Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter: Problems
G. Ropke; D. Zablocki
2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z
In connection with the contribution "Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter" some problems are given to become more familiar with the techniques of many-particle physics.
Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITY AEROSOL:Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum
Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITY AEROSOL:Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE
Quasiparticle light elements and quantum condensates in nuclear matter
G. Röpke
2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
Nuclei in dense matter are influenced by the medium. In the cluster mean field approximation, an effective Schr\\"odinger equation for the $A$-particle cluster is obtained accounting for the effects of the surrounding medium, such as self-energy and Pauli blocking. Similar to the single-baryon states (free neutrons and protons), the light elements ($2 \\le A \\le 4$, internal quantum state $\
Color Glass Condensates in dense quark matter and quantum Hall states of gluons
Aiichi Iwazaki
2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
We apply the effective theory of color glass condensate to the analysis of gluon states in dense quark matter, in which the saturation region of gluons is also present. We find that in the region two point function of gluons shows algebraic long range order. The order is completely the same as the one gluons show in the dense quark matter, which form quantum Hall states. The order leads to the vanishing of massless gluon pole. We also find that the saturation region of gluons extends from small $x$ to even large $x\\lesssim 1$ in much dense quark matter. We point out a universality that the color glass condensate is a property of hadrons at high energy and of quark matter at high baryon density.
van der Torre, Leon
Master in Condensed Matter Physics Master académique #12;2 #12;3 Students at the University. Condensed matter physics is about explaining and predicting the relationship between the atomic, and broad education in the field of condensed matter physics · introduce you to current research topics
Shulman, Michael
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting of condensed matter physics has grown to nearly 10,000 participants, comprises 23 individual APS groups, and even warrants its own hashtag (#apsmarch). Here we analyze the text and data from March Meeting abstracts of the past nine years and discuss trends in condensed matter physics over this time period. We find that in comparison to atomic, molecular, and optical physics, condensed matter changes rapidly, and that condensed matter appears to be moving increasingly toward subject matter that is traditionally in materials science and engineering.
Magnets & Magnet Condensed Matter Science
McQuade, D. Tyler
18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials Pressure 9 Metal to Insulator Transition on the N=0 Landau Level in Graphene 10 Evidence for Fractional Quantum Hall States in Suspended Bilayer and Trilayer Graphene 11 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Aguirre, Anthony
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...
Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter
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Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...
On the condensed matter scheme for emergent gravity and interferometry
G. Jannes
2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
An increasingly popular approach to quantum gravity rests on the idea that gravity (and maybe electromagnetism and the other gauge fields) might be an 'emergent phenomenon', in the sense of representing a collective behaviour resulting from a very different microscopic physics. A prominent example of this approach is the condensed matter scheme for quantum gravity, which considers the possibility that gravity emerges as an effective low-energy phenomenon from the quantum vacuum in a way similar to the emergence of collective excitations in condensed matter systems. This condensed matter view of the quantum vacuum clearly hints that, while the term 'ether' has been discredited for about a century, quantum gravity holds many (if not all) of the characteristics that have led people in the past to label various hypothetical substances with the term 'ether'. Since the last burst of enthusiasm for an ether, at the end of the 19th century, was brought to the grave in part by the performance of a series of important experiments in interferometry, the suggestion then naturally arises that maybe interferometry could also play a role in the current discussion on quantum gravity. We will highlight some aspects of this suggestion in the context of the condensed matter scheme for emergent gravity.
Strong field physics in condensed matter
Oka, Takashi
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
There are deep similarities between non-linear QFT studied in high-energy and non-equilibrium physics in condensed matter. Ideas such as the Schwinger mechanism and the Volkov state are deeply related to non-linear transport and photovoltaic Hall effect in condensed matter. Here, we give a review on these relations.
Strong field physics in condensed matter
Takashi Oka
2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
There are deep similarities between non-linear QFT studied in high-energy and non-equilibrium physics in condensed matter. Ideas such as the Schwinger mechanism and the Volkov state are deeply related to non-linear transport and photovoltaic Hall effect in condensed matter. Here, we give a review on these relations.
Quark and Gluon Condensates in Isospin Matter
Lianyi He; Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang
2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
Applying the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to a charged pion gas, the quark and gluon condensates at low isospin density are determined by precise pion properties. At intermediate density around $ f_\\pi^2m_\\pi$, from both the estimation for the dilute pion gas and the calculation with Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, the quark condensate is strongly and monotonously suppressed, while the gluon condensate is enhanced and can be larger than its vacuum value. This unusual behavior of the gluon condensate is universal for Bose condensed matter of mesons. Our results can be tested by lattice calculations at finite isospin density.
Bulk viscosity in kaon condensed matter
Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay
2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the effect of $K^-$ condensed matter on bulk viscosity and r-mode instability in neutron stars. The bulk viscosity coefficient due to the non-leptonic process $n \\rightleftharpoons p + K^-$ is studied here. In this connection, equations of state are constructed within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models where nucleon-nucleon and kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. We find that the bulk viscosity coefficient due to the non-leptonic weak process in the condensate is suppressed by several orders of magnitude. Consequently, kaon bulk viscosity may not damp the r-mode instability in neutron stars.
Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos
Castañeda Valle, David, E-mail: casvada@gmail.com; Mielke, Eckehard W., E-mail: ekke@xanum.uam.mx
2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose–Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM ‘bullets’ observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein–Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two ‘lump’ type solitons. -- Highlights: •An axion model of dark matter is considered. •Collision of axion type solitons are studied in a two dimensional toy model. •Relations to dark matter collisions in galaxy clusters are proposed.
Neutron Scattering: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science, MPA...
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Neutron Scattering Neutron Scattering Capability description: Neutron scattering is a powerful probe of structure and collective modes of condensed matter. We are focused on direct...
8 Boltzmann Transport in Condensed Matter Franz Xaver Bronold
Fehske, Holger
equations as applied to the analysis of transport and relaxation phenomena in condensed matter systems. 88 Boltzmann Transport in Condensed Matter Franz Xaver Bronold Institut fÂ¨ur Physik, Universit of view. Envisaging the molecules of the gas to perform free flights, which are occasionally interrupted
Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter
K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce
2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the bound nucleon sigma term and its effect on the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model it is shown that the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative. Thus, the correction decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar sigma field of the model. It appreciably moderates the decrease relative to the leading term at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.
Critical temperature of antikaon condensation in nuclear matter
Sarmistha Banik; Walter Greiner; Debades Bandyopadhyay
2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of $K^-$ mesons in neutron star matter. This is studied within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models at finite temperature where nucleon-nucleon and (anti)kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of mesons. The melting of the antikaon condensate is studied for different values of antikaon optical potential depths. We find that the critical temperature of antikaon condensation increases with baryon number density. Further it is noted that the critical temperature is lowered as antikaon optical potential becomes less attractive. We also construct the phase diagram of neutron star matter with $K^-$ condensate.
Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.
2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter
Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville
2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.
Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter
Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...
Gluon condensation and deconfinement critical density in nuclear matter
M. Baldo; P. Castorina; D. Zappala'
2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z
An upper limit to the critical density for the transition to the deconfined phase, at zero temperature, has been evaluated by analyzing the behavior of the gluon condensate in nuclear matter. Due to the non linear baryon density effects, the upper limit to the critical density, \\rho_c turns out about nine times the saturation density, rho_0 for the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum =0.012 GeV^4. For neutron matter \\rho_c \\simeq 8.5 \\rho_0. The dependence of the critical density on the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum is studied.
Quantum computational tensor network on string-net condensate
Tomoyuki Morimae
2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
The string-net condensate is a new class of materials which exhibits the quantum topological order. In order to answer the important question, "how useful is the string-net condensate in quantum information processing?", we consider the most basic example of the string-net condensate, namely the $Z_2$ gauge string-net condensate on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and show that the universal measurement-based quantum computation (in the sense of the quantum computational webs) is possible on it by using the framework of the quantum computational tensor network. This result implies that even the most basic example of the string-net condensate is equipped with the correlation space that has the capacity for the universal quantum computation.
Quantum vacuum and dark matter
Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic
2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.
Aspen Winter Conference on Unifying Themes in Condensed Matter
Aspen Winter Conference on Unifying Themes in Condensed Matter Mon Jan 12, 2009 Classical vs + poster presentations 8pm - 11pm Dinner at Aspen Meadows Tue Jan 13, 2009 Strong Correlation; Host: Subir Correlated Systems 7:35pm - 7:50pm Discussion + poster presentations 8pm - 11pm Dinner at Aspen Meadows Wed
CONDENSED MATTER THEORIST, MATERIALS SCIENCE DIVISION ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY
6/29/11 CONDENSED MATTER THEORIST, MATERIALS SCIENCE DIVISION ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY Argonne Division, preferably by e-mail (norman@anl.gov), otherwise by regular mail (MSD-223, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL 60439). Please use the subject line "CMT Search" in any e-mail correspondence. Argonne
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Dark Matter Axions
Sikivie, P.; Yang, Q. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)
2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.
Temporal condensed matter physics in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers
Saleh, Mohammed F; Tran, Truong X; Marini, Andrea; Belli, Federico; Abdolvand, Amir; Biancalana, Fabio
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Raman effect in gases can generate an extremely long-living wave of coherence that can lead to the establishment of an almost perfect periodic variation of the medium refractive index. We show theoretically and numerically that the equations, regulate the pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by Raman-active gas, are exactly identical to a classical problem in quantum condensed matter physics -- but with the role of space and time reversed -- namely an electron in a periodic potential subject to a constant electric field. We are therefore able to infer the existence of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch oscillations, and Zener tunneling, phenomena that are normally associated with condensed matter physics only, now realized with purely optical means in the temporal domain.
Greenaway, Alan
Strategy for SUPA Condensed Matter and Material Physics Theme, 2012 Introduction Condensed Matter optics Energy/Photonics: photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and fuel-cells PALS: statistical mechanics the best students who are available on the UK, European, and world-wide markets. With this in mind
Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter KISHORE T. KAPALE
Allen, Roland E.
Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter KISHORE T. KAPALE June 24, 2003 #12;BOSE-EINSTEIN Statistics Intuitive picture of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) Statistical mechanics of BECs Experimental techniques to achieve BEC. · What can we do with Bose-Einstein condensates? Coherence in the condensates Atom
Tanja Rindler-Daller; Paul R. Shapiro
2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z
If cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) consists of light enough bosonic particles that their phase-space density exceeds unity, they will comprise a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The nature of this BEC-CDM as a quantum fluid may then distinguish it dynamically from the standard form of CDM involving a collisionless gas of non-relativistic particles that interact purely gravitationally. We summarize some of the dynamical properties of BEC-CDM that may lead to observable signatures in galactic halos and present some of the bounds on particle mass and self-interaction coupling strength that result from a comparison with observed galaxies.
Dark Matter Halos as Bose-Einstein Condensates
Eckehard W. Mielke; Burkhard Fuchs; Franz E. Schunck
2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
Galactic dark matter is modelled by a scalar field in order to effectively modify Kepler's law without changing standard Newtonian gravity. In particular, a solvable toy model with a self-interaction U(Phi) borrowed from non-topological solitons produces already qualitatively correct rotation curves and scaling relations. Although relativistic effects in the halo are very small, we indicate corrections arising from the general relativistic formulation. Thereby, we can also probe the weak gravitational lensing of our soliton type halo. For cold scalar fields, it corresponds to a gravitationally confined Boson-Einstein condensate, but of galactic dimensions.
Quantum field theory for condensation of bosons and fermions
De Souza, Adriano N.; Filho, Victo S. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional (LFTC), Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
In this brief review, we describe the formalism of the quantum field theory for the analysis of the condensation phenomenon in bosonic systems, by considering the cases widely verified in laboratory of trapped gases as condensate states, either with attractive or with repulsive two-body interactions. We review the mathematical formulation of the quantum field theory for many particles in the mean-field approximation, by adopting contact interaction potential. We also describe the phenomenon of condensation in the case of fermions or the degenerate Fermi gas, also verified in laboratory in the crossover BEC-BCS limit. We explain that such a phenomenon, equivalent to the bosonic condensation, can only occur if we consider the coupling of particles in pairs behaving like bosons, as occurs in the case of Cooper's pairs in superconductivity.
Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...
Bose-Einstein condensation of a quantum group gas
Marcelo R. Ubriaco
1997-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Bose-Einstein condensation of a gas with $SU_q(2)$ symmetry. We show, in the thermodynamic limit, that the boson interactions introduced by the quantum group symmetries enhance Bose-Einstein condensation giving a discontinuity in the heat capacity $C_v$ at the critical temperature $T_c$. The critical temperature and the gap in $C_v$ increase with the value of the parameter $q$ and become approximately constant for $q>3$.
Generalized quantum gravity condensates for homogeneous geometries and cosmology
Daniele Oriti; Daniele Pranzetti; James P. Ryan; Lorenzo Sindoni
2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states, that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. The construction is based on the definition of refinement operators on spin network states, written in a second quantized language. The construction lends itself easily to be applied also to the case of spherically symmetric quantum geometries.
Wang, Daw-Wei
Effect of Quantum Fluctuations on the Dipolar Motion of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical of condensate atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices and harmonic magnetic traps including quantum is reduced, on the contrary, strong quantum fluctuations lead to finite damping of condensate oscillations
Quantum-limited metrology and Bose-Einstein condensates
Sergio Boixo; Animesh Datta; Matthew J. Davis; Anil Shaji; Alexandre B. Tacla; Carlton M. Caves
2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss a quantum-metrology protocol designed to estimate a physical parameter in a Bose-Einstein condensate of N atoms, and we show that the measurement uncertainty can decrease faster than 1/N. The 1/N scaling is usually thought to be the best possible in any measurement scheme. From the perspective of quantum information theory, we outline the main idea that leads to a measurement uncertainty that scales better than 1/N. We examine in detail some potential problems and challenges that arise in implementing such a measurement protocol using a Bose-Einstein condensate. We discuss how some of these issues can be dealt with by using lower-dimensional condensates trapped in nonharmonic potentials.
Yeh, Nai-Chang
Physics A Perspective of Frontiers in Modern Condensed Matter Physics Nai-Chang Yeh Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA Articles Modern condensed matter physics research frontiers in modern condensed matter physics without getting too much into the technical details
antikaon condensed matter: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
higher than that of K- condensation. With the appearance of K- and bar K0 condensates, pairs of p-K- and n-bar K0 are produced with equal proportion leading to a...
Dynamical quantum noise in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Steel,1,2
Queensland, University of
Dynamical quantum noise in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Steel,1,2 M. K. Olsen,1, * L. I introduce the study of dynamical quantum noise in Bose-Einstein condensates through numerical simu- lation equations for a single trapped condensate in both the positive-P and Wigner representations and perform
Effective Holographic Theories for low-temperature condensed matter systems
C. Charmousis; B. Goutéraux; B. S. Kim; E. Kiritsis; Rene Meyer
2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
The IR dynamics of effective holographic theories capturing the interplay between charge density and the leading relevant scalar operator at strong coupling are analyzed. Such theories are parameterized by two real exponents $(\\gamma,\\delta)$ that control the IR dynamics. By studying the thermodynamics, spectra and conductivities of several classes of charged dilatonic black hole solutions that include the charge density back reaction fully, the landscape of such theories in view of condensed matter applications is characterized. Several regions of the $(\\gamma,\\delta)$ plane can be excluded as the extremal solutions have unacceptable singularities. The classical solutions have generically zero entropy at zero temperature, except when $\\gamma=\\delta$ where the entropy at extremality is finite. The general scaling of DC resistivity with temperature at low temperature, and AC conductivity at low frequency and temperature across the whole $(\\gamma,\\delta)$ plane, is found. There is a codimension-one region where the DC resistivity is linear in the temperature. For massive carriers, it is shown that when the scalar operator is not the dilaton, the DC resistivity scales as the heat capacity (and entropy) for planar (3d) systems. Regions are identified where the theory at finite density is a Mott-like insulator at T=0. We also find that at low enough temperatures the entropy due to the charge carriers is generically larger than at zero charge density.
Quantum-information approach to rotating Bose-Einstein condensates
Liu Zhao; Guo Hongli; Chen Shu; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the two-dimensional weakly interacting rotating Bose-Einstein condensate by the tools of quantum information theory. The critical exponents of the ground-state fidelity susceptibility and the correlation length of the system are obtained for the sudden change of the ground state when the first vortex is formed. This sudden change can also be indicated by the ground state entanglement. We also find the single-particle entanglement can be an indicator of the angular momentums for some real ground states. The single-particle entanglement of fractional quantum Hall states such as Laughlin state and Pfaffian state is also studied.
Optical, electronic, and dynamical phenomena in the shock compression of condensed matter
Reed, Evan J. (Evan John), 1976-
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Despite the study of shock wave compression of condensed matter for over 100 years, scant progress has been made in understanding the microscopic details. This thesis explores microscopic phenomena in shock compression of ...
??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates : machine construction and quantum Zeno experiments
Streed, Erik William
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis details construction of a new apparatus for the production of 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates and a subsequent quantum Zeno effect experiment. An experimental apparatus for producing large Bose-Einstein condensates ...
Role of fluctuations and defects in select condensed matter problems
Pressé, Steve, 1981-
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Defects and fluctuations dominate both static and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. In this work, we focus on three such examples. Firstly, we model the effect of proton fluctuations on the rate of ...
Evolution and dynamical properties of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter stars
Eniko J. M. Madarassy; Viktor T. Toth
2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
Using recently developed nonrelativistic numerical simulation code, we investigate the stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed due to the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Due to dark matter accretion, a Bose-Einstein condensed core can also be formed inside massive astrophysical objects such as neutron stars or white dwarfs, for example. Numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of coupled differential equations, we demonstrate, with longer simulation runs, that within the computational limits of the simulation the objects we investigate are stable. Physical properties of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate are examined both in non-rotating and rotating cases.
Quantum dynamics and macroscopic quantum tunneling of two weakly coupled condensates
René John Kerkdyk; S. Sinha
2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z
We study the quantum dynamics of a Bose Josephson junction(BJJ) made up of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. Apart from the usual ac Josephson oscillations, two different dynamical states of BJJ can be observed by tuning the inter-particle interaction strength, which are known as '$\\pi$-oscillation' with relative phase $\\pi$ between the condensates and 'macroscopic self-trapped' (MST) state with finite number imbalance. By choosing appropiate intial state we study above dynamical branches quantum mechanically and compare with classical dynamics. The stability region of the '$\\pi$-oscillation' is separated from that of 'MST' state at a critical coupling strength. Also a significant change in the energy spectrum takes place above the critical coupling strength, and pairs of (quasi)-degenerate excited states appear. The original model of BJJ can be mapped on to a simple Hamiltonian describing quantum particle in an 'effective potential' with an effective Planck constant. Different dynamical states and degenerate excited states in the energy spectrum can be understood in this 'effective potential' approach. Also possible novel quantum phenomena like 'macroscopic quantum tunneling'(MQT) become evident from the simple picture of 'effective potential'. We study decay of metastable '$\\pi$-oscillation' by MQT through potential barrier. The doubly degenerate excited states in the energy spectrum are associated with the classically degenerate MST states with equal and opposite number imbalance. We calculate the energy splitting between these quasi-degenerate excited states due to MQT of the condensate between classically degenerate MST states.
