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Sample records for quantum mechanics classical

  1. QUANTUM CHAOS, CLASSICAL RANDOMNESS, AND BOHMIAN MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Sheldon

    QUANTUM CHAOS, CLASSICAL RANDOMNESS, AND BOHMIAN MECHANICS Detlef DË? urr* ,+ , Sheldon Goldstein of quantum theory, Bohmian mechanics, in which ``quantum chaos'' also arises solely from the dynamical law. Moreover, this occurs in a manner far simpler than in the classical case. KEY WORDS: Quantum chaos; quantum

  2. Classical and Quantum Mechanics via Lie algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier; Dennis Westra

    2011-04-14

    The goal of this book is to present classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics in an almost completely algebraic setting, thereby introducing mathematicians, physicists, and engineers to the ideas relating classical and quantum mechanics with Lie algebras and Lie groups. The book emphasizes the closeness of classical and quantum mechanics, and the material is selected in a way to make this closeness as apparent as possible. Much of the material covered here is not part of standard textbook treatments of classical or quantum mechanics (or is only superficially treated there). For physics students who want to get a broader view of the subject, this book may therefore serve as a useful complement to standard treatments of quantum mechanics. Almost without exception, this book is about precise concepts and exact results in classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics. The structural properties of mechanics are discussed independent of computational techniques for obtaining quantitatively correct numbers from the assumptions made. The standard approximation machinery for calculating from first principles explicit thermodynamic properties of materials, or explicit cross sections for high energy experiments can be found in many textbooks and is not repeated here.

  3. A Quantum Approach to Classical Statistical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolando D. Somma; Cristian D. Batista; Gerardo Ortiz

    2006-10-11

    We present a new approach to study the thermodynamic properties of $d$-dimensional classical systems by reducing the problem to the computation of ground state properties of a $d$-dimensional quantum model. This classical-to-quantum mapping allows us to deal with standard optimization methods, such as simulated and quantum annealing, on an equal basis. Consequently, we extend the quantum annealing method to simulate classical systems at finite temperatures. Using the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, we derive the rates to assure convergence to the optimal thermodynamic state. For simulated and quantum annealing, we obtain the asymptotic rates of $T(t) \\approx (p N) /(k_B \\log t)$ and $\\gamma(t) \\approx (Nt)^{-\\bar{c}/N}$, for the temperature and magnetic field, respectively. Other annealing strategies, as well as their potential speed-up, are also discussed.

  4. Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  5. Background Independent Quantum Mechanics, Classical Geometric Forms and Geometric Quantum Mechanics-I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalok Pandya

    2008-09-08

    The geometry of the symplectic structures and Fubini-Study metric is discussed. Discussion in the paper addresses geometry of Quantum Mechanics in the classical phase space. Also, geometry of Quantum Mechanics in the projective Hilbert space has been discussed for the chosen Quantum states. Since the theory of classical gravity is basically geometric in nature and Quantum Mechanics is in no way devoid of geometry, the explorations pertaining to more and more geometry in Quantum Mechanics could prove to be valuable for larger objectives such as understanding of gravity.

  6. Background Independent Quantum Mechanics, Classical Geometric Forms and Geometric Quantum Mechanics-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalok Pandya

    2009-01-19

    The geometry of Quantum Mechanics in the context of uncertainty and complementarity, and probability is explored. We extend the discussion of geometry of uncertainty relations in wider perspective. Also, we discuss the geometry of probability in Quantum Mechanics and its interpretations. We give yet another interpretation to the notion of Faraday lines and loops as the locus of probability flow. Also, the possibilities of visualization of spectra of area operators by means of classical geometric forms and conventional Quantum Mechanics are explored.

  7. Quantum Mechanics and Discrete Time from "Timeless" Classical Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -T. Elze

    2003-07-03

    We study classical Hamiltonian systems in which the intrinsic proper time evolution parameter is related through a probability distribution to the physical time, which is assumed to be discrete. - This is motivated by the ``timeless'' reparametrization invariant model of a relativistic particle with two compactified extradimensions. In this example, discrete physical time is constructed based on quasi-local observables. - Generally, employing the path-integral formulation of classical mechanics developed by Gozzi et al., we show that these deterministic classical systems can be naturally described as unitary quantum mechanical models. The emergent quantum Hamiltonian is derived from the underlying classical one. It is closely related to the Liouville operator. We demonstrate in several examples the necessity of regularization, in order to arrive at quantum models with bounded spectrum and stable groundstate.

  8. The Born Rule in Quantum and Classical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Brumer; Jiangbin Gong

    2006-04-24

    Considerable effort has been devoted to deriving the Born rule (e.g. that $|\\psi(x)|^2 dx$ is the probability of finding a system, described by $\\psi$, between $x$ and $x + dx$) in quantum mechanics. Here we show that the Born rule is not solely quantum mechanical; rather, it arises naturally in the Hilbert space formulation of {\\it classical} mechanics as well. These results provide new insights into the nature of the Born rule, and impact on its understanding in the framework of quantum mechanics.

  9. How Einstein's quantum hypothesis requires a departure from classical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele Carcassi

    2009-02-16

    The aim of this work is to show how Einstein's quantum hypothesis leads immediately and necessarily to a departure from classical mechanics. First we note that the classical description and predictions are in terms of idealized measurements that are exact, instantaneous, non-perturbative, independent of each other and process agnostic. If we assume we cannot arbitrarily reduce the strength of a signal, measurements are ultimately perturbative to some degree. We show how a physical description in which the best measurement conceivable, i.e. the ideal measurement, perturbs the system leads to all the concepts present in quantum mechanics including conjugate variables, probabilistic predictions and measurements connected to symmetries.

  10. Classical and quantum-mechanical phase space distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Kiesel

    2013-06-21

    We examine the notion of nonclassicality in terms of quasiprobability distributions. In particular, we do not only ask if a specific quasiprobability can be interpreted as a classical probability density, but require that characteristic features of classical electrodynamics are resembled. We show that the only quasiprobabilities which correctly describe the superposition principle of classical electromagnetic fields are the $s$-parameterized quasiprobabilities. Furthermore, the Glauber-Sudarshan P function is the only quantum-mechanical quasiprobability which is transformed at a classical attenuator in the same way as a classical probability distribution. This result strengthens the definition of nonclassicality in terms of the P function, in contrast to possible definitions in terms of other quasiprobabilities.

  11. Bell's Experiment in Quantum Mechanics and Classical Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Rother

    2013-08-21

    Both the quantum mechanical and classical Bells experiment are within the focus of this paper. The fact that one measures different probabilities in both experiments is traced back to the superposition of two orthogonal but nonentangled substates in the quantum mechanical case. This superposition results in an interference term that can be splitted into two additional states representing a sink and a source of probabilities in the classical event space related to Bells experiment. As a consequence, a statistical operator can be related to the quantum mechanical Bells experiment that contains already negative quasi probabilities, as usually known from quantum optics in conjunction with the Glauber-Sudarshan equation. It is proven that the existence of such negative quasi probabilities are neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition for entanglement. The equivalence of using an interaction picture in a fixed basis or of employing a change of basis to describe Bells experiment is demonstrated afterwards. The discussion at the end of this paper regarding the application of the complementarity principle to the quantum mechanical Bells experiment is supported by very recent double slit experiments performed with polarization entangled photons.

  12. Twisting all the way: From classical mechanics to quantum fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschieri, Paolo

    2008-01-15

    We discuss the effects that a noncommutative geometry induced by a Drinfeld twist has on physical theories. We systematically deform all products and symmetries of the theory. We discuss noncommutative classical mechanics, in particular its deformed Poisson bracket and hence time evolution and symmetries. The twisting is then extended to classical fields, and then to the main interest of this work: quantum fields. This leads to a geometric formulation of quantization on noncommutative space-time, i.e., we establish a noncommutative correspondence principle from *-Poisson brackets to * commutators. In particular commutation relations among creation and annihilation operators are deduced.

  13. Euler & Lagrange versus Heisenberg & Schroedinger: Dynamical Pictures in Classical and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hossein Partovi

    2013-05-22

    Using quantum-classical analogies, we find that dynamical pictures of quantum mechanics have precise counterparts in classical mechanics. In particular, the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluid dynamics in classical mechanics are the analogs of the Schroedinger and Heisenberg pictures in quantum mechanics, respectively. Similarities between classical and quantum dynamical pictures are explored within the framework of the Koopman-von Neumann formalism. These allow for a natural definition of various dynamical pictures in classical mechanics as well as the application of classical concepts to quantum dynamics. As an illustration, we use the interaction picture to find the classical evolution of an ensemble of particles of equal initial momenta and arbitrary configuration density under the action of a constant force in one dimension. As a second example, we discuss the extension of the ideas of sensitivity to initial conditions and chaos in classical mechanics to quantum mechanics.

  14. General classical and quantum-mechanical description of magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander J. Silenko

    2015-08-04

    A general theoretical description of the magnetic resonance is given. General formulas describing a behavior of all components of the polarization vector at the magnetic resonance are derived in the case of an arbitrary initial polarization. The equations obtained are exact on condition that the nonresonance rotating field is neglected. The spin dynamics is also calculated at frequencies far from resonance without neglecting the above-mentioned field. A quantum-mechanical analysis of the spin evolution at the magnetic resonance is fulfilled and the full agreement between the classical and quantum-mechanical approaches is proven. Distinguishing features of magnetic and quasimagnetic resonances for nuclei and particles moving in accelerators and storage rings which include resonances caused by the electric dipole moment are considered.

  15. General classical and quantum-mechanical description of magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silenko, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    A general theoretical description of the magnetic resonance is given. General formulas describing a behavior of all components of the polarization vector at the magnetic resonance are derived in the case of an arbitrary initial polarization. The equations obtained are exact on condition that the nonresonance rotating field is neglected. The spin dynamics is also calculated at frequencies far from resonance without neglecting the above-mentioned field. A quantum-mechanical analysis of the spin evolution at the magnetic resonance is fulfilled and the full agreement between the classical and quantum-mechanical approaches is proven. Distinguishing features of magnetic and quasimagnetic resonances for nuclei and particles moving in accelerators and storage rings which include resonances caused by the electric dipole moment are considered.

  16. On the hypothesis that quantum mechanism manifests classical mechanics: Numerical approach to the correspondence in search of quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sang-Bong

    1993-09-01

    Quantum manifestation of classical chaos has been one of the extensively studied subjects for more than a decade. Yet clear understanding of its nature still remains to be an open question partly due to the lack of a canonical definition of quantum chaos. The classical definition seems to be unsuitable in quantum mechanics partly because of the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty. In this regard, quantum chaos is somewhat misleading and needs to be clarified at the very fundamental level of physics. Since it is well known that quantum mechanics is more fundamental than classical mechanics, the quantum description of classically chaotic nature should be attainable in the limit of large quantum numbers. The focus of my research, therefore, lies on the correspondence principle for classically chaotic systems. The chaotic damped driven pendulum is mainly studied numerically using the split operator method that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. For classically dissipative chaotic systems in which (multi)fractal strange attractors often emerge, several quantum dissipative mechanisms are also considered. For instance, Hoover`s and Kubo-Fox-Keizer`s approaches are studied with some computational analyses. But the notion of complex energy with non-Hermiticity is extensively applied. Moreover, the Wigner and Husimi distribution functions are examined with an equivalent classical distribution in phase-space, and dynamical properties of the wave packet in configuration and momentum spaces are also explored. The results indicate that quantum dynamics embraces classical dynamics although the classicalquantum correspondence fails to be observed in the classically chaotic regime. Even in the semi-classical limits, classically chaotic phenomena would eventually be suppressed by the quantum uncertainty.

  17. Chan, H. B.; Yelton, J. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in microelectromechanical systems Chan, H. B.; Yelton, J. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS Our goal was to explore the strong dependence of the Casimir force...

  18. Fractional Classical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Laskin

    2013-02-03

    Fractional classical mechanics has been introduced and developed as a classical counterpart of the fractional quantum mechanics. Lagrange, Hamilton and Hamilton-Jacobi frameworks have been implemented for the fractional classical mechanics. The Lagrangian of fractional classical mechanics has been introduced, and equation of motion has been obtained. Fractional oscillator model has been launched and solved in 1D case. A new equation for the period of oscillations of fractional classical oscillator has been found. The interplay between the energy dependency of the period of classical oscillations and the non-equidistant distribution of the energy levels for fractional quantum oscillator has been discussed. We discuss as well, the relationships between new equations of fractional classical mechanics and the well-known fundamental equations of classical mechanics.

  19. Classical mechanics as the many-particle limit of quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele Carcassi

    2009-02-02

    We derive the classical limit of quantum mechanics by describing the center of mass of a system constituted by a large number of particles. We will show that in that limit the commutator between the position and velocity of the center of mass is infinitesimal, which allows both to be known with great precision. We then show how the infinitesimal commutator allows for the definition of functions of position and velocity, and how the commutator reduces to a Poisson bracket.

  20. Uncertainty and information in classical mechanics formulation. Common ground for thermodynamics and quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian Faigon

    2007-11-01

    Mechanics can be founded on a principle relating the uncertainty delta-q in the trajectory of an observable particle to its motion relative to the observer. From this principle, p.delta-q=const., p being the q-conjugated momentum, mechanical laws are derived and the meaning of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions are discussed. The connection between the presented principle and Hamilton's Least Action Principle is examined. Wave mechanics and Schrodinger equation appear without additional assumptions by choosing the representation for delta-q in the case the motion is not trajectory describable. The Cramer-Rao inequality serves that purpose. For a particle hidden from direct observation, the position uncertainty determined by the enclosing boundaries leads to thermodynamics in a straightforward extension of the presented formalism. The introduction of uncertainty in classical mechanics formulation enables the translation of mechanical laws into the wide ranging conceptual framework of information theory. The boundaries between classical mechanics, thermodynamics and quantum mechanics are defined in terms of informational changes associated with the system evolution. As a direct application of the proposed formulation upper bounds for the rate of information transfer are derived.

  1. Quantum-mechanical aspects of classically chaotic driven systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milonni, P.W.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Goggin, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper treats atoms and molecules in laser fields as periodically driven quantum systems. The paper concludes by determining that stochastic excitation is possible in quantum systems with quasiperiodic driving. 17 refs. (JDH)

  2. Generalization of Hamilton-Jacobi method and its consequences in classical, relativistic, and quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Chavoya-Aceves

    2004-09-25

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method is generalized, both, in classical and relativistic mechanics. The implications in quantum mechanics are considered in the case of Klein-Gordon equation. We find that the wave functions of Klein-Gordon theory can be considered as describing the motion of an ensemble of particles that move under the action of the electromagnetic field alone, without quantum potentials, hidden uninterpreted variables, or zero point fields. The number of particles is not locally conserved.

  3. On a Link between Classical Phenomenological Laws of Gases and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarman, Tolga; Korfali, Onder

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we find a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules, composing an ideal gas. In such a gas, the motion of each individual molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of molecules. It is shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, in the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e.PV^5/3=const, can be derived, based on quantum mechanics. Physical implications of the result we disclose are discussed. In any case, our finding proves, seemingly for the first time, a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum mechanical behavior, and this in relation to classical thermodynamics.

  4. On a Link between Classical Phenomenological Laws of Gases and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolga Yarman; Alexander Kholmetskii; Onder Korfali

    2008-05-29

    In this paper we find a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules, composing an ideal gas. In such a gas, the motion of each individual molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of molecules. It is shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, in the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e.PV^5/3=const, can be derived, based on quantum mechanics. Physical implications of the result we disclose are discussed. In any case, our finding proves, seemingly for the first time, a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum mechanical behavior, and this in relation to classical thermodynamics.

  5. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosu, H C

    1999-01-01

    First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  6. Quantum Chaos and Statistical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Srednicki

    1994-06-14

    We briefly review the well known connection between classical chaos and classical statistical mechanics, and the recently discovered connection between quantum chaos and quantum statistical mechanics.

  7. Finding way to bridge the gap between quantum and classical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang Guowen

    2005-12-12

    We have calculated the momentum distributions of nanoparticles in diffraction and interference dependent on the effective screening mass parameter or size parameter and presented the calculations for a nanoparticle inside an infinite square potential well and for a tunnelling nanoparticle through a square potential barrier. These results display the transition from quantum to classical mechanics and the simultaneous wave-particle duality of nanoparticles. The concept that the effective screening effect increases with increasing size of an object paves way for development of nanomechanics and nanotechnology.

  8. On the Mean-Field and Classical Limits of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Golse; Clément Mouhot; Thierry Paul

    2015-08-10

    The main result in this paper is a new inequality bearing on solutions of the $N$-body linear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and of the mean field Hartree equation. This inequality implies that the mean field limit of the quantum mechanics of $N$ identical particles is uniform in the classical limit and provides a quantitative estimate of the quality of the approximation. This result applies to the case of $C^{1,1}$ interaction potentials. The quantity measuring the approximation of the $N$-body quantum dynamics by its mean field limit is analogous to the Monge-Kantorovich (or Wasserstein) distance with exponent $2$. The inequality satisfied by this quantity is reminiscent of the work of Dobrushin on the mean field limit in classical mechanics [Func. Anal. Appl. 13 (1979), 115-123]. Our approach of this problem is based on a direct analysis of the $N$-particle Liouville equation, and avoids using techniques based on the BBGKY hierarchy or on second quantization.

  9. Quantum particles from classical statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Wetterich

    2010-02-11

    Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

  10. Invariants in Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Alonso Izquierdo; M. A. Gonzalez Leon; J. Mateos Guilarte

    2000-04-07

    The bosonic second invariant of SuperLiouville models in supersymmetric classical mechanics is described.

  11. QUICK QUANTUM MECHANICS ---Introduction ---

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Andrew D.

    QUICK QUANTUM MECHANICS --- Introduction --- The following notes are intended to be a supplement to your study of Liboff's ``Introductory Quantum Mechanics.'' They are not an alternative! My purpose here of Classical Mechanics After Newton found his equations of motion, physicists knew they would have to wait

  12. Quantum Mechanical Disclosure of the Classical Adiabatic Constancy of PVg for an Ideal Gas, and for a Photon Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arik, Metin; Kholmetskii, Alexander L

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we established a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules of an ideal gas (T. Yarman et al. arXiv:0805.4494). In such a gas, the motion of each molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of the ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of the molecules. It was shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, arising along with the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e. PV5/3=constant, can be explicitly derived based on quantum mechanics, so that the constant comes to be proportional to h^2/m; here h is the Planck Constant, and m is the relativistic mass of the molecule the gas is made of. In this article we show that the same holds for a photon gas, although the related setup is quite different than the previous ideal gas setup. At any rate, we c...

  13. Classical and quantum ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulvio Sbisa

    2014-10-23

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated to a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we don't consider very ad-hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz-invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz-invariance spontaneously.

  14. University) [Johns Hopkins University] 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM...

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    Zlatko (Johns Hopkins University) Johns Hopkins University 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY;...

  15. Why our human-sized world behaves classically, not quantum-mechanically: A popular non-technical exposition of a new idea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2007-01-13

    This article provides a popular, largely non-technical explanation of how large objects can behave classically while smaller objects behave quantum mechanically, based on the effect of the presence of cosmic expansion velocities in extended objects. This article is intended to provide a more accessible presentation of concepts introduced in earlier papers that address this long-standing enigma in physics.

  16. The Classical and Quantum Mechanics of a Particle on a Knot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Sreedhar

    2015-01-06

    A free particle is constrained to move on a knot obtained by winding around a putative torus. The classical equations of motion for this system are solved in a closed form. The exact energy eigenspectrum, in the thin torus limit, is obtained by mapping the time-independent Schrodinger equation to the Mathieu equation. In the general case, the eigenvalue problem is described by the Hill equation. Finite-thickness corrections are incorporated perturbatively by truncating the Hill equation. Comparisons and contrasts between this problem and the well-studied problem of a particle on a circle (planar rigid rotor) are performed throughout.

  17. Perturbation Theory and Control in Classical or Quantum Mechanics by an Inversion Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Vittot

    2004-06-07

    We consider a perturbation of an ``integrable'' Hamiltonian and give an expression for the canonical or unitary transformation which ``simplifies'' this perturbed system. The problem is to invert a functional defined on the Lie- algebra of observables. We give a bound for the perturbation in order to solve this inversion. And apply this result to a particular case of the control theory, as a first example, and to the ``quantum adiabatic transformation'', as another example.

  18. The Quantum-Classical Transition in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs; Hideo Mabuchi; Robert Ryne; Kosuke Shizume; Bala Sundaram

    2000-10-26

    Viewed as approximations to quantum mechanics, classical evolutions can violate the positive-semidefiniteness of the density matrix. The nature of this violation suggests a classification of dynamical systems based on classical-quantum correspondence; we show that this can be used to identify when environmental interaction (decoherence) will be unsuccessful in inducing the quantum-classical transition. In particular, the late-time Wigner function can become positive without any corresponding approach to classical dynamics. In the light of these results, we emphasize key issues relevant for experiments studying the quantum-classical transition.

  19. Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gattobigio, G. L. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Couvert, A. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Georgeot, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT UMR5152 (IRSAMC), 31062 Toulouse (France); Guery-Odelin, D. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France)

    2011-12-16

    We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantum-classical correspondence.

  20. Classical and quantum chaos in atomic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delande, D.; Buchleitner, A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    Atomic systems played a major role in the birth and growth of quantum mechanics. One central idea was to relate the well-known classical motion of the electron of a hydrogen atom--an ellipsis around the nucleus--to the experimentally observed quantization of the energy levels. This is the aim of the Bohr and Bohr-Sommerfeld models. These simple semiclassical models were unable to make any reliable prediction on the energy spectrum of the next simplest atom, helium. Because of the great success of quantum mechanics, the problem of correspondence between the classical and the quantal dynamics has not received much attention in the last 60 years. The fundamental question is (Gutzwiller, 1990). How can classical mechanics be understood as a limiting case within quantum mechanics? For systems with time-independent one-dimensional dynamics like the harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, the correspondence is well understood. The restriction to such simple cases creates the erroneous impression that the classical behavior of simple systems is entirely comprehensible and easily described. During the last 20 years it has been recognized that this in not true and that a complex behavior can be obtained from simple equations of motion. This usually happens when the motion is chaotic, that is, unpredictable on a long time scale although perfectly deterministic (Henon, 1983). A major problem is that of understanding how the regular or chaotic behavior of the classical system is manifest in its quantum properties, especially in the semiclassical limit. 53 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Quantum fields with classical perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derezi?ski, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Derezinski@fuw.edu.pl [Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 74, 00-682 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    The main purpose of these notes is a review of various models of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) involving quadratic Lagrangians. We discuss scalar and vector bosons, spin 1/2 fermions, both neutral and charged. Beside free theories, we study their interactions with classical perturbations, called, depending on the context, an external linear source, mass-like term, current or electromagnetic potential. The notes may serve as a first introduction to QFT.

  2. Physicalism versus quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stapp, Henry P; Theoretical Physics Group; Physics Division

    2009-01-01

    Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. (Princeton UniversityMind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics, (Springer, Berlin & NewMindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating

  3. An experimental test of the non-classicality of quantum mechanics using an unmovable and indivisible system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi Kong; Mingjun Shi; Fazhan Shi; Pengfei Wang; Pu Huang; Qi Zhang; Chenyong Ju; Changkui Duan; Sixia Yu; Jiangfeng Du

    2012-10-03

    Quantum mechanics provides a statistical description about nature, and thus would be incomplete if its statistical predictions could not be accounted for by some realistic models with hidden variables. There are, however, two powerful theorems against the hidden-variable theories showing that certain quantum features cannot be reproduced based on two rationale premises of locality, Bell's theorem, and noncontextuality, due to Bell, Kochen and Specker (BKS). Noncontextuality is independent of nonlocality, and the contextuality manifests itself even in a single object. Here we report an experimental verification of quantum contextuality by a single spin-1 electron system at room temperature. Such a three-level system is indivisible and then we close the compatibility loophole which exists in the experiments performed on bipartite systems. Our results confirm the quantum contextuality to be the intrinsic property of single particles.

  4. "Classical-ish": Negotiating the boundary between classical and quantum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics can seem like a departure from everyday experience of the physical world, but constructivist theories assert that learners build new ideas from their existing ones. To explore how students can navigate this tension, we examine video of a focus group completing a tutorial about the "particle in a box." In reasoning about the properties of a quantum particle, the students bring in elements of a classical particle ontology, evidenced by students' language and gestures. This reasoning, however, is modulated by metacognitive moments when the group explicitly considers whether classical intuitions apply to the quantum system. The students find some cases where they can usefully apply classical ideas to quantum physics, and others where they explicitly contrast classical and quantum mechanics. Negotiating this boundary with metacognitive awareness is part of the process of building quantum intuitions. Our data suggest that (some) students bring productive intellectual resources to this negotiation.

  5. "Classical-ish": Negotiating the boundary between classical and quantum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin W. Dreyfus; Erin Ronayne Sohr; Ayush Gupta; Andrew Elby

    2015-07-02

    Quantum mechanics can seem like a departure from everyday experience of the physical world, but constructivist theories assert that learners build new ideas from their existing ones. To explore how students can navigate this tension, we examine video of a focus group completing a tutorial about the "particle in a box." In reasoning about the properties of a quantum particle, the students bring in elements of a classical particle ontology, evidenced by students' language and gestures. This reasoning, however, is modulated by metacognitive moments when the group explicitly considers whether classical intuitions apply to the quantum system. The students find some cases where they can usefully apply classical ideas to quantum physics, and others where they explicitly contrast classical and quantum mechanics. Negotiating this boundary with metacognitive awareness is part of the process of building quantum intuitions. Our data suggest that (some) students bring productive intellectual resources to this negotiation.

  6. Classical Computation by Quantum Bits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Antonio; J. Randall; W. K. Hensinger; G. W. Morley; S. Bose

    2015-09-11

    Atomic-scale logic and the minimization of heating (dissipation) are both very high on the agenda for future computation hardware. An approach to achieve these would be to replace networks of transistors directly by classical reversible logic gates built from the coherent dynamics of a few interacting atoms. As superpositions are unnecessary before and after each such gate (inputs and outputs are bits), the dephasing time only needs to exceed a single gate operation time, while fault tolerance should be achieved with low overhead, by classical coding. Such gates could thus be a spin-off of quantum technology much before full-scale quantum computation. Thus motivated, we propose methods to realize the 3-bit Toffoli and Fredkin gates universal for classical reversible logic using a single time-independent 3-qubit Hamiltonian with realistic nearest neighbour two-body interactions. We also exemplify how these gates can be composed to make a larger circuit. We show that trapped ions may soon be scalable simulators for such architectures, and investigate the prospects with dopants in silicon.

  7. Classical and quantum flux energy conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin-Moruno, Prado

    2013-01-01

    The classical energy conditions are known to not be fundamental physics -- they are typically violated by semiclassical quantum effects. Consequently, some effort has gone into finding possible semiclassical replacements for the classical energy conditions -- the most well developed being the Ford-Roman quantum inequalities. In the current article we shall instead develop classical and quantum versions of a "flux energy condition" (FEC and QFEC) based on the notion of constraining the possible fluxes measured by timelike observers. The classical FEC will be seen to be satisfied by some quantum states, while its quantum analogue (the QFEC) is satisfied under a rather wide range of conditions.

  8. QUANTUM MECHANICS WITHOUT STATISTICAL POSTULATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. GEIGER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics describes the measurement process in an intuitive way without a reduction postulate. Due to the chaotic motion of the hidden classical particle all statistical features of quantum mechanics during a sequence of repeated measurements can be derived in the framework of a deterministic single system theory.

  9. QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of model atoms in fields Milonni, P.W. 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; OPTICAL MODELS; QUANTUM MECHANICS;...

  10. Physicalism versus quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry P. Stapp

    2008-03-11

    In the context of theories of the connection between mind and brain, physicalism is the demand that all is basically purely physical. But the concept of "physical" embodied in this demand is characterized essentially by the properties of the physical that hold in classical physical theories. Certain of these properties contradict the character of the physical in quantum mechanics, which provides a better, more comprehensive, and more fundamental account of phenomena. It is argued that the difficulties that have plaged physicalists for half a century, and that continue to do so, dissolve when the classical idea of the physical is replaced by its quantum successor. The argument is concretized in a way that makes it accessible to non-physicists by exploiting the recent evidence connecting our conscious experiences to macroscopic measurable synchronous oscillations occurring in well-separated parts of the brain. A specific new model of the mind-brain connection that is fundamentally quantum mechanical but that ties conscious experiences to these macroscopic synchronous oscillations is used to illustrate the essential disparities between the classical and quantum notions of the physical, and in particular to demonstrate the failure in the quantum world of the principle of the causal closure of the physical, a failure that goes beyond what is entailed by the randomness in the outcomes of observations, and that accommodates the efficacy in the brain of conscious intent.

  11. Quantum-classical correspondence in response theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kryvohuz, Maksym

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, theoretical analysis of correspondence between classical and quantum dynamics is studied in the context of response theory. Thesis discusses the mathematical origin of time-divergence of classical response ...

  12. Grassmann Matrix Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dionysios Anninos; Frederik Denef; Ruben Monten

    2015-12-11

    We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kahler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.

  13. Grassmann Matrix Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anninos, Dionysios; Monten, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kahler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.

  14. InGaAs tunnel diodes for the calibration of semi-classical and quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Groeseneken, Guido; Heyns, Marc M. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); KULeuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Merckling, Clément; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Voon Y. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van De Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-05-14

    Promising predictions are made for III-V tunnel-field-effect transistor (FET), but there is still uncertainty on the parameters used in the band-to-band tunneling models. Therefore, two simulators are calibrated in this paper; the first one uses a semi-classical tunneling model based on Kane's formalism, and the second one is a quantum mechanical simulator implemented with an envelope function formalism. The calibration is done for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As using several p+/intrinsic/n+ diodes with different intrinsic region thicknesses. The dopant profile is determined by SIMS and capacitance-voltage measurements. Error bars are used based on statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measurement techniques. The obtained parameters are in close agreement with theoretically predicted values and validate the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models. Finally, the models are applied to predict the input characteristics of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n- and p-lineTFET, with the n-lineTFET showing competitive performance compared to MOSFET.

  15. Generic emergence of classical features in quantum Darwinism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Marco Piani; Pawel Horodecki

    2015-08-26

    Quantum Darwinism explains the emergence of classical reality from the underlying quantum reality by the fact that a quantum system is observed indirectly, by looking at parts of its environment, so that only specific information about the system that is redundantly proliferated to many parts of the environment becomes accessible and objective. However it is not clear under what conditions this mechanism holds true. Here we rigorously prove that the emergence of classicality is a general feature of any quantum dynamics: observers who acquire information about a quantum system indirectly have access at most to classical information about one and the same measurement of the quantum system; moreover, if such information is available to many observers, they necessarily agree. Remarkably, our analysis goes beyond the system-environment categorization. We also provide a full characterization of the so-called quantum discord in terms of local redistribution of correlations.

  16. Hybrid quantum-classical models as constrained quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Radonjic; S. Prvanovic; N. Buric

    2012-06-07

    Constrained Hamiltonian description of the classical limit is utilized in order to derive consistent dynamical equations for hybrid quantum-classical systems. Starting with a compound quantum system in the Hamiltonian formulation conditions for classical behavior are imposed on one of its subsystems and the corresponding hybrid dynamical equations are derived. The presented formalism suggests that the hybrid systems have properties that are not exhausted by those of quantum and classical systems.

  17. Course Syllabus PHYS 331 Advanced Classical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vollmayr-Lee, Ben

    Course Syllabus PHYS 331 ­ Advanced Classical Mechanics Fall 2011 Instructor: Ben Vollmayr-Lee, Olin 168, ben.vollmayr-lee@bucknell.edu, x73106 Textbook: John Taylor, Classical Mechanics Office Hours://www.eg.bucknell.edu/bvollmay/phys331 Course Description Classical mechanics is where it all started. Newton demonstrated that the same

  18. Quantum Mechanics and Multiply Connected Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    2006-05-16

    t is well known that the difference between Quantum Mechanics and Classical Theory appears most crucially in the non Classical spin half of the former theory and the Wilson-Sommerfelt quantization rule. We argue that this is symptomatic of the fact that Quantum Theory is actually a theory in multiply connected space while Classical Theory operates in simply connected space.

  19. Holographic position uncertainty and the quantum-classical transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2010-04-16

    Arguments based on general principles of quantum mechanics have suggested that a minimum length associated with Planck-scale unification may in the context of the holographic principle entail a new kind of observable uncertainty in the transverse position of macroscopically separated objects. Here, we address potential implications of such a position uncertainty for establishing an additional threshold between quantum and classical behavior.

  20. Classical Mechanics (Prof. P. L. Read)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    Classical Mechanics (Prof. P. L. Read) Lecture 1 Photograph © Andrew Dunn, 5 November 2004. #12;What is Classical Mechanics? · .. rational mechanics will be the science of motion resulting from any Mechanics? · System of mathematical physics developed since the time of Galileo, Newton & Kepler · Concerned

  1. Quantum Chaos Versus Classical Chaos: Why is Quantum Chaos Weaker?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kroger; J. F. Laprise; G. Melkonyan; R. Zomorrodi

    2006-03-09

    We discuss the questions: How to compare quantitatively classical chaos with quantum chaos? Which one is stronger? What are the underlying physical reasons?

  2. Bohmian mechanics contradicts quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Bohmian mechanics contradicts quantum mechanics Arnold Neumaier Institut fur Mathematik, Universit://solon.cma.univie.ac.at/#24;neum/ Abstract. It is shown that, for a harmonic oscillator in the ground state, Bohmian mechanics and quantum mechanics predict values of opposite sign for certain time correlations. The discrepancy can

  3. Classical and Quantum Chaos in Atom Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhan Saif

    2006-04-10

    The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits dynamical localization and quantum recurrences.

  4. Quantum Cryptography Approaching the Classical Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weedbrook, Christian

    We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender’s station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as ...

  5. Classical and quantum control in nanosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudner, Mark S. (Mark Spencer)

    2008-01-01

    The central claim of this thesis is that nanoscale devices offer a platform to study and demonstrate new forms of control over both quantum and classical degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. To support this claim, I ...

  6. Quantum feedback control and classical control theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew C. Doherty; Salman Habib; Kurt Jacobs; Hideo Mabuchi; Sze M. Tan

    2000-03-09

    We introduce and discuss the problem of quantum feedback control in the context of established formulations of classical control theory, examining conceptual analogies and essential differences. We describe the application of state-observer based control laws, familiar in classical control theory, to quantum systems and apply our methods to the particular case of switching the state of a particle in a double-well potential.

  7. Ensembles and experiments in classical and quantum physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2003-03-10

    A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given. The approach realizes a strong formal implementation of Bohr's correspondence principle. In all instances, classical and quantum concepts are fully parallel: the same general theory has a classical realization and a quantum realization. Extending the `probability via expectation' approach of Whittle to noncommuting quantities, this paper defines quantities, ensembles, and experiments as mathematical concepts and shows how to model complementarity, uncertainty, probability, nonlocality and dynamics in these terms. The approach carries no connotation of unlimited repeatability; hence it can be applied to unique systems such as the universe. Consistent experiments provide an elegant solution to the reality problem, confirming the insistence of the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation on that there is nothing but ensembles, while avoiding its elusive reality picture. The weak law of large numbers explains the emergence of classical properties for macroscopic systems.

  8. Statistical mechanics of Yang-Mills classical mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannur, Vishnu M. [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala-673 635 (India)

    2005-08-01

    Statistical mechanics (SM) of Yang-Mills classical mechanics is studied by using a toy model that resembles chaotic quartic oscillators. This nonlinear system attains the thermodynamic equilibrium not by collisions, which is generally assumed in SM, but by chaotic dynamics. This is a new mechanism of thermalization that may be relevent to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions because the interactions governing QGP involve quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which is a Yang-Mills theory [SU(3)]. The thermalization time is estimated from the Lyapunov exponent. The Lyapunov exponent is evaluated using the recently developed monodromy matrix method. We also discuss the physical meaning of thermalization and SM in this system of few degrees in terms of chromo-electric and chromomagnetic fields. One of the consequence of thermalization, such as equipartition of energy and dynamical temperature, is also numerically verified.

  9. Trading classical and quantum computational resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey Bravyi; Graeme Smith; John Smolin

    2015-06-03

    We propose examples of a hybrid quantum-classical simulation where a classical computer assisted by a small quantum processor can efficiently simulate a larger quantum system. First we consider sparse quantum circuits such that each qubit participates in O(1) two-qubit gates. It is shown that any sparse circuit on n+k qubits can be simulated by sparse circuits on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time $2^{O(k)} poly(n)$. Secondly, we study Pauli-based computation (PBC) where allowed operations are non-destructive eigenvalue measurements of n-qubit Pauli operators. The computation begins by initializing each qubit in the so-called magic state. This model is known to be equivalent to the universal quantum computer. We show that any PBC on n+k qubits can be simulated by PBCs on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time $2^{O(k)} poly(n)$. Finally, we propose a purely classical algorithm that can simulate a PBC on n qubits in a time $2^{c n} poly(n)$ where $c\\approx 0.94$. This improves upon the brute-force simulation method which takes time $2^n poly(n)$. Our algorithm exploits the fact that n-fold tensor products of magic states admit a low-rank decomposition into n-qubit stabilizer states.

