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) sites are prevalent noncoding threats to genomic stability and are processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 incises the AP-site phosphodiester backbone, generating a DNA-repair intermediate that is potentially cytotoxic. The molecular events of the incision reaction remain elusive, owing in part to limited structural information. Here we report multiple high-resolution human APE1-DNA structures that divulge new features of the APE1 reaction, including the metal-binding site, the nucleophile and the arginine clamps that mediate product release. We also report APE1-DNA structures with a T-G mismatch 5' to the AP site, representing a clustered lesion occurring in methylatedmore » CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, these structures reveal that APE1 molds the T-G mismatch into a unique Watson-Crick-like geometry that distorts the active site, thus reducing incision. Finally, these snapshots provide mechanistic clarity for APE1 while affording a rational framework to manipulate biological responses to DNA damage.« less

  3. Laser-Induced Surface Damage of Optical Materials: Absorption Sources, Initiation, Growth, adn Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2009-04-07

    Susceptibility to laser damage of optical-material surfaces originates from the nature of the surface as a transitional structure between optical-material bulk and its surroundings. As such, it requires technological processing to satisfy figure and roughness requirements and is also permanently subjected to environmental exposure. Consequently, enhanced absorption caused by mechanical structural damage or incorporation and sorption of microscale absorbing defects, even layers of organic materials, is always characteristic for optical-material surfaces. In this review physics of interaction of pulsed-laser radiation with surface imperfections for different types of optical materials (metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, etc.), mechanisms of damage initiation, damage morphology, and damage-site growth under repetitive pulse irradiation are discussed. Consideration is also given here to the surface treatments leading to the reduction of damage initiation sites, such as laser cleaning and conditioning, removal of the surface layers affected by the grinding/polishing process, and mitigation of the damage growth at already formed damage sites.

  4. Determination of laser damage initiation probability and growth on fused silica scratches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Cross, D A; Negres, R A; Bude, J D; Steele, W A; Monticelli, M V; Suratwala, T I

    2010-10-26

    Current methods for the manufacture of optical components inevitably leaves a variety of sub-surface imperfections including scratches of varying lengths and widths on even the finest finishes. It has recently been determined that these finishing imperfections are responsible for the majority of laser-induced damage for fluences typically used in ICF class lasers. We have developed methods of engineering subscale parts with a distribution of scratches mimicking those found on full scale fused silica parts. This much higher density of scratches provides a platform to measure low damage initiation probabilities sufficient to describe damage on large scale optics. In this work, damage probability per unit scratch length was characterized as a function of initial scratch width and post fabrication processing including acid-based etch mitigation processes. The susceptibility of damage initiation density along scratches was found to be strongly affected by the post etching material removal and initial scratch width. We have developed an automated processing procedure to document the damage initiations per width and per length of theses scratches. We show here how these tools can be employed to provide predictions of the performance of full size optics in laser systems operating at 351 nm. In addition we use these tools to measure the growth rate of a damage site initiated along a scratch and compare this to the growth measured on an isolated damage site.

  5. Rapid Damage eXplorer (RDX): A Probabilistic Framework for Learning Changes From Bitemporal Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Recent decade has witnessed major changes on the Earth, for example, deforestation, varying cropping and human settlement patterns, and crippling damages due to disasters. Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to the growing population, as well as human migration to the disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid assessment of these changes and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Change detection using high-resolution satellite images is a primary tool in assessing damages, monitoring biomass and critical infrastructures, and identifying new settlements. In this demo, we present a novel supervised probabilistic framework for identifying changes using very high-resolution multispectral, and bitemporal remote sensing images. Our demo shows that the rapid damage explorer (RDX) system is resilient to registration errors and differing sensor characteristics.

  6. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  7. Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, B.J.

    1991-09-01

    Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  8. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Experimental determination of the relationship between permeability and microfracture-induced damage in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifle, T.W.

    1998-03-01

    The development of deep underground structures (e.g., shafts, mines, storage and disposal caverns) significantly alters the stress state in the rock near the structure or opening. The effect of such an opening is to concentrate the far-field stress near the free surface. For soft rock such as salt, the concentrating effect of the opening induces deviatoric stresses in the salt that may be large enough to initiate microcracks which then propagate with time. The volume of rock susceptible to damage by microfracturing is often referred to as the disturbed rock zone and, by its nature, is expected to exhibit high permeability relative to that of the native, far-field rock. This paper presents laboratory data that characterize microfracture-induced damage and the effect this damage has on permeability for bedded salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in southeastern New Mexico. Damage is induced in the salt through a series of tertiary creep experiments and quantified in terms of dilatant volumetric strain. The permeability of damaged specimens is then measured using nitrogen gas as the permeant. The range in damage investigated included dilatant volumetric strains from less than 0.03 percent to nearly 4.0 percent. Permeability values corresponding to these damage levels ranged from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}. Two simple models were fitted to the data for use in predicting permeability from dilatant volumetric strain.

  10. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girolamo, D. Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-03-31

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.