Coherent Control of Quantum Matter
Cavalleri, Andrea (Max Planck Institute) [Max Planck Institute
2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z
This talk addresses some recent work aimed at controlling the low-lying electrodynamics of quantum solids using strong field transients. The excitation of selected vibrational resonances to manipulate the many-body physics of one dimensional Mott Hubbard Insulators and to perturb competing orders in High-Tc superconductors is also covered. Finally, the speaker shows how the electrodynamics of layered superconductors can be driven through the orderparameter phase gradient, demonstrating ultrafast transistor action in a layered superconductor. Advances in the use of coherent optics, from tabletop sources to THz and x-ray free-electron lasers are also discussed.
Yoo, S. J. Ben
OF QUANTUM FLUID WITH FRACTIONALLY CHARGED EXCITATIONS THE QUANTUM HALL EFFECT, FRACTIONAL CHARGE--THEORY 8 RESOLUTION NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) SPECTROSCOPY NMR SPECTROSCOPY (CURRO) #12;A Look at the Future Be Met? Solar cells, fuel cells,... What New Discoveries Await Us in the Nanoworld? Surface
Wave packet dynamics of the matter wave field of a Bose-Einstein condensate
C. Sudheesh; S. Lakshmibala; V. Balakrishnan
2004-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
We show in the framework of a tractable model that revivals and fractional revivals of wave packets afford clear signatures of the extent of departure from coherence and from Poisson statistics of the matter wave field in a Bose-Einstein condensate, or of a suitably chosen initial state of the radiation field propagating in a Kerr-like medium.
Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics
S. A. Alavi; F. S. Kazemian
2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z
To identify the nature and properties of dark matter is one of the most serious open problems in modern physics. We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with ordinary matter (standard model particles) via photonic portal(hidden photonic portal). We search for the effects of this new interaction in quantum physics, therefore we study its effects on hydrogen atom because it is a simple and a well-studied quantum system so it can be considered as an outstanding test for dark matter signatures. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon due to the hidden photonic portal. At the moment there is a deviation between the standard model prediction for muon anomalous magnetic moment and its experimental value so the anomalous magnetic moment of muon can provide an important test of the standard model and the theories beyond it.
Manipulating Quantum States of Molecules Created via Photoassociation of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Xiao-Ting Zhou; Xiong-Jun Liu; Hui Jing; C. H. Lai; C. H. Oh
2007-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
We show the quantum state transfer technique in two-color photoassociation (PA) of a Bose-Einstein condensate, where a quantized field is used to couple the free-bound transition from atom state to excited molecular state. Under the weak excitation condition, we find that quantum states of the quantized field can be transferred to the created molecular condensate. The feasibility of this technique is confirmed by considering the atomic and molecular decays discovered in the current PA experiments. The present results allow us to manipulate quantum states of molecules in the photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Cheng, Yuan-Chung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, we develop analytical models for quantum systems and perform theoretical investigations on several dynamical processes in condensed phases. First, we study charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular ...
Generalized Quantum Theory and Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory
Maroun, Michael Anthony
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Unique Status of Condensed Matter Theory . . . . . . . .of a Satisfactory Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . BasicThe Generalized Quantum Theory The Postulates and Philosophy
Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation: a model beyond Cold Dark Matter
Yang, Q. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)
2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z
Cold dark matter axions form a Bose-Einstein condensate if the axions thermalize. Recently, it was found [1] that they do thermalize when the photon temperature reaches T{approx}100 eV(f/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 1/2} and that they continue to do so thereafter. We discuss the differences between axion BEC and CDM in the linear regime and the non-linear regime of evolution of density perturbations. We find that axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multi-poles.
Fidelity for the quantum evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate Jie Liu,1,2
Li, Baowen
in the control, manipulation, and even future application of this newly formed matter. Dy- namical instability 3-Einstein condensate BEC and reveal its general property with a simple two-component BEC model. We find that, when The investigation of coherent manipulation of the quan- tum state of matter and light has provided insights
Complex Langevin simulation of quantum vortex nucleation in the Bose-Einstein condensate
Tomoya Hayata; Arata Yamamoto
2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
The ab-initio simulation of quantum vortex nucleation in the Bose-Einstein condensate is performed by adopting the complex Langevin techniques. We simulate the two-component boson field theory at a finite chemical potential under rotation. In the superfluid phase, vortices are generated above a critical angular velocity and the circulation is clearly quantized even in the presence of quantum fluctuations.
RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division
Fukai, Tomoki
Molecular Function Research Group Emergent Bioinspired Soft Matter Research Team Emergent Device Research Bioengineering Materials Research Team Materials Characterization Support Unit Quantum Information Electronics Condensate Research Team Macroscopic Quantum Coherence Research Team Superconducting Quantum Electronics
Optimal quantum control of Bose Einstein condensates in magnetic microtraps
Ulrich Hohenester; Per Kristian Rekdal; Alfio Borzi; Joerg Schmiedmayer
2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Transport of Bose-Einstein condensates in magnetic microtraps, controllable by external parameters such as wire currents or radio-frequency fields, is studied within the framework of optimal control theory (OCT). We derive from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation the optimality system for the OCT fields that allow to efficiently channel the condensate between given initial and desired states. For a variety of magnetic confinement potentials we study transport and wavefunction splitting of the condensate, and demonstrate that OCT allows to drastically outperfrom more simple schemes for the time variation of the microtrap control parameters.
Barbosa, Marcia C. B.
IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 116105 (10. Analysis of the hydrogen-bond net across the phase diagram indicates that the density anomaly] was proposed. The associating lattice gas model (ALG) [20, 21] is based on the competition between the filling
The Big Bang quantum cosmology: The matter-energy production epoch
V. E. Kuzmichev; V. V. Kuzmichev
2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
The exactly solvable quantum model of the homogeneous, isotropic and closed universe in the matter-energy production epoch is considered. It is assumed that the universe is originally filled with a uniform scalar field and a perfect fluid which defines a reference frame. The stationary state spectrum and the wave functions of the quantum universe are calculated. In this model the matter-energy in the universe has a component in the form of a condensate of massive zero-momentum excitation quanta of oscillations of primordial scalar field. The mean value of the scale factor of the universe in a given state is connected with the mass of a condensate by a linear relation. The nucleation rate of the universe from the initial cosmological singularity point is calculated. It is demonstrated that the process of nucleation of the universe can have an exponential (explosive) nature. The evolution of the universe is described as transitions with non-zero probabilities between the states of the universe with different masses of a condensate.
Instability of Bose-Einstein condensation on quantum graphs under repulsive perturbations
Jens Bolte; Joachim Kerner
2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
In this Note we investigate Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting quantum many-particle systems on graphs. We extend previous results obtained for particles on an interval and show that even arbitrarily small repulsive two-particle interactions destroy a condensate in the non-interacting Bose gas. Our results also cover singular two-particle interactions, such as the well-known Lieb-Lininger model, in the thermodynamic limit.
Quantum radiations from exciton condensate in Electron-Hole Bilayer Systems
Jinwu Ye; T. Shi; Longhua Jiang; C. P. Sun
2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
Superfluid has been realized in Helium-4, Helium-3 and ultra-cold atoms. It has been widely used in making high-precision devices and also in cooling various systems. There have been extensive experimental search for possible exciton superfluid (ESF) in semiconductor electron-hole bilayer (EHBL) systems below liquid Helium temperature. However, exciton superfluid are meta-stable and will eventually decay through emitting photons. Here we study quantum nature of photons emitted from the excitonic superfluid (ESF) phase in the semiconductor EHBL and find that the light emitted from the excitonic superfluid has unique and unusual features not shared by any other atomic or condensed matter systems. We show that the emitted photons along the direction perpendicular to the layer are in a coherent state, those along all tilted directions are in a two modes squeezed state. We determine the two mode squeezing spectra, the angle resolved power spectrum, the line shapes of both the momentum distribution curve (MDC) and the energy distribution curve (EDC). From the two photon correlation functions, we find there are photon bunching, the photo-count statistics is super-Poissonian. We discuss how several important parameters such as the chemical potential, the exciton decay rate, the quasiparticle energy spectrum and the dipole-dipole interaction strength between the excitons in our theory can be extracted from the experimental data and comment on available experimental data on both EDC and MDC.
Quantum Haplodynamics, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Harald Fritzsch; Joan Sola
2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
In quantum haplodynamics (QHD) the weak bosons, quarks and leptons are bound states of fundamental constituents, denoted as haplons. The confinement scale of the associated gauge group SU(2)_h is of the order of $\\Lambda_h\\simeq 0.3$ TeV. One scalar state has zero haplon number and is the resonance observed at the LHC. In addition, there exist new bound states of haplons with no counterpart in the SM, having a mass of the order of 0.5 TeV up to a few TeV. In particular, a neutral scalar state with haplon number 4 is stable and can provide the dark matter in the universe. The QHD, QCD and QED couplings can unify at the Planck scale. If this scale changes slowly with cosmic time, all of the fundamental couplings, the masses of the nucleons and of the DM particles, including the cosmological term (or vacuum energy density), will evolve with time. This could explain the dark energy of the universe.
interactions in a BEC of lithium-7 atoms, which collapses the condensate into a solitonic wave where dispersion-dimensional harmonic trap, as well as interactions with a repulsive optical defect at the trap center. The defect can interactions, the defect may enable coherent recombination of the soliton, thus realizing a matter
Many-body quantum ratchet in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Dario Poletti; Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati; Baowen Li
2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
We study the dynamics of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a toroidal trap and exposed to a pair of periodically flashed optical lattices. We first prove that in the noninteracting case this system can present a quantum symmetry which forbids the ratchet effect classically expected. We then show how many-body atom-atom interactions, treated within the mean-field approximation, can break this quantum symmetry, thus generating directed transport.
Radiation to atom quantum mapping by collective recoil in Bose-Einstein condensate
Matteo G. A. Paris; Mary Cola; Nicola Piovella; Rodolfo Bonifacio
2003-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
We propose an experiment to realize radiation to atom continuous variable quantum mapping, i.e. to teleport the quantum state of a single mode radiation field onto the collective state of atoms with a given momentum out of a Bose-Einstein condensate. The atoms-radiation entanglement needed for the teleportation protocol is established through the interaction of a single mode with the condensate in presence of a strong far off-resonant pump laser, whereas the coherent atomic displacement is obtained by the same interaction with the radiation in a classical coherent field. In principle, verification of the protocol requires a joint measurement on the recoiling atoms and the condensate, however, a partial verification involving populations, i.e. diagonal matrix elements may be obtained through counting atoms experiments.
Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Calcutta 700073 (India); [Azad Physics Centre, Maulana Azad College, Calcutta 700013 (India)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Rossi, Mariana; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer (LMon) model and a mixed quantum-classical (MQC) model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics (TRPMD) as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D$_2$O doped with HOD and pure H$_2$O at three distinc...
Oshmyansky, A
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative quantum field theory for gravity is proposed for low energies based on an attractive effect between contaminants in a Bose-Einstein Condensate rather than on particle exchange. In the ``contaminant in condensate effect," contaminants cause a potential in an otherwise uniform condensate, forcing the condensate between two contaminants to a higher energy state. The energy of the system decreases as the contaminants come closer together, causing an attractive force between contaminants. It is proposed that mass-energy may have a similar effect on Einstein's space-time field, and gravity is quantized by the same method by which the contaminant in condensate effect is quantized. The resulting theory is finite and, if a physical condensate is assumed to underly the system, predictive. However, the proposed theory has several flaws at high energies and is thus limited to low energies. Falsifiable predictions are given for the case that the Higgs condensate is assumed to be the condensate underlying gr...
Alexander Oshmyansky
2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative quantum field theory for gravity is proposed for low energies based on an attractive effect between contaminants in a Bose-Einstein Condensate rather than on particle exchange. In the ``contaminant in condensate effect," contaminants cause a potential in an otherwise uniform condensate, forcing the condensate between two contaminants to a higher energy state. The energy of the system decreases as the contaminants come closer together, causing an attractive force between contaminants. It is proposed that mass-energy may have a similar effect on Einstein's space-time field, and gravity is quantized by the same method by which the contaminant in condensate effect is quantized. The resulting theory is finite and, if a physical condensate is assumed to underly the system, predictive. However, the proposed theory has several flaws at high energies and is thus limited to low energies. Falsifiable predictions are given for the case that the Higgs condensate is assumed to be the condensate underlying gravity.
Dennis, Graham R.; Johnsson, Mattias T. [Department of Quantum Science, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)
2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a theoretical analysis of a coupled, two-state Bose-Einstein condensate with nonequal scattering lengths and show that dynamical instabilities can be excited. We demonstrate that these instabilities are exponentially amplified, resulting in highly directional, oppositely propagating, coherent matter beams at specific momenta. To accomplish this we prove that the mean field of our system is periodic and extend the standard Bogoliubov approach to consider a time-dependent, but cyclic, background. This allows us to use Floquet's theorem to gain analytic insight into such systems, rather than employing the usual Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, which is usually limited to numerical solutions. We apply our theory to the metastable helium atom laser experiment by Dall et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 011601(R) (2009)] and show that it explains the anomalous beam profiles they observed. Finally, we demonstrate that the paired particle beams will be Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled on formation.
A firmware-defined digital direct-sampling NMR spectrometer for condensed matter physics
Pikulski, M., E-mail: marekp@ethz.ch; Shiroka, T.; Ott, H.-R.; Mesot, J. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We report on the design and implementation of a new digital, broad-band nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for probing condensed matter. The spectrometer uses direct sampling in both transmission and reception. It relies on a single, commercially-available signal processing device with a user-accessible field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Its functions are defined exclusively by the FPGA firmware and the application software. Besides allowing for fast replication, flexibility, and extensibility, our software-based solution preserves the option to reuse the components for other projects. The device operates up to 400?MHz without, and up to 800?MHz with undersampling, respectively. Digital down-conversion with ±10?MHz passband is provided on the receiver side. The system supports high repetition rates and has virtually no intrinsic dead time. We describe briefly how the spectrometer integrates into the experimental setup and present test data which demonstrates that its performance is competitive with that of conventional designs.
Freericks, Jim
Condensed Matter Physics 2006, Vol. 9, No 3(47), pp. 603617 Nonlinear Peltier effect Received April 19, 2006, in final form May 24, 2006 We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related
An informationally-complete unification of quantum spacetime and matter
Zeng-Bing Chen
2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
It was known long ago that quantum theory and general relativity, two pillars of modern physics, are in sharp conflict in their foundations. Their fundamental inconsistencies render a consistent theory of quantum gravity the most challenging problem in physics. Here we propose an informationally-complete quantum field theory (ICQFT), which describes elementary particles, their gauge fields and gravity as a trinity without the Hilbert-space inconsistency of Einstein's equation. We then argue that the ICQFT provides a coherent picture and conceptual framework of unifying matter and spacetime. The trinary field is characterized by dual entanglement and dual dynamics. Spacetime-matter entanglement allows us to give a natural explanation of the holographic principle, as well as two conjectures on black-hole states and on a possible candidate to dark matter/energy.
Analogue Cosmological Particle Creation: Quantum Correlations in Expanding Bose Einstein Condensates
Angus Prain; Serena Fagnocchi; Stefano Liberati
2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the structure of quantum correlations in an expanding Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) through the analogue gravity framework. We consider both a 3+1 isotropically expanding BEC as well as the experimentally relevant case of an elongated, effectively 1+1 dimensional, expanding condensate. In this case we include the effects of inhomogeneities in the condensate, a feature rarely included in the analogue gravity literature. In both cases we link the BEC expansion to a simple model for an expanding spacetime and then study the correlation structure numerically and analytically (in suitable approximations). We also discuss the expected strength of such correlation patterns and experimentally feasible BEC systems in which these effects might be detected in the near future.
Hiroki Nishihara; Masayasu Harada
2014-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and it's slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: The critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the 4-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.
Wang Dengshan [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CEMA, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China); Hu Xinghua; Liu, W. M. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the localized nonlinear matter waves in the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates with time- and space-modulated nonlinearities analytically and numerically. The similarity transformations are developed to solve the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and two families of explicitly exact solutions are derived. Our results show that not only the attractive spatiotemporal inhomogeneous interactions but the repulsive ones support novel localized nonlinear matter waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. The dynamics of these matter waves, including the breathing solitons, quasibreathing solitons, resonant solitons, and moving solitons, is discussed. We confirm the stability of the exact solutions by adding various initial stochastic noise and study the general cases of the interaction parameters numerically. We also provide the experimental parameters to produce these phenomena in future experiments.
Temperature jump in degenerate quantum gases in the presence of a Bose - Einstein condensate
A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov
2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z
We construct a kinetic equation modeling the behavior of degenerate quantum Bose gases whose collision rate depends on the momentum of elementary excitations. We consider the case where the phonon component is the decisive factor in the elementary excitations. We analytically solve the half-space boundary value problem of the temperature jump at the boundary of the degenerate Bose gas in the presence of a Bose -- Einstein condensate.
Quantum-field dynamics of expanding and contracting Bose-Einstein condensates
Wuester, S.; Dabrowska-Wuester, B. J.; Scott, S. M.; Close, J. D.; Savage, C. M. [Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the dynamics of quantum statistics in a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate, whose two-body interaction strength is controlled via a Feshbach resonance. From an initially noninteracting coherent state, the quantum field undergoes Kerr squeezing, which can be qualitatively described with a single mode model. To render the effect experimentally accessible, we propose a homodyne scheme, based on two hyperfine components, which converts the quadrature squeezing into number squeezing. The scheme is numerically demonstrated using a two-component Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism.
Quantum metrology with rotating matter waves in different geometries
Dunningham, J. A.; Cooper, J. J.; Hallwood, D. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, Auckland (New Zealand)
2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A promising practical application of entanglement is metrology, where quantum states can be used to make measurements beyond the shot noise limit. Here we consider how metrology schemes could be realised using atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in different potentials. In particular, we show that if a trapped BEC is rotated at just the right frequency, it can undergo a quantum phase transition characterised by large-scale entanglement spreading across the system. This simple process of stirring can generate interesting quantum states such as macroscopic superpositions of all the atoms flowing in opposite directions around a ring-shaped potential. We consider different trapping potentials and show how this leads to different entangled states. In particular, we find that by reducing the dimensionality of the system to one or two dimensions, it is possible to generate entangled states that are remarkably robust to the loss of atoms and so are ideally suited to precision measurement schemes.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of symmetric nuclear matter
Stefano Gandolfi; Francesco Pederiva; Stefano Fantoni; Kevin E. Schmidt
2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon--nucleon interactions by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and can provide quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.