  10. Applications of coherent classical communication and the Schur transform to quantum information theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrow, Aram (Aram Wettroth), 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Quantum mechanics has led not only to new physical theories, but also a new understanding of information and computation. Quantum information not only yields new methods for achieving classical tasks such as factoring and ...

  11. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor

    2008-04-23

    The purpose of this contribution is to give a very brief introduction to Quantum Mechanics for an audience of mathematicians. I will follow Segal's approach to Quantum Mechanics paying special attention to algebraic issues. The usual representation of Quantum Mechanics on Hilbert spaces is also discussed.

  12. Distinguishing quantum and classical transport through nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill Lambert; Clive Emary; Yueh-Nan Chen; Franco Nori

    2010-08-23

    We consider the question of how to distinguish quantum from classical transport through nanostructures. To address this issue we have derived two inequalities for temporal correlations in nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures weakly coupled to leads. The first inequality concerns local charge measurements and is of general validity; the second concerns the current flow through the device and is relevant for double quantum dots. Violation of either of these inequalities indicates that physics beyond that of a classical Markovian model is occurring in the nanostructure.

  13. Bohmian mechanics contradicts quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2000-02-16

    It is shown that, for a harmonic oscillator in the ground state, Bohmian mechanics and quantum mechanics predict values of opposite sign for certain time correlations. The discrepancy can be explained by the fact that Bohmian mechanics has no natural way to accomodate the Heisenberg picture, since the local expectation values that define the beables of the theory depend on the Heisenberg time being used to define the operators. Relations to measurement are discussed, too, and shown to leave no loophole for claiming that Bohmian mechanics reproduces all predictions of quantum mechanics exactly.

  14. Time Fractional Formalism: Classical and Quantum Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosein Nasrolahpour

    2012-03-18

    In this review, we present some fundamental classical and quantum phenomena in view of time fractional formalism. Time fractional formalism is a very useful tool in describing systems with memory and delay. We hope that this study can provide a deeper understanding of the physical interpretations of fractional derivative.

  15. 2T Physics and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Chagas-Filho

    2008-02-20

    We use a local scale invariance of a classical Hamiltonian and describe how to construct six different formulations of quantum mechanics in spaces with two time-like dimensions. All these six formulations have the same classical limit described by the same Hamiltonian. One of these formulations is used as a basis for a complementation of the usual quantum mechanics when in the presence of gravity.

  16. From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristina Giesel; Hanno Sahlmann

    2013-01-02

    We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.

  17. Quantum chaos and order based on classically moving reference frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hai Wenhua [Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, Hunan (China); Xie Qiongtao; Fang Jianshu [Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2005-07-15

    We develop a mathematically consistent approach for treating the quantum systems based on moving classical reference frames. The classical and quantum exact solutions show excellently classical-quantum correspondence, in which the quantum chaotic coherent states correspond to the classically chaotic motions. Applying the approach to the periodically driven linear and nonlinear oscillators, the regular and chaotic quantum states and quantum levels, and the quantum chaotic regions are evidenced. The results indicate that chaos may cause the collapse of matter wave packets and suppress the quantum effect of energy.

  18. Artscience (AS) in Classical and Quantum Physics: Paper I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. L. Weinberg

    2005-09-22

    A general methodology and specific formalism are used to restrict the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. A natural psi-collapse to reality is developed in an equation with terms independent of the measuring equipment. The theory requires one of three experiments for the ensemble average of position, momentum, or energy, or a probability-experiment. Both classically and quantum mechanically, we define Artscience (AS) as Logic-Epistemology in Physics, where epistemology is treated as phenomenology. AS (logic phenomenology) is thus shown to be related to Physics (formalism-data) .

  19. Driven Morse oscillator: Classical chaos, quantum theory, and photodissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goggin, M.E.; Milonni, P.W.

    1988-02-01

    We compare the classical and quantum theories of a Morse oscillator driven by a sinusoidal field, focusing attention on multiple-photon excitation and dissociation. In both the classical and quantum theories the threshold field strength for dissociation may be estimated fairly accurately on the basis of classical resonance overlap, and the classical and quantum results for the threshold are in good agreement except near higher-order classical resonances and quantum multiphoton resonances. We discuss the possibility of ''quantum chaos'' in such driven molecular systems and use the Morse oscillator to test the manifestations of classical resonance overlap suggested semiclassically.

  20. Towards the topological quantization of classical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Nettel; Hernando Quevedo; Moices Rodriguez

    2008-01-16

    We consider the method of topological quantization for conservative systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Maupertuis' formalism for classical mechanics provides an appropriate scenario which permit us to adapt the method of topological quantization, originally formulated for gravitational field configurations. We show that any conservative system in classical mechanics can be associated with a principal fiber bundle. As an application of topological quantization we derive expressions for the topological spectra of some simple mechanical systems and show that they reproduce the discrete behavior of the corresponding canonical spectra.

  1. Unifying classical and quantum key distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

    2007-02-28

    Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

  2. Classical and Quantum Chaos and Control of Heat Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Casati; Carlos Mejia-Monasterio

    2006-10-10

    We discuss the problem of heat conduction in classical and quantum low dimensional systems from a microscopic point of view. At the classical level we provide convincing numerical evidence for the validity of Fourier law of heat conduction in linear mixing systems, i.e. in systems without exponential instability. At the quantum level, where motion is characterized by the lack of exponential dynamical instability, we show that the validity of Fourier law is in direct relation with the onset of quantum chaos. We then study the phenomenon of thermal rectification and briefly discuss the different types of microscopic mechanisms that lead to the rectification of heat flow. The control of heat conduction by nonlinearity opens the possibility to propose new devices such as a thermal rectifier.

  3. Is Fresnel Optics Quantum Mechanics in Phase Space?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Crasser; H. Mack; W. P. Schleich

    2004-02-17

    We formulate and argue in favor of the following conjecture: There exists an intimate connection between Wigner's quantum mechanical phase space distribution function and classical Fresnel optics.

  4. Quantum wave packets in space and time and an improved criterion for classical behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2009-04-28

    An improved criterion for distinguishing conditions in which classical or quantum behavior occurs is developed by comparing classical and quantum mechanical measures of size while incorporating spatial and temporal restrictions on wave packet formation associated with limitations on spatial extent and duration.

  5. Quantum cosmological perfect fluid model and its classical analogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Batista; J. C. Fabris; S. V. B. Goncalves; Joel Tossa

    2001-08-22

    The quantization of gravity coupled to a perfect fluid model leads to a Schr\\"odinger-like equation, where the matter variable plays the role of time. The wave function can be determined, in the flat case, for an arbitrary barotropic equation of state $p = \\alpha\\rho$; solutions can also be found for the radiative non-flat case. The wave packets are constructed, from which the expectation value for the scale factor is determined. The quantum scenarios reveal a bouncing Universe, free from singularity. We show that such quantum cosmological perfect fluid models admit a universal classical analogue, represented by the addition, to the ordinary classical model, of a repulsive stiff matter fluid. The meaning of the existence of this universal classical analogue is discussed. The quantum cosmological perfect fluid model is, for a flat spatial section, formally equivalent to a free particle in ordinary quantum mechanics, for any value of $\\alpha$, while the radiative non-flat case is equivalent to the harmonic oscillator. The repulsive fluid needed to reproduce the quantum results is the same in both cases.

  6. Geometrization of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Carinena; J. Clemente-Gallardo; G. Marmo

    2007-03-23

    We show that it is possible to represent various descriptions of Quantum Mechanics in geometrical terms. In particular we start with the space of observables and use the momentum map associated with the unitary group to provide an unified geometrical description for the different pictures of Quantum Mechanics. This construction provides an alternative to the usual GNS construction for pure states.

  7. Classical Coordination Mechanisms in the Chemical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fradet, Pascal

    great souvenir! Abstract Originally, the chemical model of computation has been proposed as a sim- pleClassical Coordination Mechanisms in the Chemical Model J.-P. Ban^atre P. Fradet Y. Radenac-Pierre Ban^atre) had with Gilles on topics related with programming in general and chemical programming

  8. Becoming classical: A possible influence on the quantum-to-classical transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2006-02-23

    Although cosmic expansion at very small distances is usually dismissed as entirely inconsequential, it appears that these extraordinarily small effects may in fact have a real and significant influence on our world. Calculations suggest that the minute recessional velocities associated with regions encompassed by extended bodies may have a role in creating the distinction between quantum and classical behavior. Using an uncertainty in position estimated from the spread in velocities associated with its size, the criterion that the uncertainty in position should be smaller than the extension of the object leads to a threshold size that could provide a fundamental limit distinguishing the realm of objects governed by classical laws from those governed by quantum mechanics.

  9. Emergence of classical behavior from the quantum spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Radonjic; S. Prvanovic; N. Buric

    2012-02-09

    Classical Hamiltonian system of a point moving on a sphere of fixed radius is shown to emerge from the constrained evolution of quantum spin. The constrained quantum evolution corresponds to an appropriate coarse-graining of the quantum states into equivalence classes, and forces the equivalence classes to evolve as single units representing the classical states. The coarse-grained quantum spin with the constrained evolution in the limit of the large spin becomes indistinguishable from the classical system.

  10. Classical and quantum linearized descriptions of degenerate optomechanical parametric oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Pina-Otey; Fernando Jiménez; Peter Degenfeld-Schonburg; Carlos Navarrete-Benlloch

    2015-08-26

    Recent advances in the development of modern quantum technologies have opened the possibility of studying the interplay between spontaneous parametric down-conversion and optomechanics, two of the most fundamental nonlinear optical processes. Apart from practical reasons, such scenario is very interesting from a fundamental point of view, because it allows exploring the optomechanical interaction in the presence of a strongly quantum-correlated field, the down-converted mode. In this work we analyze such problem from two approximate but valuable perspectives: the classical limit and the limit of small quantum fluctuations. We show that, in the presence of optomechanical coupling, the well-known classical phase diagram of the optical problem gets modified by the appearance of new dynamical instabilities. As for the quantum-mechanical description, we prove the ability of the squeezed down-converted field to cool down the mechanical motion not only to thermal but also to squeezed mechanical states, and in a way that can be much less sensitive to parameters (e.g., detuning of the driving laser) than standard sideband cooling.

  11. Quantum Techniques for Stochastic Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John C. Baez; Jacob Biamonte

    2015-10-22

    Some ideas from quantum theory are just beginning to percolate back to classical probability theory. For example, there is a widely used and successful theory of "chemical reaction networks", which describes the interactions of molecules in a stochastic rather than quantum way. Computer science and population biology use the same ideas under a different name: "stochastic Petri nets". But if we look at these theories from the perspective of quantum theory, they turn out to involve creation and annihilation operators, coherent states and other well-known ideas - but in a context where probabilities replace amplitudes. We explain this connection as part of a detailed analogy between quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics. We use this analogy to present new proofs of two major results in the theory of chemical reaction networks: the deficiency zero theorem and the Anderson-Craciun-Kurtz theorem. We also study the overlap of quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics, which involves Hamiltonians that can generate either unitary or stochastic time evolution. These Hamiltonians are called "Dirichlet forms", and they arise naturally from electrical circuits made only of resistors.

  12. Computational costs of data definition at the quantum - classical interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Fields

    2010-05-26

    Model-independent semantic requirements for user specification and interpretation of data before and after quantum computations are characterized. Classical computational costs of assigning classical data values to quantum registers and to run-time parameters passed across a classical-to-quantum application programming interface are derived. It is shown that the classical computational costs of data definition equal or exceed the classical computational cost of solving the problem of interest for all applications of quantum computing except computations defined over the integers and the simulation of linear systems with linear boundary conditions.

  13. Evolution Law of Quantum Observables from Classical Hamiltonian in Non-Commutative Phase Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniela Dragoman

    2006-04-11

    The evolution equations of quantum observables are derived from the classical Hamiltonian equations of motion with the only additional assumption that the phase space is non-commutative. The demonstration of the quantum evolution laws is quite general; it does not rely on any assumption on the operator nature of x and p and is independent of the quantum mechanical formalism.

  14. Quantum Mechanics and Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose N. Pecina-Cruz

    2005-11-27

    This paper discusses the existence of black holes from the foundations of quantum mechanics. It is found that quantum mechanics rule out a possible gravitational collapse.

  15. Displacement Echoes: Classical Decay and Quantum Freeze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyril Petitjean; Diego V. Bevilaqua; Eric J. Heller; Philippe Jacquod

    2007-04-23

    Motivated by neutron scattering experiments, we investigate the decay of the fidelity with which a wave packet is reconstructed by a perfect time-reversal operation performed after a phase space displacement. In the semiclassical limit, we show that the decay rate is generically given by the Lyapunov exponent of the classical dynamics. For small displacements, we additionally show that, following a short-time Lyapunov decay, the decay freezes well above the ergodic value because of quantum effects. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

  16. How Quantum is the Classical World?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Gary Bruno

    2011-01-01

    It has been experimentally confirmed that quantum physical phenomena can violate the Information Bell Inequalities. A violation of the one or the other of these Information Bell Inequalites is equivalent to a violation of local realism meaning that either objectivity or locality, or both, do not hold for the phenomena under investigation. We propose (1) an experimental design for carrying out classical measurements in the absence of ontological complementarity; (2) a rational way to extract epistemologically complementary (pseudocomplementary) data from it; (3) a statistical approach which can reject stochastic and/or suspected violations of local realism in measurements of such data.

  17. Displacement Echoes: Classical Decay and Quantum Freeze

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petitjean, Cyril [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Bevilaqua, Diego V. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Heller, Eric J. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Jacquod, Philippe [Physics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Motivated by neutron scattering experiments, we investigate the decay of the fidelity with which a wave packet is reconstructed by a perfect time-reversal operation performed after a phase-space displacement. In the semiclassical limit, we show that the decay rate is generically given by the Lyapunov exponent of the classical dynamics. For small displacements, we additionally show that, following a short-time Lyapunov decay, the decay freezes well above the ergodic value because of quantum effects. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

  18. Quantum Mechanics Without Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. Sulis

    2013-03-03

    The measurement problem and the role of observers have plagued quantum mechanics since its conception. Attempts to resolve these have introduced anthropomorphic or non-realist notions into physics. A shift of perspective based upon process theory and utilizing methods from combinatorial games, interpolation theory and complex systems theory results in a novel realist version of quantum mechanics incorporating quasi-local, nondeterministic hidden variables that are compatible with the no-hidden variable theorems and relativistic invariance, and reproduce the standard results of quantum mechanics to a high degree of accuracy without invoking observers.

  19. Quantum mechanics: last stop for reductionism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele Carcassi

    2012-03-16

    The state space of a homogeneous body is derived under two different assumptions: infinitesimal reducibility and irreducibility. The first assumption leads to a real vector space, used in classical mechanics, while the second one leads to a complex vector space, used in quantum mechanics.

  20. Quantum to Classical Transition in a Single-Ion Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Dubin; Carlos Russo; Helena G. Barros; Andreas Stute; Christoph Becher; Piet O. Schmidt; Rainer Blatt

    2010-02-18

    Stimulated emission of photons from a large number of atoms into the mode of a strong light field is the principle mechanism for lasing in "classical" lasers. The onset of lasing is marked by a threshold which can be characterised by a sharp increase in photon flux as a function of external pumping strength. The same is not necessarily true for the fundamental building block of a laser: a single trapped atom interacting with a single optical radiation mode. It has been shown that such a "quantum" laser can exhibit thresholdless lasing in the regime of strong coupling between atom and radiation field. However, although theoretically predicted, a threshold at the single-atom level could not be experimentally observed so far. Here, we demonstrate and characterise a single-atom laser with and without threshold behaviour by changing the strength of atom-light field coupling. We observe the establishment of a laser threshold through the accumulation of photons in the optical mode even for a mean photon number substantially lower than for the classical case. Furthermore, self-quenching occurs for very strong external pumping and constitutes an intrinsic limitation of single-atom lasers. Moreover, we find that the statistical properties of the emitted light can be adjusted for weak external pumping, from the quantum to the classical domain. Our observations mark an important step towards fundamental understanding of laser operation in the few-atom limit including systems based on semiconductor quantum dots or molecules.

  1. Quantum and classical coin-flipping protocols based on bit ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Concerning security analysis, we use the classical point games to prove that .... The first few proposals for quantum information processing,.

  2. Quantum Mechanical Pressure Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    Quantum Mechanical Pressure Frank Rioux CSB|SJU Quantum mechanics is based on the concept of wave it to its quantum mechanical equivalent. 2 2 2 2 2 p h KE m m = = Because objects with wave-like properties" character of quantum mechanical kinetic energy is the ultimate basis for the stability of matter. It also

  3. QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342 KPTC 103 9:00 ­ 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. ­ Winter Quarter 2011 quantum mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum Mechanics II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2011). For supplemental

  4. Black holes: interfacing the classical and the quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. P. Kosyakov

    2007-07-18

    The central idea advocated in this paper is that {forming the black hole horizon is attended with transition from the classical regime of evolution to the quantum one}. We justify the following criterion for discriminating between the classical and the quantum: {spontaneous creations and annihilations of particle-antiparticle pairs are impossible in the classical world but possible in the quantum world}. We show that it is sufficient to {change the overall sign of the spacetime signature in the classical picture of field propagation for it to be treated as its associated quantum picture}. To describe a self-gravitating object at the last stage of its classical evolution, we propose to use the Foldy--Wouthuysen representation of the Dirac equation in curved spacetimes, and the Gozzi classical path integral. In both approaches, maintaining the dynamics in the classical regime is controlled by supersymmetry.

  5. Quantum phenomena modelled by interactions between many classical worlds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael J. W. Hall; D. -A. Deckert; Howard M. Wiseman

    2014-10-26

    We investigate whether quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but finite, number of classical 'worlds', and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here a `world' means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach each world evolves deterministically; probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies; and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a 'many interacting worlds' approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena---such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wavepacket spreading, barrier tunneling and zero point energy---as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.

  6. How do black holes move, as quantum objects or as classical objects?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2007-09-12

    Results of a recent study of the transition between quantum and classical behavior are applied to black holes. The study led to a criterion separating quantum from classical behavior on the basis of mass or size, dependent on local effects of cosmic expansion. Application of this criterion to black holes indicates that the motion of smaller black holes will be characteristically quantum mechanical, while the motion of larger black holes must be classical, with a threshold distinguishing these behaviors at a Schwartzschild radius of roughly the size of a nucleon.

  7. CLASSICAL MECHANICS: THE THREE-BODY PROBLEM ZI CHONG KAO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    CLASSICAL MECHANICS: THE THREE-BODY PROBLEM ZI CHONG KAO Abstract. The Three-Body Problem is one of the oldest unsolved problems of classical mechanics. It arose as a natural extension of the Two-Body Prob of numerous techniques in classical mechan- ics as well as dynamical systems. Understanding the Three

  8. MATHEMATICS 428/609D Mathematical Classical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    MATHEMATICS 428/609D Mathematical Classical Mechanics This course is intended to complement physics department classical mechanics courses in the sense that the physical background will be developed experience with rigorous mathematics (like Math 320 and 321) and with classical mechanics (like Physics 206

  9. Separation of variables for the classical and quantum Neumann model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Babelon; M. Talon

    1992-01-16

    The method of separation of variables is shown to apply to both the classical and quantum Neumann model. In the classical case this nicely yields the linearization of the flow on the Jacobian of the spectral curve. In the quantum case the Schr\\"odinger equation separates into one--dimensional equations belonging to the class of generalized Lam\\'e differential equations.

  10. Quantum Calabi-Yau and Classical Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Okounkov; Nikolai Reshetikhin; Cumrun Vafa

    2003-11-11

    We propose a new duality involving topological strings in the limit of large string coupling constant. The dual is described in terms of a classical statistical mechanical model of crystal melting, where the temperature is inverse of the string coupling constant. The crystal is a discretization of the toric base of the Calabi-Yau with lattice length $g_s$. As a strong evidence for this duality we recover the topological vertex in terms of the statistical mechanical probability distribution for crystal melting. We also propose a more general duality involving the dimer problem on periodic lattices and topological A-model string on arbitrary local toric threefolds. The $(p,q)$ 5-brane web, dual to Calabi-Yau, gets identified with the transition regions of rigid dimer configurations.

  11. Kinematics of trajectories in classical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajibul Shaikh; Sayan Kar; Anirvan DasGupta

    2014-05-21

    In this paper, we show how the study of kinematics of a family of trajectories of a classical mechanical system may be unified within the framework of analysis of geodesic flows in Riemannian geometry and Relativity. After setting up the general formalism, we explore it through studies on various one and two dimensional systems. Quantities like expansion, shear and rotation (ESR), which are more familiar to the relativist, now re-appear while studying such families of trajectories in configuration space, in very simple mechanical systems. The convergence/divergence of a family of trajectories during the course of time evolution, the shear and twist of the area enclosing the family, and the focusing/defocusing of the trajectories within a finite time are investigated analytically for these systems. The understanding of the configuration space developed through such investigations is elaborated upon, and possible future avenues are pointed out.

  12. Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. Hu

    1995-11-29

    Statistical mechanical concepts and processes such as decoherence, correlation, and dissipation can prove to be of basic importance to understanding some fundamental issues of quantum cosmology and theoretical physics such as the choice of initial states, quantum to classical transition and the emergence of time. Here we summarize our effort in 1) constructing a unified theoretical framework using techniques in interacting quantum field theory such as influence functional and coarse-grained effective action to discuss the interplay of noise, fluctuation, dissipation and decoherence; and 2) illustrating how these concepts when applied to quantum cosmology can alter the conventional views on some basic issues. Two questions we address are 1) the validity of minisuperspace truncation, which is usually assumed without proof in most discussions, and 2) the relevance of specific initial conditions, which is the prevailing view of the past decade. We also mention how some current ideas in chaotic dynamics, dissipative collective dynamics and complexity can alter our view of the quantum nature of the universe.

  13. A geometric approach to quantum control in a classical-like framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Pastorello

    2015-08-28

    A quantum theory in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space can be formulated as a proper Hamiltonian theory as explained in [2, 3, 7, 8]. From this point of view a quantum system can be described in a classical-like framework where quantum dynamics is represented by a Hamiltonian flow in the phase space given by Hilbert projective space. This paper is devoted to investigate how the notion of accessibility algebra from classical control theory can be applied within geometric classical-like formulation of Quanum Mechanics to study controllability of a quantum system in order to state the following conjecture: Under certain conditions, classical control theory provides a machinery which can be directly applied in quantum control within the geometric Hamiltonian picture.

  14. A reconfigurable spintronic device for quantum and classical logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhowmik, Debanjan; Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti

    2010-01-01

    Quantum superposition and entanglement of physical states can be harnessed to solve some problems which are intractable on a classical computer implementing binary logic. Several algorithms have been proposed to utilize the quantum nature of physical states and solve important problems. For example, Shor's quantum algorithm is extremely important in the field of cryptography since it factors large numbers exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. Another celebrated example is the Grovers quantum algorithm. These algorithms can only be implemented on a quantum computer which operates on quantum bits (qubits). Rudimentary implementations of quantum processor have already been achieved through linear optical components, ion traps, NMR etc. However demonstration of a solid state quantum processor had been elusive till DiCarlo et al demonstrated two qubit algorithms in superconducting quantum processor. Though this has been a significant step, scalable semiconductor based room temperature quantum co...

  15. Classical and quantum chaos in a circular billiard with a straight cut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ree, S.; Reichl, L.E. [Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1999-08-01

    We study classical and quantum dynamics of a particle in a circular billiard with a straight cut. Classically, this system can be integrable, nonintegrable with {ital soft chaos}, or nonintegrable with {ital hard chaos} as we vary the size of the cut. We plot Poincar{acute e} surfaces of section to study chaos. Quantum mechanically, we look at Husimi plots, and also use the quantum web, the technique primarily used in spin systems so far, to try to see differences in quantum manifestations of soft and hard chaos. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Classical versus quantum harmonicgeneration spectrum of a driven anharmonic oscillator in the highfrequency regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    Classical versus quantum harmonic­generation spectrum of a driven anharmonic oscillator in the high­frequency September 1997! The harmonic­generation spectrum of an anharmonic oscillator perturbed by a high­frequency. The quantum mechanical ~QM! theory of HG in the low­frequency--high­intensity re­ gime has been developed

  17. Accounting for Classical Hardware in the Control of Quantum Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian N. Hincks; Christopher Granade; Troy W. Borneman; D. G. Cory

    2014-09-29

    High fidelity coherent control of quantum systems is critical to building quantum devices and quantum computers. We provide a general optimal control framework for designing control sequences that account for hardware control distortions while maintaining robustness to environmental noise. We demonstrate the utility of our algorithm by presenting examples of robust quantum gates optimized in the presence of nonlinear distortions. We show that nonlinear classical controllers do not necessarily incur additional computational cost to pulse optimization, enabling more powerful quantum devices.

  18. Time in quantum mechanics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapin, Kimberly R.

    1997-01-01

    TIME IN QUANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Marian O. Scully (Chair... of Committee) Edward S. Fry (Member) aan Laane (Member) Thomas W. Adair, III (Head of Department) August 1997 Major Subject: Physics TIME IN QIJANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  19. Relational Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyris Nicolaidis

    2012-11-09

    We suggest that the inner syntax of Quantum Mechanics is relational logic, a form of logic developed by C. S. Peirce during the years 1870 - 1880. The Peircean logic has the structure of category theory, with relation serving as an arrow (or morphism). At the core of the relational logical system is the law of composition of relations. This law leads to the fundamental quantum rule of probability as the square of an amplitude. Our study of a simple discrete model, extended to the continuum, indicates that a finite number of degrees of freedom can live in phase space. This "granularity" of phase space is determined by Planck's constant h. We indicate also the broader philosophical ramifications of a relational quantum mechanics.

  20. A new introductory quantum mechanics curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohnle, Antje; Browne, Dan; Everitt, Mark; Fomins, Aleksejs; Kok, Pieter; Kulaitis, Gytis; Prokopas, Martynas; Raine, Derek; Swinbank, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Physics New Quantum Curriculum consists of freely available online learning and teaching materials (quantumphysics.iop.org) for a first course in university quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. This approach immediately immerses students in inherently quantum mechanical aspects by focusing on experiments that have no classical explanation. It allows from the start a discussion of interpretive aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. This article gives an overview of the resources available at the IOP website. The core text is presented as around 80 articles co-authored by leading experts that are arranged in themes and can be used flexibly to provide a range of alternative approaches. Many of the articles include interactive simulations with accompanying activities and problem sets that can be explored by students to enhance their understanding. Much of the linear algebra needed for this approach is part of the resource. Solutions to activities are available ...

  1. On Randomness in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto C. de la Torre

    2007-07-19

    The quantum mechanical probability densities are compared with the probability densities treated by the theory of random variables. The relevance of their difference for the interpretation of quantum mechanics is commented.

  2. Quantum jump mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Yu. Samarin

    2015-05-10

    The change with time of the system consisting of the quantum object and the macroscopic measuring instrument is described on the base of the uniform dynamic law, which is suitable both evolution and reduction processes description. It is the integral wave equation with kernel in the form of a path integral. It is shown, that wave function collapse is the specific transformation which is fundamentally differ from Shr\\"odinger's evolution. Specifically, a formal cause of the collapse is a local time derivative (infinite large) of the potential energy. Such transformation can not be described using mathematical apparatus of conventional quantum mechanics.

  3. Local Power in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillermo Albareda; Fabio Lorenzo Traversa; Xavier Oriols

    2015-11-12

    A general expression for the local power of a quantum system is derived. Defined as the time rate of change of the kinetic energy evaluated in a finite volume $\\Omega$ of the physical space, the local power exhibits contributions from both many-body classical and quantum correlations. Significantly, quantum correlations are manifested through the presence of non-local sources/sinks of power and through the action of local forces with no classical counterpart. The soundness of our results is proved along three limits of particular relevance: the closed-system limit ($\\Omega \\to \\infty$), the limit of non-interacting particles, and invoking classicality. Interestingly, we show that quantum fingerprints arise on the local power expression only when the volume $\\Omega$ is finite. Otherwise we recover a classical-like expression. This work could be of particular interest in the field of nanoelectronics, where the realization of a zero-power technology constitutes a long standing challenge.

  4. Some topics in thermodynamics and quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Carroll

    2012-11-17

    We sketch some connecting relations involving fractional and quantum calculi, fractal structure, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics.

  5. Characterization of a noisy quantum process by complementary classical operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger F. Hofmann; Ryo Okamoto; Shigeki Takeuchi

    2006-10-31

    One of the challenges in quantum information is the demonstration of quantum coherence in the operations of experimental devices. While full quantum process tomography can do the job, it is both cumbersome and unintuitive. In this presentation, we show that a surprisingly detailed and intuitively accessible characterization of errors is possible by measuring the error statistics of only two complementary classical operations of a quantum gate.

  6. Quantum Mechanics and Representation Theory Columbia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woit, Peter

    Quantum Mechanics and Representation Theory Peter Woit Columbia University Texas Tech, November 21 2013 Peter Woit (Columbia University) Quantum Mechanics and Representation Theory November 2013 1 / 30 #12;Does Anyone Understand Quantum Mechanics? "No One Understands Quantum Mechanics" "I think

  7. A reconfigurable spintronic device for quantum and classical logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debanjan Bhowmik; Aamod Shanker; Angik Sarkar; Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya

    2010-12-09

    Quantum superposition and entanglement of physical states can be harnessed to solve some problems which are intractable on a classical computer implementing binary logic. Several algorithms have been proposed to utilize the quantum nature of physical states and solve important problems. For example, Shor's quantum algorithm is extremely important in the field of cryptography since it factors large numbers exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. Another celebrated example is the Grovers quantum algorithm. These algorithms can only be implemented on a quantum computer which operates on quantum bits (qubits). Rudimentary implementations of quantum processor have already been achieved through linear optical components, ion traps, NMR etc. However demonstration of a solid state quantum processor had been elusive till DiCarlo et al demonstrated two qubit algorithms in superconducting quantum processor. Though this has been a significant step, scalable semiconductor based room temperature quantum computing is yet to be found. Such a technology could benefit from the vast experience of the semiconductor industry. Hence, here we present a reconfigurable semiconductor quantum logic device (SQuaLD) which operates on the position and spin degree of freedom of the electrons in the device. Based on a few recent experiments, we believe SQuaLD is experimentally feasible. Moreover, using a well known quantum simulation method, we show that quantum algorithms (such as Deutsch Jozsa, Grover search) as well as universal classical logic operations (such as NAND gate) can be implemented in SQuaLD. Thus, we argue that SQuaLD is a strong candidate for the future quantum logic processor since it also satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for quantum logic application as well as the five essential characteristics for classical logic applications.

  8. Interpretation of cosmological expansion effects on the quantum-classical transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2006-06-07

    Recently, what appears to be a fundamental limit associated with the size of an object that separates the quantum behavior characterizing small objects from the classical behavior characterizing large objects has been derived from the Hubble velocity spread in an extended object. This threshold is now examined further and interpreted in terms of diffusion processes in stochastic quantum mechanics. This limiting size that separates quantum behavior from classical behavior is shown to correspond approximately to the diffusion distance of the object over the Hubble time.

  9. Quantization of classical integrable systems. Part I: quasi-integrable quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marino; N. N. Nekhoroshev

    2010-01-26

    We propose in this work a concept of integrability for quantum systems, which corresponds to the concept of noncommutative integrability for systems in classical mechanics. We determine a condition for quantum operators which can be a suitable replacement for the condition of functional independence for functions on the classical phase space. This condition is based on the properties of the main parts of the operators with respect to the momenta. We are led in this way to the definition of what we call a "quasi-integrable quantum system". This concept will be further developed in a series of following papers.

  10. Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense?Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes.Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense?Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean?What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why does it matter?Why does it matter? #12;Classical Mechanics

  11. Universal Single-Server Blind Quantum Computation for Classical Client

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hai-Ru Xu; Bang-Hai Wang

    2014-11-12

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without enough quantum technologies to delegate her quantum computation to quantum server, while keeping her input, output and algorithm secure. In this paper, we propose a universal single-server and classical-client blind quantum computation protocol based on entanglement swapping technology. In our protocol, the client interface with only one server and the only ability of the client requires is to get particles from trusted center and forward them to the server. Moreover, the protocol can be modified to make client completely classical by improving the ability of the trusted center. Numbers of blind quantum computation protocols have been presented in recent years, including single-, double- and triple-server protocols. In the single-server protocol, client needs to prepare single qubits. Though client can be classical in the double-server protocol, the two servers, who share Bell state from trusted center, are not allowed to communicate with each other. Recently, the triple-server protocol solves the noncommunication problem. Three servers, however, make the implementation of the computation sophisticated and unrealistic. Since it is impossible for blind quantum computation with only classical client and single server, blind quantum computation may work in the "Cloud + E-commerce" style in the future. Our protocol might become a key ingredient for real-life application in the first generation of quantum computations.

  12. Impossibility of secure cloud quantum computing for classical client

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomoyuki Morimae; Takeshi Koshiba

    2014-07-07

    The first generation quantum computer will be implemented in the cloud style, since only few groups will be able to access such an expensive and high-maintenance machine. How the privacy of the client can be protected in such a cloud quantum computing? It was theoretically shown [A. Broadbent, J. F. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundation of Computer Science, 517 (2009)], and experimentally demonstrated [S. Barz, E. Kashefi, A. Broadbent, J. F. Fitzsimons, A. Zeilinger, and P. Walther, Science {\\bf335}, 303 (2012)] that a client who can generate randomly-rotated single qubit states can delegate her quantum computing to a remote quantum server without leaking any privacy. The generation of a single qubit state is not too much burden for the client, and therefore we can say that "almost classical client" can enjoy the secure cloud quantum computing. However, isn't is possible to realize a secure cloud quantum computing for a client who is completely free from any quantum technology? Here we show that perfectly-secure cloud quantum computing is impossible for a completely classical client unless classical computing can simulate quantum computing, or a breakthrough is brought in classical cryptography.

  13. QUANTUM/CLASSICAL INTERFACE: A GEOMETRIC APPROACH FROM THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alge- bras, in particular the algebra of physical space (APS), provide the lu- bricant for smoothQUANTUM/CLASSICAL INTERFACE: A GEOMETRIC APPROACH FROM THE CLASSICAL SIDE William E. Baylis Physics relativistic physics in Clifford's geometric algebra has a spino- rial formulation that is closely related

  14. Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics Thomas R. Shafer April 17, 2009 #12;Outline of the Talk · Brief Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics Schrödinger Heisenberg Dirac #12;The Three Pictures of Quantum picture, the operators stay fixed while the Schrödinger equation changes the basis with time. #12;The

  15. Classical foundations of many-particle quantum chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Gutkin; Vladimir Osipov

    2015-03-09

    In the framework of semiclassical theory the universal properties of quantum systems with classically chaotic dynamics can be accounted for through correlations between partner periodic orbits with small action differences. So far, however, the scope of this approach has been mainly limited to systems of a few particles with low-dimensional phase spaces. In the present work we consider N-particle chaotic systems with local homogeneous interactions, where N is not necessarily small. Based on a model of coupled cat maps we demonstrate emergence of a new mechanism for correlation between periodic orbit actions. In particular, we show the existence of partner orbits which are specific to many-particle systems. For a sufficiently large N these new partners dominate the spectrum of correlating periodic orbits and seem to be necessary for construction of a consistent many-particle semiclassical theory.

  16. Information States in Control Theory: From Classical to Quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew James

    2014-06-20

    This paper is concerned with the concept of {\\em information state} and its use in optimal feedback control of classical and quantum systems. The use of information states for measurement feedback problems is summarized. Generalization to fully quantum coherent feedback control problems is considered.

  17. Efficient Classical Simulation of Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen D. Bartlett; Barry C. Sanders; Samuel L. Braunstein; Kae Nemoto

    2002-02-18

    We obtain sufficient conditions for the efficient simulation of a continuous variable quantum algorithm or process on a classical computer. The resulting theorem is an extension of the Gottesman-Knill theorem to continuous variable quantum information. For a collection of harmonic oscillators, any quantum process that begins with unentangled Gaussian states, performs only transformations generated by Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the canonical operators, and involves only measurements of canonical operators (including finite losses) and suitable operations conditioned on these measurements can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer.

  18. Quantum signature in classical electrodynamics of the free radiation field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Marrocco

    2015-05-20

    Quantum optics is a field of research based on the quantum theory of light. Here, we show that the classical theory of light can be equally effective in explaining a cornerstone of quantum optics: the quantization of the free radiation field. The quantization lies at the heart of quantum optics and has never been obtained classically. Instead, we find it by taking into account the degeneracy of the spherical harmonics that appear in multipole terms of the ordinary Maxwell theory of the free electromagnetic field. In this context, the number of energy quanta is determined by a finite countable set of spherical harmonics of higher order than the fundamental (monopole). This one plays, instead, the role of the electromagnetic vacuum that, contrary to the common view, has its place in the classical theory of light.