Serena Cenatiempo; Alessandro Giuliani
2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z
We present a renormalization group construction of a weakly interacting Bose gas at zero temperature in the two-dimensional continuum, both in the quantum critical regime and in the presence of a condensate fraction. The construction is performed within a rigorous renormalization group scheme, borrowed from the methods of constructive field theory, which allows us to derive explicit bounds on all the orders of renormalized perturbation theory. Our scheme allows us to construct the theory of the quantum critical point completely, both in the ultraviolet and in the infrared regimes, thus extending previous heuristic approaches to this phase. For the condensate phase, we solve completely the ultraviolet problem and we investigate in detail the infrared region, up to length scales of the order $(\\lambda^3 \\rho_0)^{-1/2}$ (here $\\lambda$ is the interaction strength and $\\rho_0$ the condensate density), which is the largest length scale at which the problem is perturbative in nature. We exhibit violations to the formal Ward Identities, due to the momentum cutoff used to regularize the theory, which suggest that previous proposals about the existence of a non-perturbative non-trivial fixed point for the infrared flow should be reconsidered.
The analogue cosmological constant in Bose-Einstein condensates: a lesson for quantum gravity
Stefano Finazzi; Stefano Liberati; Lorenzo Sindoni
2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
For almost a century, the cosmological constant has been a mysterious object, in relation to both its origin and its very small value. By using a Bose-Einstein condensate analogue model for gravitational dynamics, we address here the cosmological constant issue from an analogue gravity standpoint. Starting from the fundamental equations describing a system of condensed bosons, we highlight the presence of a vacuum source term for the analogue gravitational field, playing the role of a cosmological constant. In this simple system it is possible to compute from scratch the value of this constant, to compare it with other characteristic energy scales and hence address the problem of its magnitude within this framework, suggesting a different path for the solution of this longstanding puzzle. We find that, even though this constant term is related with quantum vacuum effects, it is not immediately related to the ground state energy of the condensate. On the gravity side this result suggests that the interpretation and computation of the cosmological term as a form of renormalized vacuum energy might be misleading, its origin being related to the mechanism that instead produces spacetime from its pregeometric progenitor, shedding a different light on the subject and at the same time suggesting a potentially relevant role of analogue models in the understanding of quantum gravity.
Boothroyd, Andrew
Concepts of Neutron ScatteringConcepts of Neutron Scattering 66thth PSI Summer School on Condensed Andrew Boothroyd University of Oxford Basic features of neutron scattering Neutron diffraction Neutron on the lattice * * * #12;ScatteringScattering ``nuts and boltsnuts and bolts'' Neutrons, photons, electrons
Bose-Einstein condensate strings
Tiberiu Harko; Matthew J. Lake
2015-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. By assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable stringlike astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.
Exact Topological Quantum Order in D=3 and Beyond: Branyons and Brane-Net Condensates
H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado
2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
We construct an exactly solvable Hamiltonian acting on a 3-dimensional lattice of spin-$\\frac 1 2$ systems that exhibits topological quantum order. The ground state is a string-net and a membrane-net condensate. Excitations appear in the form of quasiparticles and fluxes, as the boundaries of strings and membranes, respectively. The degeneracy of the ground state depends upon the homology of the 3-manifold. We generalize the system to $D\\geq 4$, were different topological phases may occur. The whole construction is based on certain special complexes that we call colexes.
Decoherence in a quantum harmonic oscillator monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate
Brouard, S; Sokolovski, D
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the dynamics of a quantum oscillator, whose evolution is monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a symmetric double well potential. It is demonstrated that the oscillator may experience various degrees of decoherence depending on the variable being measured and the state in which the BEC is prepared. These range from a `coherent' regime in which only the variances of the oscillator position and momentum are affected by measurement, to a slow (power law) or rapid (Gaussian) decoherence of the mean values themselves.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Symmetric Nuclear Matter
Gandolfi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pederiva, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); CNR-DEMOCRITOS National Supercomputing Center, Trieste (Italy); Fantoni, Stefano [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati and INFN via Beirut 2/4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); CNR-DEMOCRITOS National Supercomputing Center, Trieste (Italy); Schmidt, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States)
2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions by means of auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and represents an important step forward towards a quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.
Matter Bounce Loop Quantum Cosmology from $F(R)$ Gravity
S. D. Odintsov; V. K. Oikonomou
2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
Using the reconstruction method, we investigate which $F(R)$ theories, with or without the presence of matter fluids, can produce the matter bounce scenario of holonomy corrected Loop Quantum Cosmology. We focus our study in two limits of the cosmic time, the large cosmic time limit and the small cosmic time limit. For the former, we found that, in the presence of non-interacting and non-relativistic matter, the $F(R)$ gravity that reproduces the late time limit of the matter bounce solution is actually the Einstein-Hilbert gravity plus a power law term. In the early time limit, since it corresponds to large spacetime curvatures, assuming that the Jordan frame is described by a general metric that when it is conformally transformed to the Einstein frame, produces an accelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we found explicitly the scalar field dependence on time. After demonstrating that the solution in the Einstein frame is indeed accelerating, we calculate the spectral index derived from the Einstein frame scalar-tensor counterpart theory of the $F(R)$ theory and compare it with the Planck experiment data. In order to implement the resulting picture, we embed the $F(R)$ gravity explicitly in a Loop Quantum Cosmology framework by introducing holonomy corrections to the $F(R)$ gravity. In this way, the resulting inflation picture corresponding to the $F(R)$ gravity can be corrected in order it coincides to some extent with the current experimental data.
Georg Jäger; Daniel Reich; Michael H. Goerz; Christiane P. Koch; Ulrich Hohenester
2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study optimal quantum control of the dynamics of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: The targets are to split a condensate, residing initially in a single well, into a double well, without inducing excitation; and to excite a condensate from the ground to the first excited state of a single well. The condensate is described in the mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We compare two optimization approaches in terms of their performance and ease of use, namely gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) and Krotov's method. Both approaches are derived from the variational principle but differ in the way the control is updated, additional costs are accounted for, and second order derivative information can be included. We find that GRAPE produces smoother control fields and works in a black-box manner, whereas Krotov with a suitably chosen step size parameter converges faster but can produce sharp features in the control fields.
Nakai, Hiromi, E-mail: nakai@waseda.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); ESICB, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Ishikawa, Atsushi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ESICB, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)
2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a novel quantum chemical method, called the harmonic solvation model (HSM), for calculating thermochemical parameters in the condensed phase, particularly in the liquid phase. The HSM represents translational and rotational motions of a solute as vibrations interacting with a cavity wall of solvent molecules. As examples, the HSM and the ideal-gas model (IGM) were used for the standard formation reaction of liquid water, combustion reactions of liquid formic acid, methanol, and ethanol, vapor–liquid equilibration of water and ethanol, and dissolution of gaseous CO{sub 2} in water. The numerical results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the HSM. In particular, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of liquid molecules was accurately reproduced by the HSM; for example, the boiling point of water was reasonably determined using the HSM, whereas the conventional IGM treatment failed to obtain a crossing of the two Gibbs energy curves for gaseous and liquid water.
DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1
Giles, C. Lee
DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1 Submitted March 12th of high matter density expected in the early Universe I show that primordial inflation and dark energy (i , 2004 ABSTRACT I present a theory of quantum gravity based on the principle of gravitational energy
Matter-enhanced transition probabilities in quantum field theory
Ishikawa, Kenzo, E-mail: ishikawa@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Tobita, Yutaka
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The relativistic quantum field theory is the unique theory that combines the relativity and quantum theory and is invariant under the Poincaré transformation. The ground state, vacuum, is singlet and one particle states are transformed as elements of irreducible representation of the group. The covariant one particles are momentum eigenstates expressed by plane waves and extended in space. Although the S-matrix defined with initial and final states of these states hold the symmetries and are applied to isolated states, out-going states for the amplitude of the event that they are detected at a finite-time interval T in experiments are expressed by microscopic states that they interact with, and are surrounded by matters in detectors and are not plane waves. These matter-induced effects modify the probabilities observed in realistic situations. The transition amplitudes and probabilities of the events are studied with the S-matrix, S[T], that satisfies the boundary condition at T. Using S[T], the finite-size corrections of the form of 1/T are found. The corrections to Fermi’s golden rule become larger than the original values in some situations for light particles. They break Lorentz invariance even in high energy region of short de Broglie wave lengths. -- Highlights: •S-matrix S[T] for the finite-time interval in relativistic field theory. •S[T] satisfies the boundary condition and gives correction of 1/T . •The large corrections for light particles breaks Lorentz invariance. •The corrections have implications to neutrino experiments.
Boyer, Edmond
Foreword Neutron and X-ray Scattering Techniques have proved so successful in condensed matter whose function is to develop and optimise the techniques appropriate to neutron scattering. Since other neutron and X-ray research centres have similar technical support groups, it was felt timely to unité
Carl H. Gibson
2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
The first structures were proto-voids formed in the primordial plasma. Viscous and weak turbulence forces balanced gravitational forces when the scale of causal connection at time 30,000 years matched the viscous and turbulent Schwarz scales of hydro-gravitational theory (Gibson 1996). The photon viscosity allows only weak turbulence from the Reynolds number Re = 200, with fragmentation to give proto-supercluster voids, buoyancy forces, fossil vorticity turbulence, and strong sonic damping. The expanding, cooling, plasma continued fragmentation to proto-galaxy-mass with the density and rate-of-strain preserved as fossils of the weak turbulence and first structure. Turbulence fossilization by self-gravitational buoyancy explains the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations, not sonic oscillations in cold-dark-matter fragments. After plasma to gas transition at 300,000 years, gas fragmentation occurred within the proto-galaxies to form proto-globular-star-cluster (PGCs) clouds of small-planetary-mass primordial-fog-particles (PFPs). Dark PGC clumps of frozen PFPs persist as the inner-galaxy-halo dark matter, supporting Schild's 1996 quasar-microlensing interpretation. Non-baryonic dark matter diffused into the plasma proto-cluster-voids and later fragmented as outer-galaxy-halos at diffusive Schwarz scales, indicating light, weakly-collisional fluid particles (possibly neutrinos). Observations support the theory (Gibson and Schild 2003).
duals of compressible quantum matter. Rapporteur presentation at the 25th Solvay Conference on Physics
Quantum information approach to Bose-Einstein condensate of composite bosons
Su-Yong Lee; Jayne Thompson; Sadegh Raeisi; Pawel Kurzynski; Dagomir Kaszlikowski
2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z
We consider composite bosons (cobosons) comprised of two elementary particles, fermions or bosons, in an entangled state. We study a model of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) for indistinguishable cobosons. We find that cobosons made of two entangled fermions behave in a predictable way, i.e., their condensate fraction and the transition temperature are increasing functions of their entanglement. Interestingly, cobosons made of two entangled bosons exhibit the opposite behaviour - their condensate fraction and the transition temperature are decreasing functions of entanglement.
Understanding, constructing, and probing highly-entangled phases of quantum matter
Potter, Andrew C. (Andrew Cole)
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, I explore three classes of quantum phases of matter that cannot be understood purely on the basis of symmetry, and can be regarded (to varying degrees) as having highly-entangled ground-states. The first ...
Quantum Field and Cosmic Field-Finite Geometrical Field Theory of Matter Motion Part Three
Jianhua Xiao
2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
This research establishes an operational measurement way to express the quantum field theory in a geometrical form. In four-dimensional spacetime continuum, the orthogonal rotation is defined. It forms two sets of equations: one set is geometrical equations, another set is the motion equations. The Lorentz transformation can be directly derived from the geometrical equations, and the proper time of general relativity is well expressed by time displacement field. By the motion equations, the typical time displacement field of matter motion is discussed. The research shows that the quantum field theory can be established based on the concept of orthogonal rotation. On this sense, the quantum matter motion in physics is viewed as the orthogonal rotation of spacetime continuum. In this paper, it shows that there are three typical quantum solutions. One is particle-like solution, one is generation-type solution, and one is pure wave type solution. For each typical solution, the force fields are different. Many features of quantum field can be well explained by this theoretic form. Finally, the general matter motion is discussed, the main conclusions are: (1). Geometrically, cosmic vacuum field can be described by the curvature spacetime; (2). The spatial deformation of planet is related with a planet electromagnetic field; (3). For electric charge less matter, the volume of matter will be expanding infinitely; (4).For strong electric charge matter, it shows that the volume of matter will be contracting infinitely.
Dark matter and dark energy production in quantum model of the universe
V. E. Kuzmichev; V. V. Kuzmichev
2004-05-24T23:59:59.000Z
The quantum model of the homogeneous, isotropic, and spatially closed universe predicts an existence of two types of collective quantum states in the universe. The states of one type characterize a gravitational field, the others describe a matter (uniform scalar) field. In the first stage of the evolution of the universe a primordial scalar field evolves slowly into its vacuum-like state. In the second stage the scalar field oscillates about an equilibrium due to the quantum fluctuations. The universe is being filled with matter in the form of elementary quantum excitations of the vibrations of the scalar field. The separate quantum excitations are characterized by non-zero values of their energies (masses). Under the action of gravitational forces mainly these excitations decay into ordinary particles (baryons and leptons) and dark matter. The elementary quantum excitations of the vibrations of the scalar field which have not decayed up to now form dark energy. The numerical estimations lead to realistic values of both the matter density \\Omega_{M} = 0.29 (with the contributions from dark matter, \\Omega_{DM} = 0.25, and optically bright baryons, \\Omega_{stars} = 0.0025) and the dark energy density \\Omega_{X} = 0.71 if one takes that the mean energy ~ 10 GeV is released in decay of dark energy quantum and fixes baryonic component \\Omega_{B} = 0.04 according to observational data. The energy (mass) of dark energy quantum is equal to ~ 17 GeV and the energy > 2 x 10^{10} GeV is needed in order to detect it. Dark matter particle has the mass ~ 6 GeV. The Jeans mass for dark matter which is considered as a gas of such massive particles is equal to M_{J} ~ 10^{5} M_{\\odot}.
Group field theory formulation of 3d quantum gravity coupled to matter fields
Daniele Oriti; James Ryan
2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new group field theory describing 3d Riemannian quantum gravity coupled to matter fields for any choice of spin and mass. The perturbative expansion of the partition function produces fat graphs colored with SU(2) algebraic data, from which one can reconstruct at once a 3-dimensional simplicial complex representing spacetime and its geometry, like in the Ponzano-Regge formulation of pure 3d quantum gravity, and the Feynman graphs for the matter fields. The model then assigns quantum amplitudes to these fat graphs given by spin foam models for gravity coupled to interacting massive spinning point particles, whose properties we discuss.
Supratik Sarkar; A. Bhattacharyay
2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
We show here a general approach to include the quantum potential term in the emergent gravity model of Bose-Einstein condensate by using multiple scales. Our main result shows the emergence of a massive scalar modulating field at larger length scales as a result of Lorentz symmetry breaking at the length scales comparable to the healing length. We also propose that, the nonlocal interactions induced tuning of healing length can be exploited experimentally to observe the systematics of small and large scale coupling as emerges in our present analysis.
Chaotic Oscillations in Finite Quantum Systems: Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates
Luca Salasnich
1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the recently achieved Bose-Einstein condensation for alkali-metal atoms in magnetic traps. The theoretically predicted low-energy collective oscillations of the condensate have been experimentally confirmed by laser imaging techniques. We show by using Poincar\\`e sections that at higher energies non-linear effects appear and oscillations become chaotic. PACS 03.75.Fi, 05.30.Jp, 05.45.+b, 32.80.Pj
Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe
Gattobigio, G. L. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Couvert, A. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Georgeot, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT UMR5152 (IRSAMC), 31062 Toulouse (France); Guery-Odelin, D. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France)
2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantum-classical correspondence.
Can Spacetime be a Condensate?
B. L. Hu
2005-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
We explore further the proposal that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, i.e., spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of such micro-theories. In this view it is more relevant to find ways to deduce the microscopic ingredients of spacetime and matter from their macroscopic attributes than to find ways to quantize general relativity because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not the equivalents of atoms or quantum electrodyanmics. It may turn out that spacetime is merely a representation of collective state of matter in some limiting regime of interactions, which is the view expressed by Sakharov. In this talk, working within the conceptual framework of geometro-hydrodynamics, we suggest a new way to look at the nature of spacetime inspired by Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) physics. We ask the question whether spacetime could be a condensate, even without the knowledge of what the `atom of spacetime' is. We begin with a summary of the main themes for this new interpretation of cosmology and spacetime physics, and the `bottom-up' approach to quantum gravity. We then describe the `Bosenova' experiment of controlled collapse of a BEC and our cosmology-inspired interpretation of its results. We discuss the meaning of a condensate in different context. We explore how far this idea can sustain, its advantages and pitfalls, and its implications on the basic tenets of physics and existing programs of quantum gravity.
Condensate-free superfluidity induced by frustrated proximity effect
Laflorencie, Nicolas
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Since the discovery of superfluidity in He4 and Landau's phenomenological theory, the relationship between Bose condensation and superfluidity has been intensely debated. He4 is known by now to be both superfluid and condensed at low temperature, and more generally, in dimension D \\geq 2, all superfluid bosonic models realized in experiments are condensed in their ground state. Recent examples include ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in an optical lattice or effective bosons describing magnetic excitations in quantum magnets. In this paper, it is shown that a 2D gas of bosons which is superfluid but not condensed at T=0 can be achieved by populating a layer through a frustrated proximity effect from a superfluid reservoir. This bosonic fluid is characterized by specific scaling laws and incommensurate correlations. This leads to several predictions for the quantum antiferromagnet BaCuSi2O6 (Han purple) in a magnetic field, a good candidate to realize this novel state of matter.
Building with Crystals of Light and Quantum Matter: From Clocks...
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Understanding the behavior of interacting electrons in solids or liquids is at the heart of modern quantum science and necessary for technological advances. However, the...
An integrated processor for photonic quantum states using a broadband light-matter interface
Erhan Saglamyurek; Neil Sinclair; Joshua A. Slater; Khabat Heshami; Daniel Oblak; Wolfgang Tittel
2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Faithful storage and coherent manipulation of quantum optical pulses are key for long distance quantum communications and quantum computing. Combining these functions in a light-matter interface that can be integrated on-chip with other photonic quantum technologies, e.g. sources of entangled photons, is an important step towards these applications. To date there have only been a few demonstrations of coherent pulse manipulation utilizing optical storage devices compatible with quantum states, and that only in atomic gas media (making integration difficult) and with limited capabilities. Here we describe how a broadband waveguide quantum memory based on the Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC) protocol can be used as a programmable processor for essentially arbitrary spectral and temporal manipulations of individual quantum optical pulses. Using weak coherent optical pulses at the few photon level, we experimentally demonstrate sequencing, time-to-frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing, splitting, interfering, temporal and spectral filtering, compressing and stretching as well as selective delaying. Our integrated light-matter interface offers high-rate, robust and easily configurable manipulation of quantum optical pulses and brings fully practical optical quantum devices one step closer to reality. Furthermore, as the AFC protocol is suitable for storage of intense light pulses, our processor may also find applications in classical communications.
On the geometry of the Dirac matter with the Fermionic potentials and its quantum properties
Luca Fabbri
2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the torsional completion of gravity with electrodynamics for Dirac matter fields; we will see that these Dirac matter field equations will develop torsionally-induced non-linear interactions, which can be manipulated in order to be rearranged in the form of self-fermion potentials of a specific structure: eventually we will see that these non-linear interactions result into dynamical effects that are formally equivalent to those due to the quantum corrections.
Bogoliubov space of a Bose-Einstein condensate and quantum spacetime fluctuations
Rivas, J. I.; Camacho, A.; Goeklue, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Apartado Postal 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the role that metric fluctuations could have on the features of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Particularly, the Bogoliubov space associated to it is considered and it will be shown that the pressure and the speed of sound of the ground state define an expression allowing us to determine the average size of these fluctuations.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenter (LMI-EFRC)
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |Materials anddata' for rapid
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |Materials anddata' for
Quantum Hall effect and Landau-level crossing of Dirac fermions in trilayer graphene
Taychatanapat, Thiti
The physics of Dirac fermions in condensed-matter systems has received extraordinary attention following the discoveries of two new types of quantum Hall effect in single-layer and bilayer graphene1, 2, 3. The electronic ...
QUANTUM PHASE TRANSITIONS IN MAGNETIC SYSTEMS Omid Nohadani
Nohadani, Omid
the discovery of a new phase of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate, out of a gas of rubidium atoms. 4 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.2 Quantum Phase Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.3 Scaling Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5 Bose-Einstein Condensation of Magnons 93 5.1 Introduction
Dark energy from quantum wave function collapse of dark matter
A. S. Majumdar; D. Home; S. Sinha
2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
Dynamical wave function collapse models entail the continuous liberation of a specified rate of energy arising from the interaction of a fluctuating scalar field with the matter wave function. We consider the wave function collapse process for the constituents of dark matter in our universe. Beginning from a particular early era of the universe chosen from physical considerations, the rate of the associated energy liberation is integrated to yield the requisite magnitude of dark energy around the era of galaxy formation. Further, the equation of state for the liberated energy approaches $w \\to -1$ asymptotically, providing a mechanism to generate the present acceleration of the universe.
Khan, Shabbir A
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum plasma physics is a rapidly evolving research field with a very inter-disciplinary scope of potential applications, ranging from nano-scale science in condensed matter to the vast scales of astrophysical objects. The theoretical description of quantum plasmas relies on various approaches, microscopic or macroscopic, some of which have obvious relation to classical plasma models. The appropriate model should, in principle, incorporate the quantum mechanical effects such as diffraction, spin statistics and correlations, operative on the relevant scales. However, first-principle approaches such as quantum Monte Carlo and density functional theory or quantum-statistical methods such as quantum kinetic theory or non-equilibrium Green's functions require substantial theoretical and computational efforts. Therefore, for selected problems, alternative simpler methods have been put forward. In particular, the collective behavior of many-body systems is usually described within a self-consistent scheme of parti...
Condensed Matter Physics, 2011, Vol. 14, No 2, 23005: 112 DOI: 10.5488/CMP.14.23005
reversible heat engine, in 1824 Carnot [1] offered the mathematical model for an ideal heat engine which analogue of the Carnot cycle in microsystems. The operation of quantum heat engines that employ multi also be used as quantum thermodynamic engines [510]. The quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle requires
Condensed Matter Physics, 2011, Vol. 14, No 2, 23005: 1--12 DOI: 10.5488/CMP.14.23005
reversible heat engine, in 1824 Carnot [1] o#ered the mathematical model for an ideal heat engine which analogue of the Carnot cycle in microsystems. The operation of quantum heat engines that employ multi also be used as quantum thermodynamic engines [5--10]. The quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle
Analog quantum simulation of gravitational waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Tupac Bravo; Carlos Sabín; Ivette Fuentes
2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
We show how to vary the physical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in order to mimic an effective gravitational-wave spacetime. In particular, we focus in the simulation of the recently discovered creation of particles by real spacetime distortion in box-type traps. We show that, by modulating the speed of sound in the BEC, the phonons experience the effects of a simulated spacetime ripple with experimentally amenable parameters. These results will inform the experimental programme of gravitational wave astronomy with cold atoms.
Medvedeva, Julia E.
$ - see front matter q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. Z .PII: S0378-7753 99 00298-0 #12
A molecular dynamics study of nuclear quantum effect on the diffusion of hydrogen in condensed phase
Nagashima, Hiroki; Tokumasu, Takashi [Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Shin-ichi [Shinshu University, 77-7 Minamibori, Nagano, Nagano (Japan); Tsuboi, Nobuyuki [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Koshi, Mitsuo [Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashie, A. Koichi [AoyamaGakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)
2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule on its diffusivity is analyzed using Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. The path integral centroid MD (CMD) method is applied for the reproduction method of time evolution of the molecules. The diffusion coefficient of liquid hydrogen is calculated using the Green-Kubo method. The simulation is performed at wide temperature region and the temperature dependence of the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule is addressed. The calculation results are compared with those of classical MD results. As a result, it is confirmed that the diffusivity of hydrogen molecule is changed depending on temperature by the quantum effect. It is clarified that this result can be explained that the dominant factor by quantum effect on the diffusivity of hydrogen changes from the swollening the potential to the shallowing the potential well around 30 K. Moreover, it is found that this tendency is related to the temperature dependency of the ratio of the quantum kinetic energy and classical kinetic energy.
aldol condensation reactions: Topics by E-print Network
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of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium...
Matter pulse carving: Manipulating quantum wave packets via time-dependent absorption
Goussev, Arseni
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A pulse of matter waves may dramatically change its shape when traversing an absorbing barrier with time-dependent transparency. Here we show that this effect can be utilized for controlled manipulation of spatially-localized quantum states. In particular, in the context of atom-optics experiments, we explicitly demonstrate how the proposed approach can be used to generate spatially shifted, split, squeezed and cooled atomic wave packets. We expect our work to be useful in devising new interference experiments with atoms and molecules and, more generally, to enable new ways of coherent control of matter waves.
Quantum Monte Carlo study of inhomogeneous neutron matter
Stefano Gandolfi
2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
We present an ab-initio study of neutron drops. We use Quantum Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the energy up to 54 neutrons in different external potentials, and we compare the results with Skyrme forces. We also calculate the rms radii and radial densities, and we find that a re-adjustment of the gradient term in Skyrme is needed in order to reproduce the properties of these systems given by the ab-initio calculation. By using the ab-initio results for neutron drops for close- and open-shell configurations, we suggest how to improve Skyrme forces when dealing with systems with large isospin-asymmetries like neutron-rich nuclei.
Periodically-driven quantum matter: the case of resonant modulations
N. Goldman; J. Dalibard; M. Aidelsburger; N. R. Cooper
2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum systems can show qualitatively new forms of behavior when they are driven by fast time-periodic modulations. In the limit of large driving frequency, the long-time dynamics of such systems can often be described by a time-independent effective Hamiltonian, which is generally identified through a perturbative treatment. Here, we present a general formalism that describes time-modulated physical systems, in which the driving frequency is large, but resonant with respect to energy spacings inherent to the system at rest. Such a situation is currently exploited in optical-lattice setups, where superlattice (or Wannier-Stark-ladder) potentials are resonantly modulated so as to control the tunneling matrix elements between lattice sites, offering a powerful method to generate artificial fluxes for cold-atom systems. The formalism developed in this work identifies the basic ingredients needed to generate interesting flux patterns and band structures using resonant modulations. Additionally, our approach allows for a simple description of the micro-motion underlying the dynamics; we illustrate its characteristics based on diverse dynamic-lattice configurations. It is shown that the impact of the micro-motion on physical observables strongly depends on the implemented scheme, suggesting that a theoretical description in terms of the effective Hamiltonian alone is generally not sufficient to capture the full time-evolution of the system.
Manifestations of quantum phase transitions in transport through nanosystems
Pustilnik, Michael
2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
The award led to several important new results in theory of interacting low-dimensional systems. The results are relevant for both traditional condensed matter systems, such as quantum wires and quantum spin chains, and for the relatively new field of ultra-cold atomic gases.
Diebold, Ulrike
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
or fully spin-polarized 3d band. However, the unpolarized 4s band also crosses the Fermi level sputtering and annealing the surfaces in oxygen, even though our soft core photoemission data and low-energy Ltd Printed in the UK 1 #12;J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 315207 C A Ventrice Jr et al 1
Nori, Franco
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
-loop mechanism of PMF generation, taking place in the nitrate respiratory chain of the E. coli bacterium that both models can be described by the same approach, which can be significantly simplified if the system, temperature, and other system parameters. We show that the quantum yield in our models can be up to 100
Quantum Monte Carlo study of dilute neutron matter at finite temperatures
Wlazlowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Ulica Koszykowa 75, PL-00-662 Warsaw (Poland)
2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We report results of fully nonperturbative, path integral Monte Carlo calculations for dilute neutron matter. The neutron-neutron interaction in the s channel is parameterized by the scattering length and the effective range. We calculate the energy and the chemical potential as a function of temperature at density {rho}=0.003 fm{sup -3}. The critical temperature T{sub c} for the superfluid-normal phase transition is estimated from the finite size scaling of the condensate fraction. At low temperatures we extract the spectral weight function A(p,{omega}) from the imaginary time propagator using the methods of maximum entropy and singular value decomposition. We determine the quasiparticle spectrum, which can be accurately parameterized by three parameters: an effective mass m{sup *}, a mean-field potential U, and a gap {Delta}. Large values of {Delta}/T{sub c} indicate that the system is not a BCS-type superfluid at low temperatures.
Kenji Fukushima
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.
A Quantum Cosmology: No Dark Matter, Dark Energy nor Accelerating Universe
Reginald T Cahill
2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
We show that modelling the universe as a pre-geometric system with emergent quantum modes, and then constructing the classical limit, we obtain a new account of space and gravity that goes beyond Newtonian gravity even in the non-relativistic limit. This account does not require dark matter to explain the spiral galaxy rotation curves, and explains as well the observed systematics of black hole masses in spherical star systems, the bore hole $g$ anomalies, gravitational lensing and so on. As well the dynamics has a Hubble expanding universe solution that gives an excellent parameter-free account of the supernovae and gamma-ray-burst red-shift data, without dark energy or dark matter. The Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric is derived from this dynamics, but is shown not satisfy the General Relativity based Friedmann equations. It is noted that General Relativity dynamics only permits an expanding flat 3-space solution if the energy density in the pressure-less dust approximation is non-zero. As a consequence dark energy and dark matter are required in this cosmological model, and as well the prediction of a future exponential accelerating Hubble expansion. The FLRW $\\Lambda$CDM model data-based parameter values, $\\Omega_\\Lambda=0.73$, $\\Omega_{DM}=0.27$, are derived within the quantum cosmology model, but are shown to be merely artifacts of using the Friedmann equations in fitting the red-shift data.
Towards new states of matter with atoms and photons
QED = coupling between few material (atomic) and few electromagnetic degrees of freedom. Cavity atom-field quantum simulators. Hubbard models, spin models,... 2 #12;Motivation High control monitoring hybrid systems many- body systems beyond condensed matter paradigm models. 3 #12;Outline 1. Cavity QED in five
From the Cosmological Constant: Higgs Boson, Dark Matter, and Quantum Gravity Scales
James R. Bogan
2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
We suggest discovery targets for the Higgs boson, dark matter, and quantum gravity mass scales, motivated by the Dirac equation for the electron in deSitter space, and a sixth-order constraint between the electron QED parameters and the cosmological constant. We go on to show that this constraint can be viewed as a structural parameter of the electron, and leads naturally to a new cosmic horizon. A dual fourth-order constraint implies a second-order one, from which the electron neutrino mass is derived.
Propagation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a magnetic waveguide Progress in the field of atom. Miniaturizing the current carrying structures used to confine Bose-Einstein condensates offer prospects for finer control over the clouds. We have demonstrated that a gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate transported
Coherent decay of Bose-Einstein condensates
Cragg, George E. (George Edwin), 1972-
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
As the coldest form of matter known to exist, atomic Bose-Einstein condensates are unique forms of matter where the constituent atoms lose their individual identities, becoming absorbed into the cloud as a whole. Effectively, ...
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity
H. Müntinga; H. Ahlers; M. Krutzik; A. Wenzlawski; S. Arnold; D. Becker; K. Bongs; H. Dittus; H. Duncker; N. Gaaloul; C. Gherasim; E. Giese; C. Grzeschik; T. W. Hänsch; O. Hellmig; W. Herr; S. Herrmann; E. Kajari; S. Kleinert; C. Lämmerzahl; W. Lewoczko-Adamczyk; J. Malcolm; N. Meyer; R. Nolte; A. Peters; M. Popp; J. Reichel; A. Roura; J. Rudolph; M. Schiemangk; M. Schneider; S. T. Seidel; K. Sengstock; V. Tamma; T. Valenzuela; A. Vogel; R. Walser; T. Wendrich; P. Windpassinger; W. Zeller; T. van Zoest; W. Ertmer; W. P. Schleich; E. M. Rasel
2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Due to their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this paper we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far-field of a double-slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity
Müntinga, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Due to their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this paper we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far-field of a double-slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITY AEROSOL:Quantum Condensed Matter
Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen
Wen, Xiao-Gang
Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen Department discussed. The existence of artificial light (as well as artificial electron) in condensed matter systems a new kind of order - quantum order. To test this idea in experiments, we study systems of screened
acid-formaldehyde condensation reactions: Topics by E-print Network
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of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium...
Sidestream condensate polishing for PWRs
Shor, S.W.W.; Yim, S.L.; Rios, J.; Liu, J.
1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensate polishers are used in power plant condensate system to remove both particulate matter and ionized corrodents. Their conventional location is just downstream of the hotwell pumps (condensate pumps). Most polisher installations have enough flow capacity to polish 100% of the condensate. This inline configuration has some disadvantage, including a flow that varies with unit load and tends to disturb the polisher beds and reduce their effectiveness, and a potential for interrupting flow to the feedwater pumps. An alternate arrangement where water is extracted from either the condenser or the condensate system, polished and returned to the system, has been used in a few plants. Three different ways of doing this have been used: divide the condenser hotwell into two parts, one of which receives condensate from the tube bundles and the other of which is sheltered. Take unpolished condensate from the first part, purify it and return it to the other part from which the condensate pumps take suction; take unpolished condensate from one end of a divided header on the suction side of the hotwell pumps and after polishing it return it to the other end; and take unpolished condensate from a header on the discharge side of the condensate pumps, purify it and return it to the condensate system a short distance downstream. The three variants are analyzed in this report. It is concluded that the variant where the connections are on the discharge side of the condensate pumps is the most desirable for retrofitting, in all cases being far easier to retrofit than an inline polisher. In many cases it will be most desirable for new construction.
Thomas Weinacht
2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum control of light and matter is the quest to steer a physical process to a desirable outcome, employing constructive and destructive interference. Three basic questions address feasibility of quantum control: (1) The problem of controllability, does a control field exist for a preset initial and target state; (2) Synthesis, constructively finding the field that leads to the target; and (3) Optimal Control Theory - optimizing the field that carries out this task. These continue to be the fundamental theoretical questions to be addressed in the conference. How to realize control fields in the laboratory is an ongoing challenge. This task is very diverse viewing the emergence of control scenarios ranging from attoseconds to microseconds. How do the experimental observations reflect on the theoretical framework? The typical arena of quantum control is an open environment where much of the control is indirect. How are control scenarios realized in dissipative open systems? Can new control opportunities emerge? Can one null decoherence effects? An ideal setting for control is ultracold matter. The initial and final state can be defined more precisely. Coherent control unifies many fields of physical science. A lesson learned in one field can reflect on another. Currently quantum information processing has emerged as a primary target of control where the key issue is controlling quantum gate operation. Modern nonlinear spectroscopy has emerged as another primary field. The challenge is to unravel the dynamics of molecular systems undergoing strong interactions with the environment. Quantum optics where non-classical fields are to be generated and employed. Finally, coherent control is the basis for quantum engineering. These issues will be under the limelight of the Gordon conference on Quantum Control of Light and Matter.
Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological and Superconducting Phases
Shen, Zhi-Xun (Stanford University) [Stanford University
2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
Emerging properties in quantum matter is a major theme of modern physics, with the promise that insights gained would have implications far beyond these materials. This talk will address two interesting examples - topological insulators and high-temperature superconductors. The second part of the talk will report recent advances in the study of cuprate superconductors. It is now exactly 100 years since superconductivity was discovered and it took 45 years before a complete theory was formulated. High T_c superconductivity was discovered 25 years ago and it remains a major unsolved physics problem today. Recent ARPES results that suggest phase competition is a central piece of the cuprate physics will also be discussed.
Hossein Ghaffarnejad
2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
Aim of the paper is to obtain 2d analogue of the backreaction equation which will be useful to study final state of quantum perturbed spherically symmetric curved space times. Thus we take Einstein-massless-scalar $\\psi$ tensor gravity model described on class of spherically symmetric curved space times. We rewrite the action functional in 2d analogue in terms of dimensionless dilaton-matter field $(\\chi=\\Phi\\psi)$ where dilaton field $\\Phi$ is conformal factor of 2-sphere. Then we seek renormalized expectation value of quantum dilaton-matter field stress tensor operator by applying Hadamard rennormalization prescription. Singularity of the Green function is assumed to be has logarithmic form. Covariantly conservation condition on the renormalized quantum dilaton-matter stress tensor demands to input a variable cosmological parameter $\\lambda(x)$. Energy conditions (weak, strong and null) is studied on the obtained renormalized stress tensor leading to dynamical equations for $\\lambda(x), \\Phi$ and quantum vacuum state $W_0(x)=_{ren}.$ In weak quantum field limits our obtained trace anomaly corresponds to one which obtained from zeta regularization. Setting null-like apparent horizon equation $\
Lee, Julia C.; Xiang, Jingen; Ravel, Bruce; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Flanagan, Kathryn
2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
We present a newtechnique for determining the quantity and composition of dust in astrophysical environments using<6 keV X-rays.We argue that high-resolution X-ray spectra as enabled by the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings should be considered a powerful and viable new resource for delving into a relatively unexplored regime for directlydetermining dust properties: composition, quantity, and distribution.We present initial cross section measurements of astrophysically likely iron-based dust candidates taken at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source synchrotron beamline, as an illustrative tool for the formulation of our technique for determining the quantity and composition of interstellar dust with X-rays. (Cross sections for the materials presented here will be made available for astrophysical modeling in the near future.) Focused at the 700 eV Fe LIII and LII photoelectric edges, we discuss a technique for modeling dust properties in the soft X-rays using L-edge data to complement K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis techniques discussed by Lee& Ravel. The paper is intended to be a techniques paper of interest and useful to both condensed matter experimentalists andastrophysicists. For the experimentalists, we offer a new prescription for normalizing relatively low signal-to-noise ratio L-edge cross section measurements. For astrophysics interests, we discuss the use of X-ray absorption spectra for determining dust composition in cold and ionized astrophysical environments and a new method for determining species-specific gas and dust ratios. Possible astrophysical applications of interest, including relevance to Sagittarius A*, are offered. Prospects for improving on this work in future X-ray missions with higher throughput and spectral resolution are also presented in the context of spectral resolution goals for gratings and calorimeters, for proposed and planned missions such as Astro-H and the International X-ray Observatory.