  19. Emergence of Quantum Mechanics from a Sub-Quantum Statistical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerhard Groessing

    2013-04-12

    A research program within the scope of theories on "Emergent Quantum Mechanics" is presented, which has gained some momentum in recent years. Via the modeling of a quantum system as a non-equilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy from the zero-point vacuum, the quantum is considered as an emergent system. We implement a specific "bouncer-walker" model in the context of an assumed sub-quantum statistical physics, in analogy to the results of experiments by Couder's group on a classical wave-particle duality. We can thus give an explanation of various quantum mechanical features and results on the basis of a "21st century classical physics", such as the appearance of Planck's constant, the Schr\\"odinger equation, etc. An essential result is given by the proof that averaged particle trajectories' behaviors correspond to a specific type of anomalous diffusion termed "ballistic" diffusion on a sub-quantum level. It is further demonstrated both analytically and with the aid of computer simulations that our model provides explanations for various quantum effects such as double-slit or n-slit interference. We show the averaged trajectories emerging from our model to be identical to Bohmian trajectories, albeit without the need to invoke complex wave functions or any other quantum mechanical tool. Finally, the model provides new insights into the origins of entanglement, and, in particular, into the phenomenon of a "systemic" nonlocality.

  20. Quantum Mind from a Classical Field Theory of the Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paola Zizzi

    2011-04-13

    We suggest that, with regard to a theory of quantum mind, brain processes can be described by a classical, dissipative, non-abelian gauge theory. In fact, such a theory has a hidden quantum nature due to its non-abelian character, which is revealed through dissipation, when the theory reduces to a quantum vacuum, where temperatures are of the order of absolute zero, and coherence of quantum states is preserved. We consider in particular the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory with a special anzatz for the gauge field, which breaks Lorentz invariance. In the ansatz, a contraction mapping plays the role of dissipation. In the limit of maximal dissipation, which corresponds to the attractive fixed point of the contraction mapping, the gauge fields reduce, up to constant factors, to the Pauli quantum gates for one-qubit states. Then tubuline-qubits can be processed in the quantum vacuum of the classical field theory of the brain, where decoherence is avoided due to the extremely low temperature. Finally, we interpret the classical SU(2) dissipative gauge theory as the quantum metalanguage (relative to the quantum logic of qubits), which holds the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind.

  1. Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humble, Travis S. (Knoxville, TN); Bennink, Ryan S. (Knoxville, TN); Grice, Warren P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-12-13

    The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

  2. From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics? Dresden, 22.11.2004 Jochen Gemmer Universit¨at Osnabr to thermodynamical behavior · Quantum approach to thermodynamical behavior · The route to equilibrium · Summary of thermodynamical behavior entirely on the basis of Hamilton models and Schr¨odinger-type quantum dynamics. · define

  3. Limits on classical communication from quantum entropy power inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Koenig; Graeme Smith

    2012-05-22

    Almost all modern communication systems rely on electromagnetic fields as a means of information transmission, and finding the capacities of these systems is a problem of significant practical importance. The Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel is often a good approximate description of such systems, and its capacity is given by a simple formula. However, when quantum effects are important, estimating the capacity becomes difficult: a lower bound is known, but a similar upper bound is missing. We present strong new upper bounds for the classical capacity of quantum additive noise channels, including quantum analogues of the AWGN channel. Our main technical tool is a quantum entropy power inequality that controls the entropy production as two quantum signals combine at a beam splitter. Its proof involves a new connection between entropy production rates and a quantum Fisher information, and uses a quantum diffusion that smooths arbitrary states towards gaussians.

  4. Classical and Quantum Dynamics of Free Electromagnetic Laser Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goto, S; Walton, T J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source free Maxwell equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged point particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content and their influence on particular charge configurations in space. The results of such classical interactions motivate a particular quantum description of a freely propagating laser pulse in terms of an effective quantum Hamiltonian. The classical chiral states that evolve according to the classical vacuum Maxwell equations are now replaced by quantized bi-qutrit elements satisfying the Schrodinger equation. This description may offer a means to control and manipulate qu-trit states encoded into such laser pulses.

  5. Classical and Quantum Dynamics of Free Electromagnetic Laser Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Goto; R. W. Tucker; T. J. Walton

    2015-02-09

    We discuss the use of a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source free Maxwell equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged point particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content and their influence on particular charge configurations in space. The results of such classical interactions motivate a particular quantum description of a freely propagating laser pulse in terms of an effective quantum Hamiltonian. The classical chiral states that evolve according to the classical vacuum Maxwell equations are now replaced by quantized bi-qutrit elements satisfying the Schrodinger equation. This description may offer a means to control and manipulate qu-trit states encoded into such laser pulses.

  6. Anthropomorphic Quantum Darwinism as an explanation for Classicality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Durt

    2009-06-15

    According to the so-called ``Quantum Darwinist'' approach, the emergence of ``classical islands'' from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two particles that interact through a position-dependent potential. This approach sheds a new light on the emergence of classical logics and of our classical preconceptions about the world. The distinction between internal and external world, the Cartesian prejudice according to which the whole can be reduced to the sum of its parts and the appearance of preferred representation bases such as the position is seen here as the result of a very long evolution and would correspond to the most useful way of extracting stable and useful information from the quantum correlations.

  7. Thermal Quantum Speed Limit for Classical-Driving Open Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenjiong Wu; Kai Yan; Xiang Hao

    2015-10-21

    Quantum speed limit (QSL) time for open systems driven by classical fields is studied in the presence of thermal bosonic environments. The decoherence process is quantitatively described by the time-convolutionless master equation. The evolution speed of an open system is related not only to the strength of driving classical field but also to the environmental temperature. The energy-state population plays a key role in the thermal QSL. Comparing with the zero-temperature reservoir, we predict that the structural reservoir at low temperatures may contribute to the acceleration of quantum decoherence. The manifest oscillation of QSL time takes on under the circumstance of classical driving fields. We also investigate the scaling property of QSL time for multi-particle noninteracting entangled systems. It is demonstrated that entanglement of open systems can be considered as one resource for improving the potential capacity of thermal quantum speedup.

  8. Hybrid classical-quantum formulations ask for hybrid notions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Barceló; Raúl Carballo-Rubio; Luis J. Garay; Ricardo Gómez-Escalante

    2013-01-28

    We reappraise some of the hybrid classical-quantum models proposed in the literature with the goal of retrieving some of their common characteristics. In particular, first, we analyze in detail the Peres-Terno argument regarding the inconsistency of hybrid quantizations of the Sudarshan type. We show that to accept such hybrid formalism entails the necessity of dealing with additional degrees of freedom beyond those in the straight complete quantization of the system. Second, we recover a similar enlargement of degrees of freedom in the so-called statistical hybrid models. Finally, we use Wigner's quantization of a simple model to illustrate how in hybrid systems the subsystems are never purely classical or quantum. A certain degree of quantumness (classicality) is being exchanged between the different sectors of the theory, which in this particular unphysical toy model makes them undistinguishable.

  9. Invariance in adelic quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branko Dragovich

    2006-12-07

    Adelic quantum mechanics is form invariant under an interchange of real and p-adic number fields as well as rings of p-adic integers. We also show that in adelic quantum mechanics Feynman's path integrals for quadratic actions with rational coefficients are invariant under changes of their entries within nonzero rational numbers.

  10. Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qingqing; Hemmer, Philip R.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    stream_source_info PhysRevA.75.065803.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16287 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name PhysRevA.75.065803.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Quantum... alternative meth- ods based on classical fields ?9?11?. In Ref. ?12?, a novel approach was proposed to implement quantum lithography using the classical light. This is accom- plished by correlating wave vector and frequency in a narrow band multiphoton...

  11. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform with Classical Output for Signal Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Yang Pang; Ben-Qiong Hu

    2007-06-17

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the base of modern signal or information processing. 1-Dimensional fast Fourier transform (1D FFT) and 2D FFT have time complexity O(NlogN) and O(N^2logN) respectively. Quantum 1D and 2D DFT algorithms with classical output (1D QDFT and 2D QDFT) are presented in this paper. And quantum algorithm for convolution estimation is also presented in this paper. Compared with FFT, QDFT has two advantages at least. One of advantages is that 1D and 2D QDFT has time complexity O(sqrt(N)) and O(N) respectively. The other advantage is that QDFT can process very long signal sequence at a time. QDFT and quantum convolution demonstrate that quantum signal processing with classical output is possible.

  12. On a New Form of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. N. Gorobey; A. S. Lukyanenko

    2008-07-22

    We propose a new form of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is based on a quantum version of the action principle.

  13. Quantum-classical transition and quantum activation of ratchet currents in the parameter space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. W. Beims; M. Schlesinger; C. Manchein; A. Celestino; A. Pernice; W. T. Strunz

    2015-05-14

    The quantum ratchet current is studied in the parameter space of the dissipative kicked rotor model coupled to a zero temperature quantum environment. We show that vacuum fluctuations blur the generic isoperiodic stable structures found in the classical case. Such structures tend to survive when a measure of statistical dependence between the quantum and classical currents are displayed in the parameter space. In addition, we show that quantum fluctuations can be used to overcome transport barriers in the phase space. Related quantum ratchet current activation regions are spotted in the parameter space. Results are discussed {based on quantum, semiclassical and classical calculations. While the semiclassical dynamics involves vacuum fluctuations, the classical map is driven by thermal noise.

  14. Hydrogen atom as a quantum-classical hybrid system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei Zhan; Biao Wu

    2013-02-15

    Hydrogen atom is studied as a quantum-classical hybrid system, where the proton is treated as a classical object while the electron is regarded as a quantum object. We use a well known mean-field approach to describe this hybrid hydrogen atom; the resulting dynamics for the electron and the proton is compared to their full quantum dynamics. The electron dynamics in the hybrid description is found to be only marginally different from its full quantum counterpart. The situation is very different for the proton: in the hybrid description, the proton behaves like a free particle; in the fully quantum description, the wave packet center of the proton orbits around the center of mass. Furthermore, we find that the failure to describe the proton dynamics properly can be regarded as a manifestation of the fact that there is no conservation of momentum in the mean-field hybrid approach. We expect that such a failure is a common feature for all existing approaches for quantum-classical hybrid systems of Born-Oppenheimer type.

  15. Quantum Mechanics 1 for graduate students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Course 606 Quantum Mechanics 1 for graduate students Fall 2010 Instructor Valery Pokrovsky 1 electromagnetic field. Gauge invariance. Landau levels. 7. Semiclassical approximation. 8. Quantum mechanics. Scattering. The main textbook is E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics, third edition, Wiley. Additional

  16. Physics 430, Classical Mechanics Exam 2,2010 Nov 09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary, Dale E.

    E,*-dt7rno + gr=49' y(Q,-('f [# si^[,",+)+ o-ces&uP)J -1- 6 N"'l6 #12;Physics430,ClassicalMechanics Exam2Physics 430, Classical Mechanics Exam 2,2010 Nov 09 - l Name 5o I wt t 6h Instructions:No books,notes,or "cheatsheet"allowed. You may usea calculator,but no otherelectronicdevicesduring the exam. Pleasetum your cell

  17. Upper quantum Lyapunov Exponent and Anosov relations for quantum systems driven by a classical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Sapin; H. R. Jauslin; S. Weigert

    2005-10-27

    We generalize the definition of quantum Anosov properties and the related Lyapunov exponents to the case of quantum systems driven by a classical flow, i.e. skew-product systems. We show that the skew Anosov properties can be interpreted as regular Anosov properties in an enlarged Hilbert space, in the framework of a generalized Floquet theory. This extension allows us to describe the hyperbolicity properties of almost-periodic quantum parametric oscillators and we show that their upper Lyapunov exponents are positive and equal to the Lyapunov exponent of the corresponding classical parametric oscillators. As second example, we show that the configurational quantum cat system satisfies quantum Anosov properties.

  18. The Quantum-Classical Transition and Wave Packet Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2007-06-11

    Two recent studies have presented new information relevant to the transition from quantum behavior to classical behavior, and related this to parameters characterizing the universe as a whole. The present study based on a separate approach has developed similar results that appear to substantiate aspects of earlier work and also to introduce further new ideas.

  19. Completely positive classical structures and sequentializable quantum protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Heunen; Sergio Boixo

    2012-10-02

    We study classical structures in various categories of completely positive morphisms: on sets and relations, on cobordisms, on a free dagger compact category, and on Hilbert spaces. As an application, we prove that quantum maps with commuting Kraus operators can be sequentialized. Hence such protocols are precisely as robust under general dephasing noise when entangled as when sequential.

  20. Classical and quantum dynamics of optical frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew G.

    to the quantitative and qualitative agreement between experiment and theory, and the experimental reliabilityClassical and quantum dynamics of optical frequency conversion By Andrew G. White A THESIS encouraged me to find out about dinosaurs #12;#12;Declaration This thesis is an account of research

  1. Implementation of Quantum and Classical Discrete Fractional Fourier Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steffen Weimann; Armando Perez-Leija; Maxime Lebugle; Robert Keil; Malte Tichy; Markus Gräfe; Rene Heilmann; Stefan Nolte; Hector Moya-Cessa; Gregor Weihs; Demetrios N. Christodoulides; Alexander Szameit

    2015-07-31

    Fourier transforms are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied sciences. We here report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform, a generalization of the Fourier transform. In the integrated configuration used in our experiments, the order of the transform is mapped onto the longitudinal coordinate, thus opening up the prospect of simultaneously observing all Transformation orders. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms, both integer and fractional, of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to transform separable and highly entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools, such as quantum chemistry and biology, physics and mathematics.

  2. Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Thorlacius, Larus; Zarembo, Konstantin; Krikun, Alexander; Kedem, Yaron

    2014-05-27

    We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS space-time. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic sound modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at large temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in global AdS.

  3. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D

    2001-01-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  4. Classical versus quantum harmonic-generation spectrum of a driven anharmonic oscillator in the high-frequency regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    Classical versus quantum harmonic-generation spectrum of a driven anharmonic oscillator in the high-frequency September 1997 The harmonic-generation spectrum of an anharmonic oscillator perturbed by a high-frequency the transition frequency be- tween the adjacent atomic states. The quantum mechanical QM theory of HG in the low-frequency­high

  5. The classical mechanics of autonomous microscopic engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukas Gilz; Eike P. Thesing; James R. Anglin

    2015-09-08

    Even microscopic engines have hitherto been defined to require macroscopic elements such as heat reservoirs, but here we observe that what makes engines useful is energy transfer across a large ratio of dynamical time scales ("downconversion"), and that small, closed dynamical systems which could perform steady downconversion ("Hamiltonian daemons") would fulfill the practical requirements of autonomous microscopic engines. We show that such daemons are possible, and obey mechanical constraints comparable to, but different from, the laws of thermodynamics.

  6. Hyper-Hamiltonian quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Trifonov

    2006-03-02

    We present a modification of quantum mechanics with a *possible worlds* semantics. It is shown that `gauge' degrees of freedom along possible worlds can be used to encode gravitational information.

  7. Quantum Mechanical Effects in Gravitational Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Greenwood

    2010-01-12

    In this thesis we investigate quantum mechanical effects to various aspects of gravitational collapse. These quantum mechanical effects are implemented in the context of the Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism. The Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism allows us to investigate the time-dependent evolutions of the quantum mechanical effects, which is beyond the scope of the usual methods used to investigate the quantum mechanical corrections of gravitational collapse. Utilizing the time-dependent nature of the Functional Schr\\"odinger formalism, we study the quantization of a spherically symmetric domain wall from the view point of an asymptotic and infalling observer, in the absence of radiation. To build a more realistic picture, we then study the time-dependent nature of the induced radiation during the collapse using a semi-classical approach. Using the domain wall and the induced radiation, we then study the time-dependent evolution of the entropy of the domain wall. Finally we make some remarks about the possible inclusion of backreaction into the system.

  8. Geometry and symmetry of quantum and classical-quantum variational principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esther Bonet Luz; Cesare Tronci

    2015-01-28

    This paper presents the geometric setting of quantum variational principles and extends it to comprise the interaction between classical and quantum degrees of freedom. Euler-Poincar\\'e reduction theory is applied to the Schr\\"odinger, Heisenberg and Wigner-Moyal dynamics of pure states. This construction leads to new variational principles for the description of mixed quantum states. The corresponding momentum map properties are presented as they arise from the underlying unitary symmetries. Finally, certain semidirect-product group structures are shown to produce new variational principles for Dirac's interaction picture and the equations of hybrid classical-quantum dynamics.

  9. Classical and Quantum Chaos in the Diamond Shaped Billiard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, R; Jaramillo, D; González, D L

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the classical and quantum behaviour of a particle trapped in a diamond shaped billiard. We defined this billiard as a half stadium connected with a triangular billiard. A parameter $\\xi$ which gradually change the shape of the billiard from a regular equilateral triangle ($\\xi=1$) to a diamond ($\\xi=0$) was used to control the transition between the regular and chaotic regimes. The classical behaviour is regular when the control parameter $\\xi$ is one; in contrast, the system is chaotic when $\\xi \

  10. Alternative linear structures for classical and quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ercolessi; A. Ibort; G. Marmo; G. Morandi

    2007-06-12

    The possibility of deforming the (associative or Lie) product to obtain alternative descriptions for a given classical or quantum system has been considered in many papers. Here we discuss the possibility of obtaining some novel alternative descriptions by changing the linear structure instead. In particular we show how it is possible to construct alternative linear structures on the tangent bundle TQ of some classical configuration space Q that can be considered as "adapted" to the given dynamical system. This fact opens the possibility to use the Weyl scheme to quantize the system in different non equivalent ways, "evading", so to speak, the von Neumann uniqueness theorem.

  11. Time in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curt A. Moyer

    2013-05-23

    The failure of conventional quantum theory to recognize time as an observable and to admit time operators is addressed. Instead of focusing on the existence of a time operator for a given Hamiltonian, we emphasize the role of the Hamiltonian as the generator of translations in time to construct time states. Taken together, these states constitute what we call a timeline, or quantum history, that is adequate for the representation of any physical state of the system. Such timelines appear to exist even for the semi-bounded and discrete Hamiltonian systems ruled out by Pauli's theorem. However, the step from a timeline to a valid time operator requires additional assumptions that are not always met. Still, this approach illuminates the crucial issue surrounding the construction of time operators, and establishes quantum histories as legitimate alternatives to the familiar coordinate and momentum bases of standard quantum theory.

  12. On the Hamilton-Jacobi method in classical and quantum nonconservative systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. de Souza Dutra; R. A. C. Correa; P. H. R. S. Moraes

    2015-09-24

    In this work we show how to complete some Hamilton-Jacobi solutions of linear, nonconservative classical oscillatory systems which appeared in the literature and we extend these complete solutions to the quantum mechanical case. In addition, we get the solution of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an electric charge in an oscillating pulsing magnetic field. We also argue that for the case where a charged particle is under the action of an oscillating magnetic field, one can apply nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in order to find experimental results regarding this problem. We obtain all results analytically, showing that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is a powerful tool to describe quantum mechanics.

  13. On the Hamilton-Jacobi method in classical and quantum nonconservative systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutra, A de Souza; Moraes, P H R S

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show how to complete some Hamilton-Jacobi solutions of linear, nonconservative classical oscillatory systems which appeared in the literature and we extend these complete solutions to the quantum mechanical case. In addition, we get the solution of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an electric charge in an oscillating pulsing magnetic field. We also argue that for the case where a charged particle is under the action of an oscillating magnetic field, one can apply nuclear magnetic resonance techniques in order to find experimental results regarding this problem. We obtain all results analytically, showing that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is a powerful tool to describe quantum mechanics.

  14. QUANTUM MECHANICS AND REAL Department of Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penrose, Oliver

    QUANTUM MECHANICS AND REAL EVENTS O.Penrose Department of Mathematics Heriot-Watt University into the evolution of a quantum-mechanical system, without altering the usual laws of quantum mechanics in any way Although quantum mechanics is wonderfully successful for predicting the results of experiments done

  15. Quantum chaos in the nuclear collective model: I. Classical-quantum correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Stransky; Petr Hruska; Pavel Cejnar

    2009-02-23

    Spectra of the geometric collective model of atomic nuclei are analyzed to identify chaotic correlations among nonrotational states. The model has been previously shown to exhibit a high degree of variability of regular and chaotic classical features with energy and control parameters. Corresponding signatures are now verified also on the quantum level for different schemes of quantization and with a variable classicality constant.

  16. Robust quantum spatial coherence near a classical environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Shuyu; Keil, Mark; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-01-01

    In quantum physics spatial coherence allows a massive object to be present in two locations at the same time. Such spatial coherence is easily lost in the presence of a classical environment, making it unobservable in our day-to-day experience. Here we report the persistence of spatial coherence for ultra-cold atoms held only 5$\\,\\mu$m from a room temperature surface, reducing substantially the distance previously achieved between trapped atoms exhibiting spatial coherence and their classical environment. At this distance, the environment would normally destroy spatial coherence over any length greater than a few micrometers, but we nevertheless observe coherence over a length of 30$\\,\\mu$m. We show that no observable dephasing is taking place, even on a time scale on the order of one second. From a technological point of view, this may enable quantum devices based on atomic circuits.

  17. Contexts, Systems and Modalities: a new ontology for quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexia Auffèves; Philippe Grangier

    2015-01-23

    In this article we present a possible way to make usual quantum mechanics fully compatible with physical realism, defined as the statement that the goal of physics is to study entities of the natural world, existing independently from any particular observer's perception, and obeying universal and intelligible rules. Rather than elaborating on the quantum formalism itself, we propose to modify the quantum ontology, by requiring that physical properties are attributed jointly to the system, and to the context in which it is embedded. In combination with a quantization principle, this non-classical definition of physical reality sheds new light on counter-intuitive features of quantum mechanics such as the origin of probabilities, non-locality, and the quantum-classical boundary.

  18. Decoherence of a qubit due to a quantum fluctuator or to a classical telegraph noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry J. Wold; Håkon Brox; Yuri M. Galperin; Joakim Bergli

    2012-06-11

    We investigate the decoherence of a qubit coupled to either a quantum two-level system (TLS) again coupled to an environment, or a classical fluctuator modeled by random telegraph noise. In order to do this we construct a model for the quantum TLS where we can adjust the temperature of its environment, and the decoherence rate independently. The model has a well-defined classical limit at any temperature and this corresponds to the appropriate random telegraph process, which is symmetric at high temperatures and becomes asymmetric at low temperatures. We find that the difference in the qubit decoherence rates predicted by the two models depends on the ratio between the qubit-TLS coupling and the decoherence rate in the pointer basis of the TLS. This is then the relevant parameter which determines whether the TLS has to be treated quantum mechanically or can be replaced by a classical telegraph process. We also compare the mutual information between the qubit and the TLS in the classical and quantum cases.

  19. Classical and Quantum Properties of Liouville Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1994-04-25

    Black hole spacetimes can arise when a Liouville field is coupled to two- dimensional gravity. Exact solutions are obtained both classically and when quantum corrections due to back reaction effects are included. The black hole temperature depends upon the mass and the thermodynamic limit breaks down before evaporation of the black hole is complete, indicating that higher-loop effects must be included for a full description of the process.

  20. Classical and quantum dynamics in an inverse square potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillaumín-España, Elisa; Núñez-Yépez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.

    2014-10-15

    The classical motion of a particle in a 3D inverse square potential with negative energy, E, is shown to be geodesic, i.e., equivalent to the particle's free motion on a non-compact phase space manifold irrespective of the sign of the coupling constant. We thus establish that all its classical orbits with E < 0 are unbounded. To analyse the corresponding quantum problem, the Schrödinger equation is solved in momentum space. No discrete energy levels exist in the unrenormalized case and the system shows a complete “fall-to-the-center” with an energy spectrum unbounded by below. Such behavior corresponds to the non-existence of bound classical orbits. The symmetry of the problem is SO(3) × SO(2, 1) corroborating previously obtained results.

  1. A Global Optimization Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaofei Huang

    2006-05-25

    This paper presents a global optimization approach to quantum mechanics, which describes the most fundamental dynamics of the universe. It suggests that the wave-like behavior of (sub)atomic particles could be the critical characteristic of a global optimization method deployed by nature so that (sub)atomic systems can find their ground states corresponding to the global minimum of some energy function associated with the system. The classic time-independent Schrodinger equation is shown to be derivable from the global optimization method to support this argument.

  2. An exact mapping between the states of arbitrary N-level quantum systems and the positions of classical coupled oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas E. Skinner

    2013-02-12

    The dynamics of states representing arbitrary N-level quantum systems, including dissipative systems, can be modelled exactly by the dynamics of classical coupled oscillators. There is a direct one-to-one correspondence between the quantum states and the positions of the oscillators. Quantum coherence, expectation values, and measurement probabilities for system observables can therefore be realized from the corresponding classical states. The time evolution of an N-level system is represented as the rotation of a real state vector in hyperspace, as previously known for density matrix states but generalized here to Schrodinger states. A single rotor in n dimensions is then mapped directly to n oscillators in one physical dimension. The number of oscillators needed to represent N-level systems scales linearly with N for Schrodinger states, in contrast to N^2 for the density matrix formalism. Although the well-known equivalence (SU(2), SO(3) homomorphism) of 2-level quantum dynamics to a rotation in real, physical space cannot be generalized to arbitrary N-level systems, representing quantum dynamics by a system of coupled harmonic oscillators in one physical dimension is general for any N. Values for the classical coupling constants are readily obtained from the system Hamiltonian, allowing construction of classical mechanical systems that can provide visual insight into the dynamics of abstract quantum systems as well as a metric for characterizing the interface between quantum and classical mechanics.

  3. Classical information storage in an $n$-level quantum system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Péter E. Frenkel; Mihály Weiner

    2014-12-04

    A game is played by a team of two --- say Alice and Bob --- in which the value of a random variable $x$ is revealed to Alice only, who cannot freely communicate with Bob. Instead, she is given a quantum $n$-level system, respectively a classical $n$-state system, which she can put in possession of Bob in any state she wishes. We evaluate how successfully they managed to store and recover the value of $x$ in the used system by requiring Bob to specify a value $z$ and giving a reward of value $ f(x,z)$ to the team. We show that whatever the probability distribution of $x$ and the reward function $f$ are, when using a quantum $n$-level system, the maximum expected reward obtainable with the best possible team strategy is equal to that obtainable with the use of a classical $n$-state system. The proof relies on mixed discriminants of positive matrices and --- perhaps surprisingly --- an application of the Supply--Demand Theorem for bipartite graphs. As a corollary, we get an infinite set of new, dimension dependent inequalities regarding positive operator valued measures and density operators on complex $n$-space. As a further corollary, we see that the greatest value, with respect to a given distribution of $x$, of the mutual information $I(x;z)$ that is obtainable using an $n$-level quantum system equals the analogous maximum for a classical $n$-state system.

  4. What quantum computers may tell us about quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    17 What quantum computers may tell us about quantum mechanics Christopher R. Monroe University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Quantum mechanics occupies a unique position in the history of science. It has sur successes of quantum mechanics, its foundations are often questioned, owing to the glaring difficulties

  5. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Gripaios; Dave Sutherland

    2015-04-06

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold's generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of Type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. As examples, we consider all connected and simply-connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly-solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid.

  6. Is Holographic Entropy and Gravity the result of Quantum Mechanics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Munkhammar

    2010-03-09

    In this paper we suggest a connection between quantum mechanics and Verlinde's recently proposed entropic force theory for the laws of Newton. We propose an entropy based on the quantum mechanical probability density distribution. With the assumption that the holographic principle holds we propose that our suggested quantum entropy generalizes the Bekenstein entropy used by Verlinde in his approach. Based on this assumption we suggest that Verlinde's entropic theory of gravity has a quantum mechanical origin. We establish a reformulation of the Newtonian potential for gravity based on this quantum mechanical entropy. We also discuss the notion of observation and the correspondence to classical physics. Finally we give a discussion, a number of open problems and some concluding remarks.

  7. PLANCK'S FORMULA IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS Andrea CARATI, Luigi GALGANI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .e. by considering processes involving continuous variations of energy. A particular effort in this direction), the expected energy distribution is apparently frozen about the initial one, with the addition of a ``thermal of classical mechanics. We prove that the expected energy distribution of the oscillators obeys Planck

  8. Bohmian Trajectories as the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon Goldstein; Roderich Tumulka; Nino Zanghi

    2009-12-14

    Bohmian trajectories have been used for various purposes, including the numerical simulation of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and the visualization of time-dependent wave functions. We review the purpose they were invented for: to serve as the foundation of quantum mechanics, i.e., to explain quantum mechanics in terms of a theory that is free of paradoxes and allows an understanding that is as clear as that of classical mechanics. Indeed, they succeed in serving that purpose in the context of a theory known as Bohmian mechanics, to which this article is an introduction.

  9. Quantum eigenstates and (pseudo-)classical accelerator modes of the Delta-Kicked Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Lemarié; Keith Burnett

    2006-02-24

    The quantum dynamics of a periodically driven system, the delta-kicked accelerator, is investigated in the semiclassical and pseudo-classical regimes, where quantum accelerator modes are observed. We construct the evolution operator of this classically chaotic system explicitly. If certain quantum resonance conditions are fullfilled, we show one can reduce the evolution operator to a finite matrix, whose eigenvectors are the quasi-eigenstates. These are represented by their Husimi functions. In so doing, we are able to directly compare the pure quantum states with the classical states. In the semiclassical regime, the quantum states are found to be related to the classical KAM tori and the classical accelerator modes. In contrast, the quasi-eigenstates do not lie on the $\\epsilon$-classical trajectories in the pseudo-classical regime. This shows a clear and important distinction between semiclassicality and the new type of pseudo-classicality found by Fishman, Guarneri and Rebuzzini.

  10. Creation mechanism of quantum accelerator modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summy, G. S.

    We investigate the creation mechanism of quantum accelerator modes which are attributed to the existence of the stability islands in an underlying pseudoclassical phase space of the quantum delta-kicked accelerator. Quantum ...

  11. Computational Mechanism Design The classic mechanism design literature largely ignores computational considerations. It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Chapter 3 Computational Mechanism Design The classic mechanism design literature largely ignores of computational mechanism design. Our goal is to use a market-based method, such as an auction, to compute' local problems Wel96 . The game-theoretic considera- tions of mechanism design were secondary

  12. Computational Mechanism Design The classic mechanism design literature largely ignores computational considerations. It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Chapter 3 Computational Mechanism Design The classic mechanism design literature largely ignores­as­computation'' view of computational mechanism design. Our goal is to use a market­based method, such as an auction­ tions of mechanism design were secondary to computational considerations. In recent years there has been

  13. Classic Mechanism Design Mechanism design is the subfield of microeconomics and game theory that considers how

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Chapter 2 Classic Mechanism Design Mechanism design is the sub­field of microeconomics and game­theoretic approach to mechanism design, and presents important possibility and impossibility results of computational mechanism design, and also surveys the economic literature on lim­ ited communication and agent

  14. Quantum mechanics emerges from information theory applied to causal horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Weon Lee

    2011-02-28

    It is suggested that quantum mechanics is not fundamental but emerges from classical information theory applied to causal horizons. The path integral quantization and quantum randomness can be derived by considering information loss of fields or particles crossing Rindler horizons for accelerating observers. This implies that information is one of the fundamental roots of all physical phenomena. The connection between this theory and Verlinde's entropic gravity theory is also investigated.

  15. A possible cosmological effect on the quantum-to-classical transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2006-03-16

    Although cosmic expansion at very small distances is usually dismissed as entirely inconsequential, these extraordinarily small effects may in fact have a real and significant influence on our world. A calculation suggests that the minute recessional velocities associated with regions encompassed by extended bodies may have a role in creating the distinction between quantum and classical behavior. Using the criterion that the uncertainty in position should be smaller than the size of an object together with estimates based on the range of Hubble velocities extending through the object lead to a threshold size that could provide a fundamental limit distinguishing the realm of objects governed by classical laws from those governed by quantum mechanics.

  16. Testing spontaneous wave-function collapse models on classical mechanical oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajos Diósi

    2014-11-17

    We show that the heating effect of spontaneous wave-function collapse models implies an experimentally significant increment $\\Delta T$ of equilibrium temperature in a mechanical oscillator. The obtained form $\\Delta T$ is linear in the oscillator's relaxation time $\\tau$ and independent of the mass. The oscillator can be in a classical thermal state, the effect $\\Delta T$ is classical for a wide range of frequencies and quality factors. We note that the test of $\\Delta T$ does not necessitate quantum state monitoring but tomography. In both gravity-related (DP) and continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) models the strong-effect edge of their parameter range can be challenged in existing experiments on classical oscillators. For the CSL theory, the conjectured highest collapse rate parameter values become immediately constrained by evidences from current experiments on extreme slow-ring-down oscillators.

  17. Unstable trajectories and the quantum mechanical uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Hans R. [Physics Institute, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: moser@physik.uzh.ch

    2008-08-15

    There is still an ongoing discussion about various seemingly contradictory aspects of classical particle motion and its quantum mechanical counterpart. One of the best accepted viewpoints that intend to bridge the gap is the so-called Copenhagen Interpretation. A major issue there is to regard wave functions as probability amplitudes (usually for the position of a particle). However, the literature also reports on approaches that claim a trajectory for any quantum mechanical particle, Bohmian mechanics probably being the most prominent one among these ideas. We introduce a way to calculate trajectories as well, but our crucial ingredient is their well controlled local (thus also momentaneous) degree of instability. By construction, at every moment their unpredictability, i.e., their local separation rates of neighboring trajectories, is governed by the local value of the given modulus square of a wave function. We present extensive numerical simulations of the H and He atom, and for some velocity-related quantities, namely angular momentum and total energy, we inspect their agreement with the values appearing in wave mechanics. Further, we interpret the archetypal double slit interference experiment in the spirit of our findings. We also discuss many-particle problems far beyond He, which guides us to a variety of possible applications.

  18. Real homotopy theory and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyungrok Kim; Ingmar Saberi

    2015-11-03

    In the context of studying string backgrounds, much work has been devoted to the question of how similar a general quantum field theory (specifically, a two-dimensional superconformal theory) is to a sigma model. Put differently, one would like to know how well or poorly one can understand the physics of string backgrounds in terms of concepts of classical geometry. Much attention has also been given of late to the question of how geometry can be encoded in a microscopic physical description that makes no explicit reference to space and time. We revisit the first question, and review both well-known and less well-known results about geometry and sigma models from the perspective of dimensional reduction to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The consequences of arising as the dimensional reduction of a $d$-dimensional theory for the resulting quantum mechanics are explored. In this context, we reinterpret the minimal models of rational (more precisely, complex) homotopy theory as certain supersymmetric Fock spaces, with unusual actions of the supercharges. The data of the Massey products appear naturally as supersymmetric vacuum states that are entangled between different degrees of freedom. This connection between entanglement and geometry is, as far as we know, not well-known to physicists. In addition, we take note of an intriguing numerical coincidence in the context of string compactification on hyper-Kahler eight-manifolds.

  19. Star Products for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Henselder

    2007-05-24

    The star product formalism has proved to be an alternative formulation for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We want introduce here a covariant star product in order to extend the star product formalism to relativistic quantum mechanics in the proper time formulation.

  20. Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization ?{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization ?{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at ?{sub S} ? ?{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.

  1. The extension problem for partial Boolean structures in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costantino Budroni; Giovanni Morchio

    2011-01-13

    Alternative partial Boolean structures, implicit in the discussion of classical representability of sets of quantum mechanical predictions, are characterized, with definite general conclusions on the equivalence of the approaches going back to Bell and Kochen-Specker. An algebraic approach is presented, allowing for a discussion of partial classical extension, amounting to reduction of the number of contexts, classical representability arising as a special case. As a result, known techniques are generalized and some of the associated computational difficulties overcome. The implications on the discussion of Boole-Bell inequalities are indicated.

  2. The extension problem for partial Boolean structures in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budroni, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    Alternative partial Boolean structures, implicit in the discussion of classical representability of sets of quantum mechanical predictions, are characterized, with definite general conclusions on the equivalence of the approaches going back to Bell and Kochen-Specker. An algebraic approach is presented, allowing for a discussion of partial classical extension, amounting to reduction of the number of contexts, classical representability arising as a special case. As a result, known techniques are generalized and some of the associated computational difficulties overcome. The implications on the discussion of Boole-Bell inequalities are indicated.

  3. The Universal Arrow of Time II: Quantum mechanics case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Kupervasser

    2013-05-23

    This paper is a natural continuation of our previous paper arXiv:1011.4173 . We illustrated earlier that in classical Hamilton mechanics, for overwhelming majority of real chaotic macroscopic systems, alignment of their thermodynamic time arrows occurs because of their low interaction. This fact and impossibility to observe entropy decrease at introspection explain the second law of thermodynamics. The situation in quantum mechanics is even a little bit easier: all closed systems of finite volume are periodic or nearly periodic. The proof in quantum mechanics is in many respects similar to the proof in classical Hamilton mechanics - it also uses small interaction between subsystems and impossibility to observe entropy decrease at introspection. However, there are special cases which were not found in the classical mechanics. In these cases one microstate corresponds to a set of possible macrostates (more precisely, their quantum superposition). Consideration of this property with use of decoherence theory and taking into account thermodynamic time arrows will introduce new outcomes in quantum mechanics. It allows to resolve basic paradoxes of quantum mechanics: (a) to explain the paradox of wave packet reduction at measurements when an observer is included in the system (introspection) (paradox of the Schrodinger cat); (b) to explain unobservability of superposition of macroscopic states by an external observer in real experiments (paradox of Wigner's friend); (c) to prove full equivalence of multi-world and Copenhagen interpretations of quantum mechanics; (d) to explain deviations from the exponential law at decay of particles and pass from one energy level to another (paradox of a kettle which will never begin to boil).

  4. Quantum Mechanics: Structures, Axioms and Paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerts, Diederik

    Quantum Mechanics: Structures, Axioms and Paradoxes Diederik Aerts Center Leo Apostel, Brussels present an analysis of quantum mechanics and its problems and para- doxes taking into account the results a genuine incomplete- ness of standard quantum mechanics, however not an incompleteness that means

  5. Plane waves in quantum gravity: breakdown of the classical spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillermo A. Mena Marugan; Manuel Montejo

    2000-01-11

    Starting with the Hamiltonian formulation for spacetimes with two commuting spacelike Killing vectors, we construct a midisuperspace model for linearly polarized plane waves in vacuum gravity. This model has no constraints and its degrees of freedom can be interpreted as an infinite and continuous set of annihilation and creation like variables. We also consider a simplified version of the model, in which the number of modes is restricted to a discrete set. In both cases, the quantization is achieved by introducing a Fock representation. We find regularized operators to represent the metric and discuss whether the coherent states of the quantum theory are peaked around classical spacetimes. It is shown that, although the expectation value of the metric on Killing orbits coincides with a classical solution, its relative fluctuations become significant when one approaches a region where null geodesics are focused. In that region, the spacetimes described by coherent states fail to admit an approximate classical description. This result applies as well to the vacuum of the theory.

  6. Pairwise quantum and classical correlations in multi-qubits states via linear relative entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Daoud; R. Ahl Laamara; H. El Hadfi

    2014-12-01

    The pairwise correlations in a multi-qubit state are quantified through a linear variant of relative entropy. In particular, we derive the explicit expressions of total, quantum and classical bipartite correlations. Two different bi-partioning schemes are considered. We discuss the derivation of closest product, quantum-classical and quantum-classical product states. We also investigate the additivity relation between the various pairwise correlations existing in pure and mixed states. As illustration, some special cases are examined.

  7. A Signed Particle Formulation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellier, Jean Michel

    2015-01-01

    A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schroedinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the val...

  8. Far-infrared collision-induced absorption in rare gas mixtures: Quantum and semi-classical calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buryak, Ilya [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Vorobievy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) [Chemistry Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Vorobievy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Pyzhevsky per., 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Frommhold, Lothar [Physics Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1081 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1081 (United States); Vigasin, Andrey A., E-mail: vigasin@ifaran.ru [Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Pyzhevsky per., 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-21

    We compare calculations of the translational collision-induced spectra and their integrated intensities of both He–Ar and Ne–Ar collisional complexes, using the quantum mechanical and a semiclassical formalism. Advanced potential energy and induced dipole functions are used for the calculations. The quantum method used is as described previously [L. Frommhold, Collision-induced Absorption in Gases (Cambridge University Press, 1993 and 2006)]. The semiclassical method is based on repeated classical atom-atom scattering calculations to simulate an ensemble average; subsequent Fourier transform then renders the binary absorption coefficient as a function of frequency. The problem of classical calculations is the violation of the principle of detailed balance, which may be introduced only artificially in classical calculations. Nevertheless, it is shown that the use of classical trajectories permits a fairly accurate reproduction of the experimental spectra, comparable to the quantum mechanical results at not too low temperatures and for collisional pairs of not too small reduced mass. Inexpensive classical calculations may thus be promising to compute spectra also of molecular pairs, or even of polyatomic collisional pairs with anisotropic intermolecular interactions, for which the quantum approach is still inefficient or impractical.

  9. Occam's Quantum Strop: Synchronizing and Compressing Classical Cryptic Processes via a Quantum Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Mahoney; C. Aghamohammadi; J. P. Crutchfield

    2015-08-11

    A stochastic process's statistical complexity stands out as a fundamental property: the minimum information required to synchronize one process generator to another. How much information is required, though, when synchronizing over a quantum channel? Recent work demonstrated that representing causal similarity as quantum state-indistinguishability provides a quantum advantage. We generalize this to synchronization and offer a sequence of constructions that exploit extended causal structures, finding substantial increase of the quantum advantage. We demonstrate that maximum compression is determined by the process's cryptic order---a classical, topological property closely allied to Markov order, itself a measure of historical dependence. We introduce an efficient algorithm that computes the quantum advantage and close noting that the advantage comes at a cost---one trades off prediction for generation complexity.

  10. Physical properties as modal operators in the topos approach to quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hector Freytes; Graciela Domenech; Christian de Ronde

    2014-12-21

    In the framework of the topos approach to quantum mechanics we give a representation of physical properties in terms of modal operators on Heyting algebras. It allows us to introduce a classical type study of the mentioned properties.

  11. Fault Models for Quantum Mechanical Switching Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob Biamonte; Jeff S. Allen; Marek A. Perkowski

    2010-01-19

    The difference between faults and errors is that, unlike faults, errors can be corrected using control codes. In classical test and verification one develops a test set separating a correct circuit from a circuit containing any considered fault. Classical faults are modelled at the logical level by fault models that act on classical states. The stuck fault model, thought of as a lead connected to a power rail or to a ground, is most typically considered. A classical test set complete for the stuck fault model propagates both binary basis states, 0 and 1, through all nodes in a network and is known to detect many physical faults. A classical test set complete for the stuck fault model allows all circuit nodes to be completely tested and verifies the function of many gates. It is natural to ask if one may adapt any of the known classical methods to test quantum circuits. Of course, classical fault models do not capture all the logical failures found in quantum circuits. The first obstacle faced when using methods from classical test is developing a set of realistic quantum-logical fault models. Developing fault models to abstract the test problem away from the device level motivated our study. Several results are established. First, we describe typical modes of failure present in the physical design of quantum circuits. From this we develop fault models for quantum binary circuits that enable testing at the logical level. The application of these fault models is shown by adapting the classical test set generation technique known as constructing a fault table to generate quantum test sets. A test set developed using this method is shown to detect each of the considered faults.

  12. Information Security and Quantum Mechanics: Security of Quantum Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Oscar Boykin

    2002-10-28

    The problem of security of quantum key protocols is examined. In addition to the distribution of classical keys, the problem of encrypting quantum data and the structure of the operators which perform quantum encryption is studied. It is found that unitary bases are central to both encryption of quantum information, as well as the generation of states used in generalized quantum key distribution (which are called mutually unbiased bases). A one-to-one correspondence between certain unitary bases and mutually unbiased bases is found. Finally, a new protocol for making anonymous classical broadcasts is given along with a security proof. An experimental procedure to implement this protocol is also given. In order to prove these new results, some new bounds for accessible information of quantum sources are obtained.

  13. Bohmian Mechanics with Complex Action: A New Trajectory-Based Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yair Goldfarb; Ilan Degani; David J. Tannor

    2006-04-20

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in Bohmian mechanics as a numerical tool because of its local dynamics, which suggest the possibility of significant computational advantages for the simulation of large quantum systems. However, closer inspection of the Bohmian formulation reveals that the nonlocality of quantum mechanics has not disappeared -- it has simply been swept under the rug into the quantum force. In this paper we present a new formulation of Bohmian mechanics in which the quantum action, S, is taken to be complex. This leads to a single equation for complex S, and ultimately complex x and p but there is a reward for this complexification -- a significantly higher degree of localization. The quantum force in the new approach vanishes for Gaussian wavepacket dynamics, and its effect on barrier tunneling processes is orders of magnitude lower than that of the classical force. We demonstrate tunneling probabilities that are in virtually perfect agreement with the exact quantum mechanics down to 10^{-7} calculated from strictly localized quantum trajectories that do not communicate with their neighbors. The new formulation may have significant implications for fundamental quantum mechanics, ranging from the interpretation of non-locality to measures of quantum complexity.

  14. Hidden Symmetries of Dynamics in Classical and Quantum Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cariglia

    2014-11-05

    This article reviews the role of hidden symmetries of dynamics in the study of physical systems, from the basic concepts of symmetries in phase space to the forefront of current research. Such symmetries emerge naturally in the description of physical systems as varied as non-relativistic, relativistic, with or without gravity, classical or quantum, and are related to the existence of conserved quantities of the dynamics and integrability. In recent years their study has grown intensively, due to the discovery of non-trivial examples that apply to different types of theories and different numbers of dimensions. Applications encompass the study of integrable systems such as spinning tops, the Calogero model, systems described by the Lax equation, the physics of higher dimensional black holes, the Dirac equation, supergravity with and without fluxes, providing a tool to probe the dynamics of non-linear systems.

  15. Molecular machines operating on nanoscale: from classical to quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goychuk, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The main physical features and operating principles of isothermal nanomachines in microworld are reviewed, which are common for both classical and quantum machines. Especial attention is paid to the dual and constructive role of dissipation and thermal fluctuations, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, heat losses and free energy transduction, thermodynamic efficiency, and thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power. Several basic models are considered and discussed to highlight generic physical features. Our exposition allows to spot some common fallacies which continue to plague the literature, in particular, erroneous beliefs that one should minimize friction and lower the temperature to arrive at a high performance of Brownian machines, and that thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power cannot exceed one-half. The emerging topic of anomalous molecular motors operating sub-diffusively but highly efficiently in viscoelastic environment of living cells is also discussed.

  16. A quantum mechanical description of particle spin rotation in channeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    1995-04-01

    Spin rotation of spin-1/2 particles involved in planar channeling in straight and bent crystals is described in a consistent quantum mechanical manner. This is done by solving the Dirac equation in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, constructing an operator equation of motion for the spin, and calculating the average value of the spin precession frequency. For the case of channeling in bent crystals agreement is observed between the classical and quantum mechanical expressions, provided that the field of the planes is approximated by a harmonic potential. The effect of spin rotation in straight crystals is also examined. 17 refs.

  17. Quantum mechanical effects from deformation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Much, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    We consider deformations of quantum mechanical operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. The deformation enables us to obtain several quantum mechanical effects where electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic fields play a role. Furthermore, a quantum plane can be defined by using the deformation techniques. This in turn gives an experimentally verifiable effect.

  18. Classical Mechanics of Collinear Positron-Hydrogen Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Min-Ho; Moon, Jin-Sung; Choi, Nark Nyul; Kim, Dae-Soung

    2015-01-01

    We study the classical dynamics of the collinear positron-hydrogen scattering system below the three-body breakup threshold. Observing the chaotic behavior of scattering time signals, we in- troduce a code system appropriate to a coarse grained description of the dynamics. And, for the purpose of systematic analysis of the phase space structure, a surface of section is introduced being chosen to match the code system. Partition of the surface of section leads us to a surprising conjec- ture that the topological structure of the phase space of the system is invariant under exchange of the dynamical variables of proton with those of positron. It is also found that there is a finite set of forbidden patterns of symbol sequences. And the shortest periodic orbit is found to be stable, around which invariant tori form an island of stability in the chaotic sea. Finally we discuss a possible quantum manifestation of the classical phase space structure relevant to resonances in scattering cross sections.

  19. Converting Classical Theories to Quantum Theories by Solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Qiang Guo; Ivan Schmidt

    2012-08-03

    By employing special solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and tools from lattice theories, we suggest an approach to convert classical theories to quantum theories for mechanics and field theories. Some nontrivial results are obtained for a gauge field and a fermion field. For a topologically massive gauge theory, we can obtain a first order Lagrangian with mass term. For the fermion field, in order to make our approach feasible, we supplement the conventional Lagrangian with a surface term. This surface term can also produce the massive term for the fermion.

  20. Quantum Mechanics Joachim Burgdorfer and Stefan Rotter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotter, Stefan

    1 1 Quantum Mechanics Joachim Burgd¨orfer and Stefan Rotter 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Particle and Quantization 8 1.5 Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics 9 1.6 Formalism of Quantum Mechanics 12 1.7 Solution 29 1.8.3 Resonances 30 1.9 Semiclassical Mechanics 31 1.9.1 The WKB Approximation 31 1.9.2 The EBK

  1. Conjugates, Filters and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Wilce

    2014-11-18

    The Jordan structure of finite-dimensional quantum theory is derived, in a conspicuously easy way, from a few simple postulates concerning abstract probabilistic models (each defined by a set of basic measurements and a convex set of states). A key assumption is that each system $A$ can be paired with an isomorphic conjugate system, $\\bar{A}$, by means of a non-signaling bipartite state $\\eta_A$ perfectly and uniformly correlating each basic measurement on $A$ with its counterpart on $\\bar{A}$. In the case of a quantum-mechanical system associated with a complex Hilbert space ${\\mathbf H}$, the conjugate system is that associated with the conjugate Hilbert space $\\bar{\\mathbf H}$, and $\\eta_A$ corresponds to the standard maximally entangled EPR state on ${\\mathbf H} \\otimes \\bar{\\mathbf H}$.

  2. A Generalized Analytical Mechanics in which Quantum Phenomena Appear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masao Yasuda

    2015-12-18

    We propose a mechanics of a massive particle in a potential field effective for both classical and quantum system as a modified classical analytical mechanics (modified CM). We transform, under coordinate transformation, the covariant tensor of order two in the Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) eq. of CM, not with the classical action, but with extended action of diffeomorphism group. Then, the H-J eq., a first-order partial differential eq., is modified to a third-order one. The Euler-Lagrange (E-L) eq. of CM, a second-order ordinary differential eq., related to the H-J eq. through the action integral is accordingly modified to a fourth-order one. Thus obtained mechanics accommodates quantum phenomena due to the higher-order eqs., and always gives trajectory unlike quantum mechanics (QM) due to the E-L eq. Discrete energy levels of a particle in a confining potential are the same as those of QM because quantization criterion is equivalent. Particle distribution in an ensemble disagrees with that of QM even if initial distribution is set identical because dynamics is different; it however agrees with observed data to date within experimental uncertainty. The mechanics thus is a testable alternative to QM.

  3. Treating Time Travel Quantum Mechanically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John-Mark A. Allen

    2014-10-10

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilising the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their non-linearity and time travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"---which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory---is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of new theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features---such as time travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish non-orthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states---that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with non-linear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  4. Errors and paradoxes in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rohrlich

    2007-08-28

    Errors and paradoxes in quantum mechanics, entry in the Compendium of Quantum Physics: Concepts, Experiments, History and Philosophy, ed. F. Weinert, K. Hentschel, D. Greenberger and B. Falkenburg (Springer), to appear

  5. Chaos and low-order corrections to classical mechanics or geometrical optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, B. (Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Texas A M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)); Milonni, P.W. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1995-03-01

    Based on simple first-order quantum corrections to classical equations of motion, which we show to be closely related to Gaussian wave-packet dynamics (GWD) and a time-dependent variational principle (TDVP), we deduce that quantum corrections to classical dynamics should typically become most pronounced when the classical system becomes chaotic. The time duration over which classical dynamics, GWD, or TDVP may provide good approximations is much shorter when the classical dynamics are chaotic. However, for certain situations involving very short laser pulses, these approximations can be very accurate. The same concepts are applicable to paraxial wave optics, which may offer simpler experimental studies of quantum chaos'': the distinction between classical and quantum'' chaos is in large part the distinction between ray versus wave behavior.

  6. An extended phase space for Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Lopez

    2015-09-23

    The standard formulation of Quantum Mechanics violates locality of interactions and the action reaction principle. An alternative formulation in an extended phase space could preserve both principles, but Bell's theorems show that a distribution of probability in a space of local variables can not reproduce the quantum correlations. An extended phase space is defined in an alternative formulation of Quantum Mechanics. Quantum states are represented by a complex va\\-lued distribution of amplitude, so that Bell's theorems do not apply.

  7. Intrinsic decoherence dynamics in smooth Hamiltonian systems: Quantum-classical correspondence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Jiangbin; Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    A direct classical analog of the quantum dynamics of intrinsic decoherence in Hamiltonian systems, characterized by the time dependence of the linear entropy of the reduced density operator, is introduced. The similarities and differences between the classical and quantum decoherence dynamics of an initial quantum state are exposed using both analytical and computational results. In particular, the classicality of early-time intrinsic decoherence dynamics is explored analytically using a second-order perturbative treatment, and an interesting connection between decoherence rates and the stability nature of classical trajectories is revealed in a simple approximate classical theory of intrinsic decoherence dynamics. The results offer deeper insights into decoherence, dynamics of quantum entanglement, and quantum chaos.

  8. Quantum Dynamical Effects as a Singular Perturbation for Observables in Open Quasi-Classical Nonlinear Mesoscopic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gennady P. Berman; Fausto Borgonovi; Diego A. R. Dalvit

    2008-01-29

    We review our results on a mathematical dynamical theory for observables for open many-body quantum nonlinear bosonic systems for a very general class of Hamiltonians. We show that non-quadratic (nonlinear) terms in a Hamiltonian provide a singular "quantum" perturbation for observables in some "mesoscopic" region of parameters. In particular, quantum effects result in secular terms in the dynamical evolution, that grow in time. We argue that even for open quantum nonlinear systems in the deep quasi-classical region, these quantum effects can survive after decoherence and relaxation processes take place. We demonstrate that these quantum effects in open quantum systems can be observed, for example, in the frequency Fourier spectrum of the dynamical observables, or in the corresponding spectral density of noise. Estimates are presented for Bose-Einstein condensates, low temperature mechanical resonators, and nonlinear optical systems prepared in large amplitude coherent states. In particular, we show that for Bose-Einstein condensate systems the characteristic time of deviation of quantum dynamics for observables from the corresponding classical dynamics coincides with the characteristic time-scale of the well-known quantum nonlinear effect of phase diffusion.

  9. 221B Lecture Notes Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    221B Lecture Notes Relativistic Quantum Mechanics 1 Need for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics We r + dx 1 8 (E2 + B2 ). (1) (Coulomb potential is there only if there is another static charged, similarly to the Newton's equation of motion in mechanics. The initial condtions to solve the Newton

  10. 129 Lecture Notes Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    129 Lecture Notes Relativistic Quantum Mechanics 1 Need for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics2 ). (1) (Coulomb potential is there only if there is another static charged particle's equation of motion in mechanics. The initial condtions to solve the Newton's equation of motion

  11. 221B Lecture Notes Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    221B Lecture Notes Relativistic Quantum Mechanics 1 Need for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics We r + dx 1 8 (E2 + B2 ). (1) (Coulomb potential is there only if there is another static charged's equation of motion in mechanics. The initial condtions to solve the Newton's equation of motion

  12. Classical and quantum chaotic angular-momentum pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dittrich; F. L. Dubeibe

    2015-02-10

    We study directed transport of charge and intrinsic angular momentum by periodically driven scattering in the regime of fast and strong driving. A spin-orbit coupling through a kicked magnetic field confined to a compact region in space leads to irregular scattering and triggers spin flips in a spatially asymmetric manner which allows to generate polarized currents. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the spin separation carry over to the quantum level and give rise to spin pumping. Our theory, based on the Floquet formalism, is confirmed by numerical solutions of the time-dependent inhomogeneous Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with a continuous source term.

  13. Transition to classical chaos in a coupled quantum system through continuous measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, Shohini; Alsing, Paul; Deutsch, Ivan; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); T-8 Theoretical Division, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Continuous observation of a quantum system yields a measurement record that faithfully reproduces the classically predicted trajectory provided that the measurement is sufficiently strong to localize the state in phase space but weak enough that quantum backaction noise is negligible. We investigate the conditions under which classical dynamics emerges, via a continuous position measurement, for a particle moving in a harmonic well with its position coupled to internal spin. As a consequence of this coupling, we find that classical dynamics emerges only when the position and spin actions are both large compared to ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). These conditions are quantified by placing bounds on the size of the covariance matrix which describes the delocalized quantum coherence over extended regions of phase space. From this result, it follows that a mixed quantum-classical regime (where one subsystem can be treated classically and the other not) does not exist for a continuously observed spin-(1/2) particle. When the conditions for classicality are satisfied (in the large-spin limit), the quantum trajectories reproduce both the classical periodic orbits as well as the classically chaotic phase space regions. As a quantitative test of this convergence, we compute the largest Lyapunov exponent directly from the measured quantum trajectories and show that it agrees with the classical value.

  14. Quantum mechanics as a complete physical theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Slavnov

    2002-11-10

    We show that the principles of a ''complete physical theory'' and the conclusions of the standard quantum mechanics do not irreconcilably contradict each other as is commonly believed. In the algebraic approach, we formulate axioms that allow constructing a renewed mathematical scheme of quantum mechanics. This scheme involves the standard mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. Simultaneously, it contains a mathematical object that adequately describes a single experiment. We give an example of the application of the proposed scheme.

  15. Quantum Mechanics and Closed Timelike Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florin Moldoveanu

    2007-04-23

    General relativity allows solutions exhibiting closed timelike curves. Time travel generates paradoxes and quantum mechanics generalizations were proposed to solve those paradoxes. The implications of self-consistent interactions on acausal region of space-time are investigated. If the correspondence principle is true, then all generalizations of quantum mechanics on acausal manifolds are not renormalizable. Therefore quantum mechanics can only be defined on global hyperbolic manifolds and all general relativity solutions exhibiting time travel are unphysical.

  16. Bohmian particle trajectories contradict quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Zirpel

    2009-03-23

    The Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics adds particle trajectories to the wave function and ensures that the probability distribution of the particle positions agrees with quantum mechanics at any time. This is not sufficient to avoid contradictions with quantum mechanics. There are correlations between particle positions at different times which cannot be reproduced with real particle trajectories. A simple rearrangement of an experimental test of the Bell-CHSH inequality demonstrates this.

  17. Deformed Geometric Algebra and Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Henselder

    2006-09-09

    Deforming the algebraic structure of geometric algebra on the phase space with a Moyal product leads naturally to supersymmetric quantum mechanics in the star product formalism.

  18. The Hamilton-Jacobi Theory, Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    2005-10-12

    The Hamilton-Jacobi theory of Classical Mechanics can be extended in a novel manner to systems which are fuzzy in the sense that they can be represented by wave functions. A constructive interference of the phases of the wave functions then gives us back Classical systems. In a suitable description this includes both Quantum Theory and General Relativity in the well known superspace formulation. However, there are several nuances which provide insight into these latter systems. All this is considered in this paper together with suitable generalization, to cascades of super universes.

  19. Thermalization and possible quantum relaxation times in "classical" fluids: theory and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Nussinov; F. Nogueira; M. Blodgett; K. F. Kelton

    2015-09-07

    Quantum effects in material systems are often pronounced at low energies and become insignificant at high temperatures. We find that, perhaps counterintuitively, certain quantum effects may follow the opposite route and become sharp when extrapolated to high temperature within a "classical" liquid phase. In the current work, we suggest basic quantum bounds on relaxation (and thermalization) times, examine kinetic theory by taking into account such possible fundamental quantum time scales, find new general equalities connecting semi-classical dynamics and thermodynamics to Planck's constant, and compute current correlation functions. Our analysis suggests that, on average, the extrapolated high temperature dynamical viscosity of general liquids may tend to a value set by the product of the particle number density ${\\sf n}$ and Planck's constant $h$. We compare this theoretical result with experimental measurements of an ensemble of 23 metallic fluids where this seems to indeed be the case. The extrapolated high temperature viscosity of each of these liquids $\\eta$ divided (for each respective fluid by its value of ${\\sf n} h$) veers towards a Gaussian with an ensemble average value that is close to unity up to an error of size $0.6 \\%$. Inspired by the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis, we suggest a relation between the lowest equilibration temperature to the melting or liquidus temperature and discuss a possible corollary concerning the absence of finite temperature "ideal glass" transitions. We suggest a general quantum mechanical derivation for the viscosity of glasses at general temperatures. We invoke similar ideas to discuss other transport properties and demonstrate how simple behaviors including resistivity saturation and linear $T$ resistivity may appear very naturally. Our approach suggests that minimal time lags may be present in fluid dynamics.

  20. Quantum Mechanics Course Number: C668 C668: Special topics in physical chemistry: Advanced Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    Quantum Mechanics Course Number: C668 C668: Special topics in physical chemistry: Advanced Quantum Mechanics Instructor: Srinivasan S. Iyengar Office Hours Wednesday, Friday 10:30AM-12PM (Chemistry C202B@gmail.com Chemistry, Indiana University i c 2014, Srinivasan S. Iyengar (instructor) #12;Quantum Mechanics Course

  1. Mechanical quantum resonators A. N. Cleland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geller, Michael R.

    Mechanical quantum resonators A. N. Cleland and M. R. Geller Department of Physics, University based on the integration of GHz-frequency mechanical resonators with Josephson phase qubits, which have

  2. Quantum mechanics without potential function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Alhaidari; M. E. H. Ismail

    2015-06-26

    In the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, one starts by proposing a potential function that models the physical system. The potential is then inserted into the Schr\\"odinger equation, which is solved for the wave function, bound states energy spectrum and/or scattering phase shift. In this work, however, we propose an alternative formulation in which the potential function does not appear. The aim is to obtain a set of analytically realizable systems, which is larger than in the standard formulation and may or may not be associated with any given or previously known potential functions. We start with the wavefunction, which is written as a bounded infinite sum of elements of a complete basis with polynomial coefficients that are orthogonal on an appropriate domain in the energy space. Using the asymptotic properties of these polynomials, we obtain the scattering phase shift, bound states and resonances. This formulation enables one to handle not only the well-known quantum systems but also previously untreated ones. Illustrative examples are given for two- and there-parameter systems.

  3. Testing non-associative quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bojowald, Martin; Buyukcam, Umut

    2015-01-01

    The familiar concepts of state vectors and operators in quantum mechanics rely on associative products of observables. However, these notions do not apply to some exotic systems such as magnetic monopoles, which have long been known to lead to non-associative algebras. Their quantum physics has remained obscure. This letter presents the first derivation of potentially testable physical results in non-associative quantum mechanics, based on effective potentials. They imply new effects which cannot be mimicked in usual quantum mechanics with standard magnetic fields.

  4. Quaternionic Formulation of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seema Rawat; O. P. S. Negi

    2007-03-18

    Quaternionic formulation of supersymmetric quantum mechanics has been developed consistently in terms of Hamiltonians, superpartner Hamiltonians, and supercharges for free particle and interacting field in one and three dimensions. Supercharges, superpartner Hamiltonians and energy eigenvalues are discussed and it has been shown that the results are consistent with the results of quantum mechanics.

  5. On a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    1999-08-22

    The best mathematical arguments against a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics - that gives definite but partially unknown values to all observables - are analysed and shown to be based on reasoning that is not compelling. This opens the door for an interpretation that, while respecting the indeterministic nature of quantum mechanics, allows to speak of definite values for all observables at any time that are, however, only partially measurable. The analysis also suggests new ways to test the foundations of quantum theory.

  6. Trading classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement in quantum Shannon theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min-Hsiu Hsieh; Mark M. Wilde

    2010-04-09

    We give trade-offs between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement for processing information in the Shannon-theoretic setting. We first prove a unit-resource capacity theorem that applies to the scenario where only the above three noiseless resources are available for consumption or generation. The optimal strategy mixes the three fundamental protocols of teleportation, super-dense coding, and entanglement distribution. We then provide an achievable rate region and a matching multi-letter converse for the direct static capacity theorem. This theorem applies to the scenario where a large number of copies of a noisy bipartite state are available (in addition to consumption or generation of the above three noiseless resources). Our coding strategy involves a protocol that we name the classically-assisted state redistribution protocol and the three fundamental protocols. We finally provide an achievable rate region and a matching mutli-letter converse for the direct dynamic capacity theorem. This theorem applies to the scenario where a large number of uses of a noisy quantum channel are available in addition to the consumption or generation of the three noiseless resources. Our coding strategy combines the classically-enhanced father protocol with the three fundamental unit protocols.

  7. Classical and Quantum Stochastic Models of Resistive and Memristive Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John E. Gough; Guofeng Zhang

    2015-10-28

    The purpose of this paper is to examine stochastic Markovian models for circuits in phase space for which the drift term is equivalent to the standard circuit equations. In particular we include dissipative components corresponding to both a resistor and a memristor in series. We obtain a dilation of the problem for which is canonical in the sense that the underlying Poisson Brackets structure is preserved under the stochastic flow. We do this first of all for standard Wiener noise, but also treat the problem using a new concept of symplectic noise where the Poisson structure is extended to the noise as well as the circuit variables, and in particular where we have canonically conjugate noises. Finally we construct a dilation which describes the quantum mechanical analogue.

  8. An entropic picture of emergent quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Acosta; P. Fernandez de Cordoba; J. M. Isidro; J. L. G. Santander

    2011-09-20

    Quantum mechanics emerges a la Verlinde from a foliation of space by holographic screens, when regarding the latter as entropy reservoirs that a particle can exchange entropy with. This entropy is quantised in units of Boltzmann's constant k. The holographic screens can be treated thermodynamically as stretched membranes. On that side of a holographic screen where spacetime has already emerged, the energy representation of thermodynamics gives rise to the usual quantum mechanics. A knowledge of the different surface densities of entropy flow across all screens is equivalent to a knowledge of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction on space. The entropy representation of thermodynamics, as applied to a screen, can be used to describe quantum mechanics in the absence of spacetime, that is, quantum mechanics beyond a holographic screen, where spacetime has not yet emerged. Our approach can be regarded as a formal derivation of Planck's constant h from Boltzmann's constant k.

  9. Cluster-based architecture for fault-tolerant quantum computation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CLUSTER MODEL; CORRECTIONS; ERRORS; NOISE; QUANTUM COMPUTERS; QUBITS; RESOURCES; VERIFICATION COMPUTERS; INFORMATION;...

  10. Continuous monitoring and the introduction of a classical level in Quantum Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. M. Prosperi

    2015-08-26

    In ordinary Quantum Mechanics only ideally instantaneous observations of a quantity or a set of compatible quantities are usually considered. In an old paper of our group in Milano a formalism was introduced for the continuous monitoring of a system during a certain interval of time in the framework of a somewhat generalized approach to Q. M. The outcome was a distribution of probability on the space of all the possible continuous histories of a set of quantities to be considered as a kind of coarse grained approximation to some ordinary quantum observables commuting or not. The main aim was the introduction of a classical level in the context of Quantum Mechanics, treating formally a set of basic quantities {\\it to be considered as beables} in the sense of Bell as continuously taken under observation. However the effect of such assumption was a permanent modification of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the statistical operator by the introduction of a dissipative term which is in conflict with basic conservation rules in all reasonable models we had considered. Difficulties were even encountered for a relativistic extension of the formalism. In this paper I propose a modified version of the original formalism which seems to overcome both difficulties. First I study the simple models of an harmonic oscillator and a free scalar field in which a coarse grain position and a coarse grained field respectively are treated as beables. Then I consider the more realistic case of Spinor Electrodynamics in which only certain coarse grained electric and magnetic fields and no matter related quantities are introduced as classical variables.

  11. Particle and Wave: Developing the Quantum Wave Accompanying a Classical Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2008-12-04

    The relationship between classical and quantum mechanics is explored in an intuitive manner by the exercise of constructing a wave in association with a classical particle. Using special relativity, the time coordinate in the frame of reference of a moving particle is expressed in terms of the coordinates in the laboratory frame of reference in order to provide an initial spatiotemporal function to work from in initiating the development of a quantum wave. When temporal periodicity is ascribed to the particle, a provisional spatiotemporal function for a particle travelling at constant velocity manifests itself as an running wave characterized by parameters associated with the moving particle. A wave description for bidirectional motion is generated based on an average time coordinate for a combination of oppositely directed elementary running waves, and the resulting spatiotemporal function exhibits wave behavior characteristic of a standing wave. Ascribing directional orientation to the intrinsic periodicity of the particle introduces directional sub-states; variations in the relative number of sub-states as a function of angle in combined states lead to spatially varying magnitudes for the associated waves. Further analysis leads to full mathematical expression for all waves representing free particle motion. A generalization for particles subject to force fields enables us to develop a governing differential equation identical in form to the Schroedinger equation.

  12. Trading classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement in quantum Shannon theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    We give optimal trade-offs between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement for processing information in the Shannon-theoretic setting. We first prove a "unit-resource" capacity theorem that applies to the scenario where only the above three noiseless resources are available for consumption or generation. The optimal strategy mixes the three fundamental protocols of teleportation, super-dense coding, and entanglement distribution. Furthermore, no protocol other than these three fundamental ones is necessary to generate the unit resource capacity region. We then prove the "direct static" capacity theorem that applies to the scenario where a large number of copies of a noisy bipartite state are available (in addition to consumption or generation of the above three noiseless resources). The result is that a coding strategy involving the classically-assisted mother protocol and the three fundamental protocols is optimal. We finally prove the "direct dynamic" capacity theorem. This theorem...

  13. Polymer Quantum Mechanics and its Continuum Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi; Tatjana Vukasinac; Jose A. Zapata

    2007-08-22

    A rather non-standard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle and a simple cosmological model.

  14. Statistical moments for classical and quantum dynamics: formalism and generalized uncertainty relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Brizuela

    2014-11-03

    The classical and quantum evolution of a generic probability distribution is analyzed. To that end, a formalism based on the decomposition of the distribution in terms of its statistical moments is used, which makes explicit the differences between the classical and quantum dynamics. In particular, there are two different sources of quantum effects. Distributional effects, which are also present in the classical evolution of an extended distribution, are due to the fact that all moments can not be vanishing because of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, the non-commutativity of the basic quantum operators add some terms to the quantum equations of motion that explicitly depend on the Planck constant and are not present in the classical setting. These are thus purely-quantum effects. Some particular Hamiltonians are analyzed that have very special properties regarding the evolution they generate in the classical and quantum sector. In addition, a large class of inequalities obeyed by high-order statistical moments, and in particular uncertainty relations that bound the information that is possible to obtain from a quantum system, are derived.

  15. A Pedestrian Approach to the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boughn, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The quantum theory of measurement has been a matter of debate for over eighty years. Most of the discussion has focused on theoretical issues with the consequence that operational prescriptions, which are integral to experimental physics, have been largely ignored. This has undoubtedly exacerbated attempts to find a solution to the "measurement problem". In this paper, we fully embrace the ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics that obviates the need to entertain reduction of the state vector, one of the primary dilemmas of the measurement problem. The other major aspect of the measurement problem, the necessity of describing measurements in terms of classical concepts, remains. However, we argue that the ultimate interface with experiments is described by operational prescriptions and not in terms of the concepts of classical theory. The pedestrian approach presented here suggests that the measurement problem is, in some sense, ill-posed and might never be resolved. This state of affairs is, in part, t...

  16. Classical capacity of the free-space quantum-optical channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guha, Saikat, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the limits to reliable communication rates over quantum channels has been the primary focus of many researchers over the past few decades. In the present work, the classical information carrying capacity of the ...

  17. Dynamics of quantum-classical hybrid systems: Effect of matter-wave pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, J. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, X. L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H. [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Radiation pressure affects the kinetics of a system exposed to radiation and it constitutes the basis of laser cooling. In this article, we study matter-wave pressure through examining the dynamics of a quantum-classical hybrid system. The quantum and classical subsystems are affected mutually via a changing boundary condition. Two systems, that is, an atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), are considered as the quantum subsystems, while an oscillating wall is taken as the classical subsystem. We show that the classical subsystem would experience a force proportional to Q{sup -3} from the quantum atom, where Q denotes the distance between the two walls, whereas it acquires an additional force proportional to Q{sup -2} from the BEC due to the atom-atom interaction in the BEC. These forces can be understood as the matter-wave pressure.

  18. Classical M-Fivebrane Dynamics and Quantum N=2 Yang-Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Howe; N. D. Lambert; P. C. West

    1997-11-05

    We obtain the complete quantum Seiberg-Witten effective action for N=2 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills theory from the classical M-fivebrane equations of motion with N threebranes moving in its worldvolume.

  19. Classic Mechanism Design Mechanism design is the sub-eld of microeconomics and game theory that considers how

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Chapter 2 Classic Mechanism Design Mechanism design is the sub- eld of microeconomics and game-theoretic approach to mechanism design, and presents important possibility and impossibilityresults in the literature-rationality in mechanism design. The challenge in computational mechanism design is to design mechanisms that are both

  20. Information Nano-Technologies: Transition from Classical to Quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Yu. Vlasov

    2009-12-04

    In this presentation are discussed some problems, relevant with application of information technologies in nano-scale systems and devices. Some methods already developed in quantum information technologies may be very useful here. Here are considered two illustrative models: representation of data by quantum bits and transfer of signals in quantum wires.