Viability of the matter bounce scenario in Loop Quantum Cosmology for general potentials
Jaume Haro; Jaume Amorós
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the matter bounce scenario in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for physical potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these models, numerically solving the dynamical equations we have seen that the teleparallel version of LQC leads to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in teleparallel LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with {\\it Planck's} experimental data. On the other hand, in holonomy corrected LQC the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in teleparallel LQC, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with {\\it Planck's} data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.
D. V. Bugg
2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
A novel interpretation of MOND is presented. For galactic data, in addition to Newtonian acceleration, there is an attractive acceleration peaking at Milgrom's parameter a_0. The peak lies within experimental error where a_0 = cH_0/2\\pi and H_0 is the present-time value of the Hubble constant. This peaking may be understood in terms of quantum mechanical mixing between Newtonian gravitation and the condensation mechanism. There are five pointers towards galaxies being Fermi-Dirac condensates.
Condensed Matter and Magnet Science
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and HC) Suite of nondestructive pulsed magnets up to 100 tesla Thermoacoustics and fluid dynamics Transport, magnetism, and thermodynamic characterization at extreme conditions of...
Condensed Matter and Magnet Science
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submitCollector/Receiver Characterization We use aApproved by:CMMS
A Light-Matter Interface based on a Single InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot in a Nanometallic Cavity
Thomas M. Babinec; Yousif A. Kelaita; Kevin A. Fischer; Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis; Tomas Sarmiento; Armand Rundquist; Arka Majumdar; Jelena Vuckovic
2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
Progress in solid-state optical cavities is tracked on a timeline of miniaturization. Here, we demonstrate a coupled emitter-cavity system consisting of an InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot embedded in a hybrid metal/semiconductor nanocavity. Key features of our nanometallic light-matter interface include: (i) order of magnitude reduction in mode volume compared to that of leading photonic crystal cQED systems, resulting in maximum atom-field coupling rate g/(2{\\pi})~180GHz; (ii) surface-emitting nanocylinder geometry and therefore good collection efficiency compared to the bulk (~5X enhancement); (iii) strong and broadband spontaneous emission rate enhancement (Purcell factor ~8); and finally (iv) the ability to efficiently optically address a multi-level quantum emitter based on a charged quantum dot inside the nanocavity. This light-matter interface could play an important role in studies of the cavity quantum electrodynamics as well as in its application to optical interconnects and quantum networks.
Geometric potentials in quantum optics: A semi-classical interpretation
analysis may help for the design and the implementation of novel geometric forces. Cold atomic gases are considered as efficient simulators of quantum condensed matter systems (for a review, see e.g. [1 in the implementation of these simulators is the possibil- ity to apply a gauge field to the cold atomic gas in or- der
Quantum Field Theory & Gravity
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITY AEROSOL:Quantum Condensed Matter
arXiv:1406.4193v1[quant-ph]16Jun2014 Atomic Focusing by Quantum Fields: Entanglement Properties
Boyer, Edmond
, lithography, single atom manipulation, trace gas analysis and ultracold chemistry [3]. In addition, the area of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum the search for the matter wave Gouy phase in different systems: Bose-Einstein condensates [7], electron
Non-linear hydrodynamics of axion dark matter: relative velocity effects and "quantum forces"
Marsh, David J E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The non-linear hydrodynamic equations for axion/scalar field dark matter (DM) in the non-relativistic Madelung-Shcr\\"{o}dinger form are derived in a simple manner, including the effects of universal expansion and Hubble drag. The hydrodynamic equations are used to investigate the relative velocity between axion DM and baryons, and the moving-background perturbation theory (MBPT) derived. Axions massive enough to be all of the DM do not affect the coherence length of the relative velocity, but the MBPT equations are modified by the inclusion of the axion effective sound speed. These MBPT equations are necessary for accurately modelling the effects of axion DM on the formation of the first cosmic structures, and suggest that the 21cm power spectrum could improve constraints on axion mass by up to four orders of magnitude with respect to the current best constraints. A further application of these results uses the "quantum force" analogy to model scalar field gradient energy in a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics ...
3d Spinfoam Quantum Gravity: Matter as a Phase of the Group Field Theory
Winston Fairbairn; Etera R. Livine
2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
An effective field theory for matter coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity was recently derived in the context of spinfoam models in hep-th/0512113. In this paper, we show how this relates to group field theories and generalized matrix models. In the first part, we realize that the effective field theory can be recasted as a matrix model where couplings between matrices of different sizes can occur. In a second part, we provide a family of classical solutions to the three-dimensional group field theory. By studying perturbations around these solutions, we generate the dynamics of the effective field theory. We identify a particular case which leads to the action of hep-th/0512113 for a massive field living in a flat non-commutative space-time. The most general solutions lead to field theories with non-linear redefinitions of the momentum which we propose to interpret as living on curved space-times. We conclude by discussing the possible extension to four-dimensional spinfoam models.
Supermassive Black Holes as Giant Bose-Einstein Condensates
Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen
2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
The Schwarzschild metric has a divergent energy density at the horizon, which motivates a new approach to black holes. If matter is spread uniformly throughout the interior of a supermassive black hole, with mass $M\\sim M_\\star= 2.34 10^8M_\\odot$, it may arise from a Bose-Einstein condensate of densely packed H-atoms. Within the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation with a positive cosmological constant, a bosonic quantum field is coupled to the curvature scalar. In the Bose-Einstein condensed groundstate an exact, selfconsistent solution for the metric is presented. It is regular with a specific shape at the origin. The redshift at the horizon is finite but large, $z\\sim 10^{14}$$M_\\star/M$. The binding energy remains as an additional parameter to characterize the BH; alternatively, the mass observed at infinity can be any fraction of the rest mass of its constituents.
Unusual condensates in quark and atomic systems
B. Kerbikov
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
In these lectures we discuss condensates which are formed in quark matter when it is squeezed and in a gas of fermionic atoms when it is cooled. The behavior of these two seemingly very different systems reveals striking similarities. In particular, in both systems the Bose-Einstein condensate to Bardeen--Cooper-Schrieffer (BEC-BCS) crossover takes place.
aldol condensation estrutura: Topics by E-print Network
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para estruturas mais leves (more) Valdinei Sczibor 2002-01-01 27 Squeezed Condensates Quantum Physics (arXiv) Summary: We analyse the atomic state obtained by...
Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Benjamin Schlein
2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
We report on some recent results concerning the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates, obtained in a series of joint papers with L. Erdos and H.-T. Yau. Starting from many body quantum dynamics, we present a rigorous derivation of a cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the time evolution of the condensate wave function.
The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density
Kenji Fukushima; Chihiro Sasaki
2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z
We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third regime that is being recognized recently is what is called quarkyonic matter, which has both aspects of nuclear and quark matter. We closely elucidate the basic idea of quarkyonic matter in the large-Nc limit and its physics implications. Finally, we discuss some experimental indications for the QCD phase diagram and close the review with outlooks.
Martin Bojowald
2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.
Bojowald, Martin
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.
Miransky, Vladimir A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chira...
Nuclear Alpha-Particle Condensates
T. Yamada; Y. Funaki; H. Horiuchi; G. Roepke; P. Schuck; A. Tohsaki
2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
The $\\alpha$-particle condensate in nuclei is a novel state described by a product state of $\\alpha$'s, all with their c.o.m. in the lowest 0S orbit. We demonstrate that a typical $\\alpha$-particle condensate is the Hoyle state ($E_{x}=7.65$ MeV, $0^+_2$ state in $^{12}$C), which plays a crucial role for the synthesis of $^{12}$C in the universe. The influence of antisymmentrization in the Hoyle state on the bosonic character of the $\\alpha$ particle is discussed in detail. It is shown to be weak. The bosonic aspects in the Hoyle state, therefore, are predominant. It is conjectured that $\\alpha$-particle condensate states also exist in heavier $n\\alpha$ nuclei, like $^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne, etc. For instance the $0^+_6$ state of $^{16}$O at $E_{x}=15.1$ MeV is identified from a theoretical analysis as being a strong candidate of a $4\\alpha$ condensate. The calculated small width (34 keV) of $0^+_6$, consistent with data, lends credit to the existence of heavier Hoyle-analogue states. In non-self-conjugated nuclei such as $^{11}$B and $^{13}$C, we discuss candidates for the product states of clusters, composed of $\\alpha$'s, triton's, and neutrons etc. The relationship of $\\alpha$-particle condensation in finite nuclei to quartetting in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated with the help of an in-medium modified four-nucleon equation. A nonlinear order parameter equation for quartet condensation is derived and solved for $\\alpha$ particle condensation in infinite nuclear matter. The strong qualitative difference with the pairing case is pointed out.
Fidelity decay in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
G. Manfredi; P. -A. Hervieux
2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
The quantum coherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied using the concept of quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo). The condensate is confined in an elongated anharmonic trap and subjected to a small random potential such as that created by a laser speckle. Numerical experiments show that the quantum fidelity stays constant until a critical time, after which it drops abruptly over a single trap oscillation period. The critical time depends logarithmically on the number of condensed atoms and on the perturbation amplitude. This behavior may be observable by measuring the interference fringes of two condensates evolving in slightly different potentials.
Towards continuous-wave regime teleportation for light matter quantum relay stations
Florian Kaiser; Amandine Issautier; Lutfi A. Ngah; Djeylan Aktas; Tom Delord; Sébastien Tanzilli
2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z
We report a teleportation experiment involving narrowband entangled photons at 1560 nm and qubit photons at 795 nm emulated by faint laser pulses. A nonlinear difference frequency generation stage converts the 795 nm photons to 1560 nm in order to enable interference with one photon out of the pairs, i.e., at the same wavelength. The spectral bandwidth of all involved photons is of about 25 MHz, which is close to the emission bandwidth of emissive quantum memory devices, notably those based on ensembles of cold atoms and rare earth ions. This opens the route towards the realization of hybrid quantum nodes, i.e., combining quantum memories and entanglement-based quantum relays exploiting either a synchronized (pulsed) or asynchronous (continuous- wave) scenario.
Quantum Decay of the 'False Vacuum' and Pair Creation of Soliton Domain Walls
Miller, John H. Jr. [Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, Texas 77204-5005 (United States)
2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum decay of metastable states ('false vacua') has been proposed as a mechanism for bubble nucleation of new universes and phase transitions in the early universe. Experiments indicate the occurrence of false vacuum decay, within a region bounded by soliton domain walls that nucleate via quantum tunneling, in a highly anisotropic condensed matter system. This phenomenon provides a compelling example of false vacuum decay in the laboratory.
Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.
2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.
Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai
2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.
Thermometry and cooling of a Bose-Einstein condensate to 0.02 times the critical temperature
Olf, Ryan; Marti, G Edward; MacRae, Andrew; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ultracold gases promise access to many-body quantum phenomena at convenient length and time scales. However, it is unclear whether the entropy of these gases is low enough to realize many phenomena relevant to condensed matter physics, such as quantum magnetism. Here we report reliable single-shot temperature measurements of a degenerate $^{87}$Rb gas by imaging the momentum distribution of thermalized magnons, which are spin excitations of the atomic gas. We record average temperatures as low as $0.022(1)_\\text{stat}(2)_\\text{sys}$ times the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature, indicating an entropy per particle, $S/N\\approx0.001\\, k_B$ at equilibrium, that is well below the critical entropy for antiferromagnetic ordering of a Bose-Hubbard system. The magnons themselves can reduce the temperature of the system by absorbing energy during thermalization and by enhancing evaporative cooling, allowing low-entropy gases to be produced within deep traps.
Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics
S. R. Beane; E. Chang; S. D. Cohen; W. Detmold; H. -W. Lin; T. C. Luu; K. Orginos; A. Parreno; M. J. Savage; A. Walker-Loud
2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
The low-energy neutron-Sigma^- interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m_pi ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties, and strengthen theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.
Vladimir A. Miransky; Igor A. Shovkovy
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chiral magnetic and separation effects, we also review their possible phenomenological implications in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars. We also discuss the application of the magnetic catalysis ideas for the description of the quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene, and conclude that the generalized magnetic catalysis, including both the magnetic catalysis condensates and the quantum Hall ferromagnetic ones, lies at the basis of this phenomenon. We also consider how an external magnetic field affects the underlying physics in a class of three-dimensional quasirelativistic condensed matter systems, Dirac semimetals. While at sufficiently low temperatures and zero density of charge carriers, such semimetals are expected to reveal the regime of the magnetic catalysis, the regime of Weyl semimetals with chiral asymmetry is realized at nonzero density...
Vladimir A. Miransky; Igor A. Shovkovy
2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chiral magnetic and separation effects, we also review their possible phenomenological implications in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars. We also discuss the application of the magnetic catalysis ideas for the description of the quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene, and conclude that the generalized magnetic catalysis, including both the magnetic catalysis condensates and the quantum Hall ferromagnetic ones, lies at the basis of this phenomenon. We also consider how an external magnetic field affects the underlying physics in a class of three-dimensional quasirelativistic condensed matter systems, Dirac semimetals. While at sufficiently low temperatures and zero density of charge carriers, such semimetals are expected to reveal the regime of the magnetic catalysis, the regime of Weyl semimetals with chiral asymmetry is realized at nonzero density...
Virendra Singh
2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
We review here the main contributions of Einstein to the quantum theory. To put them in perspective we first give an account of Physics as it was before him. It is followed by a brief account of the problem of black body radiation which provided the context for Planck to introduce the idea of quantum. Einstein's revolutionary paper of 1905 on light-quantum hypothesis is then described as well as an application of this idea to the photoelectric effect. We next take up a discussion of Einstein's other contributions to old quantum theory. These include (i) his theory of specific heat of solids, which was the first application of quantum theory to matter, (ii) his discovery of wave-particle duality for light and (iii) Einstein's A and B coefficients relating to the probabilities of emission and absorption of light by atomic systems and his discovery of radiation stimulated emission of light which provides the basis for laser action. We then describe Einstein's contribution to quantum statistics viz Bose-Einstein Statistics and his prediction of Bose-Einstein condensation of a boson gas. Einstein played a pivotal role in the discovery of Quantum mechanics and this is briefly mentioned. After 1925 Einstein's contributed mainly to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics. We choose to discuss here (i) his Ensemble (or Statistical) Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and (ii) the discovery of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations and the EPR theorem on the conflict between Einstein-Locality and the completeness of the formalism of Quantum Mechanics. We end with some comments on later developments.
Evolutionary games of condensates in coupled birth-death processes
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensation phenomena arise through a collective behaviour of particles. They are observed in both classical and quantum systems, ranging from the formation of traffic jams in mass transport models to the macroscopic occupation of the energetic ground state in ultra-cold bosonic gases (Bose-Einstein condensation). Recently, it has been shown that a driven and dissipative system of bosons may form multiple condensates. Which states become the condensates has, however, remained elusive thus far. The dynamics of this condensation are described by coupled birth-death processes, which also occur in evolutionary game theory. Here, we apply concepts from evolutionary game theory to explain the formation of multiple condensates in such driven-dissipative bosonic systems. We show that vanishing of relative entropy production determines their selection. The condensation proceeds exponentially fast, but the system never comes to rest. Instead, the occupation numbers of condensates may oscillate, as we demonstrate for a...
Sideband Cooling Micromechanical Motion to the Quantum Ground State
Teufel, J D; Li, Dale; Harlow, J H; Allman, M S; Cicak, K; Sirois, A J; Whittaker, J D; Lehnert, K W; Simmonds, R W
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The advent of laser cooling techniques revolutionized the study of many atomic-scale systems. This has fueled progress towards quantum computers by preparing trapped ions in their motional ground state, and generating new states of matter by achieving Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic vapors. Analogous cooling techniques provide a general and flexible method for preparing macroscopic objects in their motional ground state, bringing the powerful technology of micromechanics into the quantum regime. Cavity opto- or electro-mechanical systems achieve sideband cooling through the strong interaction between light and motion. However, entering the quantum regime, less than a single quantum of motion, has been elusive because sideband cooling has not sufficiently overwhelmed the coupling of mechanical systems to their hot environments. Here, we demonstrate sideband cooling of the motion of a micromechanical oscillator to the quantum ground state. Entering the quantum regime requires a large electromechanical inte...
Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensates
Rolf Heidemann; Ulrich Raitzsch; Vera Bendkowsky; Björn Butscher; Robert Löw; Tilman Pfau
2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
Rydberg atoms provide a wide range of possibilities to tailor interactions in a quantum gas. Here we report on Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensed 87Rb atoms. The Rydberg fraction was investigated for various excitation times and temperatures above and below the condensation temperature. The excitation is locally blocked by the van der Waals interaction between Rydberg atoms to a density-dependent limit. Therefore the abrupt change of the thermal atomic density distribution to the characteristic bimodal distribution upon condensation could be observed in the Rydberg fraction. The observed features are reproduced by a simulation based on local collective Rydberg excitations.
Model for energy transfer by coherent Fermi pressure fluctuations in quantum soft matter
Peterson, Mark A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A 1-dimensional model for coherent quantum energy transfer through a complex of compressible boxes is investigated by numerical integration of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. Energy is communicated from one box to the next by the resonant fluctuating Fermi pressure of the electrons in each box pushing on the walls and doing work on adjacent boxes. Parameters are chosen similar to the chain molecules of typical light harvesting complexes. For some parameter choices the system is found to have an instability leading to self-induced coherent energy transfer transparency.
Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Anirban Saha; Swarup Saha
2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
The response of a test particle, both for the free case and under the harmonic oscillator potential, to circularly polarized gravitational waves is investigated in a noncommutative quantum mechanical setting. The system is quantized following the prescription in \\cite{ncgw1}. Standard algebraic techniques are then employed to solve the Hamiltonian of the system. The solutions, in both cases, show signatures of the coordinate noncommutativity. In the harmonic oscillator case, this signature plays a key role in altering the resonance point and the oscillation frequency of the system.