  1. A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Sulis

    2014-09-07

    The process approach to NRQM offers a fourth framework for the quantization of physical systems. Unlike the standard approaches (Schrodinger-Heisenberg, Feynman, Wigner-Gronewald-Moyal), the process approach is not merely equivalent to NRQM and is not merely a re-interpretation. The process approach provides a dynamical completion of NRQM. Standard NRQM arises as a asymptotic quotient by means of a set-valued process covering map, which links the process algebra to the usual space of wave functions and operators on Hilbert space. The process approach offers an emergentist, discrete, finite, quasi-non-local and quasi-non-contextual realist interpretation which appears to resolve many of the paradoxes and is free of divergences. Nevertheless, it retains the computational power of NRQM and possesses an emergent probability structure which agrees with NRQM in the asymptotic quotient. The paper describes the process algebra, the process covering map for single systems and the configuration process covering map for multiple systems. It demonstrates the link to NRQM through a toy model. Applications of the process algebra to various quantum mechanical situations - superpositions, two-slit experiments, entanglement, Schrodinger's cat - are presented along with an approach to the paradoxes and the issue of classicality.

  2. Four-dimensional understanding of quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarek Duda

    2009-10-14

    In this paper I will try to convince that quantum mechanics does not have to lead to indeterminism, but is just a natural consequence of four-dimensional nature of our world - that for example particles shouldn't be imagined as 'moving points' in space, but as their trajectories in the spacetime like in optimizing action formulation of Lagrangian mechanics. There will be analyzed simplified model - Boltzmann distribution among trajectories occurs to give quantum mechanic like behavior - for example electron moving in proton's potential would make some concrete trajectory which average exactly to the probability distribution of the quantum mechanical ground state. We will use this model to build intuition about quantum mechanics and discuss its generalizations to get some effective approximation of physics. We will see that topological excitations of the simplest model obtained this way already creates known from physics particle structure, their decay modes and electromagnetic/gravitational interactions between them.

  3. Strange Bedfellows: Quantum Mechanics and Data Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marvin Weinstein

    2009-11-03

    Last year, in 2008, I gave a talk titled {\\it Quantum Calisthenics}. This year I am going to tell you about how the work I described then has spun off into a most unlikely direction. What I am going to talk about is how one maps the problem of finding clusters in a given data set into a problem in quantum mechanics. I will then use the tricks I described to let quantum evolution lets the clusters come together on their own.

  4. Description of classical and quantum interference in view of the concept of flow line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Davidovic; A. S. Sanz; M. Bozic

    2015-08-21

    Bohmian mechanics, a hydrodynamic formulation of quantum mechanics, relies on the concept of trajectory, which evolves in time in compliance with dynamical information conveyed by the wave function. Here this appealing idea is considered to analyze both classical and quantum interference, thus providing an alternative and more intuitive framework to understand the time-evolution of waves, either in terms of the flow of energy (for mechanical waves, sound waves, electromagnetic waves, for instance) or, analogously, the flow of probability (quantum waves), respectively. Furthermore, this procedure also supplies a more robust explanation of interference phenomena, which currently is only based on the superposition principle. That is, while this principle only describes how different waves combine and what effects these combinations may lead to, flow lines provide a more precise explanation on how the energy or probability propagate in space before, during and after the combination of such waves, without dealing with them separately (i.e., the combination or superposition is taken as a whole). In this sense, concepts such as constructive and destructive interference, typically associated with the superposition principle, physically correspond to more or less dense swarms of (energy or probability) flow lines, respectively. A direct consequence of this description is that, when considering the distribution of electromagnetic energy flow lines behind two slits, each one covered by a differently oriented polarizer, it is naturally found that external observers' information on the slit crossed by single photons (understood as energy parcels) is totally irrelevant for the existence of interference fringes, in striking contrast with what is commonly stated and taught.

  5. Quantum And Classical Dynamics Of Atoms In A Magneto-optical Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Ivan H.

    motion. Experiments, performed deep in the quantum regime, correspond to dynamic quantum tunneling in the experiment, but undergoing classical Hamiltonian flow. We study conditions under which the trapped atoms can with applications ranging from engineered chemical reactions [1] to electron transport in semiconductors [2

  6. Parallelism of quantum computations from prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2008-03-10

    This paper is devoted to such a fundamental problem of quantum computing as quantum parallelism. It is well known that quantum parallelism is the basis of the ability of quantum computer to perform in polynomial time computations performed by classical computers for exponential time. Therefore better understanding of quantum parallelism is important both for theoretical and applied research, cf. e.g. David Deutsch \\cite{DD}. We present a realistic interpretation based on recently developed prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). In the PCSFT-approach to QM quantum states (mixed as well as pure) are labels of special ensembles of classical fields. Thus e.g. a single (!) ``electron in the pure state'' $\\psi$ can be identified with a special `` electron random field,'' say $\\Phi_\\psi(\\phi).$ Quantum computer operates with such random fields. By one computational step for e.g. a Boolean function $f(x_1,...,x_n)$ the initial random field $\\Phi_{\\psi_0}(\\phi)$ is transformed into the final random field $\\Phi_{\\psi_f}(\\phi)$ ``containing all values'' of $f.$ This is the objective of quantum computer's ability to operate quickly with huge amounts of information -- in fact, with classical random fields.

  7. Signatures of Quantum Stability in a Classically Chaotic System S. Schlunk,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summy, Gil

    of such systems began with studies of microwave-driven hydrogen [3]; subsequent work has also centeredSignatures of Quantum Stability in a Classically Chaotic System S. Schlunk,1 M. B. d'Arcy,1 S. A experimentally and numerically investigate the quantum accelerator mode dynamics of an atom optical realization

  8. Quantum Mechanics and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang Young Bang; Micheal S. Berger

    2006-11-30

    The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.

  9. Classical analogous of quantum cosmological perfect fluid models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Batista; J. C. Fabris; S. V. B. Goncalves; J. Tossa

    2000-11-28

    Quantization in the mini-superspace of a gravity system coupled to a perfect fluid, leads to a solvable model which implies singularity free solutions through the construction of a superposition of the wavefunctions. We show that such models are equivalent to a classical system where, besides the perfect fluid, a repulsive fluid with an equation of state $p_Q = \\rho_Q$ is present. This leads to speculate on the true nature of this quantization procedure. A perturbative analysis of the classical system reveals the condition for the stability of the classical system in terms of the existence of an anti-gravity phase.

  10. The Road From Classical to Quantum Codes: A Hashing Bound Approaching Design Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zunaira Babar; Panagiotis Botsinis; Dimitrios Alanis; Soon Xin Ng; Lajos Hanzo

    2015-03-09

    Powerful Quantum Error Correction Codes (QECCs) are required for stabilizing and protecting fragile qubits against the undesirable effects of quantum decoherence. Similar to classical codes, hashing bound approaching QECCs may be designed by exploiting a concatenated code structure, which invokes iterative decoding. Therefore, in this paper we provide an extensive step-by-step tutorial for designing EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) chart aided concatenated quantum codes based on the underlying quantum-to-classical isomorphism. These design lessons are then exemplified in the context of our proposed Quantum Irregular Convolutional Code (QIRCC), which constitutes the outer component of a concatenated quantum code. The proposed QIRCC can be dynamically adapted to match any given inner code using EXIT charts, hence achieving a performance close to the hashing bound. It is demonstrated that our QIRCC-based optimized design is capable of operating within 0.4 dB of the noise limit.

  11. A Review of Student Difficulties in Upper-Level Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-01-01

    Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students' problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multi-university investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties...

  12. Higher-order semantics for quantum programming languages with classical control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Atzemoglou

    2013-11-26

    This thesis studies the categorical formalisation of quantum computing, through the prism of type theory, in a three-tier process. The first stage of our investigation involves the creation of the dagger lambda calculus, a lambda calculus for dagger compact categories. Our second contribution lifts the expressive power of the dagger lambda calculus, to that of a quantum programming language, by adding classical control in the form of complementary classical structures and dualisers. Finally, our third contribution demonstrates how our lambda calculus can be applied to various well known problems in quantum computation.

  13. On a New Form of Quantum Mechanics (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Gorobey; A. Lukyanenko; I. Lukyanenko

    2009-12-16

    The correspondence of a new form of quantum mechanics based on a quantum version of the action principle, which was proposed earlier [arXiv:0807.3508], with the ordinary quantum mechanics is established. New potentialities of the quantum action principle in the interpretation of quantum mechanics are considered.

  14. CLNS 96/1399 Peculiarities of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 96/1399 Peculiarities of Quantum Mechanics: Origins and Meaning Yuri F. Orlov Floyd R. Newman, specifically quantum, features of quantum mechanics --- quan­ tum nonlocality, indeterminism, interference are quantum observables themselves and are represented in quantum mechanics by density matrices of pure states

  15. Quantum mechanical aspects of friction and electric resistance in microscopic problems with applications to radiation physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmer, W

    2015-01-01

    Friction incorporates the close connection between classical mechanics in irreversible thermodynamics. The translation to a quantum mechanical foundation is not trivial and requires a generalization of the Lagrange function. A change to electromagnetic circuits appears to more adequate, since the electric analogue (Ohms law) is related to scatter of electrons at lattice vibrations.

  16. Similarity between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics: Entropy, temperature, and Carnot cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumiyoshi Abe; Shinji Okuyama

    2011-03-04

    Similarity between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics is discussed. It is found that if the Clausius equality is imposed on the Shannon entropy and the analogue of the heat quantity, then the value of the Shannon entropy comes to formally coincide with that of the von Neumann entropy of the canonical density matrix, and pure-state quantum mechanics apparently transmutes into quantum thermodynamics. The corresponding quantum Carnot cycle of a simple two-state model of a particle confined in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and its efficiency is shown to be identical to the classical one.

  17. Similarity between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics: Entropy, temperature, and Carnot cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Similarity between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics is discussed. It is found that if the Clausius equality is imposed on the Shannon entropy and the analogue of the heat quantity, then the value of the Shannon entropy comes to formally coincide with that of the von Neumann entropy of the canonical density matrix, and pure-state quantum mechanics apparently transmutes into quantum thermodynamics. The corresponding quantum Carnot cycle of a simple two-state model of a particle confined in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and its efficiency is shown to be identical to the classical one.

  18. Localization of quantum objects in an expanding universe and cosmologically induced classicality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2010-11-22

    Independent studies by different authors have proposed that classicality may be induced in quantum objects by cosmological constraints presented by an expanding universe of finite extent in space-time. Cosmological effects on a quantum system can be explored in one approach by considering an object at rest in space with a universal Hubble expansion taking place away from it, and developing a Schroedinger type governing differential equation incorporating an intrinsic expansion speed. Wave function solutions to this governing equation exhibit pronounced central localization. The extent of concentration of probability depends on mass; objects with small masses tend to behave in a delocalized manner as ordinary quantum objects do in a static space, while quantum objects with large masses are concentrated into much smaller regions. To develop a criterion for classicality, we consider that if the size of the localized region of concentrated probability density is larger than the size of the corresponding extended object, then quantum behavior could be expected; whereas if the region of high probability density for the location of the center of mass is smaller than the size of the object, the object would behave in a more classical manner. The resultant size threshold for classicality accords with results of other studies examining these issues based on uncertainty relations and wave packets. This size threshold is informative for the case of compact extended objects and, as the constraint applies to the center of mass of the system, does not lead to inconsistencies for quantum correlations between distant entangled quantum objects. While local decoherence may lead to classicality under a variety of conditions, cosmologically induced classicality would appear to cause fundamental limitations on quantum behavior in our universe.

  19. On the Geometrization of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivano Tavernelli

    2015-10-21

    Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is commonly formulated in terms of wavefunctions (probability amplitudes) obeying the static and the time-dependent Schroedinger equations (SE). Despite the success of this representation of the quantum world a wave-particle duality concept is required to reconcile the theory with observations (experimental measurements). A first solution to this dichotomy was introduced in the de Broglie-Bohm theory according to which a pilot wave (solution of the SE) is guiding the evolution of particle trajectories. Here, I propose a geometrization of quantum mechanics that describes the time evolution of particles as geodesic lines in a curved space, whose curvature is induced by the quantum potential. This formulation allows therefore the incorporation of all quantum effects into the geometry of space-time, as it is the case for gravitation in the general relativity.

  20. On the geometry of the energy operator in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitolo, Raffaele

    with several contributions from many authors. 1 Introduction One of the problems of quantum mechanical theories

  1. Quantum Mechanics Summary/Review Spring 2009 Compton Lecture Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantum Mechanics Summary/Review Spring 2009 Compton Lecture Series: From Quantum Mechanics one component at a time. · Planck's constant determines the scale at which quantum mechanical effects could get rid of quantum mechanical effects ­ The "wavelength" of particles given by h mv would all

  2. Classical stochastic measurement trajectories: Bosonic atomic gases in an optical cavity and quantum measurement backaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark D. Lee; Janne Ruostekoski

    2014-08-28

    We formulate computationally efficient classical stochastic measurement trajectories for a multimode quantum system under continuous observation. Specifically, we consider the nonlinear dynamics of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate contained within an optical cavity subject to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. The classical trajectories encode within a classical phase-space representation a continuous quantum measurement process conditioned on a given detection record. We derive a Fokker-Planck equation for the quasi-probability distribution of the combined condensate-cavity system. We unravel the dynamics into stochastic classical trajectories that are conditioned on the quantum measurement process of the continuously monitored system, and that these trajectories faithfully represent measurement records of individual experimental runs. Since the dynamics of a continuously measured observable in a many-atom system can be closely approximated by classical dynamics, the method provides a numerically efficient and accurate approach to calculate the measurement record of a large multimode quantum system. Numerical simulations of the continuously monitored dynamics of a large atom cloud reveal considerably fluctuating phase profiles between different measurement trajectories, while ensemble averages exhibit local spatially varying phase decoherence. Individual measurement trajectories lead to spatial pattern formation and optomechanical motion that solely result from the measurement backaction. The backaction of the continuous quantum measurement process, conditioned on the detection record of the photons, spontaneously breaks the symmetry of the spatial profile of the condensate and can be tailored to selectively excite collective modes.

  3. Gibbs Free Energy Analysis of a Quantum Analog of the Classical Binary Symmetric Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David K. Ford

    2009-01-19

    The Gibbs free energy properties of a quantum {\\it send, receive} communications system are studied. The communications model resembles the classical Ising model of spins on a lattice in that the joint state of the quantum system is the product of sender and receiver states. However, the system differs from the classical case in that the sender and receiver spin states are quantum superposition states coupled by a Hamiltonian operator. A basic understanding of these states is directly relevant to communications theory and indirectly relevant to computation since the product states form a basis for entangled states. Highlights of the study include an exact method for decimation for quantum spins. The main result is that the minimum Gibbs free energy of the quantum system in the product state is higher (lower capacity) than a classical system with the same parameter values. The result is both surprising and not. The channel characteristics of the quantum system in the product state are markedly inferior to those of the classical Ising system. Intuitively, it would seem that capacity should suffer as a result. Yet, one would expect entangled states, built from product states, to have better correlation properties.

  4. Lecture Notes in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doron Cohen

    2013-08-27

    These lecture notes cover undergraduate textbook topics (e.g. as in Sakurai), and also additional advanced topics at the same level of presentation. In particular: EPR and Bell; Basic postulates; The probability matrix; Measurement theory; Entanglement; Quantum computation; Wigner-Weyl formalism; The adiabatic picture; Berry phase; Linear response theory; Kubo formula; Modern approach to scattering theory with mesoscopic orientation; Theory of the resolvent and the Green function; Gauge and Galilei Symmetries; Motion in magnetic field; Quantum Hall effect; Quantization of the electromagnetic field; Fock space formalism.

  5. Classical-like behavior in quantum walks with inhomogeneous, time-dependent coin operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miquel Montero

    2015-05-29

    Although quantum walks exhibit distinctive properties that distinguish them from random walks, classical behavior can be recovered by destroying the coherence of the pure state associated to the quantum system. Here I show that this is not the only way: I introduce a quantum walk driven by an inhomogeneous, time-dependent coin operator, which mimics the statistical properties of a random walk. The quantum particle undergoes unitary evolution and, in fact, the coherence evidenced by the wave function can be used to revert the outcome of an accidental measure of its chirality.

  6. Standard Quantum Limit for Probing Mechanical Energy Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbitt, Thomas R.

    We derive a standard quantum limit for probing mechanical energy quantization in a class of systems with mechanical modes parametrically coupled to external degrees of freedom. To resolve a single mechanical quantum, it ...

  7. Classical and Quantum Aspects of 1+1 Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kloesch; P. Schaller; T. Strobl

    1996-08-02

    We present a classification of all global solutions (with Lorentzian signature) for any general 2D dilaton gravity model. For generic choices of potential-like terms in the Lagrangian one obtains maximally extended solutions on arbitrary non-compact two-manifolds, including various black-hole and kink configurations. We determine all physical quantum states in a Dirac approach. In some cases the spectrum of the (black-hole) mass operator is found to be sensitive to the signature of the theory, which may be relevant in view of current attempts to implement a generalized Wick-rotation in 4D quantum gravity.

  8. Probing quantum-classical boundary with compression software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou Shun Poh; Marcin Markiewicz; Pawe? Kurzy?ski; Alessandro Cerè; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Christian Kurtsiefer

    2015-04-13

    We experimentally demonstrate that it is impossible to simulate quantum bipartite correlations with a deterministic universal Turing machine. Our approach is based on the Normalized Information Distance (NID) that allows the comparison of two pieces of data without detailed knowledge about their origin. Using NID, we derive an inequality for output of two local deterministic universal Turing machines with correlated inputs. This inequality is violated by correlations generated by a maximally entangled polarization state of two photons. The violation is shown using a freely available lossless compression program. The presented technique may allow to complement the common statistical interpretation of quantum physics by an algorithmic one.

  9. Testing the limits of quantum mechanical superpositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Arndt; Klaus Hornberger

    2014-10-01

    Quantum physics has intrigued scientists and philosophers alike, because it challenges our notions of reality and locality--concepts that we have grown to rely on in our macroscopic world. It is an intriguing open question whether the linearity of quantum mechanics extends into the macroscopic domain. Scientific progress over the last decades inspires hope that this debate may be decided by table-top experiments.

  10. Collapse challenge for interpretations of quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2005-05-23

    The collapse challenge for interpretations of quantum mechanics is to build from first principles and your preferred interpretation a complete, observer-free quantum model of the described experiment (involving a photon and two screens), together with a formal analysis that completely explains the experimental result. The challenge is explained in detail, and discussed in the light of the Copenhagen interpretation and the decoherence setting.

  11. A Pedestrian Approach to the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Boughn; Marcel Reginatto

    2013-09-03

    The quantum theory of measurement has been a matter of debate for over eighty years. Most of the discussion has focused on theoretical issues with the consequence that operational prescriptions, which are integral to experimental physics, have been largely ignored. This has undoubtedly exacerbated attempts to find a solution to the "measurement problem". In this paper, we fully embrace the ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics that obviates the need to entertain reduction of the state vector, one of the primary dilemmas of the measurement problem. The other major aspect of the measurement problem, the necessity of describing measurements in terms of classical concepts, remains. However, we argue that the ultimate interface with experiments is described by operational prescriptions and not in terms of the concepts of classical theory. The pedestrian approach presented here suggests that the measurement problem is, in some sense, ill-posed and might never be resolved. This state of affairs is, in part, the result of searching for a theoretical answer to what is fundamentally an experimental question. This point of view is tenable so long as one is willing to view physical theories as providing models of nature rather than complete descriptions of reality. Among other things, these considerations lead us to suggest that the Copenhagen interpretation's insistence on the classicality of the measurement apparatus should be replaced by the requirement that a measurement, which is specified operationally, should simply be of sufficient precision.

  12. On Time. 6b: Quantum Mechanical Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. K. Raju

    2008-08-09

    The existence of small amounts of advanced radiation, or a tilt in the arrow of time, makes the basic equations of physics mixed-type functional differential equations. The novel features of such equations point to a microphysical structure of time. This corresponds to a change of logic at the microphysical level. We show that the resulting logic is a quantum logic. This provides a natural and rigorous explanation of quantum interference. This structured-time interpretation of quantum mechanics is briefly compared with various other interpretations of q.m.

  13. Emergent Quantum Mechanics and Emergent Symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerard 't Hooft

    2007-07-31

    Quantum mechanics is 'emergent' if a statistical treatment of large scale phenomena in a locally deterministic theory requires the use of quantum operators. These quantum operators may allow for symmetry transformations that are not present in the underlying deterministic system. Such theories allow for a natural explanation of the existence of gauge equivalence classes (gauge orbits), including the equivalence classes generated by general coordinate transformations. Thus, local gauge symmetries and general coordinate invariance could be emergent symmetries, and this might lead to new alleys towards understanding the flatness problem of the Universe.

  14. Green's Functions and Their Applications to Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, James A.

    Green's Functions and Their Applications to Quantum Mechanics Jeff Schueler June 2, 2011 Contents 1 Green's Functions in Quantum Mechanics and Many-body Theory 8 3.1 Time Independent Green's Fuctions, specifically in how they apply to quantum mechan- ics. I plan to introduce some of the fundamentals of quantum

  15. CLNS 96/1443 Peculiarities of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 96/1443 REVISED Peculiarities of Quantum Mechanics: Origins and Meaning 1 Yuri F. Orlov Floyd The most peculiar, specifically quantum, features of quantum mechanics --- quan­ tum nonlocality mechanics 1 This paper, to be presented to the Nordic Symposium on Basic Problems in Quantum Physics, June

  16. Noise in Classical and Quantum Photon-Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    .2.2 Van Cittert­Zernike theorem 21.2.3 Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometer 21.3 Quantum Photon is stellar imaging using a Hanbury- Brown­Twiss intensity-correlation interferometer.4­7 More recently, two

  17. A Quantum Broadcasting Problem in Classical Low Power Signal Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominik Janzing; Bastian Steudel

    2006-09-21

    We pose a problem called ``broadcasting Holevo-information'': given an unknown state taken from an ensemble, the task is to generate a bipartite state transfering as much Holevo-information to each copy as possible. We argue that upper bounds on the average information over both copies imply lower bounds on the quantum capacity required to send the ensemble without information loss. This is because a channel with zero quantum capacity has a unitary extension transfering at least as much information to its environment as it transfers to the output. For an ensemble being the time orbit of a pure state under a Hamiltonian evolution, we derive such a bound on the required quantum capacity in terms of properties of the input and output energy distribution. Moreover, we discuss relations between the broadcasting problem and entropy power inequalities. The broadcasting problem arises when a signal should be transmitted by a time-invariant device such that the outgoing signal has the same timing information as the incoming signal had. Based on previous results we argue that this establishes a link between quantum information theory and the theory of low power computing because the loss of timing information implies loss of free energy.

  18. Multichannel framework for singular quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camblong, Horacio E.; Epele, Luis N.; Fanchiotti, Huner; García Canal, Carlos A.; Ordóñez, Carlos R.

    2014-01-15

    A multichannel S-matrix framework for singular quantum mechanics (SQM) subsumes the renormalization and self-adjoint extension methods and resolves its boundary-condition ambiguities. In addition to the standard channel accessible to a distant (“asymptotic”) observer, one supplementary channel opens up at each coordinate singularity, where local outgoing and ingoing singularity waves coexist. The channels are linked by a fully unitary S-matrix, which governs all possible scenarios, including cases with an apparent nonunitary behavior as viewed from asymptotic distances. -- Highlights: •A multichannel framework is proposed for singular quantum mechanics and analogues. •The framework unifies several established approaches for singular potentials. •Singular points are treated as new scattering channels. •Nonunitary asymptotic behavior is subsumed in a unitary multichannel S-matrix. •Conformal quantum mechanics and the inverse quartic potential are highlighted.

  19. An axiomatic basis for quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianni Cassinelli; Pekka Lahti

    2015-08-15

    In this paper we use the framework of generalized probabilistic theories to present two sets of basic assumptions, called axioms, for which we show that they lead to the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics. The key results in this derivation are the co-ordinatization of generalized geometries and a theorem of Sol\\'er which characterizes Hilbert spaces among the orthomodular spaces. A generalized Wigner theorem is applied to reduce some of the assumptions of the theorem of Sol\\'er to the theory of symmetry in quantum mechanics. Since this reduction is only partial we also point out the remaining open questions.

  20. Phenomenological description of quantum gravity inspired modified classical electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Montemayor; Luis F. Urrutia

    2007-01-26

    We discuss a large class of phenomenological models incorporating quantum gravity motivated corrections to electrodynamics. The framework is that of electrodynamics in a birefringent and dispersive medium with non-local constitutive relations, which are considered up to second order in the inverse of the energy characterizing the quantum gravity scale. The energy-momentum tensor, Green functions and frequency dependent refraction indices are obtained, leading to departures from standard physics. The effective character of the theory is also emphasized by introducing a frequency cutoff. The analysis of its effects upon the standard notion of causality is performed, showing that in the radiation regime the expected corrections get further suppressed by highly oscillating terms, thus forbiding causality violations to show up in the corresponding observational effects.

  1. Properties of classical and quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieet, Jop; Harremoees, Peter

    2009-05-15

    Jensen-Shannon divergence (JD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of the most important divergence measure of information theory, Kullback divergence. As opposed to Kullback divergence it determines in a very direct way a metric; indeed, it is the square of a metric. We consider a family of divergence measures (JD{sub {alpha}} for {alpha}>0), the Jensen divergences of order {alpha}, which generalize JD as JD{sub 1}=JD. Using a result of Schoenberg, we prove that JD{sub {alpha}} is the square of a metric for {alpha} is an element of (0,2], and that the resulting metric space of probability distributions can be isometrically embedded in a real Hilbert space. Quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence (QJD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of quantum relative entropy and can be extended to a family of quantum Jensen divergences of order {alpha} (QJD{sub {alpha}}). We strengthen results by Lamberti and co-workers by proving that for qubits and pure states, QJD{sub {alpha}}{sup 1/2} is a metric space which can be isometrically embedded in a real Hilbert space when {alpha} is an element of (0,2]. In analogy with Burbea and Rao's generalization of JD, we also define general QJD by associating a Jensen-type quantity to any weighted family of states. Appropriate interpretations of quantities introduced are discussed and bounds are derived in terms of the total variation and trace distance.

  2. Elements of naturality in dynamical simulation frameworks for Hamiltonian, thermostatic, and Lindbladian flows on classical and quantum state-spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Sidles; Joseph L. Garbini; Jonathan P. Jacky; Rico A. R. Picone; Scott A. Harsila

    2010-07-12

    The practical focus of this work is the dynamical simulation of polarization transport processes in quantum spin microscopy and spectroscopy. The simulation framework is built-up progressively, beginning with state-spaces (configuration manifolds) that are geometrically natural, introducing coordinates that are algebraically natural; and finally specifying dynamical potentials that are physically natural; in each respect explicit criteria are given for "naturality." The resulting framework encompasses Hamiltonian flow (both classical and quantum), quantum Lindbladian processes, and classical thermostatic processes. Constructive validation and verification criteria are given for metric and symplectic flows on classical, quantum, and hybrid state-spaces, with particular emphasis to tensor network state-spaces. Both classical and quantum examples are presented, including dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). A broad span of applications and challenges is discussed, ranging from the design and simulation of quantum spin microscopes to the design and simulation of quantum oracles.

  3. Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications Lorenzo Marrucci1,2 , Ebrahim Karimi1 , Sergei

  4. Operator structure of a non quantum and a non classical system Diederik Aerts and Bart D'Hooghe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerts, Diederik

    Operator structure of a non quantum and a non classical system Diederik Aerts and Bart D: Aerts, D. and D'Hooghe, B., 1996, "Operator structure of a non-quantum and a non-classical system", Int the set of operators of this general model, and investigate under which circumstances it is possible

  5. Optimal discrimination of quantum states on a two-dimensional Hilbert space by local operations and classical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Nakahira; Tsuyoshi Sasaki Usuda

    2015-01-26

    We study the discrimination of multipartite quantum states by local operations and classical communication. We derive that any optimal discrimination of quantum states spanning a two-dimensional Hilbert space in which each party's space is finite dimensional is possible by local operations and one-way classical communication, regardless of the optimality criterion used and how entangled the states are.

  6. Mixed quantum classical calculation of proton transfer reaction rates: From deep tunneling to over the barrier regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Yang; Zhu, Lili; Shi, Qiang

    2014-05-07

    We present mixed quantum classical calculations of the proton transfer (PT) reaction rates represented by a double well system coupled to a dissipative bath. The rate constants are calculated within the so called nontraditional view of the PT reaction, where the proton motion is quantized and the solvent polarization is used as the reaction coordinate. Quantization of the proton degree of freedom results in a problem of non-adiabatic dynamics. By employing the reactive flux formulation of the rate constant, the initial sampling starts from the transition state defined using the collective reaction coordinate. Dynamics of the collective reaction coordinate is treated classically as over damped diffusive motion, for which the equation of motion can be derived using the path integral, or the mixed quantum classical Liouville equation methods. The calculated mixed quantum classical rate constants agree well with the results from the numerically exact hierarchical equation of motion approach for a broad range of model parameters. Moreover, we are able to obtain contributions from each vibrational state to the total reaction rate, which helps to understand the reaction mechanism from the deep tunneling to over the barrier regimes. The numerical results are also compared with those from existing approximate theories based on calculations of the non-adiabatic transmission coefficients. It is found that the two-surface Landau-Zener formula works well in calculating the transmission coefficients in the deep tunneling regime, where the crossing point between the two lowest vibrational states dominates the total reaction rate. When multiple vibrational levels are involved, including additional crossing points on the free energy surfaces is important to obtain the correct reaction rate using the Landau-Zener formula.

  7. Design and classical characterization of a quantum interface between telecommunication and UV wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rütz, Helge; Suche, Hubertus; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We propose and characterize a quantum interface between telecommunication wavelengths (1311 nm) and an Yb-dipole transition (369.5 nm) based on a second order sum frequency process in a PPKTP waveguide. An external (internal) conversion efficiency above 5% (10%) is shown using classical bright light.

  8. Laser Cooling from the Semi-Classical to the Quantum Regime.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalibard, Jean

    Laser Cooling from the Semi-Classical to the Quantum Regime. J. DALIBARDand Y. CASTIN Laboratoire with mul- tiple quasi-resonant laser beams [l]. The lirnits of laser cooling in these so-called optical; = a few -, M where hk is the momentum of a photon involved in the cooling process and M is the atomic mass

  9. From classical pumps of water to quantum pumping of electrons in closed devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    From classical pumps of water to quantum pumping of electrons in closed devices Doron Cohen, Ben to pumping DC, Kottos, Schanz (cond-mat 2004) - pumping on networks Sela, DC (in preperation) - pumping reservoirs) · one of the above interacting with a bath Questions: Transport? Dissipation? #12;Simple pumping

  10. The ramifications of diffusive volume transport in classical fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielenberg, James R. (James Ronald), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The thesis that follows consists of a collection of work supporting and extending a novel reformulation of fluid mechanics, wherein the linear momentum per unit mass in a fluid continuum, m, is supposed equal to the volume ...

  11. Implementations of quantum and classical gates with linear optical devices and photon number quantum non-demolition measurement for polarization encoded qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joao Batista Rosa Silva; Rubens Viana Ramos

    2006-07-26

    Aiming the construction of quantum computers and quantum communication systems based on optical devices, in this work we present possible implementations of quantum and classical CNOTs gates, as well an optical setup for generation and distribution of bipartite entangled states, using linear optical devices and photon number quantum non-demolition measurement.

  12. Quantum-mechanical Landau-Lifshitz equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Yearchuck; Y. Yerchak

    2008-01-09

    Quantum-mechanical analogue of Landau-Lifshitz equation has been derived. It has been established that Landau-Lifshitz equation is fundamental physical equation underlying the dynamics of spectroscopic transitions and transitional phenomena. New phenomenon is predicted: electrical spin wave resonance (ESWR) being to be electrical analogue of magnetic spin wave resonance.

  13. Emergence and Computation at the Edge of Classical and Quantum Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignazio Licata

    2007-11-19

    The problem of emergence in physical theories makes necessary to build a general theory of the relationships between the observed system and the observing system. It can be shown that there exists a correspondence between classical systems and computational dynamics according to the Shannon-Turing model. A classical system is an informational closed system with respect to the observer; this characterizes the emergent processes in classical physics as phenomenological emergence. In quantum systems, the analysis based on the computation theory fails. It is here shown that a quantum system is an informational open system with respect to the observer and able to exhibit processes of observational, radical emergence. Finally, we take into consideration the role of computation in describing the physical world.

  14. Synchronizing quantum clocks with classical one-way communication: Bounds on the generated entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominik Janzing; Thomas Beth

    2003-06-03

    We describe separable joint states on bipartite quantum systems that cannot be prepared by any thermodynamically reversible classical one-way communication protocol. We argue that the joint state of two synchronized microscopic clocks is always of this type when it is considered from the point of view of an ``ignorant'' observer who is not synchronized with the other two parties. We show that the entropy generation of a classical one-way synchronization protocol is at least \\Delta S = \\hbar^2/(4\\Delta E \\Delta t)^2 if \\Delta t is the time accuracy of the synchronism and \\Delta E is the energy bandwidth of the clocks. This dissipation can only be avoided if the common time of the microscopic clocks is stored by an additional classical clock. Furthermore, we give a similar bound on the entropy cost for resetting synchronized clocks by a classical one-way protocol. The proof relies on observations of Zurek on the thermodynamic relevance of quantum discord. We leave it as an open question whether classical multi-step protocols may perform better. We discuss to what extent our results imply problems for classical concepts of reversible computation when the energy of timing signals is close to the Heisenberg limit.

  15. Entanglement, fidelity, and quantum-classical correlations with an atom moving in a quantized cavity field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prants, S. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Argonov, V. Yu. [Laboratory of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems, V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2006-02-15

    Stability and instability of quantum evolution are studied in the interaction between a two-level atom with photon recoil and a quantized field mode in an ideal cavity, the basic model of cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that the Jaynes-Cummings dynamics can be unstable in the regime of chaotic motion of the atomic center of mass in the quantized field of a standing wave in the absence of any kind of interaction with environment. This kind of quantum instability manifests itself in strong variations of reduced quantum purity and entropy, correlating with the respective classical Lyapunov exponent, and in exponential sensitivity of fidelity of quantum states to small variations in the atom-field detuning. The connection between quantum entanglement and fidelity and the center-of-mass motion is clarified analytically and numerically for a few regimes of that motion. The results are illustrated with two specific initial field states: the Fock and coherent ones. Numerical experiments demonstrate various manifestations of the quantum-classical correspondence, including dynamical chaos and fractals, which can be, in principle, observed in real experiments with atoms and photons in high-finesse cavities.

  16. Spin Glass: A Bridge between quantum computation and statistical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masayuki Ohzeki

    2012-04-24

    We show two fascinating topics lying between quantum information processing and statistical mechanics. First, we introduce an elaborated technique, the surface code, to prepare the particular quantum state with robustness against decoherence. Second, we show another interesting technique to employ quantum nature, quantum annealing. Through both of the topics, we would shed light on the birth of the interdisciplinary field between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics.

  17. Quantum and Classical Description of H Atom Under Magnetic Field and Quadrupole Trap Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahecha, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); LPMC, Institute of Physics, University Paul Verlaine, 1 Bv Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Salas, J. P. [Area of Applied Physics, University of La Rioja, C/Madre de Dios 51, 26006, Logrono (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    A discussion regarding the energy levels spectrum of quantum systems whose classical analogous has states of chaotic motion is presented. The chaotic dynamics of the classical underlying system has its manifestation in the wave functions (in the form of 'scars') and in the energy levels (in the form of 'statistical repulsion' of the energy levels). The above mentioned signatures are named 'quantum chaos'. A typical study of quantum chaos requires finding accurate energy eigenvalues of highly excited states, to calculate the nearest neighbors spacing between levels, to perform the 'unfolding' of the spectrum in order to separate the fluctuations, and finally to find the probability distribution of the unfolded spectrum. This is exemplified by the hydrogen atom under uniform magnetic field and a quadrupole electric field.

  18. Philosophy of Mind and the Problem of Free Will in the Light of Quantum Mechanics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stapp, Henry P

    2008-01-01

    Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. (Princeton UniversityMind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics, (Springer, Berlin & NewMindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating

  19. Quantum-like gravity waves and vortices in a classical fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Nottale

    2009-01-09

    We have recently proposed a new general concept of macroscopic quantum-type experiment. It amounts to transform a classical fluid into a quantum-type fluid by the application of a quantum-like potential, either directly in a stationary configuration, or through a retro-active loop to simulate the time evolution. In this framework, the amplitude of the quantum potential depends on a macroscopic generalization of the Planck constant, which can be changed during the experiment, therefore simulating a quantum to classical transition. The experiment is exemplified here by an application of this concept to gravity waves at the surface of an incompressible liquid in a basin of finite height, with particular emphasis on the quantized vortex. We construct a complex wave function with the height of the fluid in the basin as its square modulus and the velocity potential as its phase. This wave function is solution of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation typical of superfluids. The quantum potential is therefore defined here in terms of the square root of the fluid height. We suggest two methods for applying this quantum-like potential to the fluid: (i) by the action of a force on the surface (wind, blower, pressure, field, etc...); (ii) by a curvature of the basin ground. In this last case the ground profile yields the quantum potential itself, while usually only the quantum force is accessible, so that such an experiment is expected to provide one with a macroscopic model of a quantum-type vacuum energy. These results may also be relevant to the study of freak waves, which have already been described by nonlinear Schrodinger equations.

  20. Elements of naturality in dynamical simulation frameworks for Hamiltonian, thermostatic, and Lindbladian flows on classical and quantum state-spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidles, John A; Jacky, Jonathan P; Picone, Rico A R; Harsila, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    The practical focus of this work is the dynamical simulation of polarization transport processes in quantum spin microscopy and spectroscopy. The simulation framework is built-up progressively, beginning with state-spaces (configuration manifolds) that are geometrically natural, introducing coordinates that are algebraically natural; and finally specifying dynamical potentials that are physically natural; in each respect explicit criteria are given for "naturality." The resulting framework encompasses Hamiltonian flow (both classical and quantum), quantum Lindbladian processes, and classical thermostatic processes. Constructive validation and verification criteria are given for metric and symplectic flows on classical, quantum, and hybrid state-spaces, with particular emphasis to tensor network state-spaces. Both classical and quantum examples are presented, including dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). A broad span of applications and challenges is discussed, ranging from the design and simulation of quantum...

  1. Relativity in Classical Mechanics: Momentum, Energy and the Third Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R Assumpcao

    2005-07-19

    Most of the logical objections against the classical laws of motion, as they are usually presented in textbooks, centre on the fact that defining force in terms of mass and acceleration, the first two laws are mere assertions of concepts to be introduced in the theory; conversely, the third law expresses the experimental fact that the ratio of masses is inversely proportional to the ratio of accelerations, but it is known to fail when the interacting bodies are rapidly accelerated or far apart, leading to objections at the research level, particularly when electromagnetic phenomena is present. Following a specification of the coordinate system with respect to which velocities and accelerations are to be measured, relative to a fixed spacetime point, this contribution argues that the limitation of the third law is removed; as a consequence, Energy and Momentum relations are given an alternative formulation, extending their fundamental aspects and terms to the relativistic level. Most important, the presented alternative relations seem to preserve exactly the same form of the concepts as originally used by Newton in the Principia.

  2. A Signal Processing Model of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Thron; Johnny Watts

    2012-05-08

    This paper develops a deterministic model of quantum mechanics as an accumulation-and-threshold process. The model arises from an analogy with signal processing in wireless communications. Complex wavefunctions are interpreted as expressing the amplitude and phase information of a modulated carrier wave. Particle transmission events are modeled as the outcome of a process of signal accumulation that occurs in an extra (non-spacetime) dimension. Besides giving a natural interpretation of the wavefunction and the Born rule, the model accommodates the collapse of the wave packet and other quantum paradoxes such as EPR and the Ahanorov-Bohm effect. The model also gives a new perspective on the 'relational' nature of quantum mechanics: that is, whether the wave function of a physical system is "real" or simply reflects the observer's partial knowledge of the system. We simulate the model for a 2-slit experiment, and indicate possible deviations of the model's predictions from conventional quantum mechanics. We also indicate how the theory may be extended to a field theory.

  3. Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DENSITY MATRIX; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; FERMILAB; HILBERT SPACE; NUCLEAR PHYSICS; OPTICS; PATH INTEGRALS; PHASE SPACE; PROCESSING; QUANTIZATION; QUANTUM MECHANICS; UNCERTAINTY...

  4. Semi-classical approach to quantum black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euro Spallucci; Anais Smailagic

    2014-10-07

    In this Chapter we would like to review a "~phenomenological~" approach taking into account the most fundamental feature of string theory or, more in general, of quantum gravity, whatever its origin, which is the existence of a minimal length in the space-time fabric. This length is generally identified with the Planck length, or the string length, but it could be also much longer down to the TeV region. A simple and effective way to keep track of the effects the minimal length in black hole geometries is to solve the Einstein equations with an energy momentum tensor describing non point-like matter. The immediate consequence is the absence of any curvature singularity. Where textbook solutions of the Einstein equations loose any physical meaning because of infinite tidal forces, we find a de Sitter vacuum core of high, but finite, energy density and pressure. An additional improvement regards the final stage of the black hole evaporation leading to a vanishing Hawking temperature even in the neutral, non-rotating, case. In spite of th simplicity of this model we are able to describe the final stage of the black hole evaporation, resulting in a cold remnant with a degenerate, extremal, horizon of radius of the order of the minimal length. In this chapter we shall describe only neutral, spherically symmetric, regular black holes although charged, rotating and higher dimensional black holes can be found in the literature.

  5. The quantum-classical boundary and the moments of inertia of physical objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2009-08-12

    During the last few years, several studies have proposed the existence of a threshold separating classical from quantum behavior of objects that is dependent on the size and mass of an object as well as being dependent on certain properties usually associated with the universe as a whole. Here, we reexamine the results of these studies and recast the threshold criteria in terms of a critical threshold value for the moments of inertia of physical objects. Physical objects having moments of inertia above this critical threshold value would be expected to behave necessarily in a classical manner in terms of their center of mass motion as entire objects, while physical objects having moments of inertia lower than this threshold value could exhibit quantum behavior unless brought into classicality by other effects. A comparison with observed values of moments of inertia is presented, and the moment of inertia is suggested as a classifying parameter for examination of the quantum versus classical behavior of objects in the mesoscale domain.

  6. The syllabus of the Course 624 Quantum Mechanics 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The syllabus of the Course 624 Quantum Mechanics 2 Spring 2009. Instructor V.L. Pokrovsky. 1. Many-body quantum mechanics. Second quantization. Spin and statistics. Bose- Einstein condensation. 6's phase. Landau-Zener theory. Principal textbook: E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics, 3-d edition, Wiley

  7. Inverting Quantum Decoherence by Classical Feedback from the Environment Francesco Buscemi, Giulio Chiribella, and Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    situations is it possible to perfectly recover quantum coherence by monitoring the environment of decoher- ence by monitoring--i.e., measuring--the environment. On the contrary, for quantum systemsInverting Quantum Decoherence by Classical Feedback from the Environment Francesco Buscemi, Giulio

  8. Does quantum mechanics require non-locality?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghenadie N. Mardari

    2014-10-29

    Non-commutative properties of single quanta must violate the limit of Bell's theorem, but not the boundary of Tsirelson's theorem. This is a consequence of three basic principles: superposition (every quantum is in many states at the same time), correspondence (only the net state of interference is real), and uncertainty (conjugate variables have inversely proportional spectra). The two conditions have only been verified with entangled pairs of quanta. It is not possible to perform incompatible measurements on the same entity. Hence, the principles of quantum mechanics cannot be verified directly. At least one of them could be wrong. Though, as shown by EPR, this can only be true if non-locality is at work. In light of the latest developments in quantum theory, even that assumption is insufficient. Non-local effects are either unable to cross Bell's limit, or forced to violate Tsirelson's bound. New layers of hidden variables are required to maintain belief in action-at-a-distance, but the three principles cannot be rejected in any case. Therefore, quantum mechanics is immune to this challenge. The hypothesis of non-locality is superfluous.

  9. The classical limit of quantum optics: not what it seems at first sight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir Aharonov; Alonso Botero; Shmuel Nussinov; Sandu Popescu; Jeff Tollaksen; Lev Vaidman

    2013-05-01

    What is light and how to describe it has always been a central subject in physics. As our understanding has increased, so have our theories changed: Geometrical optics, wave optics and quantum optics are increasingly sophisticated descriptions, each referring to a larger class of phenomena than its predecessor. But how exactly are these theories related? How and when wave optics reduces to geometric optics is a rather simple problem. Similarly, how quantum optics reduces to wave optics has been considered to be a very simple business as well. It's not so. As we show here the classical limit of quantum optics is a far more complicated issue; it is in fact dramatically more involved and it requires a complete revision of all our intuitions. The revised intuitions can then serve as a guide to finding novel quantum effects.

  10. The preparation of states in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juerg Froehlich; Baptiste Schubnel

    2014-09-28

    The important problem of how to prepare a quantum mechanical system, $S$, in a specific initial state of interest - e.g., for the purposes of some experiment - is addressed. Three distinct methods of state preparation are described. One of these methods has the attractive feature that it enables one to prepare $S$ in a preassigned initial state with certainty; i.e., the probability of success in preparing $S$ in a given state is unity. This method relies on coupling $S$ to an open quantum-mechanical environment, $E$, in such a way that the dynamics of $S \\vee E$ pulls the state of $S$ towards an "attractor", which is the desired initial state of $S$. This method is analyzed in detail.

  11. Physical Interpretations of Nilpotent Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Rowlands

    2010-04-09

    Nilpotent quantum mechanics provides a powerful method of making efficient calculations. More importantly, however, it provides insights into a number of fundamental physical problems through its use of a dual vector space and its explicit construction of vacuum. Physical interpretation of the nilpotent formalism is discussed with respect to boson and baryon structures, the mass-gap problem, zitterbewgung, Berry phase, renormalization, and related issues.

  12. Intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution from a high frequency mode in the presence of an internal rotor: Classical thick-layer diffusion and quantum localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paranjothy Manikandan; Srihari Keshavamurthy

    2007-07-31

    We study the effect of an internal rotor on the classical and quantum intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) dynamics of a model system with three degrees of freedom. The system is based on a Hamiltonian proposed by Martens and Reinhardt (J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 93}, 5621 (1990).) to study IVR in the excited electronic state of para-fluorotoluene. We explicitly construct the state space and show, confirming the mechanism proposed by Martens and Reinhardt, that an excited high frequency mode relaxes via diffusion along a thick layer of chaos created by the low frequency-rotor interactions. However, the corresponding quantum dynamics exhibits no appreciable relaxation of the high frequency mode. We attribute the quantum suppression of the classical thick-layer diffusion to the rotor selection rules and, possibly, dynamical localization effects.

  13. Boltzmann-conserving classical dynamics in quantum time-correlation functions: “Matsubara dynamics”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hele, Timothy J. H.; Willatt, Michael J.; Muolo, Andrea; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2015-04-02

    (p,q, t) and qt ? qt(p,q, t) are the momenta and positions after the classical dynamics has evolved for a time t. Alternatively, we can express B(pt,qt) as a function of the initial phase-space coordinates (p,q): B(pt,qt) ? B[pt(p,q, t),qt(p,q, t)] ? B... balance condition. B. Quantum correlation functions For clarity of presentation, we will derive the results in Secs. III and IV for a one-dimensional quantum system with Hamiltonian Hˆ = Tˆ + Vˆ , kinetic energy operator Tˆ = pˆ2/2m, potential energy...

  14. Quantum Chaos via the Quantum Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kröger

    2002-12-16

    We discuss the concept of the quantum action with the purpose to characterize and quantitatively compute quantum chaos. As an example we consider in quantum mechanics a 2-D Hamiltonian system - harmonic oscillators with anharmonic coupling - which is classically a chaotic system. We compare Poincar\\'e sections obtained from the quantum action with those from the classical action.

  15. Semi-classical formula beyond the Ehrenfest time in quantum chaos. (I) Trace formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederic Faure

    2007-03-19

    We consider a nonlinear area preserving Anosov map M on the torus phase space, which is the simplest example of a fully chaotic dynamics. We are interested in the quantum dynamics for long time, generated by the unitary quantum propagator Mq. The usual semi-classical Trace formula expresses Tr(Mq^t) for finite time t, in the limit hbar->0, in terms of periodic orbits of M of period t. Recent work reach time t<< tE/6 where tE=log(1/hbar)/lambda is the Ehrenfest time, and lambda is the Lyapounov coefficient. Using a semi-classical normal form description of the dynamics uniformly over phase space, we show how to extend the trace formula for longer time of the form t= C.tE where C is any constant, with an arbitrary small error.

  16. Classical and Quantum Gravity in 1+1 Dimensions, Part I: A Unifying Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kloesch; T. Strobl

    1997-08-11

    We provide a concise approach to generalized dilaton theories with and without torsion and coupling to Yang-Mills fields. Transformations on the space of fields are used to trivialize the field equations locally. In this way their solution becomes accessible within a few lines of calculation only. In this first of a series of papers we set the stage for a thorough global investigation of classical and quantum aspects of more or less all available 2D gravity-Yang-Mills models.

  17. Simultaneous emergence of curved spacetime and quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S S De; F Rahaman

    2014-12-10

    It is shown in this paper that the geometrically structureless spacetime manifold is converted instantaneously to a curved one, the Riemannian or may be a Finslerian spacetime with an associated Riemannian spacetime, on the appearance of quantum Weyl spinors dependent only on time in that background flat manifold and having the sympleic property in the abstract space of spinors. The scenario depicts simultaneous emergence of the gravity in accord with general relativity and quantum mechanics.The emergent gravity leads to the generalized uncertainty principle, which in turn, ushers in discrete space time. The emerged space time is specified here as to be Finslerian and the field equation in that space time has been obtained from the classical one due to the arising quantized space and time. From this field equation we find the quantum field equation for highly massive (of the Planck order) spinors in the associated Riemannian space of the Finsler space, which is in fact, the background FRW space time of the universe.These highly massive spinors provide the mass distribution complying Einstein equivalence principle. All these occurred in the indivisible minimum time considered as zero time or spontaneity.

  18. A classical to quantum optical network link for orbital angular momentum carrying light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    Light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has great potentials in both classical and quantum optical communications such as enhancing the transmission capacity of a single communication channel because of its unlimited dimensions. Based on OAM conservation in second order nonlinear interaction processes, we create a classical to quantum optical network link in OAM degree of freedoms of light via sum frequency generation (SFG) following by a spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). A coherent OAM-carrying beams at telecom wavelength 1550nm is up-converted to 525.5nm OAM-carrying beams in the first crystal, then up-converted OAM-carrying beam is used to pump a second crystal to generate non-degenerate OAM entangled photon pairs at 795nm and 1550nm. By switching the OAM carries by the classical party, the OAM correlation in the quantum party is shifted. High OAM entanglements in two dimensional subspaces are verified. This primary study enables to build a hybrid optical communication network contains both ...

  19. Thermodynamic Evidence for Water as a Quantum Mechanical Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; S. Sivasubramanian; D. Drosdoff; Y. N. Srivastava

    2010-01-22

    We consider general theoretical models of water and in particular the nature of the motions of the hydrogen nuclei. If the motion of hydrogen nuclei is classical, then the thermodynamic pressure equation of state for heavy water wherein the hydrogen nuclei are deuterons is identical to the pressure equation of state for light water wherein the hydrogen nuclei are protons. Since the experimental thermodynamic phase diagram for light water is clearly measurably different from the experimental thermodynamic phase diagram for heavy water, one may deduce that the motions of hydrogen nuclei are quantum mechanical in nature. This conclusion is in physical agreement with a recent analysis of X-ray, neutron and deep inelastic neutron scattering data.

  20. Bhomian Mechanics vs. Standard Quantum Mechanics: a Difference in Experimental Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artur Szczepanski

    2010-02-08

    Standard Quantum Mechanics (QM) predicts an anti-intuitive fenomenon here referred to as "quantum autoscattering", which is excluded by Bhomian Mechanics. The scheme of a gedanken experiment testing the QM prediction is briefly discussed.

  1. Quantum-Mechanical Description of Spin-1/2 Particles and Nuclei Channeled in Bent Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silenko, A J

    2015-01-01

    General quantum-mechanical description of relativistic particles and nuclei with spin 1/2 channeled in bent crystals is performed with the use of the cylindrical coordinate system. The previously derived Dirac equation in this system is added by terms characterizing anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments. A transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, a derivation of the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for particles and their spins, and a determination of classical limit of these equations are fulfilled in the general case. A physical nature of main peculiarities of description of particles and nuclei in the cylindrical coordinate system is ascertained.

  2. Quantum-Mechanical Description of Spin-1/2 Particles and Nuclei Channeled in Bent Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Silenko

    2015-08-02

    General quantum-mechanical description of relativistic particles and nuclei with spin 1/2 channeled in bent crystals is performed with the use of the cylindrical coordinate system. The previously derived Dirac equation in this system is added by terms characterizing anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments. A transformation to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, a derivation of the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for particles and their spins, and a determination of classical limit of these equations are fulfilled in the general case. A physical nature of main peculiarities of description of particles and nuclei in the cylindrical coordinate system is ascertained.

  3. Modelling Quantum Mechanics by the Quantumlike Description of the Electric Signal Propagation in Transmission Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Fedele; M. A. Man'ko; V. I. Man'ko; V. G. Vaccaro

    2002-07-30

    It is shown that the transmission line technology can be suitably used for simulating quantum mechanics. Using manageable and at the same time non-expensive technology, several quantum mechanical problems can be simulated for significant tutorial purposes. The electric signal envelope propagation through the line is governed by a Schrodinger-like equation for a complex function, representing the low-frequency component of the signal, In this preliminary analysis, we consider two classical examples, i.e. the Frank-Condon principle and the Ramsauer effect.

  4. Quantum-Mechanical Model of Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarmo Makela

    2007-06-20

    We consider a possibility to construct a quantum-mechanical model of spacetime, where Planck size quantum black holes act as the fundamental constituents of space and time. Spacetime is assumed to be a graph, where black holes lie on the vertices. Our model implies that area has a discrete spectrum with equal spacing. At macroscopic length scales our model reproduces Einstein's field equation with a vanishing cosmological constant as a sort of thermodynamical equation of state of spacetime and matter fields. In the low temperature limit, where most black holes are assumed to be in the ground state, our model implies the Unruh and the Hawking effects, whereas in the high temperature limit we find, among other things, that black hole entropy depends logarithmically on the event horizon area, instead of being proportional to the area.

  5. Hannay Angle: Yet Another Symmetry Protected Topological Order Parameter in Classical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kariyado, Toshikaze

    2015-01-01

    Topological way of thinking now goes beyond conventional solid materials, and topological characterization of classical mechanical systems governed by Newton's equation of motion begins to attract much attention. To have a deeper insight on physical meaning of topological numbers in mechanical systems, we demonstrate the use of the Hannay angle, a classical counterpart of the Berry phase, as a symmetry protected topological order parameter. We first derive the Hannay angle using a canonical transformation that maps the Newton's equation to the Schr\\"{o}dinger type equation. The Hannay angle is then used to characterize a simple spring-mass model topologically with a particular focus on the bulk-edge correspondence and new aspects of the symmetry in a classical system.

  6. On inverse problems in electromagnetic field in classical mechanics at fixed energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Jollivet

    2007-01-04

    In this paper, we consider inverse scattering and inverse boundary value problems at sufficiently large and fixed energy for the multidimensional relativistic and nonrelativistic Newton equations in a static external electromagnetic field $(V,B)$, $V\\in C^2,$ $B\\in C^1$ in classical mechanics. Developing the approach going back to Gerver-Nadirashvili 1983's work on an inverse problem of mechanics, we obtain, in particular, theorems of uniqueness.

  7. Lecture Script: Introduction to Computational Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Schmied

    2015-06-05

    This document is the lecture script of a one-semester course taught at the University of Basel in the Fall semesters of 2012 and 2013 and in the Spring semester of 2015. It is aimed at advanced students of physics who are familiar with the concepts and notations of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics lectures can often be separated into two classes. In the first class you get to know Schroedinger's equation and find the form and dynamics of simple physical systems (square well, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom); most calculations are analytic and inspired by calculations originally done in the 1920s and 1930s. In the second class you learn about large systems such as molecular structures, crystalline solids, or lattice models; these calculations are usually so complicated that it is difficult for the student to understand them in all detail. This lecture tries to bridge the gap between simple analytic calculations and complicated large-scale computations. We will revisit most of the problems encountered in introductory quantum mechanics, focusing on computer implementations for finding analytical as well as numerical solutions and their visualization. Most of these calculations are too complicated to be done by hand. Even relatively simple problems, such as two interacting particles in a one-dimensional trap, do not have analytic solutions and require the use of computers for their solution and visualization. More complex problems scale exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and make the use of large computer simulations unavoidable. The course is taught using the Mathematica programming language; however, the concepts presented are readily translated to any other programming language.

  8. The rate constant for radiative association of HF: Comparing quantum and classical dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafsson, Magnus, E-mail: magngu@chem.gu.se; Monge-Palacios, M.; Nyman, Gunnar [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-05-14

    Radiative association for the formation of hydrogen fluoride through the A{sup 1}? ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} and X{sup 1}?{sup +} ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} transitions is studied using quantum and classical dynamics. The total thermal rate constant is obtained for temperatures from 10 K to 20 000 K. Agreement between semiclassical and quantum approaches is observed for the A{sup 1}? ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} rate constant above 2000 K. The agreement is explained by the fact that the corresponding cross section is free of resonances for this system. At temperatures below 2000 K we improve the agreement by implementing a simplified semiclassical expression for the rate constant, which includes a quantum corrected pair distribution. The rate coefficient for the X{sup 1}?{sup +} ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} transition is calculated using Breit–Wigner theory and a classical formula for the resonance and direct contributions, respectively. In comparison with quantum calculations the classical formula appears to overestimate the direct contribution to the rate constant by about 12% for this transition. Below about 450 K the resonance contribution is larger than the direct, and above that temperature the opposite holds. The biggest contribution from resonances is at the lowest temperature in the study, 10 K, where it is more than four times larger than the direct. Below 1800 K the radiative association rate constant due to X{sup 1}?{sup +} ? X{sup 1}?{sup +} transitions dominates over A{sup 1}? ? X{sup 1}?{sup +}, while above that temperature the situation is the opposite.

  9. New Quantum Theory of Laser Cooling Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang Xiao-Jing Liu; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Yan Wang; Nuo Ba; Guang-Huai Wang

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we study the laser cooling mechanisms with a new quantum theory approach by applying a new Schrodinger equation, which can describe a particle in conservative and non-conservative force field. With the new theory, we prove the atom in laser field can be cooled, and give the atom cooling temperature, which is accordance with experiment result. Otherwise, we give new prediction that the atom cooling temperature is directly proportional to the atom vibration frequency. By calculation, we find they are: $T=0.4334\\omega$.

  10. On the relation between quantum lifetimes and classical stability for the systems with a saddle-type potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonovic, N.S. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-01-07

    Relations between quantum-mechanical and classical properties of open systems with a saddle-type potential, for which at a given energy only one unstable periodic orbit exists, are studied. By considering the convergence of the Gutzwiller trace formula [J. Math. Phys. 12, 343 (1971)] it is confirmed that both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous potentials the poles of the formula are located below the real energy axis, i.e., these kind of potentials do not support bound states, in general. Within the harmonic approximation the widths of resonant (transition) states are proportional to the values of Lyapunov exponent of the single periodic orbit calculated at the energies which are equal to the resonance positions. The accuracy of the semiclassical relation is discussed and demonstrated for several examples.

  11. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsalek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ab initio ring polymer contraction (AI-RPC) scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive pro...

  12. Comparative description of the evolving universe in classical and quantum geometrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The description of the universe evolving in time according to general relativity is given in comparison with the quantum description of the same universe in terms of quasiclassical wave functions. The spacetime geometry is determined by the Robertson-Walker metric. It is shown that the main equation of the quantum geometrodynamics is reduced to the non-linear Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Its non-linearity is caused by a new source of the gravitational field, which has a purely quantum dynamical nature, and is additional to ordinary matter sources. In quasiclassical approximation, the non-linear equation of motion is linearized and reduces to the Friedmann equation with the additional quantum source of gravity (or anti-gravity) in the form of the stiff Zel'dovich matter. The semi-classical wave functions of the universe, in which different types of matter-energies dominate, are obtained. As examples, the cases of the domination of radiation, barotropic fluid, or new quantum matter-energy are discussed. The probab...

  13. Klein-Gordon Transformation sans Extraneous Insertions: the Isomorphic Classical Complement to a Quantum System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

    2013-09-29

    The historical Klein-Gordon transformation of complex-valued first-order in time Schroedinger equations iterates these in a naively straightforward way which changes them into complex-valued second-order in time equations that have a plethora of extraneous solutions -- the transformation is an operator-calculus analogue of the squaring of both sides of an algebraic equation. The real and imaginary parts of a Schroedinger equation, however, are well known to be precisely the dynamical equation pair of the real-valued classical Hamiltonian functional which is numerically equal to the expectation value of that Schroedinger equation's Hermitian Hamiltonian operator. The purely real-valued second-order in time Euler-Lagrange equation of the corresponding classical Lagrangian functional is also isomorphic to that Schroedinger equation, and for symmetric Hamiltonians has exactly the same formal appearance as the corresponding naive complex-valued Klein-Gordon equation, but none of the latter's extraneous solutions. These quantum Schroedinger-equation isomorphisms to classical Euler-Lagrange equations are the technical manifestation of a key theoretical aspect of the principle of complementarity, one which is elegantly illustrated by the isomorphic free-photon wave-function complement to the vector potential of source-free classical electrodynamics.

  14. Decoherence and the quantum-classical limit in the presence of chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toscano, F.; Matos Filho, R.L. de; Davidovich, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68.528, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how decoherence affects the short-time separation between quantum and classical dynamics for classically chaotic systems, within the framework of a specific model. For a wide range of parameters, the distance between the corresponding phase-space distributions depends on a single parameter {chi} that relates an effective Planck constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}, the Lyapunov coefficient, and the diffusion constant. This distance peaks at a time that depends logarithmically on ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}, in agreement with previous estimations of the separation time for Hamiltonian systems. However, for {chi} < or approx. 1, the separation remains small, going down with ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}{sup 2}, so the concept of separation time loses its meaning.

  15. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Garcia-Morales

    2015-01-08

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  16. Derivation of the coefficient squared probability law in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey Blood

    2013-06-02

    If one assumes there is probability of perception in quantum mechanics, then unitarity dictates that it must have the coefficient squared form, in agreement with experiment.

  17. Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal...

  18. Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Baryon Spectrum from...

  19. PHYSICS 706 Quantum Mechanics Spring 2014 Lecturer: Maarten Golterman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golterman, Maarten

    Quantum Mechanics, 2nd edition (Addison­Wesley) Prerequisites: Physics 701, 785 or permission accommodations are encouraged to contact the instructor. The Disability Programs and Resource Center (DPRC

  20. From quantum to classical dynamics: Dynamic crossover in the relativistic $O(N)$ model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesterházy, David; Tanizaki, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition from quantum to classical dynamics in the relativistic $O(N)$ vector model using the nonperturbative functional renormalization group in the real-time formalism. In thermal equilibrium, the theory is characterized by two scales, the interaction range for coherent scattering of particles and the mean free path determined by the rate of incoherent collision with excitations in the thermal medium. Their competition determines the renormalization group flow and the effective dynamics of the model. Here we quantify the dynamic properties of the model in terms of the scale-dependent dynamic critical exponent $z$ for arbitrary temperatures and in $2 \\leq d \\leq 4$ spatial dimensions.

  1. capture quantum correlations Qasimi, Asma Al-; James, Daniel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada) 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ALGORITHMS; CAPTURE; ENTROPY; MIXED STATES; PURE STATES; QUANTUM...

  2. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 40254031 PII: S0264-9381(01)26493-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    2001-01-01

    wave sources for LISA. We provide estimates for the numbers of sources of several categories. The detection of these sources would provide information about both binary star evolution and the dynamicsINSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4025

  3. A Causal Net Approach to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. D. Bateson

    2012-05-13

    In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum mechanics. Each vertex on the causal net represents a possible point event or particle observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction, phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be embedded in 3+1 dimensions and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation. In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrodinger equation and Pauli equation for an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

  4. The basic Leggett inequalities don't contradict the quantum theory, neither the classical physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sofia Wechsler

    2009-12-21

    The basic Leggett inequalities, i.e. those inequalities in which the particular assumptions of Leggett's hidden-variable model (e.g. Malus law) were not yet introduced, are usually derived using hidden-variable distributions of probabilities (although in some cases completely general, positive probabilities would lead to the same result). This fact creates sometimes the illusion that these basic inequalities are a belonging of the hidden-variable theories and are bound to contradict the quantum theory. In the present text the basic Leggett inequalities are derived in the most general way, i.e. no assumption is made that the distribution of probabilities would result from some wave function, or from some set of classical variables. The consequence is that as long as one and the same probability distribution is used in the calculus of all the averages appearing in the basic Leggett inequalities, no contradiction may occur. These inequalities may be violated only when different averages are calculated with different distributions, for example, some of them calculated with the quantum formalism and the others with some distribution of classical parameters.

  5. Outline of Quantum Mechanics William G. Faris 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueltschi, Daniel

    Contents Outline of Quantum Mechanics William G. Faris 1 Inequalities for Schr¨odinger Operators 141 Remarks on the Additivity Conjectures for Quantum Channels Christopher King 177 On the Static mechanics and bring clarity to certain mathematics that has been moti- vated by this field. This too

  6. Environment-Induced Decoherence in Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joao Nuno Prata; Nuno Costa Dias

    2006-12-02

    We address the question of the appearence of ordinary quantum mechanics in the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics. We obtain the noncommutative extension of the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation for a Brownian particle linearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. We consider the particular case of an Ohmic regime.

  7. Irrational Dynamical Variables and the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Engelhardt

    2015-07-08

    The quantum mechanical measurement process is considered. A hypothetical concept of irrational dynamical variables is proposed. A possible definition of measurement is discussed along with a mathematical method to calculate experimental result probabilities. The postulates of quantum mechanics are analyzed and modified. Thought experiments and implications are considered.

  8. A mixed quantum-classical Liouville study of the population dynamics in a model photo-induced condensed phase electron transfer reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekik, Najeh; Freedman, Holly; Hanna, Gabriel [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Hsieh, Chang-Yu [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2013-04-14

    We apply two approximate solutions of the quantum-classical Liouville equation (QCLE) in the mapping representation to the simulation of the laser-induced response of a quantum subsystem coupled to a classical environment. These solutions, known as the Poisson Bracket Mapping Equation (PBME) and the Forward-Backward (FB) trajectory solutions, involve simple algorithms in which the dynamics of both the quantum and classical degrees of freedom are described in terms of continuous variables, as opposed to standard surface-hopping solutions in which the classical degrees of freedom hop between potential energy surfaces dictated by the discrete adiabatic state of the quantum subsystem. The validity of these QCLE-based solutions is tested on a non-trivial electron transfer model involving more than two quantum states, a time-dependent Hamiltonian, strong subsystem-bath coupling, and an initial energy shift between the donor and acceptor states that depends on the strength of the subsystem-bath coupling. In particular, we calculate the time-dependent population of the photoexcited donor state in response to an ultrafast, on-resonance pump pulse in a three-state model of an electron transfer complex that is coupled asymmetrically to a bath of harmonic oscillators through the optically dark acceptor state. Within this approach, the three-state electron transfer complex is treated quantum mechanically, while the bath oscillators are treated classically. When compared to the more accurate QCLE-based surface-hopping solution and to the numerically exact quantum results, we find that the PBME solution is not capable of qualitatively capturing the population dynamics, whereas the FB solution is. However, when the subsystem-bath coupling is decreased (which also decreases the initial energy shift between the donor and acceptor states) or the initial shift is removed altogether, both the PBME and FB results agree better with the QCLE-based surface-hopping results. These findings highlight the challenges posed by various conditions such as a time-dependent external field, the strength of the subsystem-bath coupling, and the degree of asymmetry on the accuracy of the PBME and FB algorithms.

  9. Dynamical model for the quantum-to-classical crossover of shot noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Tworzydlo; A. Tajic; H. Schomerus; C. W. J. Beenakker

    2003-07-07

    We use the open kicked rotator to model the chaotic scattering in a ballistic quantum dot coupled by two point contacts to electron reservoirs. By calculating the system-size-over-wave-length dependence of the shot noise power we study the crossover from wave to particle dynamics. Both a fully quantum mechanical and a semiclassical calculation are presented. We find numerically in both approaches that the noise power is reduced exponentially with the ratio of Ehrenfest time and dwell time, in agreement with analytical predictions.

  10. Depicting qudit quantum mechanics and mutually unbiased qudit theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    André Ranchin

    2014-12-30

    We generalize the ZX calculus to quantum systems of dimension higher than two. The resulting calculus is sound and universal for quantum mechanics. We define the notion of a mutually unbiased qudit theory and study two particular instances of these theories in detail: qudit stabilizer quantum mechanics and Spekkens-Schreiber toy theory for dits. The calculus allows us to analyze the structure of qudit stabilizer quantum mechanics and provides a geometrical picture of qudit stabilizer theory using D-toruses, which generalizes the Bloch sphere picture for qubit stabilizer quantum mechanics. We also use our framework to describe generalizations of Spekkens toy theory to higher dimensional systems. This gives a novel proof that qudit stabilizer quantum mechanics and Spekkens-Schreiber toy theory for dits are operationally equivalent in three dimensions. The qudit pictorial calculus is a useful tool to study quantum foundations, understand the relationship between qubit and qudit quantum mechanics, and provide a novel, high level description of quantum information protocols.

  11. Bosonic seesaw mechanism in a classically conformal extension of the Standard Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoyuki Haba; Hiroyuki Ishida; Nobuchika Okada; Yuya Yamaguchi

    2015-08-27

    We suggest the so-called bosonic seesaw mechanism in the context of a classically conformal $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of the Standard Model with two Higgs doublet fields. The $U(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry is radiatively broken via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, which also generates the mass terms for the two Higgs doublets through quartic Higgs couplings. Their masses are all positive but, nevertheless, the electroweak symmetry breaking is realized by the bosonic seesaw mechanism. Analyzing the renormalization group evolutions for all model couplings, we find that a large hierarchy among the quartic Higgs couplings, which is crucial for the bosonic seesaw mechanism to work, is dramatically reduced toward high energies. Therefore, the bosonic seesaw is naturally realized with only a mild hierarchy, if some fundamental theory, which provides the origin of the classically conformal invariance, completes our model at some high energy, for example, the Planck scale. We identify the regions of model parameters which satisfy the perturbativity of the running couplings and the electroweak vacuum stability as well as the naturalness of the electroweak scale.

  12. Example of an explicit function for confining classical Yang-Mills fields with quantum fluctuations in the path integral scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimichika Fukushima; Hikaru Sato

    2014-10-04

    This article reports an explicit function form for confining classical Yang-Mills vector potentials and quantum fluctuations around the classical field. The classical vector potential, which is composed of a confining localized function and an unlocalized function, satisfies the classical Yang-Mills equation. The confining localized function contributes to the Wilson loop, while the unlocalized function makes no contribution to this loop. The confining linear potential between a heavy fermion and antifermion is due to (1) the Lie algebra and (2) the form of the confining localized function which has opposite signs at the positions of the particle and antiparticle along the Wilson loop in the time direction. Some classical confining parts of vector potentials also change sign on inversion of the coordinates of the axis perpendicular to the axis joining the two particles. The localized parts of the vector potentials are squeezed around the axis connecting the two particles, and the string tension of the confining linear potential is derived. Quantum fluctuations are formulated using a field expression in terms of local basis functions in real spacetime. The quantum path integral gives the Coulomb potential between the two particles in addition to the linear potential due to the classical fields.

  13. Quantum Mechanical Inclusion of the Source in the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Pearle; Anthony Rizzi

    2015-06-30

    The standard treatment of the magnetic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect assumes one can calculate the phase without accounting for the source (solenoid) quantum mechanically. Recently, Vaidman, using a semi-classical calculation, showed that the source may indeed matter. He argued for what might be called a local field hypothesis---the idea that in quantum theory, as in classical physics, only field-producing potentials have physical effects. His calculation indicates that the electron's non-relativistic electric field, acting on a semi-classically treated solenoid, produces the A-B phase shift. Here, employing a model of the solenoid consisting of charged particles, we give a quantum mechanical treatment of their contribution to the phase shift under the influence of the circulating electron's electric field. We show that the phase shift of the field-producing non-relativistic vector potential gives the A-B phase shift, and how this confirms Vaidman's semi-classical prediction of that phase shift. However, we also show that the phase shift of the field-producing relativistic (retarded) scalar potential gives the negative of the A-B phase shift. This cancellation allows one to effectively treat the source as a classical entity as is done in the standard derivation of the A-B effect. We close by remarking that the apparent necessity for relativistic considerations suggests the possibility that the A-B phase shift may yet be explained in terms of field-producing potentials alone, which may vindicate the local field hypothesis.