Normal matter storage of antiprotons
Campbell, L.J.
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.
The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density
Fukushima, Kenji
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third reg...
Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the equation of state of neutron matter
Gandolfi, S.; Illarionov, A. Yu.; Schmidt, K. E.; Pederiva, F.; Fantoni, S. [International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA Via Beirut 2/4 I-34014 Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy) and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Trento (Italy); International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA Via Beirut 2/4 I-34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste, Italy and INFM DEMOCRITOS National Simulation Center, Via Beirut 2/4 I-34014 Trieste (Italy)
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
We calculated the equation of state of neutron matter at zero temperature by means of the auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method combined with a fixed-phase approximation. The calculation of the energy was carried out by simulating up to 114 neutrons in a periodic box. Special attention was given to reducing finite-size effects at the energy evaluation by adding to the interaction the effect due to the truncation of the simulation box, and by performing several simulations using different numbers of neutrons. The finite-size effects due to kinetic energy were also checked by employing the twist-averaged boundary conditions. We considered a realistic nuclear Hamiltonian containing modern two- and three-body interactions of the Argonne and Urbana family. The equation of state can be used to compare and calibrate other many-body calculations and to predict properties of neutron stars.
Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...
Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking Induced by Vacuum Condensates
Antonio Capolupo; Marco Di Mauro
2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a novel mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking which relies upon an ubiquitous feature of Quantum Field Theory, vacuum condensates. Such condensates play a crucial r\\^{o}le in many phenomena. Examples include Unruh effect, superconductors, particle mixing, and quantum dissipative systems. We argue that in all these phenomena supersymmetry, when present, is spontaneously broken. Evidence for our conjecture is given for the Wess--Zumino model, that can be considered an approximation to the supersymmetric extensions of the above mentioned systems. The magnitude of the effect is estimated for a recently proposed experimental setup based on an optical lattice.
BF-theory in graphene: a route toward topological quantum computing?
Annalisa Marzuoli; Giandomenico Palumbo
2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Besides the plenty of applications of graphene allotropes in condensed matter and nanotechnology, we argue that graphene sheets might be engineered to support room-temperature topological quantum processing of information. The argument is based on the possibility of modeling the monolayer graphene effective action by means of a 3d Topological Quantum Field Theory of BF-type able to sustain non-Abelian anyon dynamics. This feature is the basic requirement of recently proposed theoretical frameworks for fault-tolerant and decoherence protected quantum computation.
K+ and K- potentials in hadronic matter are observable quantities
Aman D. Sood; Ch. Hartnack; andJ. Aichelin
2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
The comparison of $K^+$ and $K^-$ spectra at low transverse momentum in light symmetric heavy ion reactions at energies around 2 AGeV allows for a direct experimental determination of the strength of the $K^+$ as well as of t he $K^-$ nucleus potential. Other little known or unknown input quantities like the production or rescattering cross sections of $K^+$ and $K^-$ mesons do not spoil this signal. This result, obtained by simulations of these reactio ns with the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model, may solve the longstanding question of the behaviour of the $K^-$ in hadronic matter and especially whether a $K^-$ condensate can be formed in heavy ion collisions.
acid vent condenser: Topics by E-print Network
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the vapor (steam) phase versus the liquid... Jenkins, B. V. 1983-01-01 20 Squeezed Condensates Quantum Physics (arXiv) Summary: We analyse the atomic state obtained by...
aniline furfuraldehyde condensate: Topics by E-print Network
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Kolomenskii, A A; Schroeder, H; Paulus, G G; Schuessler, H A 2011-01-01 6 Squeezed Condensates Quantum Physics (arXiv) Summary: We analyse the atomic state obtained by...
Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation with Lithium-7 atoms
Yu, Yichao
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents our work on developing and improving the techniques of trapping and cooling an ultra-cold cloud of Lithium-7 atoms and the realization of the Bose- Einstein condensate as a first step to study quantum ...
Oscillation dynamics of multi-well condensates
S. Mossmann; C. Jung
2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new approach to the macroscopic dynamics of three-well Bose-Einstein condensates, giving particular emphasis to self-trapping and Josephson oscillations. Although these effects have been studied quite thoroughly in the mean-field approximation, a full quantum description is desirable, since it avoids pathologies due to the nonlinear character of the mean-field equations. Using superpositions of quantum eigenstates, we construct various oscillation and trapping scenarios.
Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates
E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta
2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.
Quantum and Dirac Materials for Energy Applications Conference (QDM-15)
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Quantum cryptography put to work for electric grid security
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITY AEROSOL:Quantum Condensed MatterQuantum and
Phase diagram of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice
G. -P. Zheng; J. -Q. Liang; W. M. Liu
2005-06-04T23:59:59.000Z
The exact macroscopic wave functions of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice beyond the tight-binding approximation are studied by solving the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The phase diagram for superfluid and insulator phases of the condensates is determined analytically according to the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, which are seen to be traveling matter waves.
ccsd00001592, Interference of an array of independent Bose-Einstein condensates
-Einstein condensates Zoran Hadzibabic, Sabine Stock, Baptiste Battelier, Vincent Bretin, and Jean Dalibard Laboratoire-contrast matter wave interference between 30 Bose-Einstein condensates with uncorrelated phases. Interference patterns were observed after independent condensates were released from a one-dimensional optical lattice
of new scientific explorations. These include quantum gases with anisotropic dipolar interactions, tests-Einstein condensation of molecules was reported by three groups [1-3]. We observed BEC of lithium molecules. When a spin
Beyond spontaneously broken symmetry in Bose-Einstein condensates
W. J. Mullin; F. Laloë
2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for Bose-Einstein condensates cannot treat phase off-diagonal effects, and thus not explain Bell inequality violations. We describe another situation that is beyond a SSB treatment: an experiment where particles from two (possibly macroscopic) condensate sources are used for conjugate measurements of the relative phase and populations. Off-diagonal phase effects are characterized by a "quantum angle" and observed via "population oscillations", signaling quantum interference of macroscopically distinct states (QIMDS).
Bose-Einstein Condensation on Holographic Screens
Mirza, Behrouz; Raissi, Zahra
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a boson gas on holographic screens of the Rindler and Schwartzschild spacetimes. It is shown that the gas on the stretched horizon is in a Bose-Einstein condensed state with the Hawking temperature $T_c=T_H$ if the particle number of the system be equal to the number of quantum bits of spacetime $ N \\simeq {A}/{{\\l_{p}}^{2}}$. A boson gas on a holographic screen $(r>2M)$ with the same number of particles and at Unruh temperature is also in a condensed state. Far from the horizon, the Unruh temperature is much lower than the condensation temperature $(T_c=T_{{Unruh}}+\\sqrt {f(r)} T_{Planck})$. This analysis implies a possible physical model for quantum bits of spacetime on a holographic screen. We propose a unique and physical interpretation for equipartition theorem on holographic screens. Also, we will argue that this gas is a fast scrambler.
Economical Condensing Turbines?
Dean, J. E.
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown and extraction/condensing. • Letdown turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one...
Condensed Matter Colloquium Thursday, February 6, 2014
Lathrop, Daniel P.
in Room 1305F Andrew M. Rappe University of Pennsylvania The bulk photovoltaic effect in polar oxides into the bulk photovoltaic effect, and materials design to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency. We calculate photovoltaic effects. Finally, we present new oxides that are strongly polar yet have band gaps in the visible
Condensed matter at high shock pressures
Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.
1985-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
University of Maryland Condensed Matter Theory Center
Scarola, Vito
mechanically screen Coulomb interaction Non-interacting ·Exact in two limits: } } Jain PRL `89 Yi,Fertig PRB Oscillates ·High Overlap Harju et al. PRL `02 Burkard et al. PRB `99 Hu,Das Sarma PRA `00 #12;Empirical Two-like"Noise) S1 S2 N N Nuclear flip-flop Manipulation/ Detection Khaetskii,Nazarov PRB '01 DeSousa,Das Sarma PRB
Postdoctoral fellowship Computational condensed matter / materials physics
Montréal, Université de
, in particular first-principles electronic structure calculations, ab- initio (Car-Parrinello), tight of the following topics : semiconductor structure, dynamics and relaxation; glass structure and glass transition-binding, and semi-empirical (e.g., EAM, EMT) molecular dynamics, atomistic and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, etc
Optical Spectroscopy: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science,...
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633nm, 785nm, 1064nm, visible argon-ion lines, various NIR diode lines Xe lamp and tungsten blackbody lamp Acton 300i, 500i spectrometers Princeton Instruments backthinned...
Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter
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COLLOQUIUM: Environmental Condensed Matter Physics | Princeton Plasma
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Bose-Einstein Condensate general relativistic stars
P. H. Chavanis; T. Harko
2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the possibility that due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with arbitrary non-linearity. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. The non-relativistic and Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate can be described as a gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index one. In the framework of the Thomas-Fermi approximation the structure of the Newtonian gravitational condensate is described by the Lane-Emden equation, which can be exactly solved. The case of the rotating condensate is also discussed. General relativistic configurations with quartic non-linearity are studied numerically with both non-relativistic and relativistic equations of state, and the maximum mass of the stable configuration is determined. Condensates with particle masses of the order of two neutron masses (Cooper pair) and scattering length of the order of 10-20 fm have maximum masses of the order of 2 M_sun, maximum central density of the order of 0.1-0.3 10^16 g/cm^3 and minimum radii in the range of 10-20 km. In this way we obtain a large class of stable astrophysical objects, whose basic astrophysical parameters (mass and radius) sensitively depend on the mass of the condensed particle, and on the scattering length. We also propose that the recently observed neutron stars with masses in the range of 2-2.4 M_sun are Bose-Einstein Condensate stars.
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Weston, Ken
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Graphene, Basic Superconductivity, Other Condensed Matter, Qubits & Quantum Entanglement, Quantum
Quantum Enabled Security (QES) for Optical Communications
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Quantum Information Science | ornl.gov
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Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars
David Blaschke
2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.
Charmonium mass in nuclear matter
Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The mass shift of charmonium states in nuclear matter is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. The leading-order effect due to the change of gluon condensate in nuclear matter is evaluated using the leading-order QCD formula, while the higher...
Transition of a mesoscopic bosonic gas into a Bose-Einstein condensate
Alexej Schelle
2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z
The condensate number distribution during the transition of a dilute, weakly interacting gas of N=200 bosonic atoms into a Bose-Einstein condensate is modeled within number conserving master equation theory of Bose-Einstein condensation. Initial strong quantum fluctuations occuring during the exponential cycle of condensate growth reduce in a subsequent saturation stage, before the Bose gas finally relaxes towards the Gibbs-Boltzmann equilibrium.
Measurement-Based Quantum Computing with Valence-Bond-Solids
Leong Chuan Kwek; Zhaohui Wei; Bei Zeng
2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a model of quantum computing that proceeds by sequential measurements of individual spins in an entangled resource state. However, it remains a challenge to produce efficiently such resource states. Would it be possible to generate these states by simply cooling a quantum many-body system to its ground state? Cluster states, the canonical resource states for MBQC, do not occur naturally as unique ground states of physical systems. This inherent hurdle has led to a significant effort to identify alternative resource states that appear as ground states in spin lattices. Recently, some interesting candidates have been identified with various valence-bond-solid (VBS) states. In this review, we provide a pedagogical introduction to recent progress regarding MBQC with VBS states as possible resource states. This study has led to an interesting interdisciplinary research area at the interface of quantum information science and condensed matter physics.
Measurement-Based Quantum Computing with Valence-Bond-Solids
Kwek, Leong Chuan; Zeng, Bei
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a model of quantum computing that proceeds by sequential measurements of individual spins in an entangled resource state. However, it remains a challenge to produce efficiently such resource states. Would it be possible to generate these states by simply cooling a quantum many-body system to its ground state? Cluster states, the canonical resource states for MBQC, do not occur naturally as unique ground states of physical systems. This inherent hurdle has led to a significant effort to identify alternative resource states that appear as ground states in spin lattices. Recently, some interesting candidates have been identified with various valence-bond-solid (VBS) states. In this review, we provide a pedagogical introduction to recent progress regarding MBQC with VBS states as possible resource states. This study has led to an interesting interdisciplinary research area at the interface of quantum information science and condensed matter physics.
A Continuous Source of Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms
-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a macroscopic quantum system with analo- gies to superconductors, superfluids, and opti. In the optical domain, the leap from a pulsed ruby laser (3) to a more complex continuous wave (CW) helium beam from the typical phase-space density of laser cooling (10 6 ) into quantum degeneracy has been
Yates, W.
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...
Economical Condensing Turbines?
Dean, J. E.
Economical Condensing Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown... turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: ? Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon...
Quark Condensates: Flavour Dependence
R. Williams; C. S. Fischer; M. R. Pennington
2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
We determine the q-bar q condensate for quark masses from zero up to that of the strange quark within a phenomenologically successful modelling of continuum QCD by solving the quark Schwinger-Dyson equation. The existence of multiple solutions to this equation is the key to an accurate and reliable extraction of this condensate using the operator product expansion. We explain why alternative definitions fail to give the physical condensate.
(2+1)d Thirring model at quantum criticality Lukas Janssen, Holger Gies
Rossak, Wilhelm R.
: Higgs boson? [LHC (CERN)] Condensed-matter physics: high-Tc superconducting transition (cuprates, iron (GSI Darmstadt)] Electroweak phase transition: Higgs boson? [LHC (CERN)] Condensed-matter physics: high
EPRI condensate polisher guidelines
Larkin, B.A.; Webb, L.C.; Sawochka, S.G.; Crits, G.J.; Pocock, F.J.; Wirth, L.
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cycle chemistry is one of the most important contributors to the loss of availability of generating units. Condensate polishing can significantly improve cycle chemistry by improving cycle water quality and minimizing the transport of contaminants in the power cycle. The EPRI-funded project described in this paper developed comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishing based upon information gathered from utility surveys, equipment vendors, and resin suppliers. Existing literature was also surveyed for pertinent input. Comprehensive guidelines which outline guidance for design, operation, maintenance, surveillance, management, and retrofitting of condensate polishing systems were developed. Economics of condensate polishing were evaluated and a roadmap for economic evaluation for utilities to follow was produced.
Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T.
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
supplied in the boiler is used and the remainder, about 25%, is still held by the condensed water. The heat required to raise the temperature of the makeup water at around 50 OF to the required temperature, is very costly. As most condensate return... condensate is returned, less makeup is required, hence saving on water and makeup water treatment costs. The high purity of the condensate allows for greater boiler cycles of concentration, thus reducing water and energy losses to blowdown. The high heat...
RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division
Fukai, Tomoki
Device Research Team Emergent Soft Matter Structure Reserch Team Emergent Functional Polymers Research Information Electronics Division Quantum Functional System Research Group Quantum Optics Research Group Quantum Electronics Research Team Emergent Phenomena Observation Technology Research Team Quantum Nano
Conradson, Steven D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; An, Yong Q.; Andersson , David; Bishop, Alan R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Conradson, Leilani L.; Costello, Alison E.; Hess, Nancy J.; Lander, Gerard H.; Llobet, Anna; Martucci, Mary B.; de Leon, Jose M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Proffen, Thomas E.; Rodriguez, George; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Taylor, Antoinette; Trugman, Stuart A.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Valdez, James A.
2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z
The pinned charge defects in U4O9, and U3O7 that are the single phase fluoritestructured derivatives of UO2 have been characterized by U L3 EXAFS at 30, 100, and 200 K, xray and neutron pair distribution function analysis, O K edge XAS and non-resonant inelastic xray scattering, and Raman spectroscopy, while mobile charge defects were investigated by femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe laser spectroscopy on single crystal UO2 between 7 and 300 K. The results from all of these measurements show highly complex and anomalous behaviors, which we attribute to a charge-lattice instability in UO2 that most likely originates in the intersection of the ground U(IV) and a proximate uranyl-like excited state in a conic section, causing a breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Furthermore, the photoinduced quasiparticles undergo a gap-opening condensation between 50 and 60 K. Doped UO2 may therefore exhibit novel correlated electron physics that extends beyond that of the cuprate-manganite-pnictide family of compounds.
Bosonic condensation in a flat energy band
Baboux, F; Jacqmin, T; Biondi, M; Lemaître, A; Gratiet, L Le; Sagnes, I; Schmidt, S; Türeci, H E; Amo, A; Bloch, J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Flat bands are non-dispersive energy bands made of fully degenerate quantum states. Such bands are expected to support emergent phenomena with extraordinary spatial and temporal structures, as they strongly enhance the effect of any perturbation induced by disorder, dissipation or interactions. However, flat bands usually appear at energies above the ground state, preventing their study in systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we use cavity polaritons to circumvent this issue. We engineer a flat band in a frustrated lattice of micro-pillar optical cavities. By taking advantage of the non-hermiticity of our system, we achieve for the first time bosonic condensation in a flat band. This allows revealing the peculiar effect of disorder in such band: The condensate fragments into highly localized modes, reflecting the elementary eigenstates produced by geometric frustration. This non-hermitian engineering of a bosonic flat band condensate offers a novel approach to studying coherent phases of light and matte...
matter such as polymers, colloids, emulsions, foams, living organisms, rock layers, sediments, plastics, glass, rubber, oil, soil, DNA, etc, Âµ ranges from 0 to 2 and is from 0 to 1. It is worth pointing out
THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION
IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.
2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z
In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.
Landau levels for discrete-time quantum walks in artificial magnetic fields
Pablo Arnault; Fabrice Debbasch
2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
A new family of 2D discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) is presented and shown to coincide, in the continuous limit, with the Dirac dynamics of a spin 1/2 fermion coupled to a constant and homogeneous magnetic field. Landau levels are constructed, not only in the continuous limit, but also for the DTQWs i.e. for finite non-vanishing values of the time- and position-steps. All results are supported by numerical simulations. The possibility of quantum simulation of condensed matter systems by DTQWs is also discussed.
Quantum transport, anomalous dephasing, and spin-orbit coupling in an open
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITY AEROSOL:Quantum Condensed MatterQuantum
Gravitational dynamics in Bose Einstein condensates
Florian Girelli; Stefano Liberati; Lorenzo Sindoni
2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z
Analogue models for gravity intend to provide a framework where matter and gravity, as well as their intertwined dynamics, emerge from degrees of freedom that have a priori nothing to do with what we call gravity or matter. Bose Einstein condensates (BEC) are a natural example of analogue model since one can identify matter propagating on a (pseudo-Riemannian) metric with collective excitations above the condensate of atoms. However, until now, a description of the "analogue gravitational dynamics" for such model was missing. We show here that in a BEC system with massive quasi-particles, the gravitational dynamics can be encoded in a modified (semi-classical) Poisson equation. In particular, gravity is of extreme short range (characterized by the healing length) and the cosmological constant appears from the non-condensed fraction of atoms in the quasi-particle vacuum. While some of these features make the analogue gravitational dynamics of our BEC system quite different from standard Newtonian gravity, we nonetheless show that it can be used to draw some interesting lessons about "emergent gravity" scenarios.