  14. Quantum Matching Pennies Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azhar Iqbal; Derek Abbott

    2008-10-21

    A quantum version of the Matching Pennies (MP) game is proposed that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPR-Bohm) setting. We construct the quantum game without using the state vectors, while considering only the quantum mechanical joint probabilities relevant to the EPR-Bohm setting. We embed the classical game within the quantum game such that the classical MP game results when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities become factorizable. We report new Nash equilibria in the quantum MP game that emerge when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality.

  15. Quantum Properties of Double Kicked Systems with Classical Translational Invariance in Momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhack Dana

    2015-01-21

    Double kicked rotors (DKRs) appear to be the simplest nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems featuring classical translational symmetry in phase space (i.e., in angular momentum) for an \\emph{infinite} set of values (the rational ones) of a parameter $\\eta$. The experimental realization of quantum DKRs by atom-optics methods motivates the study of the double kicked particle (DKP). The latter reduces, at any fixed value of the conserved quasimomentum $\\beta\\hbar$, to a generalized DKR, the \\textquotedblleft $\\beta $-DKR\\textquotedblright . We determine general quantum properties of $\\beta $-DKRs and DKPs for arbitrary rational $\\eta $. The quasienergy problem of $\\beta $-DKRs is shown to be equivalent to the energy eigenvalue problem of a finite strip of coupled lattice chains. Exact connections are then obtained between quasienergy spectra of $\\beta $-DKRs for all $\\beta $ in a generically infinite set. The general conditions of quantum resonance for $\\beta $-DKRs are shown to be the simultaneous rationality of $\\eta $, $\\beta$, and a scaled Planck constant $\\hbar _{\\mathrm{S}}$. For rational $\\hbar _{\\mathrm{S}}$ and generic values of $\\beta $, the quasienergy spectrum is found to have a staggered-ladder structure. Other spectral structures, resembling Hofstadter butterflies, are also found. Finally, we show the existence of particular DKP wave-packets whose quantum dynamics is \\emph{free}, i.e., the evolution frequencies of expectation values in these wave-packets are independent of the nonintegrability. All the results for rational $\\hbar _{\\mathrm{S}}$ exhibit unique number-theoretical features involving $\\eta $, $\\hbar _{\\mathrm{S}}$, and $\\beta $.

  16. Quantum conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Mazilu

    2015-08-06

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  17. Necessary condition for local quantum operations and classical communication with extensive violation by separable operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott M. Cohen

    2013-11-11

    We give a conceptually simple necessary condition such that a separable quantum operation can be implemented by local operations on subsystems and classical communication between parties (LOCC), a condition which follows from a novel approach to understanding LOCC. This necessary condition holds for any number of parties and any finite number of rounds of communication and as such, also provides a completely general sufficient condition that a given separable operation cannot be exactly implemented by LOCC. Furthermore, it demonstrates an extremely strong difference between separable operations and LOCC, in that there exist examples of the former for which the condition is extensively violated. More precisely, the violation by separable operations of our necessary condition for LOCC grows without limit as the number of parties increases.

  18. High-efficiency quantum state transfer and quantum memory using a mechanical oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyob A. Sete; H. Eleuch

    2015-03-30

    We analyze an optomechanical system that can be used to efficiently transfer a quantum state between an optical cavity and a distant mechanical oscillator coupled to a second optical cavity. We show that for a moderate mechanical Q-factor it is possible to achieve a transfer efficiency of $99.4\\%$ by using adjustable cavity damping rates and destructive interference. We also show that the quantum mechanical oscillator can be used as a quantum memory device with an efficiency of $96\\%$ employing a pulsed optomechanical coupling. Although the mechanical dissipation slightly decreases the efficiency, its effect can be significantly reduced by designing a high-Q mechanical oscillator.

  19. The structure of supersymmetry in ${\\cal PT}$ symmetric quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bazeia; Ashok Das; L. Greenwood; L. Losano

    2009-03-17

    The structure of supersymmetry is analyzed systematically in ${\\cal PT}$ symmetric quantum mechanical theories. We give a detailed description of supersymmetric systems associated with one dimensional ${\\cal PT}$ symmetric quantum mechanical theories. We show that there is a richer structure present in these theories compared to the conventional theories associated with Hermitian Hamiltonians. We bring out various properties associated with these supersymmetric systems and generalize such quantum mechanical theories to higher dimensions as well as to the case of one dimensional shape invariant potentials.

  20. What happened to the Bohr-Sommerfeld elliptic orbits in Schrodinger's wave mechanics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Przibram, Letters on Wave Mechanics (Philosophical Library,Quantum to Classical Mechanics in Atomic Physics, CommentsSchr¨odinger’s wave mechanics? Michael Nauenberg University

  1. Rotation in classical zero-point radiation and in quantum vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yefim S. Levin

    2006-06-02

    Two reference systems (RS) are defined and used as the basis for investigating thermal effects of rotation through both random classical zero point radiation and quantum vacuum. Both RSs consist of an infinite number of instantaneous global inertial reference frames (RF). The RFs do not accompany the detector and are defined so that at each moment of proper time of the detector there are two RFs belonging with different RSs. These RFs agree momentarily, are connected by a Lorentz transformation with the detector velocity as a parameter, and with origins at the detector location at the same proper time. The two- field correlation functions (CF) measured by the observer rotating through a random classical zero point radiation have been calculated and presented in terms of elementary functions for both electromagnetic and massless scalar fields. If the CFs are periodic with a period of rotation the observer finds the spectrum which is very similar, but not identical, to Plank spectrum. If both fields of such a two-field periodic CF, for both electromagnetic and massless scalar case, are taken at the same point then its convergent part is shown, using Abel-Plana summation formula, to have Planck spectrum with the temperature T= hw/k, where w is an angular velocity of the detector. It is shown that the vacuum of the quantized massless scalar field in rotating RS is not equivalent to the vacuum of the field in the laboratory system because the respective Bogolubov transformation is not a zero.

  2. The relation between quantum mechanics and higher brain functions: Lessons from quantum computation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Christof

    . Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics is, in the framework of this essay, the basic theory of all low-energy and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. To whom all correspondence `text-book theory' of atoms, electrons and photons, below the energy for pair creation of massive

  3. Quantum-jumps and photon-statistic in fluorescent systems coupled to classically fluctuating reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian A. Budini

    2010-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a quantum-jump approach for describing the photon-emission process of single fluorophore systems coupled to complex classically fluctuating reservoirs. The formalism relies on an open quantum system approach where the dynamic of the system and the reservoir fluctuations are described through a density matrix whose evolution is defined by a Lindblad rate equation. For each realization of the photon measurement processes it is possible to define a conditional system state (stochastic density matrix) whose evolution depends on both the photon detection events and the fluctuations between the configurational states of the reservoir. In contrast to standard fluorescent systems the photon-to-photon emission process is not a renewal one, being defined by a (stochastic) waiting time distribution that in each recording event parametrically depends on the conditional state. The formalism allows calculating experimental observables such as the full hierarchy of joint probabilities associated to the time intervals between consecutive photon recording events. These results provide a powerful basis for characterizing different situations arising in single-molecule spectroscopy, such as spectral fluctuations, lifetime fluctuations, and light assisted processes.

  4. Generation of non-classical photon states in superconducting quantum metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. I. Mukhin; M. V. Fistul

    2013-02-22

    We report a theoretical study of diverse non-classical photon states that can be realized in superconducting quantum metamaterials. As a particular example of superconducting quantum metamaterials an array of SQUIDs incorporated in a low-dissipative transmission line (resonant cavity) will be studied. This system will be modeled as a set of two-levels systems (qubits) strongly interacting with resonant cavity photons. We predict and analyze {a second(first)-order phase transition} between an incoherent (the high-temperature phase) and coherent (the low-temperatures phase) states of photons. In equilibrium state the partition function $Z$ of the electromagnetic field (EF) in the cavity is determined by the effective action $S_{eff}\\{P(\\tau)\\}$ that, in turn, depends on imaginary-time dependent momentum of photon field $P(\\tau)$. We show that the order parameter of this phase transition is the $P_{0}(\\tau)$ minimizing the effective action of a whole system. In the incoherent state the order parameter $P_{0}(\\tau)=0$ but at low temperatures we obtain various coherent states characterized by non-zero values of $P_{0}(\\tau)$. This phase transition in many aspects resembles the Peierls metal-insulator and the metal-superconductor phase transitions. The critical temperature of such phase transition $T^\\star$ is determined by the energy splitting of two-level systems $\\Delta$, a number of SQUIDs in the array $N$, and the strength of the interaction $\\eta$ between SQUIDs and photons in cavity.

  5. Mechanical nanomanipulation of single strain-induced semiconductor quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Mechanical nanomanipulation of single strain-induced semiconductor quantum dots C. Obermu¨ller, A of single strain-induced Ga0.9In0.1As quantum dots. This was achieved by scanning a metal coated tapered of the dots2 owing to the lattice mismatch between the materials. In this case the InP islands are acting

  6. On a commutative ring structure in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shigeki Matsutani

    2009-10-10

    In this article, I propose a concept of the $p$-on which is modelled on the multi-photon absorptions in quantum optics. It provides a commutative ring structure in quantum mechanics. Using it, I will give an operator representation of the Riemann $\\zeta$ function.

  7. NESS in quantum statistical mechanics VOJKAN JASI C1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaksic, Vojkan

    NESS in quantum statistical mechanics VOJKAN JASI ´C1 , CLAUDE-ALAIN PILLET2 1 Department@univ-tln.fr In this article we describe the construction of canonical Non-Equilibrium Steady States (NESS) for a small quantum]). Definition 1 Let be a state on O. We say that + is a NESS of V associated to the reference state

  8. Hybrid Quantum and Classical Methods for Computing Kinetic Isotope Effects of Chemical Reactions in Solution and in Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Hybrid Quantum and Classical Methods for Computing Kinetic Isotope Effects of Chemical Reactions for computing kinetic isotope effects for chemical reactions in solution and in enzymes. In the ensemble that enzymes accelerate the rates of chemical reactions has fascinated chemists and biochemists for nearly

  9. ONSET OF CHAOS IN A MODEL OF QUANTUM COMPUTATION G. BERMAN; ET...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OF CHAOS IN A MODEL OF QUANTUM COMPUTATION G. BERMAN; ET AL 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUSMATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND...

  10. Born series and unitarity in noncommutative quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. Bemfica; H. O. Girotti

    2008-02-11

    This paper is dedicated to present model independent results for noncommutative quantum mechanics. We determine sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Born series and, in the sequel, unitarity is proved in full generality.

  11. A Low Temperature Expansion for Matrix Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying-Hsuan Lin; Shu-Heng Shao; Yifan Wang; Xi Yin

    2013-04-08

    We analyze solutions to loop-truncated Schwinger-Dyson equations in massless N=2 and N=4 Wess-Zumino matrix quantum mechanics at finite temperature, where conventional perturbation theory breaks down due to IR divergences. We find a rather intricate low temperature expansion that involves fractional power scaling in the temperature, based on a consistent "soft collinear" approximation. We conjecture that at least in the N=4 matrix quantum mechanics, such scaling behavior holds to all perturbative orders in the 1/N expansion. We discuss some preliminary results in analyzing the gauged supersymmetric quantum mechanics using Schwinger-Dyson equations, and comment on the connection to metastable microstates of black holes in the holographic dual of BFSS matrix quantum mechanics.

  12. Probabilistic Knowledge as Objective Knowledge in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Powers Instead of Actual Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Ronde, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In classical physics, probabilistic or statistical knowledge has been always related to ignorance or inaccurate subjective knowledge about an actual state of affairs. This idea has been extended to quantum mechanics through a completely incoherent interpretation of the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics in terms of "strange" quantum particles. This interpretation, naturalized through a widespread "way of speaking" in the physics community, contradicts Born's physical account of {\\Psi} as a "probability wave" which provides statistical information about outcomes that, in fact, cannot be interpreted in terms of 'ignorance about an actual state of affairs'. In the present paper we discuss how the metaphysics of actuality has played an essential role in limiting the possibilities of understating things differently. We propose instead a metaphysical scheme in terms of powers with definite potentia which allows us to consider quantum probability in a new light, namely, as providing objective knowledge about a...

  13. Probabilistic Knowledge as Objective Knowledge in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Powers Instead of Actual Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian de Ronde

    2015-06-24

    In classical physics, probabilistic or statistical knowledge has been always related to ignorance or inaccurate subjective knowledge about an actual state of affairs. This idea has been extended to quantum mechanics through a completely incoherent interpretation of the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics in terms of "strange" quantum particles. This interpretation, naturalized through a widespread "way of speaking" in the physics community, contradicts Born's physical account of {\\Psi} as a "probability wave" which provides statistical information about outcomes that, in fact, cannot be interpreted in terms of 'ignorance about an actual state of affairs'. In the present paper we discuss how the metaphysics of actuality has played an essential role in limiting the possibilities of understating things differently. We propose instead a metaphysical scheme in terms of powers with definite potentia which allows us to consider quantum probability in a new light, namely, as providing objective knowledge about a potential state of affairs.

  14. No-Go Theorems Face Fluid-Dynamical Theories for Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis Vervoort

    2014-06-16

    Recent experiments on fluid-dynamical systems have revealed a series of striking quantum-like features of these macroscopic systems, thus reviving the quest to describe quantum mechanics by classical, in particular fluid-dynamical, theories. However, it is generally admitted that such an endeavor is impossible, on the basis of the 'no-go' theorems of Bell and Kochen-Specker. Here we show that such theorems are inoperative for fluid-dynamical models, even if these are local. Such models appear to violate one of the premises of both theorems, and can reproduce the quantum correlation of the Bell experiment. Therefore the statement that 'local hidden-variable theories are impossible' appears to be untenable for theories just slightly more general than originally envisaged by Bell. We also discuss experimental implications.

  15. Michelson-Morley experiment within the quantum mechanics framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Khokhlov

    2008-04-17

    It is revisited the Michelson-Morley experiment within the quantum mechanics framework. One can define the wave function of photon in the whole space at a given moment of time. The phase difference between the source and receiver is a distance between the source and receiver at the time of reception hence it does not depend on the velocity of the frame. Then one can explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment within the quantum mechanics framework.

  16. Can the expansion of the universe localize quantum wave functions? How classical behavior may result from Hubble expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Herzenberg

    2009-12-07

    We consider an object at rest in space with a universal Hubble expansion taking place away from it. We find that a governing differential equation developed from the Schroedinger equation leads to wave functions which turn out to exhibit pronounced central localization. The extent of concentration of probability depends on the mass; objects with small masses tend to behave in a delocalized manner as ordinary quantum objects do in a static space, while quantum objects with large masses have wave functions that are largely concentrated into much smaller regions. This in turn suggests the possibility that classical behavior is being induced in quantum objects by the presence of the Hubble expansion. If the size of the localized region of concentrated probability density is larger than the size of the corresponding extended object, quantum behavior might be expected; whereas classical behavior might be expected for cases in which the region of high probability density is smaller than the size of the object. The resulting quantum-classical boundary due to Hubble expansion may be expressed in terms of a relationship between the size and mass of an object, or may be expressed in terms of a threshold moment of inertia.

  17. Structure/Function Studies of Proteins Using Linear Scaling Quantum Mechanical Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merz, K. M.

    2004-07-19

    We developed a linear-scaling semiempirical quantum mechanical (QM) program (DivCon). Using DivCon we can now routinely carry out calculations at the fully QM level on systems containing up to about 15 thousand atoms. We also implemented a Poisson-Boltzmann (PM) method into DivCon in order to compute solvation free energies and electrostatic properties of macromolecules in solution. This new suite of programs has allowed us to bring the power of quantum mechanics to bear on important biological problems associated with protein folding, drug design and enzyme catalysis. Hence, we have garnered insights into biological systems that have been heretofore impossible to obtain using classical simulation techniques.

  18. Quantum network of superconducting qubits through opto-mechanical interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang-qi Yin; W. L. Yang; L. Sun; L. M. Duan

    2015-01-08

    We propose a scheme to realize quantum networking of superconducting qubits based on the opto-mechanical interface. The superconducting qubits interact with the microwave photons, which then couple to the optical photons through the opto-mechanical interface. The interface generates a quantum link between superconducting qubits and optical flying qubits with tunable pulse shapes and carrier frequencies, enabling transmission of quantum information to other superconducting or atomic qubits. We show that the scheme works under realistic experimental conditions and it also provides a way for fast initialization of the superconducting qubits under 1 K instead of 20 mK operation temperature.

  19. Duality, Mechanical Wave Theory, New Quantum Operators and Nonlinear Equations in Quantum Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Fang Chang

    2010-08-17

    Various dualities are summarized. Based on the universal wave-particle duality, along an opposite direction of the developed quantum mechanics, we use a method where the wave quantities frequency and wave length are replaced on various mechanical equations, and may be derive some new results. It is called the mechanical wave theory. From this we derive new operators which represent more physical quantities. Further, we propose some nonlinear equations and their solutions, which may be probably applied to quantum theory.

  20. Whether quantum mechanics can be almighty even in information science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koji Nagata; Tadao Nakamura

    2008-11-28

    We discuss that there is a crucial contradiction within quantum mechanics. We derive a proposition concerning a quantum expectation value under the assumption of the existence of the directions in a spin-1/2 system. The quantum predictions within the formalism of von Neumann's projective measurement cannot coexist with the proposition concerning the existence of the directions. Therefore, we have to give up either the existence of the directions or the formalism of von Neumann's projective measurement. Hence there is a crucial contradiction within the Hilbert space formalism of the quantum theory. This implies that there is no axiomatic system for the quantum theory. This also reveals that we need new physical theories in order to explain the handing of raw experimental data. We discuss that this crucial contradiction makes the quantum-theoretical formulation of Deutsch's algorithm questionable.

  1. An ultra-low dissipation micro-oscillator for quantum opto-mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Serra; A. Borrielli; F. S. Cataliotti; F. Marin; F. Marino; A. Pontin; G. A. Prodi; M. Bonaldi

    2012-08-30

    Generating non-classical states of light by opto-mechanical coupling depends critically on the mechanical and optical properties of micro-oscillators and on the minimization of thermal noise. We present an oscillating micro-mirror with a mechanical quality factor Q = 2.6x10^6 at cryogenic temperature and a Finesse of 65000, obtained thanks to an innovative approach to the design and the control of mechanical dissipation. Already at 4 K with an input laser power of 2 mW, the radiation-pressure quantum fluctuations become the main noise source, overcoming thermal noise. This feature makes our devices particularly suitable for the production of pondero-motive squeezing.

  2. The clouds of physics and Einstein's last query: Can quantum mechanics be derived from general relativity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedwardt Winterberg

    2008-05-20

    Towards the end of the 19th century, Kelvin pronounced as the "clouds of physics" 1) the failure of the Michelson-Morely experiment to detect an ether wind, 2) the violation of the classical mechanical equipartition theorem in statistical thermodynamics. And he believed that the removal of these clouds would bring physics to an end. But as we know, the removal of these clouds led to the two great breakthoughts of modern physics: 1) The theory of relativity, and 2) to quantum mechanics. Towards the end of the 20th century more clouds of physics became apparent. They are 1) the riddle of quantum gravity, 2) the superluminal quantum correlations, 3) the small cosmological constant. Furthermore, there is the riddle of dark energy making up 70% of the physical universe, the non-baryonic cold dark matter making up 26% and the very small initial entropy of the universe. An attempt is made to explain the importance of these clouds for the future of physics. Conjectures for a possible solution are presented. they have to do with Einstein's last query: "Can quantum mechanics be derived general relativity", and with the question is there an ether?

  3. Tests of quantum mechanics at a {phi}-factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1994-08-09

    Unique tests of quantum mechanics, which can only be performed at a 0-factory, are proposed for Da0ne. Each of these tests consists of measuring the difference between the predicted and the actual amount of interference between two processes leading from a single pure initial state to a single pure final state of a kaon system. Estimates are made of the upper limits that will be set for the amount of violation if the predictions of quantum mechanics turn out to be correct. They are of the order a fraction of one percent. For the case where, on the contrary, a significant violation is found, several decoherence mechanisms are considered.

  4. Quantum micro-mechanics with ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Botter; Daniel Brooks; Subhadeep Gupta; Zhao-Yuan Ma; Kevin L. Moore; Kater W. Murch; Tom P. Purdy; Dan M. Stamper-Kurn

    2008-10-21

    In many experiments isolated atoms and ions have been inserted into high-finesse optical resonators for the study of fundamental quantum optics and quantum information. Here, we introduce another application of such a system, as the realization of cavity optomechanics where the collective motion of an atomic ensemble serves the role of a moveable optical element in an optical resonator. Compared with other optomechanical systems, such as those incorporating nanofabricated cantilevers or the large cavity mirrors of gravitational observatories, our cold-atom realization offers direct access to the quantum regime. We describe experimental investigations of optomechanical effects, such as the bistability of collective atomic motion and the first quantification of measurement backaction for a macroscopic object, and discuss future directions for this nascent field.

  5. Analysis of geometric phase effects in the quantum-classical Liouville formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Izmaylov, Artur F.; Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 ; Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-02-28

    We analyze two approaches to the quantum-classical Liouville (QCL) formalism that differ in the order of two operations: Wigner transformation and projection onto adiabatic electronic states. The analysis is carried out on a two-dimensional linear vibronic model where geometric phase (GP) effects arising from a conical intersection profoundly affect nuclear dynamics. We find that the Wigner-then-Adiabatic (WA) QCL approach captures GP effects, whereas the Adiabatic-then-Wigner (AW) QCL approach does not. Moreover, the Wigner transform in AW-QCL leads to an ill-defined Fourier transform of double-valued functions. The double-valued character of these functions stems from the nontrivial GP of adiabatic electronic states in the presence of a conical intersection. In contrast, WA-QCL avoids this issue by starting with the Wigner transform of single-valued quantities of the full problem. As a consequence, GP effects in WA-QCL can be associated with a dynamical term in the corresponding equation of motion. Since the WA-QCL approach uses solely the adiabatic potentials and non-adiabatic derivative couplings as an input, our results indicate that WA-QCL can capture GP effects in two-state crossing problems using first-principles electronic structure calculations without prior diabatization or introduction of explicit phase factors.

  6. Introduction to nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaksic, Vojkan

    .1 Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 NESS and entropy production; ­scattering and NESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4 Open quantum systems 17 4.1 Definition will discuss the scattering theory of non­equilibrium steady states (NESS) (this topic has been only quickly

  7. Could quantum mechanics describe completely and consistently all superconducting and other quantum phenomena?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Nikulov

    2015-07-15

    Canonical description of quantization effects observed at measurements on superconducting structures seems one of the most triumphant achievements of quantum mechanics. But impartial consideration uncovers incompleteness and inconsistency of this description. Contradictions in the description of other quantum phenomena are revealed also.

  8. Could quantum mechanics describe completely and consistently all superconducting and other quantum phenomena?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikulov, A V

    2015-01-01

    Canonical description of quantization effects observed at measurements on superconducting structures seems one of the most triumphant achievements of quantum mechanics. But impartial consideration uncovers incompleteness and inconsistency of this description. Contradictions in the description of other quantum phenomena are revealed also.

  9. The H2 Double-Slit Experiment: Where Quantum and Classical Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, since they were still entangled, a record of the electrons' "quantum-ness" could be reconstructed in the dielectron. Present-day single photoionization...

  10. Mathematical Aspects of Quantum Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Algeria Revised version: January 1, 2015 (This text is for personal use only) 1 #12;Acknowledgements Statistical Mechanics 3.1. The classical case 3.2. The quantum case 3.3. A second axiom system for quantum

  11. Quantum Chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Steiner

    1994-02-07

    A short historical overview is given on the development of our knowledge of complex dynamical systems with special emphasis on ergodicity and chaos, and on the semiclassical quantization of integrable and chaotic systems. The general trace formula is discussed as a sound mathematical basis for the semiclassical quantization of chaos. Two conjectures are presented on the basis of which it is argued that there are unique fluctuation properties in quantum mechanics which are universal and, in a well defined sense, maximally random if the corresponding classical system is strongly chaotic. These properties constitute the quantum mechanical analogue of the phenomenon of chaos in classical mechanics. Thus quantum chaos has been found.

  12. Quantum mechanics emerges from information theory applied to causal horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae-Weon

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that quantum mechanics is not fundamental but emerges from information theory applied to a causal horizon. The path integral quantization and quantum randomness can be derived by considering information loss of fields or particles crossing Rindler horizons for accelerating observers. This implies that information is one of the fundamental root of all physical phenomena. The connection between this theory and Verlinde's entropic gravity theory is also investigated.

  13. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: An Advanced Short Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moretti, Valter

    2015-01-01

    This paper collects and extends the lectures given by the author at the "XXIV International Fall Workshop on Geometry and Physics" held in Zaragoza (Spain) during September 2015. Within these lectures I review the formulation of Quantum Mechanics, and quantum theories in general, from a mathematically advanced viewpoint, essentially based on the orthomodular lattice of elementary propositions, discussing some fundamental ideas, mathematical tools and theorems also related to the representation of physical symmetries. The final step consists of an elementary introduction the so-called (C*-) algebraic formulation of quantum theories.

  14. Comment on 'Nonlocality, Counterfactuals and Quantum Mechanics'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1999-04-14

    A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. 65, 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters' choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell's theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A 59, 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been ''smuggled'' in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective.

  15. Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber O#ce: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

  16. Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 139B Quantum Mechanics II Fall 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber Office: ISB, Room 326 Phone OUTSIDE READING: Quantum Physics, by Stephen Gasiorowicz Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, by David J to Quantum Mechanics, by John S. Townsend PREREQUISITES: Physics 116C and Physics 139A. It is assumed

  17. Functional Integral Approach to $C^*$-algebraic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John LaChapelle

    2015-05-27

    The algebraic approach to quantum mechanics has been key to the development of the theory since its inception, and the approach has evolved into a mathematically rigorous $C^\\ast$-algebraic formulation of the axioms. Conversely the functional approach in the form of Feynman path integrals is far from mathematically rigorous: Nevertheless, path integrals provide an equally valid and useful formulation of the axioms of quantum mechanics. The two approaches can be merged by employing a recently developed notion of functional integration that allows to construct functional integral representations of $C^\\ast$-algebras. The merger is a hybrid formulation of the axioms of quantum mechanics in which topological groups play a leading role.

  18. Are nonlinear discrete cellular automata compatible with quantum mechanics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Thomas Elze

    2015-05-14

    We consider discrete and integer-valued cellular automata (CA). A particular class of which comprises "Hamiltonian CA" with equations of motion that bear similarities to Hamilton's equations, while they present discrete updating rules. The dynamics is linear, quite similar to unitary evolution described by the Schroedinger equation. This has been essential in our construction of an invertible map between such CA and continuous quantum mechanical models, which incorporate a fundamental discreteness scale. Based on Shannon's sampling theory, it leads, for example, to a one-to-one relation between quantum mechanical and CA conservation laws. The important issue of linearity of the theory is examined here by incorporating higher-order nonlinearities into the underlying action. These produce inconsistent nonlocal (in time) effects when trying to describe continuously such nonlinear CA. Therefore, in the present framework, only linear CA and local quantum mechanical dynamics are compatible.

  19. 5.72 Statistical Mechanics, Spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Jianshu

    This course discusses the principles and methods of statistical mechanics. Topics covered include classical and quantum statistics, grand ensembles, fluctuations, molecular distribution functions, other concepts in equilibrium ...

  20. Classical Black Holes Are Hot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Curiel

    2014-11-09

    In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "temperature" and "entropy" enter classical thermodynamics then will suggest arguments that, I claim, show the analogy between classical black-hole mechanics and classical thermodynamics should be taken more seriously, without the need to rely on or invoke quantum mechanics. In particular, I construct an analogue of a Carnot cycle in which a black hole "couples" with an ordinary thermodynamical system in such a way that its surface gravity plays the role of temperature and its area that of entropy. Thus, the connection between classical general relativity and classical thermodynamics on their own is already deep and physically significant, independent of quantum mechanics.

  1. Free-fall in a uniform gravitational field in non-commutative quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. H. C. Castello-Branco; A. G. Martins

    2011-05-23

    We study the free-fall of a quantum particle in the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM). Assuming noncommutativity of the canonical type between the coordinates of a two-dimensional configuration space, we consider a neutral particle trapped in a gravitational well and exactly solve the energy eigenvalue problem. By resorting to experimental data from the GRANIT experiment, in which the first energy levels of freely falling quantum ultracold neutrons were determined, we impose an upper-bound on the noncommutativity parameter. We also investigate the time of flight of a quantum particle moving in a uniform gravitational field in NCQM. This is related to the weak equivalence principle. As we consider stationary, energy eigenstates, i.e., delocalized states, the time of flight must be measured by a quantum clock, suitably coupled to the particle. By considering the clock as a small perturbation, we solve the (stationary) scattering problem associated and show that the time of flight is equal to the classical result, when the measurement is made far from the turning point. This result is interpreted as an extension of the equivalence principle to the realm of NCQM.

  2. A Specific N = 2 Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanical Model: Supervariable Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shukla, Aradhya

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting the supersymmetric invariant restrictions on the chiral and anti-chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetry transformations for a specific (0 + 1)-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables (\\theta, \\bar\\theta). We also provide the geometrical meaning to the symmetry transformations. Finally, we show that this specific N = 2 SUSY quantum mechanical model is a model for Hodge theory.

  3. Quantum mechanics as a consequence of discrete interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele Carcassi

    2008-01-05

    Quantum mechanics is usually presented starting from a series of postulates about the mathematical framework. In this work we show that those same postulates can be derived by assuming that measurements are discrete interactions: that is, that we measure at specific moments in time (as opposed to a continuous measurement that spans a long time interval) and that the system is in general affected by our measurement. We believe that this way of presenting quantum mechanics would make it easier to understand by laying out a more cohesive view of the theory and making it resonate more with our physics intuition.

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 046118 (2012) Classical master equation for excitonic transport under the influence of an environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisfeld, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    that the results of a quantum-mechanical calculation of electronic energy transfer (EET) over aggregates of coupled classical equations for the same * eisfeld@mpipks-dresden.mpg.de coupling, that classical interacting

  5. Quantum Thermodynamic Cycles and Quantum Heat Engines (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. T. Quan

    2009-03-09

    We study the quantum mechanical generalization of force or pressure, and then we extend the classical thermodynamic isobaric process to quantum mechanical systems. Based on these efforts, we are able to study the quantum version of thermodynamic cycles that consist of quantum isobaric process, such as quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle. We also consider the implementation of quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle with some model systems, such as single particle in 1D box and single-mode radiation field in a cavity. These studies lay the microscopic (quantum mechanical) foundation for Szilard-Zurek single molecule engine.

  6. Quantum mechanical study of a generic quadratically coupled optomechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Shi; M. Bhattacharya

    2013-04-22

    Typical optomechanical systems involving optical cavities and mechanical oscillators rely on a coupling that varies linearly with the oscillator displacement. However, recently a coupling varying instead as the square of the mechanical displacement has been realized, presenting new possibilities for non-demolition measurements and mechanical squeezing. In this article we present a quantum mechanical study of a generic quadratic-coupling optomechanical Hamiltonian. First, neglecting dissipation, we provide analytical results for the dressed states, spectrum, phonon statistics and entanglement. Subsequently, accounting for dissipation, we supply a numerical treatment using a master equation approach. We expect our results to be of use to optomechanical spectroscopy, state transfer, wavefunction engineering, and entanglement generation.

  7. Functional Approach to Quantum Decoherence and the Classical Final Limit: the Mott and Cosmological problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Castagnino; Roberto Laura

    2000-06-03

    Decoherence and the approach to the classical final limit are studied in two similar cases: the Mott and the Cosmological problems.

  8. The quantum mechanics of perfect fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon Endlich; Alberto Nicolis; Riccardo Rattazzi; Junpu Wang

    2010-11-29

    We consider the canonical quantization of an ordinary fluid. The resulting long-distance effective field theory is derivatively coupled, and therefore strongly coupled in the UV. The system however exhibits a number of peculiarities, associated with the vortex degrees of freedom. On the one hand, these have formally a vanishing strong-coupling energy scale, thus suggesting that the effective theory's regime of validity is vanishingly narrow. On the other hand, we prove an analog of Coleman's theorem, whereby the semiclassical vacuum has no quantum counterpart, thus suggesting that the vortex premature strong-coupling phenomenon stems from a bad identification of the ground state and of the perturbative degrees of freedom. Finally, vortices break the usual connection between short distances and high energies, thus potentially impairing the unitarity of the effective theory.

  9. Harmonic Superfields in N=4 Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evgeny A. Ivanov

    2011-02-11

    This is a brief survey of applications of the harmonic superspace methods to the models of N=4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SQM). The main focus is on a recent progress in constructing SQM models with couplings to the background non-Abelian gauge fields. Besides reviewing and systemizing the relevant results, we present some new examples and make clarifying comments.

  10. New Approach to Bounded Quantum--Mechanical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco M. Fernández

    2008-05-21

    We develop an approach for the treatment of one--dimensional bounded quantum--mechanical models by straightforward modification of a successful method for unbounded ones. We apply the new approach to a simple example and show that it provides solutions to both the bounded and unbounded type of models simultaneously

  11. Constructive Inversion of Energy Trajectories in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Richard L.

    page 1 Constructive Inversion of Energy Trajectories in Quantum Mechanics Richard L. Hall Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montr´eal algorithm is devised which allows the potential shape f(x) to be reconstructed from the energy trajectory F

  12. Quantum mechanical reaction probabilities with a power series Green's function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    Quantum mechanical reaction probabilities with a power series Green's function Scott M. Auerbach 1993) We present a new method to compute the energy Green's function with absorbing boundary conditions be superior to the fast Fourier transform method for reactive scattering. We apply the resulting power series

  13. Graphene and Quantum Mechanics University of California, Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zworski, Maciej

    Graphene and Quantum Mechanics Minjae Lee University of California, Berkeley lee.minjae@math.berkeley.edu March 31, 2014 Minjae Lee (UC Berkeley) Graphene March 31, 2014 1 / 9 #12;Carbon structures Graphite 3 Berkeley) Graphene March 31, 2014 2 / 9 #12;Graphene Graphene A single layer of graphite The thinnest 2D

  14. Simulation of Quantum Algorithms with a Symbolic Programming Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Nyman

    2007-05-24

    This study examines the simulation of quantum algorithms on a classical computer. The program code implemented on a classical computer will be a straight connection between the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics and computational methods. The computational language will include formulations such as quantum state, superposition and quantum operator.

  15. Jarzynski equality in PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-04-13

    We show that the quantum Jarzynski equality generalizes to PT -symmetric quantum mechanics with unbroken PT -symmetry. In the regime of broken PT -symmetry the Jarzynski equality does not hold as also the CPT -norm is not preserved during the dynamics. These findings are illustrated for an experimentally relevant system – two coupled optical waveguides. It turns out that for these systems the phase transition between the regimes of unbroken and broken PT -symmetry is thermodynamically inhibited as the irreversible work diverges at the critical point.

  16. Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the density matrix. It has been useful in describing quantum flows in: quantum optics; nuclear physics; decoherence (eg, quantum computing); quantum chaos; 'Welcher Weg'...

  17. The role of help in Classical and Quantum Zero-Knowledge Andr Chailloux #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    relation to the standard interactive model. In the classical case, we show that help and interaction were independently discovered by Dragos Florin Ciocan and Salil Vadhan. # Supported in part by ACI

  18. ECE 350 / 450 -Fall 2010 Applied Quantum Mechanics for Engineers (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    ECE 350 / 450 - Fall 2010 Applied Quantum Mechanics for Engineers (3) Instructor: Prof. Nelson Reading Textbook: 1. Nelson Tansu, Applied Quantum Mechanics for Engineers, Draft Version (2004- 2010). We (2006). 3. D. A. B. Miller, Quantum Mechanics for Scientists and Engineers, Cambridge (2008). 4. Richard

  19. Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 58 (2007), 595604 Is Standard Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seevinck, Michiel

    2007-01-01

    Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 58 (2007), 595­604 Is Standard Quantum Mechanics Technologically Inadequate? F]) claims to have demonstrated that standard quantum mechanics is technologically inadequate is that Vermaas' claim that standard quantum mechanics is technologically inadequate evaporates. 1 Introduction 2

  20. Fast numerical evaluation of time-derivative non-adiabatic couplings for mixed quantum-classical methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a numerical differentiation scheme which eliminates evaluation of overlap determinants in calculating the time-derivative non-adiabatic couplings (TDNACs). Evaluation of these determinants was a bottleneck in previous implementations of mixed quantum-classical methods using numerical differentiation of electronic wave functions in the Slater-determinant representation. The central idea of our approach is, first, to reduce the analytic time derivatives of Slater determinants to time derivatives of molecular orbitals, and then to apply a finite-difference formula. Benchmark calculations prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme showing impressive several-order-of-magnitude speedups of the TDNAC calculation step for midsize molecules.