Decay of Graviton Condensates and their Generalizations in Arbitrary Dimensions
Florian Kuhnel; Bo Sundborg
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
Classicalons are self-bound classical field configurations, which include black holes in General Relativity. In quantum theory, they are described by condensates of many soft quanta. In this work, their decay properties are studied in arbitrary dimensions. It is found that generically the decays of other classicalons are enhanced compared to pure graviton condensates, ie. black holes. The evaporation of higher dimensional graviton condensates turns out to match Hawking radiation solely due to non-linearites captured by the classicalon picture. Although less stable than black holes, all self-bound condensates are shown to be stable in the limit of large mass. Like for black holes, the effective coupling always scales as the inverse of the number of constituents, indicating that these systems are at critical points of quantum phase transitions. Consequences for cosmology, astro- and collider physics are briefly discussed.
Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
Heinz-Peter Breuer; Elsi-Mari Laine; Jyrki Piilo; Bassano Vacchini
2015-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markov process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modelled by a dynamical semigroup with a generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence and correlations. Here, recent results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This article further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments on the detection, quantification and control of non-Markovian quantum dynamics are also discussed.
Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.
1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore »interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa
2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Carlson, Joseph A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gandolfi, Stefano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pederiva, Francesco [Univ. of Trento (Italy); Pieper, Steven C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schiavilla, Rocco [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Schmidt, K. E, [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Wiringa, Robert B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Finite-momentum condensation in a pumped microcavity
Brierley, R. T. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P. R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the absorption spectra of a semiconductor microcavity into which a nonequilibrium exciton population has been pumped. We predict strong peaks in the spectrum corresponding to collective modes analogous to the Cooper modes in superconductors and fermionic atomic gases. These modes can become unstable, leading to the formation of off-equilibrium quantum condensates. We calculate a phase diagram for condensation and show that the dominant instabilities can be at a finite momentum. Thus we predict the formation of inhomogeneous condensates, similar to Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states.
Bilic, Neven [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D, E-mail: bilic@thphys.irb.hr, E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za, E-mail: raoul.viollier@uct.ac.za [Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)
2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.
Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers
German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.
2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.
A dynamic macroscopic quantum oscillator at room temperature
Xie, Wei; Lee, Yi-Shan; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lai, Chih-Wei
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate a dynamic macroscopic quantum oscillator of a light--matter hybrid state in high-density plasmas created in an optically induced confining potential in a semiconductor microcavity at room temperature. One major advancement is the visualization of quantum oscillator states in a micrometer-scale optical potential at quantized energies up to 4 meV, an order of magnitude higher than that previously observed in spatially confined polariton condensates at cryogenic temperatures. Another advancement is the ability to characterize the time evolution and optical spin polarization of the quantum oscillator states directly from the consequent pulse radiation. The ability to control the macroscopic coherent state of plasma polaritons enables ultrafast multiple pulse lasing in a semiconductor microcavity.
Quantum transport via evanescent waves in undoped graphene
M. I. Katsnelson
2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
Charge carriers in graphene are chiral quasiparticles ("massless Dirac fermions"). Graphene provides therefore an amazing opportunity to study subtle quantum relativistic effects in condensed matter experiment. Here I review a theory of one of these unusual features of graphene, a "pseudodiffusive" transport in the limit of zero charge carrier concentration, which is related to existence of zero-modes of the Dirac operator and to the Zitterbewegung of unltrarelativistic particles. A conformal mapping technique is a powerful mathematical tool to study these phenomena, as demonstrated here, using the Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene rings with Corbino geometry as an example.
Fermionic first for condensates (March 2004) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb http for condensates Physics in Action: March 2004 The creation of the first fermionic condensate will herald a new-Einstein condensate was created in 1995, the field of ultracold matter has developed rapidly. We all knew from
Radiation from condensed surface of magnetic neutron stars
Matthew van Adelsberg; Dong Lai; Alexander Y. Potekhin; Phil Arras
2005-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
Recent observations show that the thermal X-ray spectra of many isolated neutron stars are featureless and in some cases (e.g., RX J1856.5-3754) well fit by a blackbody. Such a perfect blackbody spectrum is puzzling since radiative transport through typical neutron star atmospheres causes noticeable deviation from blackbody. Previous studies have shown that in a strong magnetic field, the outermost layer of the neutron star may be in a condensed solid or liquid form because of the greatly enhanced cohesive energy of the condensed matter. The critical temperature of condensation increases with the magnetic field strength, and can be as high as 10^6 K (for Fe surface at B \\sim 10^{13} G or H surface at B \\sim a few times 10^{14} G). Thus the thermal radiation can directly emerge from the degenerate metallic condensed surface, without going through a gaseous atmosphere. Here we calculate the emission properties (spectrum and polarization) of the condensed Fe and H surfaces of magnetic neutron stars in the regimes where such condensation may be possible. For a smooth condensed surface, the overall emission is reduced from the blackbody by less than a factor of 2. The spectrum exhibits modest deviation from blackbody across a wide energy range, and shows mild absorption features associated with the ion cyclotron frequency and the electron plasma frequency in the condensed matter. The roughness of the solid condensate (in the Fe case) tends to decrease the reflectivity of the surface, and make the emission spectrum even closer to blackbody. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of dim, isolated neutron stars and magnetars.
Quantum transport in ultracold atoms
Chih-Chun Chien; Sebastiano Peotta; Massimiliano Di Ventra
2015-04-11T23:59:59.000Z
Ultracold atoms confined by engineered magnetic or optical potentials are ideal systems for studying phenomena otherwise difficult to realize or probe in the solid state because their atomic interaction strength, number of species, density, and geometry can be independently controlled. This review focuses on quantum transport phenomena in atomic gases that mirror and oftentimes either better elucidate or show fundamental differences with those observed in mesoscopic and nanoscopic systems. We discuss significant progress in performing transport experiments in atomic gases, contrast similarities and differences between transport in cold atoms and in condensed matter systems, and survey inspiring theoretical predictions that are difficult to verify in conventional setups. These results further demonstrate the versatility offered by atomic systems in the study of nonequilibrium phenomena and their promise for novel applications.
Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.
1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.
RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division
Fukai, Tomoki
Molecular Function Research Group Emergent Bioinspired Soft Matter Research Team Emergent Device Research Bioengineering Materials Research Team Materials Characterization Support Unit Quantum Information Electronics Research Group Macroscopic Quantum Coherence Research Team Superconducting Quantum Electronics Research
Strategies in Optimizing Condensate Return
Bloom, D.
Optimizing condensate return for reuse as boiler feedwater is often a viable means of reducing fuel costs and improving boiler system efficiency. As more condensate is returned, less makeup is required and savings on water and water treatment costs...
F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan
2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.
Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.
Possibility of s-wave pion condensates in neutron stars revisited
A. Ohnishi; D. Jido; T. Sekihara; K. Tsubakihara
2009-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
We examine possibilities of pion condensation with zero momentum (s-wave condensation) in neutron stars by using the pion-nucleus optical potential U and the relativistic mean field (RMF) models. We use low-density phenomenological optical potentials parameterized to fit deeply bound pionic atoms or pion-nucleus elastic scatterings. Proton fraction (Y_p) and electron chemical potential (mu_e) in neutron star matter are evaluated in RMF models. We find that the s-wave pion condensation hardly takes place in neutron stars and especially has no chance if hyperons appear in neutron star matter and/or b_1 parameter in U has density dependence.
Glyde, Henry R.
Natural orbitals and Bose-Einstein condensates in traps: A diffusion Monte Carlo analysis J. L. Du of the atoms in an ideal Bose gas can condense into a single quantum state. London 3,4 postulated in harmonic traps over a wide range of densities. Bose- Einstein condensation is formulated using the one
Creation of macroscopic superposition states from arrays of Bose-Einstein condensates
J. A. Dunningham; K. Burnett; R. Roth; W. D. Phillips
2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z
We consider how macroscopic quantum superpositions may be created from arrays of Bose-Einstein condensates. We study a system of three condensates in Fock states, all with the same number of atoms and show that this has the form of a highly entangled superposition of different quasi-momenta. We then show how, by partially releasing these condensates and detecting an interference pattern where they overlap, it is possible to create a macroscopic superposition of different relative phases for the remaining portions of the condensates. We discuss methods for confirming these superpositions.
A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate
Hakio?lu, T. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 48740 Turunç, Mu?la (Turkey); Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.
Fermi-Einstein condensation in dense QCD-like theories
Kurt Langfeld; Andreas Wipf
2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
While pure Yang-Mills theory feature the centre symmetry, this symmetry is explicitly broken by the presence of dynamical matter. We study the impact of the centre symmetry in such QCD-like theories. In the analytically solvable Schwinger model, centre transitions take place even under extreme conditions, temperature and/or density, and we show that they are key to the solution of the Silver-Blaze problem. We then develop an effective SU(3) quark model which confines quarks by virtue of centre sector transitions. The phase diagram by confinement is obtained as a function of the temperature and the chemical potential. We show that at low temperatures and intermediate values for the chemical potential the centre dressed quarks undergo condensation due to Bose like statistics. This is the Fermi Einstein condensation. To corroborate the existence of centre sector transitions in gauge theories with matter, we study (at vanishing chemical potential) the interface tension in the three-dimensional Z2 gauge theory with Ising matter, the distribution of the Polyakov line in the four-dimensional SU(2)-Higgs model and devise a new type of order parameter which is designed to detect centre sector transitions. Our analytical and numerical findings lead us to conjecture a new state of cold, but dense matter in the hadronic phase for which Fermi Einstein condensation is realised.
Exploring the quantum critical behaviour in a driven Tavis-Cummings circuit
M. Feng; Y. P. Zhong; T. Liu; L. L. Yan; W. L. Yang; J. Twamley; H. Wang
2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum phase transitions play an important role in many-body systems and have been a research focus in conventional condensed matter physics over the past few decades. Artificial atoms, such as superconducting qubits that can be individually manipulated, provide a new paradigm of realising and exploring quantum phase transitions by engineering an on-chip quantum simulator. Here we demonstrate experimentally the quantum critical behaviour in a highly-controllable superconducting circuit, consisting of four qubits coupled to a common resonator mode. By off-resonantly driving the system to renormalise the critical spin-field coupling strength, we have observed a four-qubit non-equilibrium quantum phase transition in a dynamical manner, i.e., we sweep the critical coupling strength over time and monitor the four-qubit scaled moments for a signature of a structural change of the system's eigenstates. Our observation of the non-equilibrium quantum phase transition, which is in good agreement with the driven Tavis-Cummings theory under decoherence, offers new experimental approaches towards exploring quantum phase transition related science, such as scaling behaviours, parity breaking and long-range quantum correlations.
Observation of topological transitions in interacting quantum circuits
P. Roushan; C. Neill; Yu Chen; M. Kolodrubetz; C. Quintana; N. Leung; M. Fang; R. Barends; B. Campbell; Z. Chen; B. Chiaro; A. Dunsworth; E. Jeffrey; J. Kelly; A. Megrant; J. Mutus; P. O'Malley; D. Sank; A. Vainsencher; J. Wenner; T. White; A. Polkovnikov; A. N. Cleland; J. M. Martinis
2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
The discovery of topological phases in condensed matter systems has changed the modern conception of phases of matter. The global nature of topological ordering makes these phases robust and hence promising for applications. However, the non-locality of this ordering makes direct experimental studies an outstanding challenge, even in the simplest model topological systems, and interactions among the constituent particles adds to this challenge. Here we demonstrate a novel dynamical method to explore topological phases in both interacting and non-interacting systems, by employing the exquisite control afforded by state-of-the-art superconducting quantum circuits. We utilize this method to experimentally explore the well-known Haldane model of topological phase transitions by directly measuring the topological invariants of the system. We construct the topological phase diagram of this model and visualize the microscopic evolution of states across the phase transition, tasks whose experimental realizations have remained elusive. Furthermore, we developed a new qubit architecture that allows simultaneous control over every term in a two-qubit Hamiltonian, with which we extend our studies to an interacting Hamiltonian and discover the emergence of an interaction-induced topological phase. Our implementation, involving the measurement of both global and local textures of quantum systems, is close to the original idea of quantum simulation as envisioned by R. Feynman, where a controllable quantum system is used to investigate otherwise inaccessible quantum phenomena. This approach demonstrates the potential of superconducting qubits for quantum simulation and establishes a powerful platform for the study of topological phases in quantum systems.
The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; /Wurzburg U.; Hughes, Taylor L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations from colliding Bose-Einstein condensates
Johannes Kofler; Mandip Singh; Maximilian Ebner; Michael Keller; Mateusz Kotyrba; Anton Zeilinger
2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z
We propose an experiment which can demonstrate quantum correlations in a physical scenario as discussed in the seminal work of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. Momentum-entangled massive particles are produced via the four-wave mixing process of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. The particles' quantum correlations can be shown in a double double-slit experiment or via ghost interference.
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.
Confinement Contains Condensates
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.
2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
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Color Glass Condensate and Glasma
Francois Gelis
2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z
In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.
Adams, Allan
Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasiparticles. Two systems that have recently ...
atomic demolition munitions: Topics by E-print Network
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measurement of Rabi 9 Quantum non-demolition measurements using Bose-Einstein condensates Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: We study possible scenarios for quantum...
Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse
Loss, Daniel
statistical effect that also appears in an ideal gas, the physics of BoseÂEinstein condensates (BECs, stabilizing a purely dipolar quantum gas. In the case of a homogeneous BoseÂEinstein condensate (BECLETTERS Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse T. KOCH, T. LAHAYE, J. METZ
Condenser for photolithography system
Sweatt, William C.
2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
A condenser for a photolithography system, in which a mask image from a mask is projected onto a wafer through a camera having an entrance pupil, includes a source of propagating radiation, a first mirror illuminated by the radiation, a mirror array illuminated by the radiation reflected from said first mirror, and a second mirror illuminated by the radiation reflected from the array. The mirror array includes a plurality of micromirrors. Each of the micromirrors is selectively actuatable independently of each other. The first mirror and the second mirror are disposed such that the source is imaged onto a plane of the mask and the mirror array is imaged into the entrance pupil of the camera.
Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures
Enright, Ryan
Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the ...
Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures
Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...
Electron Liquids in Semiconductor Quantum Structures
Aron Pinczuk
2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
The groups led by Stormer and Pinczuk have focused this project on goals that seek the elucidation of novel many-particle effects that emerge in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) as the result from fundamental quantum interactions. This experimental research is conducted under extreme conditions of temperature and magnetic field. From the materials point of view, the ultra-high mobility systems in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum structures continue to be at the forefront of this research. The newcomer materials are based on graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. The graphene research is attracting enormous attention from many communities involved in condensed matter research. The investigated many-particle phenomena include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, composite fermions, and Dirac fermions, and a diverse group of electron solid and liquid crystal phases. The Stormer group performed magneto-transport experiments and far-infrared spectroscopy, while the Pinczuk group explores manifestations of such phases in optical spectra.
Mini Review Water-soluble quantum dots for biomedical applications
emission matrix (EEM) reveals that quantum dots always emit the same lights no matter what excita- tion wavelength
Ghost condensate model of flat rotation curves
V. V. Kiselev
2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
An effective action of ghost condensate with higher derivatives creates a source of gravity and mimics a dark matter in spiral galaxies. We present a spherically symmetric static solution of Einstein--Hilbert equations with the ghost condensate at large distances, where flat rotation curves are reproduced in leading order over small ratio of two energy scales characterizing constant temporal and spatial derivatives of ghost field: $\\mu_*^2$ and $\\mu_\\star^2$, respectively, with a hierarchy $\\mu_\\star\\ll \\mu_*$. We assume that a mechanism of hierarchy is provided by a global monopole in the center of galaxy. An estimate based on the solution and observed velocities of rotations in the asymptotic region of flatness, gives $\\mu_*\\sim 10^{19}$ GeV and the monopole scale in a GUT range $\\mu_\\star\\sim 10^{16}$ GeV, while a velocity of rotation $v_0$ is determined by the ratio: $ \\sqrt{2} v_0^2= \\mu_\\star^2/\\mu_*^2$. A critical acceleration is introduced and naturally evaluated of the order of Hubble rate, that represents the Milgrom's acceleration.
Fluxes, Gaugings and Gaugino Condensates
J. -P. Derendinger; C. Kounnas; P. M. Petropoulos
2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the correspondence between the N = 1 superstring compactifications with fluxes and the N = 4 gauged supergravities, we study effective N = 1 four-dimensional supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates in the framework of orbifold limits of (generalized) Calabi-Yau compactifications. We give examples in heterotic and type II orientifolds in which combined fluxes and condensates lead to vacua with small supersymmetry breaking scale. We clarify the respective roles of fluxes and condensates in supersymmetry breaking, and analyze the scaling properties of the gravitino mass.
Control of Light-matter Interaction Using Dispersion Engineered...
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and non-classical light sources using quantum dots, metamaterials for controlling light-matter interaction, and engineered nonlinear optical materials using hybrid nanocomposites...
Experimental studies of Bose-Einstein condensation
Hart, Gus
of the condensate, and of its coherence properties. Ó1998 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (020.0020) Atomic-Einstein Condensation of Lithium: Observation of Limited Condensate Number", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997). 4. K. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation of a weakly-interacting gas", in Ultracold Atoms and Bose
I. Stern
2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.
Stern, Ian P. [Department of Physics, Univerisity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Collaboration: ADMX Collaboration; ADMX-HF Collaboration
2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a ?eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 ?eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.
Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization
Jenkins, B. V.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fuel is needed to convert it back to steam because 148 BTU's are in each pound of l80 0 F condensate. And finally, because it is water that the plant has already treated, (ion exchange processed, scale/corrosion treated, oxygen removed... heat transfer surfaces). The results of carbon dioxide corrosion include: expensive replacement of condensate piping reduced boiler tube life and, in cases, unexpected boiler shutdown and production losses. The net result is an economic Jutlay...
Group History: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science, MPA-CMMS...
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fuel and producing a thermonuclear yield of roughly 10 megatons of TNT. (See Figure 2.) thermonuclear fusion Figure 2. Mike, the first large-scale experiment with thermonuclear...
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Condensed Matter
Weick, Guillaume - IPCMS
,anchored` redox molecules: Objectives: Microcalorimetry: - ferrocene modified thiols on Au - viologenes Institute of Technology, Germany -microcalorimetry of electrochemical redox reactions -tunneling.00.50.0-0.5 tunnel voltage (V) -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 dI/dU(a.u.) Redox Reactions at Electrode Surfaces sovent
Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science, MPA-CMMS: Materials Physics...
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Physics Thrust The thermal physics R&D activities in MPA-CMMS have common roots in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and statistical mechanics. Projects range from fundamental...