  1. Emergent Semiclassical Time in Quantum Gravity. I. Mechanical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Anderson

    2007-11-04

    Strategies intended to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity by means of emergent or hidden timefunctions are considered in the arena of relational particle toy models. In situations with `heavy' and `light' degrees of freedom, two notions of emergent semiclassical WKB time emerge; these are furthermore equivalent to two notions of emergent classical `Leibniz--Mach--Barbour' time. I futhermore study the semiclassical approach, in a geometric phase formalism, extended to include linear constraints, and with particular care to make explicit those approximations and assumptions used. I propose a new iterative scheme for this in the cosmologically-motivated case with one heavy degree of freedom. I find that the usual semiclassical quantum cosmology emergence of time comes hand in hand with the emergence of other qualitatively significant terms, including back-reactions on the heavy subsystem and second time derivatives. I illustrate my analysis by taking it further for relational particle models with linearly-coupled harmonic oscillator potentials. As these examples are exactly soluble by means outside the semiclassical approach, they are additionally useful for testing the justifiability of some of the approximations and assumptions habitually made in the semiclassical approach to quantum cosmology. Finally, I contrast the emergent semiclassical timefunction with its hidden dilational Euler time counterpart.

  2. Classical and quantum behaviour of Skyrmions This is a proposal for a University PhD Studentship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    , neutrons and atomic nuclei. The study of the Skyrme model involves sophisticated numerical simulations. Since protons and neutrons obey the laws of quantum mechanics, the Skyrme model with its Skyrmions also of nuclear physics experiments is concerned with the scattering of atomic nuclei - for example hitting

  3. Angularly Deformed Special Relativity and its Results for Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the deformed Special Relativity, which leads to an essentially new theoretical context of quantum mechanics, is presented. The formulation of the theory arises from a straightforward analogy with the Special Relativity, but its foundations are laid through the hypothesis on breakdown of the velocity-momentum parallelism which affects onto the Einstein equivalence principle between mass and energy of a relativistic particle. Furthermore, the derivation is based on the technique of an eikonal equation whose well-confirmed physical role lays the foundations of both optics and quantum mechanics. As a result, we receive the angular deformation of Special Relativity which clearly depicts the new deformation-based theoretical foundations of physics, and, moreover, offers both constructive and consistent phenomenological discussion of the theoretical issues such like imaginary mass and formal superluminal motion predicted in Special Relativity for this case. In the context of the relativistic theory, p...

  4. Effective approach to non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David M

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions on non-relativistic wavefunctions are generally not completely constrained by the basic precepts of quantum mechanics, so understanding the set of possible self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian is required. For real physical systems, non-trivial self-adjoint extensions have been used to model contact potentials when those interactions are expected a priori. However, they must be incorporated into the effective description of any quantum mechanical system in order to capture possible short-distance physics that does not decouple in the low energy limit. Here, an approach is described wherein an artificial boundary is inserted at an intermediate scale on which boundary conditions may encode short-distance effects that are hidden behind the boundary. Using this approach, an analysis is performed of the free particle, harmonic oscillator, and Coulomb potential in three dimensions. Requiring measurable quantities, such as spectra and cross sections, to be independent of this artificial bou...

  5. ANALOG QUANTUM NEURON FOR FUNCTIONS APPROXIMATION A. EZHOV; A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FOR FUNCTIONS APPROXIMATION A. EZHOV; A. KHROMOV; G. BERMAN 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; IMPLEMENTATION; NERVE CELLS; WAVEGUIDES We describe a system able...

  6. Scalable, High-Speed Measurement-Based Quantum Computer Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada) 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CALCIUM IONS; INFORMATION THEORY; MULTI-PHOTON PROCESSES;...

  7. Entanglement, Holography, and the Quantum Phases of Matter Sachdev...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Matter Sachdev, Subir Harvard University 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS Electrons in many interesting materials, such as the high temperature...

  8. Electromagnetic deuteron form factors in point form relativistic quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Khokhlov

    2015-03-10

    A study of electromagnetic structure of the deuteron in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics is presented. The deuteron form factors dependencies on the transferred 4-momentum Q are calculated. We compare results obtained with different realistic deuteron wave functions stemming from Nijmegen-I, Nijmegen-II, JISP16, CD-Bonn, Paris and Moscow (with forbidden states) potentials. A nucleon form factor parametrization consistent with modern experimental analysis was used as an input data.

  9. The Montevideo Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: a short review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo Gambini; Jorge Pullin

    2015-02-11

    The Montevideo interpretation of quantum mechanics, which consists in supplementing environmental decoherence with fundamental limitations in measurement stemming from gravity, has been described in several publications. However, some of them appeared before the full picture provided by the interpretation was developed. As such it can be difficult to get a good understanding via the published literature. Here we summarize it in a self contained brief presentation including all its principal elements.

  10. Zero-Branes, Quantum Mechanics and the Cosmological Constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Chamblin; Neil D. Lambert

    2001-07-25

    We analyse some dynamical issues in a modified type IIA supergravity, recently proposed as an extension of M-theory that admits de Sitter space. In particular we find that this theory has multiple zero-brane solutions. This suggests a microscopic quantum mechanical matrix description which yields a massive deformation of the usual M(atrix) formulation of M-theory and type IIA string theory.

  11. An investigation of precision and scaling issues in nuclear spin and trapped-ion quantum simulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Robert J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Quantum simulation offers the possibility of using a controllable quantum-mechanical system to implement the dynamics of another quantum system, performing calculations that are intractable on classical computers for all ...

  12. Supporting Information for Mixed Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gherman, Benjamin F.

    S1 Supporting Information for Mixed Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) Study geometries for the QM/MM-optimized R61 acyl-enzyme intermediate protonation/hydrogen bond configurations-blue, O-red, H-gray, S-yellow. (1) (2a) #12;S3 (3) #12;S4 Figure S2. Active site geometries for the QM/MM

  13. Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Catalytic oxidation of small olefins to unsaturated aldehydes and catalytic ammoxidation of small olefins,1 primarily through catalytic oxidation of propene (eq 1) In the early stages of this industryMechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum

  14. Phase Space Quantum Mechanics on the Anti-De Sitter Spacetime and its Poincaré Contraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. El Gradechi; S. De Bièvre

    1992-10-26

    In this work we propose an alternative description of the quantum mechanics of a massive and spinning free particle in anti-de~Sitter spacetime, using a phase space rather than a spacetime representation. The regularizing character of the curvature appears clearly in connection with a notion of localization in phase space which is shown to disappear in the zero curvature limit. We show in particular how the anti-de~Sitter optimally localized (coherent) states contract to plane waves as the curvature goes to zero. In the first part we give a detailed description of the classical theory {\\it \\a la Souriau\\/}. This serves as a basis for the quantum theory which is constructed in the second part using methods of geometric quantization. The invariant positive K\\"ahler polarization that selects the anti-de~Sitter quantum elementary system is shown to have as zero curvature limit the Poincar\\'e polarization which is no longer K\\"ahler. This phenomenon is then related to the disappearance of the notion of localization in the zero curvature limit.

  15. Open Quantum to classical phases transition in the stochastic hydrodynamic analogy: the explanation of the Lindemann relation and the analogies between the maximum of density at He lambda point and that one at water-ice phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piero Chiarelli

    2013-05-20

    In the present paper the gas, liquid and solid phases made of structureless particles, are visited to the light of the quantum stochastic hydrodynamic analogy (SQHA). The SQHA shows that the open quantum mechanical behavior is maintained on a distance shorter than the theory-defined quantum correlation length (lc). When, the physical length of the problem is larger than lc, the model shows that the quantum (potential) interactions may have a finite range of interaction maintaining the non-local behavior on a finite distance quantum non-locality length lq. The present work shows that when the mean molecular distance is larger than the quantum non-locality length we have a classical phases (gas and van der Waals liquids) while when the mean molecular distance becomes smaller than lq or than lc we have phases such as the solid crystal or the superfluid one, respectively, that show quantum characteristics. The model agrees with Lindemann empirical law (and explains it), for the mean square deviation of atom from the equilibrium position at melting point of crystal, and shows a connection between the maximum density at the He lambda point and that one near the water-ice solidification point.

  16. Natural star-products on symplectic manifolds and related quantum mechanical operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B?aszak, Maciej, E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl; Doma?ski, Ziemowit, E-mail: ziemowit@amu.edu.pl

    2014-05-15

    In this paper is considered a problem of defining natural star-products on symplectic manifolds, admissible for quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. First, a construction of a star-product on a cotangent bundle to an Euclidean configuration space is given with the use of a sequence of pair-wise commuting vector fields. The connection with a covariant representation of such a star-product is also presented. Then, an extension of the construction to symplectic manifolds over flat and non-flat pseudo-Riemannian configuration spaces is discussed. Finally, a coordinate free construction of related quantum mechanical operators from Hilbert space over respective configuration space is presented. -- Highlights: •Invariant representations of natural star-products on symplectic manifolds are considered. •Star-products induced by flat and non-flat connections are investigated. •Operator representations in Hilbert space of considered star-algebras are constructed.

  17. The ZX Calculus is incomplete for Clifford+T quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Perdrix; Quanlong Wang

    2015-06-09

    The ZX calculus is a diagrammatic language for quantum mechanics and quantum information processing. We prove that the ZX-calculus is not complete for Clifford+T quantum mechanics. The completeness for this fragment has been stated as one of the main current open problems in categorical quantum mechanics. The ZX calculus was known to be incomplete for quantum mechanics, on the other hand, it has been proved complete for Clifford quantum mechanics (a.k.a. stabilizer quantum mechanics), and for single-qubit Clifford+T quantum mechanics. The question of the completeness of the ZX calculus for Clifford+T quantum mechanics is a crucial step in the development of the ZX calculus because of its (approximate) universality for quantum mechanics (i.e. any unitary evolution can be approximated using Clifford and T gates only). We exhibit a property which is know to be true in Clifford+T quantum mechanics and prove that this equation cannot be derived in the ZX calculus by introducing a new sound interpretation of the ZX calculus in which this particular property does not hold. Finally, we propose to extend the language with a new axiom.

  18. Nonlinear quantum-mechanical system associated with Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarmi, Yair, E-mail: zarmi@bgu.ac.il [Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, 8499000 (Israel)

    2014-10-15

    Despite the fact that it is not integrable, the (1 + 2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation has N-soliton solutions, whose velocities are lower than the speed of light (c = 1), for all N ? 1. Based on these solutions, a quantum-mechanical system is constructed over a Fock space of particles. The coordinate of each particle is an angle around the unit circle. U, a nonlinear functional of the particle number-operators, which obeys the Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions, is constructed. Its eigenvalues on N-particle states in the Fock space are the slower-than-light, N-soliton solutions of the equation. A projection operator (a nonlinear functional of U), which vanishes on the single-particle subspace, is a mass-density generator. Its eigenvalues on multi-particle states play the role of the mass density of structures that emulate free, spatially extended, relativistic particles. The simplicity of the quantum-mechanical system allows for the incorporation of perturbations with particle interactions, which have the capacity to “annihilate” and “create” solitons – an effect that does not have an analog in perturbed classical nonlinear evolution equations.

  19. Angularly Deformed Special Relativity and its Results for Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the deformed Special Relativity, which leads to an essentially new theoretical context of quantum mechanics, is presented. The formulation of the theory arises from a straightforward analogy with the Special Relativity, but its foundations are laid through the hypothesis on breakdown of the velocity-momentum parallelism which affects onto the Einstein equivalence principle between mass and energy of a relativistic particle. Furthermore, the derivation is based on the technique of an eikonal equation whose well-confirmed physical role lays the foundations of both optics and quantum mechanics. As a result, we receive the angular deformation of Special Relativity which clearly depicts the new deformation-based theoretical foundations of physics, and, moreover, offers both constructive and consistent phenomenological discussion of the theoretical issues such like imaginary mass and formal superluminal motion predicted in Special Relativity for this case. In the context of the relativistic theory, presence of deformation does not break the Poincar\\'{e} invariance, in particular the Lorentz symmetry, and provides essential modifications of both bosons described through the Klein-Gordon equation and fermions satisfying the Dirac equation. On the other hand, on the level of discussion of quantum theory, there arises the concept of emergent deformed space-time, wherein the presence of angular deformation elucidates a certain new insight into the nature of spin, as well as both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Schr\\"odinger wave equation.

  20. Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg-Rydberg Auger decay rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We present quantum mechanical calculations of the Auger decay rate $\\Gamma_A$ of two Rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. The two-electron wavefunction is modelled by a single Slater determinant of $nd$ Rydberg orbitals with principal quantum number $n\\le35$. The dependence of $\\Gamma_A$ on the atom-atom separation $R$ is well described by a power law $\\Gamma_A \\propto R^{\\alpha}$ and we calculate the exponents $\\alpha$ for various initial states. For atomic separations equal to the size of the Rydberg electron wave function $R_n$ we find that $\\Gamma_A \\propto n^{-5}$. We discuss the importance of Auger decay compared to other contributions to the electron dynamics in the two Rydberg atom system.

  1. The formulation of quantum statistical mechanics based on the Feynman path centroid density. V. Quantum instantaneous normal mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Jianshu

    The formulation of quantum statistical mechanics based on the Feynman path centroid density. V regime using the Feynman path centroid perspective in quantum statistical mechanics. To accomplish of their lack of static and stable structures. The fluidity of liq- uids thereby makes it formally improper

  2. Quantum states built on classical nonlinear resonances for slowly deforming billiards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Nandan; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-10-15

    We study the modification in the energy spectrum of a closed, adiabatic Hamiltonian system due to the presence of classical nonlinear resonances. A number of resonances are shown to appear in the neighbourhood of the unperturbed energy levels. The unperturbed system is a simple rectangular billiard, subjected to adiabatic rotations and vibrations. We believe that the results hold equally well for a generic unperturbed system expressible in action variables alone, and perturbed there from.

  3. Classical dynamics of a two-species condensate driven by a quantum field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Rodríguez-Lara; Ray-Kuang Lee

    2011-07-08

    We present a stability analysis of an interacting two-species Bose-Einstein condensate driven by a quantized field in the semi-classical limit. Transitions from Rabi to Josephson dynamics are identified depending on both the inter-atomic interaction to field-condensate coupling ratio and the ratio between the total excitation number and the condensate size. The quantized field is found to produce asymmetric dynamics for symmetric initial conditions for both Rabi and Josephson oscillations.

  4. Quantum Memristors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Pfeiffer; I. L. Egusquiza; M. Di Ventra; M. Sanz; E. Solano

    2015-11-06

    Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.

  5. Quantum Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Mosca

    2008-08-04

    This article surveys the state of the art in quantum computer algorithms, including both black-box and non-black-box results. It is infeasible to detail all the known quantum algorithms, so a representative sample is given. This includes a summary of the early quantum algorithms, a description of the Abelian Hidden Subgroup algorithms (including Shor's factoring and discrete logarithm algorithms), quantum searching and amplitude amplification, quantum algorithms for simulating quantum mechanical systems, several non-trivial generalizations of the Abelian Hidden Subgroup Problem (and related techniques), the quantum walk paradigm for quantum algorithms, the paradigm of adiabatic algorithms, a family of ``topological'' algorithms, and algorithms for quantum tasks which cannot be done by a classical computer, followed by a discussion.

  6. The search for quantum critical scaling in a classical system Jagat Lamsal,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montfrooij, Wouter

    a new, lower energy ground state. An example is the observed superconducting state1 that forms close ordering and disordering tendencies, driven by quantum fluctuations. Unfortunately, there is a potential that this is not the case. From a chemical substitution point of view, this system is as clean as any syste

  7. Toward quantum opto-mechanics in a gram-scale suspended mirror interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wipf, Christopher (Christopher Conrad)

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors, currently under construction, will closely approach the fundamental quantum limits of measurement, serving as a prominent example of quantum mechanics at ...

  8. Classical Models of Subatomic Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann; M. S. Morris

    1993-07-21

    We look at the program of modelling a subatomic particle---one having mass, charge, and angular momentum---as an interior solution joined to a classical general-relativistic Kerr-Newman exterior spacetime. We find that the assumption of stationarity upon which the validity of the Kerr-Newman exterior solution depends is in fact violated quantum mechanically for all known subatomic particles. We conclude that the appropriate stationary spacetime matched to any known subatomic particle is flat space.

  9. Classical model of confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. P. Goncharov; N. E. Firsova

    2010-04-29

    The confinement mechanism proposed earlier and then applied successfully to meson spectroscopy by one of the authors is interpreted in classical terms. For this aim the unique solution of the Maxwell equations, an analog of the corresponding unique solution of the SU(3)-Yang-Mills equations describing linear confinement in quantum chromodynamics, is used. Motion of a charged particle is studied in the field representing magnetic part of the mentioned solution and it is shown that one deals with the full classical confinement of the charged particle in such a field: under any initial conditions the particle motion is accomplished within a finite region of space so that the particle trajectory is near magnetic field lines while the latter are compact manifolds (circles). An asymptotical expansion for the trajectory form in the strong field limit is adduced. The possible application of the obtained results in thermonuclear plasma physics is also shortly outlined.

  10. Extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics of Fierz and Schur Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhanna Kuznetsova; Francesco Toppan

    2010-12-05

    We discuss two independent constructions to introduce an N-extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. The first one makes use of the Fierz identities while the second one (divided into two subcases) makes use of the Schur lemma. The N supercharges Q_I are square roots of a free Hamiltonian H given by the tensor product of a D-dimensional Laplacian and a 2d-dimensional identity matrix operator. We present the mutual relations among N, D and d. The mod 8 Bott's periodicity of Clifford algebras is encoded, in the Fierz case, in the Radon-Hurwitz function and, in the Schur case, in an extra independent function.

  11. Extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics of Fierz and Schur Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuznetsova, Zhanna

    2010-01-01

    We discuss two independent constructions to introduce an N-extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. The first one makes use of the Fierz identities while the second one (divided into two subcases) makes use of the Schur lemma. The N supercharges Q_I are square roots of a free Hamiltonian H given by the tensor product of a D-dimensional Laplacian and a 2d-dimensional identity matrix operator. We present the mutual relations among N, D and d. The mod 8 Bott's periodicity of Clifford algebras is encoded, in the Fierz case, in the Radon-Hurwitz function and, in the Schur case, in an extra independent function.

  12. Loop formulation of supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle Steinhauer; Urs Wenger

    2014-10-01

    We derive the fermion loop formulation of N=4 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills quantum mechanics on the lattice. The loop formulation naturally separates the contributions to the partition function into its bosonic and fermionic parts with fixed fermion number and provides a way to control potential fermion sign problems arising in numerical simulations of the theory. Furthermore, we present a reduced fermion matrix determinant which allows the projection into the canonical sectors of the theory and hence constitutes an alternative approach to simulate the theory on the lattice.

  13. N + 1 dimensional quantum mechanical model for a closed universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Mongan

    1999-02-10

    A quantum mechanical model for an N + 1 dimensional universe arising from a quantum fluctuation is outlined. (3 + 1) dimensions are a closed infinitely-expanding universe and the remaining N - 3 dimensions are compact. The (3 + 1) non-compact dimensions are modeled by quantizing a canonical Hamiltonian description of a homogeneous isotropic universe. It is assumed gravity and the strong-electro-weak (SEW) forces had equal strength in the initial state. Inflation occurred when the compact N -3 dimensional space collapsed after a quantum transition from the initial state of the univers, during its evolution to the present state where gravity is much weaker than the SEW force. The model suggests the universe has no singularities and the large size of our present universe is determined by the relative strength of gravity and the SEW force today. A small cosmological constant, resulting from the zero point energy of the scalar field corresponding to the compact dimensions, makes the model universe expand forever.

  14. Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Danna; Peterson, Charles G; Dallmann, Nicholas; Hughes, Richard J; Mccabe, Kevin P; Nordholt, Jane E; Tyagi, Hush T; Peters, Nicholas A; Toliver, Paul; Chapman, Thomas E; Runser, Robert J; Mcnown, Scott R

    2008-01-01

    To move beyond dedicated links and networks, quantum communications signals must be integrated into networks carrying classical optical channels at power levels many orders of magnitude higher than the quantum signals themselves. We demonstrate transmission of a 1550-nm quantum channel with up to two simultaneous 200-GHz spaced classical telecom channels, using ROADM (reconfigurable optical <1dd drop multiplexer) technology for multiplexing and routing quantum and classical signals. The quantum channel is used to perform quantum key distribution (QKD) in the presence of noise generated as a by-product of the co-propagation of classical channels. We demonstrate that the dominant noise mechanism can arise from either four-wave mixing or spontaneous Raman scattering, depending on the optical path characteristics as well <1S the classical channel parameters. We quantity these impairments and discuss mitigation strategies.

  15. Substrate Hydroxylation in Methane Monooxygenase: Quantitative Modeling via Mixed Quantum Mechanics/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gherman, Benjamin F.

    Substrate Hydroxylation in Methane Monooxygenase: Quantitative Modeling via Mixed Quantum Mechanics with mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, the hydroxylation of methane. With the current results, recent kinetic data for CH3X (X ) H, CH3, OH, CN, NO2) substrate hydroxylation in MMOH

  16. Quantum Mechanical Methods for Drug Design Ting Zhou, Danzhi Huang, and Amedeo Caflisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Quantum Mechanical Methods for Drug Design Ting Zhou, Danzhi Huang, and Amedeo Caflisch Department mechanical methods in computer-aided drug design (CADD) is not just a consequence of ever growing computing.zhou@bioc.uzh.ch; Caflisch@bioc.uzh.ch Phone: +41 44 635 55 21. Fax: +41 44 635 68 62 Abstract Quantum mechanical (QM

  17. An Overview of Quantum Computing for Technology Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleanor G. Rieffel

    2008-09-26

    Faster algorithms, novel cryptographic mechanisms, and alternative methods of communication become possible when the model underlying information and computation changes from a classical mechanical model to a quantum mechanical one. Quantum algorithms perform a select set of tasks vastly more efficiently than any classical algorithm, but for many tasks it has been proved that quantum algorithms provide no advantage. The breadth of quantum computing applications is still being explored. Major application areas include security and the many fields that would benefit from efficient quantum simulation. The quantum information processing viewpoint provides insight into classical algorithmic issues as well as a deeper understanding of entanglement and other non-classical aspects of quantum physics. This overview is aimed at technology managers who wish to gain a high level understanding of quantum information processing, particularly quantum computing.

  18. This major provides a solid foundation in both the biological sciences and the fundamental concepts of classical and quantum physics through a variety of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leahy, Richard M.

    and Modern Physics PHYS 190: Physics Discovery Series Upper Division Requirements* BISC 320: MolecularThis major provides a solid foundation in both the biological sciences and the fundamental concepts of classical and quantum physics through a variety of tools that include abstract thought, experimentation

  19. Mini-Proceedings ECT*: Speakable in quantum mechanics: atomic, nuclear and subnuclear physics tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Curceanu; J. Marton; E. Milotti

    2011-12-06

    Mini-Proceedings ECT*: Speakable in quantum mechanics: atomic, nuclear and subnuclear physics tests, ECT*-Trento, 29 August - 2 September, 2011

  20. CONTROL OF NON-RESONANT EFFECTS IN A NUCLERA SPIN QUANTUM COMPUTER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COMPUTER WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF QUBITS G. BERMAN; ET AL 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUSMATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND...

  1. Upper Bound on Fidelity of Classical Sagnac Gyroscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas B. Bahder

    2011-01-24

    Numerous quantum mechanical schemes have been proposed that are intended to improve the sensitivity to rotation provided by the classical Sagnac effect in gyroscopes. A general metric is needed that can compare the performance of the new quantum systems with the classical systems. The fidelity (Shannon mutual information between the measurement and the rotation rate) is proposed as a metric that is capable of this comparison. A theoretical upper bound is derived for the fidelity of an ideal classical Sagnac gyroscope. This upper bound for the classical Sagnac gyroscope should be used as a benchmark to compare the performance of proposed enhanced classical and quantum rotation sensors. In fact, the fidelity is general enough to compare the quality of two different apparatuses (two different experiments) that attempt to measure the same quantity.

  2. A semiclassical study of quantum maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the behavior of quantum systems whose classical limit exhibits chaos defines the problem of quantum chaos. One would naturally ask how quantum mechanics approaches the classical limit [h bar] = 0, and how the chaotic motion in classical systems manifests itself in the corresponding quantum counterparts. Semiclassical mechanics is the bridge between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. For studying the quantum mechanics corresponding to generic classical motion it is desirable to use the simplest possible model. The model system the authors use is the kicked rotator. Detailed computations of both classical and quantum mechanics are feasible for this system. The relationship between invariant classical phase space structures and quantum eigenfunctions has been the focus of recent semiclassical studies. The authors study the eigenstates of the quantum standard map associated with both integrable and non-integrable regions in classical phase space. The coherent-state representation is used to make the correspondence between the quantum eigenstates and the classical phase space structure. The importance of periodic orbits in the quantum eigenstates of classically chaotic Hamiltonians has become a popular topic in study of semiclassical limits of the systems. Periodic orbits arise without any assumption in the trace formula developed by Gutzwiller. The authors calculate the semiclassical coherent-state propagator. Since computing all the complex stationary orbits is not practical, the authors make a further assumption which the authors call the periodic point dominance (PPD). The authors present arguments and evidence to show that the PPD approximation works well in hard chaos regions where the full semiclassical approximation is not practical to use. The method fails in some boundary regions where both stable and unstable points are present, but the full semiclassical approximation is not a much better method than the PPD in many situations.

  3. Nonclassicality of quantum excitation of classical coherent fields in thermal environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shang-Bin Li; Justin Liu; Xu-Bo Zou; Guang-Can Guo

    2007-10-19

    The nonclassicality of photon-added coherent fields in the thermal channel is investigated by exploring the volume of the negative part of the Wigner function which reduces with the dissipative time. The Wigner functions become positive when the decay time exceeds a threshold value. For the case of the single photon-added coherent state, we derive the exact threshold values of decay time in the thermal channel. For arbitrary partial negative Wigner distribution function, a generic analytical relation between the mean photon number of heat bath and the threshold value of decay time is presented. Finally, the possible application of SPACSs in quantum computation has been briefly discussed. OCIS codes: 270.0270, 270.2500, 000.5490

  4. Quantum Structures of a Model-Universe: An Inconsistency with Everett Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Jeknic-Dugic; M. Dugic; A. Francom

    2013-08-13

    We observe a Quantum Brownian Motion (QBM) Model Universe in conjunction with recently established Entanglement Relativity and Parallel Occurrence of Decoherence. The Parallel Occurrence of Decoherence establishes the simultaneous occurrence of decoherence for two mutually irreducible structures (decomposition into subsystems) of the total QBM model universe. First we find that Everett world branching for one structure excludes branching for the alternate structure and in order to reconcile this situation branching cannot be allowed for either of the structures considered. Second, we observe the non-existence of a third, "emergent structure", that could approximate both structures and also be allowed to branch. Ultimately we find unless world-branching requires additional criteria or conditions, or there is a privileged structure, that we provide a valid model that cannot be properly described by the Everett Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

  5. Quantum mechanics based force field for carbon ,,QMFF-Cx... validated to reproduce the mechanical and thermodynamics properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Quantum mechanics based force field for carbon ,,QMFF-Cx... validated to reproduce the mechanical mechanics based force field for carbon QMFF-Cx by fitting to results from density functional theory . A third, eclipsed geometry is calculated to be much higher in energy. The QMFF-Cx force field leads

  6. Ab initio statistical mechanics of surface adsorption and desorption. II. Nuclear quantum effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    systems for which quantum contributions to the free energy are known exactly from analytic arguments/mol. As a contribution to these developments, we present here a practical scheme for including quantum nuclear effectsAb initio statistical mechanics of surface adsorption and desorption. II. Nuclear quantum effects D

  7. Origin of Mass. Mass and Mass-Energy Equation from Classical-Mechanics Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson; P-I. Johansson

    2006-01-23

    We establish the classical wave equation for a particle formed of a massless oscillatory elementary charge generally also traveling, and the resulting electromagnetic waves, of a generally Doppler-effected angular frequency $\\w$, in the vacuum in three dimensions. We obtain from the solutions the total energy of the particle wave to be $\\eng=\\hbarc\\w$, $2\\pi \\hbarc$ being a function expressed in wave-medium parameters and identifiable as the Planck constant. In respect to the train of the waves as a whole traveling at the finite velocity of light $c$, $\\eng=mc^2$ represents thereby the translational kinetic energy of the wavetrain, $m=\\hbarc\\w/c^2$ being its inertial mass and thereby the inertial mass of the particle. Based on the solutions we also write down a set of semi-empirical equations for the particle's de Broglie wave parameters. From the standpoint of overall modern experimental indications we comment on the origin of mass implied by the solution.

  8. Mechanical resonators for storage and transfer of electrical and optical quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. McGee; D. Meiser; C. A. Regal; K. W. Lehnert; M. J. Holland

    2013-05-29

    We study an optomechanical system in which a microwave field and an optical field are coupled to a common mechanical resonator. We explore methods that use these mechanical resonators to store quantum mechanical states and to transduce states between the electromagnetic resonators from the perspective of the effect of mechanical decoherence. Besides being of fundamental interest, this coherent quantum state transfer could have important practical implications in the field of quantum information science, as it potentially allows one to overcome intrinsic limitations of both microwave and optical platforms. We discuss several state transfer protocols and study their transfer fidelity using a fully quantum mechanical model that utilizes quantum state-diffusion techniques. This work demonstrates that mechanical decoherence should not be an insurmountable obstacle in realizing high fidelity storage and transduction.

  9. Tungsten-dependent formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: Reaction mechanism from quantum chemical calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Tungsten-dependent formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: Reaction mechanism from quantum chemical April 2011 Keywords: Tungstoenzyme Formaldehyde oxidoreductase Reaction mechanism Density functional theory Enzyme catalysis Formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus is a tungsten

  10. A conjecture concerning determinism and phases in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Jabs

    2015-02-04

    It is shown that it is possible to introduce determinism into quantum mechanics by tracing the probabilities in the Born rules back to pseudorandomness in the absolute phase constants of the wave functions. Each wave function is conceived to contain an individual phase factor exp(i alpha). In an ensemble of systems the phase constants alpha are taken to be pseudorandom numbers. A reduction process (collapse) of the wave function, independent of any measurement, is conceived to be a spatial contraction, and a criterion is conjectured of when and where it occurs. It depends on the phase constants of both the considered wave function and that of a small cluster in its environment. A measurement apparatus offers an appropriate environment and associates the point of contraction with an eigenvalue of the observable. The theory is nonlocal and contextual.

  11. Demonstration of local teleportation using classical entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman-Silva, Diego; Zimmermann, Felix; Vetter, Christian; Gräfe, Markus; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Duparré, Michael; Aiello, Andrea; Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Teleportation is the most widely discussed application of the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Fundamentally, this process describes the transmission of information, which involves transport of neither matter nor energy. The implicit assumption, however, is that this scheme is of inherently nonlocal nature, and therefore exclusive to quantum systems. Here, we show that the concept can be readily generalized beyond the quantum realm. We present an optical implementation of the teleportation protocol solely based on classical entanglement between spatial and modal degrees of freedom, entirely independent of nonlocality. Our findings could enable novel methods for distributing information between different transmission channels and may provide the means to leverage the advantages of both quantum and classical systems to create a robust hybrid communication infrastructure.

  12. Thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories in systems driven by classical fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian A. Budini

    2010-12-03

    The large-deviation method can be used to study the measurement trajectories of open quantum systems. For optical arrangements this formalism allows to describe the long time properties of the (non-equilibrium) photon counting statistics in the context of a (equilibrium) thermodynamic approach defined in terms of dynamical phases and transitions between them in the trajectory space [J.P. Garrahan and I. Lesanovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160601 (2010)]. In this paper, we study the thermodynamic approach for fluorescent systems coupled to complex reservoirs that induce stochastic fluctuations in their dynamical parameters. In a fast modulation limit the thermodynamics corresponds to that of a Markovian two-level system. In a slow modulation limit, the thermodynamic properties are equivalent to those of a finite system that in an infinite-size limit is characterized by a first-order transition. The dynamical phases correspond to different intensity regimes, while the size of the system is measured by the transition rate of the bath fluctuations. As a function of a dimensionless intensive variable, the first and second derivative of the thermodynamic potential develop an abrupt change and a narrow peak respectively. Their scaling properties are consistent with a double-Gaussian probability distribution of the associated extensive variable.

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 063806 (2011) Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical Brillouin cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmon, Tal

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 063806 (2011) Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical Brillouin cooling for the purpose of cooling optomechanical devices and present a quantum-mechanical theory for Brillouin cooling. Our analysis shows that significant cooling ratios can be obtained with standard experimental

  14. Converged vibrational energy levels and quantum mechanical vibrational partition function of ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Converged vibrational energy levels and quantum mechanical vibrational partition function of ethane­25 In this article, we report converged vibrational levels and converged quantum mechanical vibrational partition-0431 Received 25 January 2006; accepted 15 March 2006; published online 9 May 2006 The vibrational partition

  15. Mechanism for thermoelectric figure-of-merit enhancement in regimented quantum dot superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism for thermoelectric figure-of-merit enhancement in regimented quantum dot superlattices propose a mechanism for enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit in regimented quantum dot, as a result, to the thermoelectric figure-of-merit enhancement. To maximize the improvement, one has to tune

  16. An Investigation on the Basic Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics by Using the Clifford Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elio Conte

    2011-06-14

    We review our approach to quantum mechanics adding also some new interesting results. We start by giving proof of two important theorems on the existence of the and Clifford algebras. This last algebra gives proof of the von Neumann basic postulates on the quantum measurement explaining thus in an algebraic manner the wave function collapse postulated in standard quantum theory. In this manner we reach the objective to expose a self-consistent version of quantum mechanics. We give proof of the quantum like Heisenberg uncertainty relations, the phenomenon of quantum Mach Zender interference as well as quantum collapse in some cases of physical interest We also discuss the problem of time evolution of quantum systems as well as the changes in space location. We also give demonstration of the Kocken-Specher theorem, and also we give an algebraic formulation and explanation of the EPR . By using the same approach we also derive Bell inequalities. Our formulation is strongly based on the use of idempotents that are contained in Clifford algebra. Their counterpart in quantum mechanics is represented by the projection operators that are interpreted as logical statements, following the basic von Neumann results. Using the Clifford algebra we are able to invert such result. According to the results previously obtained by Orlov in 1994, we are able to give proof that quantum mechanics derives from logic. We show that indeterminism and quantum interference have their origin in the logic.

  17. Quantum Information Biology: from information interpretation of quantum mechanics to applications in molecular biology and cognitive psychology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanari Asano; Irina Basieva; Andrei Khrennikov; Masanori Ohya; Yoshiharu Tanaka; Ichiro Yamato

    2015-03-09

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB) -- one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. It is based on the quantum-like paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all scales, from molecular biology and genetics/epigenetics to cognitive psychology and behavioral economics. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. We also point out that QBIsm (Quantum Bayesianism) can serve to find a proper interpretation of bio-quantum probabilities. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: a) adaptivity; b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism -- quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems as a special case of adaptivity (to environment).

  18. On the explanation for quantum statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Saunders

    2005-11-15

    The concept of classical indistinguishability is analyzed and defended against a number of well-known criticisms, with particular attention to the Gibbs' paradox. Granted that it is as much at home in classical as in quantum statistical mechanics, the question arises as to why indistinguishability, in quantum mechanics but not in classical mechanics, forces a change in statistics. The answer, illustrated with simple examples, is that the equilibrium measure on classical phase space is continuous, whilst on Hilbert space it is discrete. The relevance of names, or equivalently, properties stable in time that can be used as names, is also discussed.

  19. Theoretical Study of the Inverting Mechanism in a Processive Cellobiohydrolase with Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Payne, C. M.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Hypocrea jecorina Family 6 cellobiohydrolase (Cel6A) is one of most efficient enzymes for cellulose deconstruction to soluble sugars and is thus of significant current interest for the growing biofuels industry. Cel6A is known to hydrolyze b(1,4)-glycosidic linkages in cellulose via an inverting mechanism, but there are still questions that remain regarding the role of water and the catalytic base. Here we study the inverting, single displacement, hydrolytic reaction mechanism in Cel6A using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computational model used to follow the reaction is a truncated active site model with several explicit waters based on structural studies of H. jecorina Cel6A. Proposed mechanisms are evaluated with several density functionals. From our calculations, the role of the water in nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon, and the roles of several residues in the active site loops are elucidated explicitly for the first time. We also apply quantum mechanical calculations to understand the proton transfer reaction which completes the catalytic cycle.

  20. New scenarios for classical and quantum mechanical systems with position dependent mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2015-07-18

    An inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein compactification to four dimensions, followed by a conformal transformation, results in a system with position dependent mass (PDM). This origin of a PDM is quite different from the condensed matter one. A substantial generalization of a previously studied nonlinear oscillator with variable mass is obtained, wherein the position dependence of the mass of a nonrelativistic particle is due to a dilatonic coupling function emerging from the extra dimension. Previously obtained solutions for such systems can be extended and reinterpreted as nonrelativistic particles interacting with dilaton fields, which, themselves, can have interesting structures. An application is presented for the nonlinear oscillator, where within the new scenario the particle is coupled to a dilatonic string.