Theory of Topological Phenomena in Condensed Matter Systems
Zhang, Yi
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
topological insulators (WTI). However, a more surprisingBurgers vector and three WTI indices[144] is nonzero - whichin the case of the WTI. Thus far, the characterization of
Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Soft Condensed Matter
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMS RESEARCHInstitute (NTI):CNMSDesign Core
Strange Quark Matter and Compact Stars
Fridolin Weber
2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
Astrophysicists distinguish between three different types of compact stars. These are white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. The former contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the Universe which, together with the unprecedented progress in observational astronomy, make such stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a broad range of most striking physical phenomena. These range from nuclear processes on the stellar surface to processes in electron degenerate matter at subnuclear densities to boson condensates and the existence of new states of baryonic matter--like color superconducting quark matter--at supernuclear densities. More than that, according to the strange matter hypothesis strange quark matter could be more stable than nuclear matter, in which case neutron stars should be largely composed of pure quark matter possibly enveloped in thin nuclear crusts. Another remarkable implication of the hypothesis is the possible existence of a new class of white dwarfs. This article aims at giving an overview of all these striking physical possibilities, with an emphasis on the astrophysical phenomenology of strange quark matter. Possible observational signatures associated with the theoretically proposed states of matter inside compact stars are discussed as well. They will provide most valuable information about the phase diagram of superdense nuclear matter at high baryon number density but low temperature, which is not accessible to relativistic heavy ion collision experiments.
J. H. Field
2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Feynman's laws of quantum dynamics are concisely stated, discussed in comparison with other formulations of quantum mechanics and applied to selected problems in the physical optics of photons and massive particles as well as flavour oscillations. The classical wave theory of light is derived from these laws for the case in which temporal variation of path amplitudes may be neglected, whereas specific experiments, sensitive to the temporal properties of path amplitudes, are suggested. The reflection coefficient of light from the surface of a transparent medium is found to be markedly different to that predicted by the classical Fresnel formula. Except for neutrino oscillations, good agreement is otherwise found with previous calculations of spatially dependent quantum interference effects.
Joseph Silk
2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.
STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION
Hill, Joel David
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
V. Stripping of Process Condensate A. Introduction B. Flowand High-Temperature Stripping of SRC Condensate Water E.Process Condensate Handling and Storage Results and
Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces
Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...
Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion
Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.
Krotov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Vorobjevy Gory, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya, 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation); Rebbi, C. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, V. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik, Foeringer Ring 6, 80805, Munichn (Germany)
2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
In a recently proposed model of 'ghost condensation', spatially homogeneous states may mix, via tunneling, with inhomogeneous states which are somewhat similar to bubbles in the theory of false vacuum decay, the corresponding bubble nucleation rate being exponentially sensitive to the ultraviolet completion of the model. The conservation of energy and charge requires that the energy density is negative and the field is strongly unstable in a part of the nucleated bubble. Unlike in the theory of false vacuum decay, this region does not expand during subsequent real-time evolution. In the outer part, positive energy outgoing waves develop, which eventually form shocks. Behind the outgoing waves and away from the bubble center, the background settles down to its original value. The outcome of the entire process is thus a microscopic region of negative energy and strong field - 'hole in the ghost condensate' - plus a collection of outgoing waves (particles of the ghost condensate field) carrying away finite energy.
Nuclear Physics A 757 (2005) 127 Quarkgluon plasma and color glass condensate at
Nuclear Physics A 757 (2005) 1Â27 QuarkÂgluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC hadronic and partonic matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC. A particular focus, the so-called quarkÂgluon plasma (QGP). We also discuss evidence for a possible precursor state
Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience
Swainsbury, D. [Mission Energy Management Australia, Victoria (Australia)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.
Nuclear thermodynamics and the in-medium chiral condensate
Salvatore Fiorilla; Norbert Kaiser; Wolfram Weise
2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z
The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at varying baryon density is investigated using thermal in-medium chiral effective field theory. This framework provides a realistic approach to the thermodynamics of the correlated nuclear many-body system and permits calculating systematically the pion-mass dependence of the free energy per particle. One- and two-pion exchange processes, $\\Delta(1232)$-isobar excitations, Pauli blocking corrections and three-body correlations are treated up to and including three loops in the expansion of the free energy density. It is found that nuclear matter remains in the Nambu-Goldstone phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in the temperature range $T\\lesssim 100\\,$MeV and at baryon densities at least up to about twice the density of normal nuclear matter, $2\\rho_0 \\simeq 0.3\\, $fm$^{-3}$. Effects of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition on the chiral condensate at low temperatures are also discussed.
Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells
Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
Company. The well was producing a gas condensate reservoir and questions were raised about how much drop in flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant...
Forced-convection condensation inside tubes
Traviss, Donald P.
1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...
Nonlinear manipulation and control of matter waves
E. V. Goldstein; M. G. Moore; P. Meystre
1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reviews some of our recent results in nonlinear atom optics. In addition to nonlinear wave-mixing between matter waves, we also discuss the dynamical interplay between optical and matter waves. This new paradigm, which is now within experimental reach, has the potential to impact a number of fields of physics, including the manipulation and applications of atomic coherence, and the preparation of quantum entanglement between microscopic and macroscopic systems. Possible applications include quantum information processing, matter-wave holography, and nanofabrication.
Steering Bose-Einstein Condensates despite Time Symmetry Dario Poletti,1
Li, Baowen
Steering Bose-Einstein Condensates despite Time Symmetry Dario Poletti,1 Giuliano Benenti,2 with a three-mode model. These three-mode model results corroborate well with a many- body study over a time [610] and shows the importance of interaction in the coherent control of quantum tunneling between
Generalized coherent state representation of Bose-Einstein condensates V. Chernyak,1
Mukamel, Shaul
in supercooled trapped atoms has stimulated great interest in the theoretical description of the quantum state opera- tor products should be factorized in order to truncate the many-body hierarchy. The Gross of these treatments directly addresses the precise quan- tum state of BEC that consists of the condensate as well
Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic hydrogen T. J. Greytak 1
a remote chance of obtaining Bose-Einstein condensation. Using a quantum theory of corresponding states cooling of atoms allowed the alkali vapors to be pre-cooled to temperatures low enough that evaporative cooling could be used to take them into the sub-ÂµK realm. Since 1995, many fruitful experiments have been
Landau gauge condensates from global color model
Zhao Zhang; Wei-qin Zhao
2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
We compute the dimension-2 gluon pair condensate $g^2$ and the dimension-4 mixed quark-gluon condensate $$ in Landau gauge within the framework of global color model. The result for the dynamical gluon mass is within the range given by other independent determinations. The obtained mixed Landau gauge condensate $$ is clearly dependent on the definitions of the condensates. We show that the consistent result may be obtained when the same definitions are used.
Color Glass Condensate and its relation to HERA physics
Edmond Iancu
2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
I give a brief overview of the effective theory for the Color Glass Condensate, which is the high-density gluonic matter which controls high-energy scattering in QCD in the vicinity of the unitarity limit. I concentrate on fundamental phenomena, like gluon saturation, unitarization, and geometric scaling, and the way how these are encoded in the formalism. I emphasize the importance of the next-to-leading order corrections, especially the running of the coupling, for both conceptual and phenomenological issues. I survey the implications of the CGC theory for the HERA physics and its phenomenological applications based on saturation models.
Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport by Ananth P. Chikkatur Submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport
Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette
Lee, Taekoon
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.
Proceedings: 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing
None
2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensate polishing maintains control of impurities in the nuclear power plant and allows the unit to operate more reliably. This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2000 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues and utility experience involving condensate polishing at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.
The Mathematics of the Bose Gas and its Condensation
Elliott H. Lieb; Robert Seiringer; Jan Philip Solovej; Jakob Yngvason
2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
This book surveys results about the quantum mechanical many-body problem of the Bose gas that have been obtained by the authors over the last seven years. These topics are relevant to current experiments on ultra-cold gases; they are also mathematically rigorous, using many analytic techniques developed over the years to handle such problems. Some of the topics treated are the ground state energy, the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, one-dimensional gases, and rotating gases. The book also provides a pedagogical entry into the field for graduate students and researchers.
Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect
Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); SwissScientific, chemin Diodati 10, CH-1223 Cologny (Switzerland)
2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.
Entangled light from Bose-Einstein condensates
H. T. Ng; S. Bose
2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a method to generate entangled light with a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a cavity, a system realized in recent experiments. The atoms of the condensate are trapped in a periodic potential generated by a cavity mode. The condensate is continuously pumped by a laser and spontaneously emits a pair of photons of different frequencies in two distinct cavity modes. In this way, the condensate mediates entanglement between two cavity modes which leak out and can be separated and exhibit continuous variable entanglement. The scheme exploits the experimentally demonstrated strong, steady and collective coupling of condensate atoms to a cavity field.
Effect of Decoherence on the Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Double-well Potential
W. Wang; L. B. Fu; X. X. Yi
2007-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential in the mean-field approximation. Decoherence effects are considered by analyzing the couplings of the condensate to environments. Two kinds of coupling are taken into account. With the first kind of coupling dominated, the decoherence can enhance the self-trapping by increasing the damping of the oscillations in the dynamics, while the decoherence from the second kind of condensate-environment coupling leads to spoiling of the quantum tunneling and self-trapping.
Color Glass Condensate in Schwinger–Keldysh QCD
Jeon, Sangyong, E-mail: jeon@physics.mcgill.ca
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Within the Schwinger–Keldysh representation of many-body QCD, it is shown that the leading quantum corrections to the strong classical color field are “classical” in the sense that the fluctuation field still obeys the classical Jacobi-field equation, while the quantum effects solely reside in the fluctuations of the initial field configurations. Within this context, a systematic derivation of the JIMWLK renormalization group equation is presented. A clear identification of the correct form of gauge transformation rules and the correct form of the matter-field Lagrangian in the Schwinger–Keldysh QCD is also presented. -- Highlights: •Application of the Schwinger–Keldysh formalism to many-body QCD. •Clean separation of classical and quantum degrees of freedom. •Identification of the correct coupling between the gluon field and the color source. •Identification of the correct gauge transformation rules. •Sources of the classicality and quantum corrections to JIMWLK clarified.
Condensate polishing at Plant Bowen
Friedman, K.A.; Siegwarth, D.P.; Sawochka, S.G.; McNea, D.A.; Suhonen, C.H.
1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensate polisher system design and operation were evaluated at the fosssil-fueled Plant Bowen of Georgia Power Company relative to the ability of the polishers to achieve an effluent chemical quality consistent with PWR Steam Generator Owners Group Chemistry Guidelines. Polishers regenerated employing the Seprex and Ammonex processes were evaluated during normal plant operation and during periods of simulated condenser inleakage. Although polisher effluent quality was acceptable relative to boiler corrosion control at Plant Bowen, it was inconsistent with that required for recirculating PWR steam generators. Polisher effluent quality was reasonably consistent with requirements for PWR once-through steam generator systems. High polisher cation to anion resin equivalence ratios (3.4 to 1), and insufficiently rapid anion resin kinetics were the major reasons for the observed non-optimum polisher performance.
Petroleum source rock potential of Mesozoic condensed section deposits in southwestern Alabama
Mancini, E.A; Tew, B.H.; Mink, R.M. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))
1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Because condensed section deposits in carbonates and siliclastics are generally fine-grained lithologies often containing relatively high concentrations of organic matter, these sediments have the potential to be petroleum source rocks if buried under conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation. In the Mesozoic deposits of southwestern Alabama, only the Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonate mudstones of the condensed section of the LZAGC-4.1 cycle have realized their potential as hydrocarbon source rocks. These carbonate mudstones contain organic carbon concentrations of algal and amorphous kerogen of up to 1.7% and have thermal alteration indices of 2- to 3+. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine claystones of the condensed section of the UZAGC-2.5 cycle are rich (up to 2.9%) in herbaceous and amorphous organic matter but have not been subjected to burial conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation. The Jurassic Pine Hill/Norphlet black shales of the condensed section of the LZAGC-3.1 cycle and the Upper Jurassic Haynesville carbonate mudstones of the condensed section of the LZAGC-4.2 cycle are low (0.1%) in organic carbon. Although condensed sections within depositional sequences should have the highest source rock potential, specific environmental, preservational, and/or burial history conditions within a particular basin will dictate whether or not the potential is realized as evidenced by the condensed sections of the Mesozoic depositional sequences in southwestern Alabama. Therefore, petroleum geologists can use sequence stratigraphy to identify potential source rocks; however, only through geochemical analyses can the quality of these potential source rocks be determined.
Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate
Mäntysaari, Heikki
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available exp...
Color Glass Condensate and Glasma
F. Gelis
2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.
Holographic Superconductors with Various Condensates
Gary T. Horowitz; Matthew M. Roberts
2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
We extend earlier treatments of holographic superconductors by studying cases where operators of different dimension condense in both 2+1 and 3+1 superconductors. We also compute a correlation length. We find surprising regularities in quantities such as $\\omega_g/T_c$ where $\\omega_g$ is the gap in the frequency dependent conductivity. In special cases, new bound states arise corresponding to vector normal modes of the dual near-extremal black holes.
Non-Abelian condensates as alternative for dark energy
Gal'tsov, Dmitri V
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We review basic features of cosmological models with large-scale classical non-Abelian Yang-Mills (YM) condensates. There exists a unique SU(2) YM configuration (generalizable to larger gauge groups) compatible with homogeneity and isotropy of the three-space which is parameterized by a single scalar field. In the past various aspects of Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) cosmology were discussed in the context of the Early Universe. Due to conformal invariance, solvable EYM FRW models exist both on the classical and quantum levels. To develop the YM model for dark energy one has to find mechanisms of the conformal symmetry breaking. We discuss the Born-Infeld generalization and some phenomenological models motivated by quantum corrections exploring possibility of transient DE and phantom regimes.
Non-Abelian condensates as alternative for dark energy
Dmitri V. Gal'tsov
2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
We review basic features of cosmological models with large-scale classical non-Abelian Yang-Mills (YM) condensates. There exists a unique SU(2) YM configuration (generalizable to larger gauge groups) compatible with homogeneity and isotropy of the three-space which is parameterized by a single scalar field. In the past various aspects of Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) cosmology were discussed in the context of the Early Universe. Due to conformal invariance, solvable EYM FRW models exist both on the classical and quantum levels. To develop the YM model for dark energy one has to find mechanisms of the conformal symmetry breaking. We discuss the Born-Infeld generalization and some phenomenological models motivated by quantum corrections exploring possibility of transient DE and phantom regimes.
Newton's cradle analogue with Bose-Einstein condensates
Roberto Franzosi; Ruggero Vaia
2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a possible experimental realization of a quantum analogue of Newton's cradle using a configuration which starts from a Bose-Einstein condensate. The system consists of atoms with two internal states trapped in a one dimensional tube with a longitudinal optical lattice and maintained in a strong Tonks-Girardeau regime at maximal filling. In each site the wave function is a superposition of the two atomic states and a disturbance of the wave function propagates along the chain in analogy with the propagation of momentum in the classical Newton's cradle. The quantum travelling signal is generally deteriorated by dispersion, which is large for a uniform chain and is known to be zero for a suitably engineered chain, but the latter is hardly realizable in practice. Starting from these opposite situations we show how the coherent behaviour can be enhanced with minimal experimental effort.
Wave turbulence and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensation
Sergey Nazarenko; Miguel Onorato
2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
We report a numerical study of turbulence and Bose-Einstein condensation within the two-dimmensional Gross-Pitaevski model with repulsive interaction. In presence of weak forcing localized around some wave number in the Fourier space, we observe three qualitatively different evolution stages. At the initial stage a thermodynamic energy equipartition spectrum forms at both smaller and larger scales with respect to the forcing scale. This agrees with predictions of the the four-wave kinetic equation of the Wave Turbulence (WT) theory. At the second stage, WT breaks down at large scales and the interactions become strongly nonlinear. Here, we observe formation of a gas of quantum vortices whose number decreases due to an annihilation process helped by the acoustic component. This process leads to formation of a coherent-phase Bose-Einstein condensate. After such a coherent-phase condensate forms, evolution enters a third stage characterised by three-wave interactions of acoustic waves that can be described again using the WT theory.
Demonstrating mesoscopic superpositions in double-well Bose-Einstein condensates
T. J. Haigh; A. J. Ferris; M. K. Olsen
2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
The availability of Bose-Einstein condensates as mesoscopic or macroscopic quantum objects has aroused new interest in the possiblity of making and detecting coherent superpositions involving many atoms. In this article we show that it may be possible to generate such a superposition state in a reasonably short time using Feshbach resonances to tune the inter-atomic interactions in a double-well condensate. We also consider the important problem of distinguishing whether a coherent superposition or a statistical mixture is generated by a given experimental procedure. We find that unambiguously distinguishing even a perfect `NOON' state from a statistical mixture using standard detection methods will present experimental difficulties.
Ajay Patwardhan
2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
In unified field theory the cosmological model of the universe has supersymmetric fields. Supersymmetric particles as dark and normal matter in galaxy clusters have a phase separation. Dark matter in halos have a statistical physics equation of state. Neutralino particle gas with gravitation can have a collapse of dark matter lumps. A condensate phase due to boson creation by annhillation and exchange can occur at high densities. The collapse of the boson condensate, including neutralinos, into the Schwarzschild radius creates dark matter black holes. Microscopic dark matter black holes can evaporate with Hawking effect giving gamma ray bursts and create a spectrum of normal particles. The phase separation of normal and dark matter in galaxy clusters and inside galaxies is given by statistical physics.
Bio-oil fractionation and condensation
Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony
2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.
3D Quantum Gravity and Effective Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory
Freidel, Laurent; Livine, Etera R. [Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street, North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Canada, and Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)
2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the effective dynamics of matter fields coupled to 3D quantum gravity is described after integration over the gravitational degrees of freedom by a braided noncommutative quantum field theory symmetric under a {kappa} deformation of the Poincare group.
Quantum random walks without walking
Manouchehri, K.; Wang, J. B. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)
2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum random walks have received much interest due to their nonintuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to a new generation of quantum algorithms. What remains a major challenge is a physical realization that is experimentally viable and not limited to special connectivity criteria. We present a scheme for walking on arbitrarily complex graphs, which can be realized using a variety of quantum systems such as a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical lattice. This scheme is particularly elegant since the walker is not required to physically step between the nodes; only flipping coins is sufficient.
Rapporteur talk at the 24th Solvay Conference on Physics, Quantum Theory of Condensed Matter, Brussels, Oct
Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...
Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative...
Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a ...
Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer
Wawzyniak, Markus
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
kV (electrode ?1). . . .. . . . . . . Fig. 4. 3 Photograph of liquid bridging &om the helical wire to the condensation surface at 20 kV (electrode ?1) . Fig. 4. 4 Photograph removal of liquid at 20 kV (electrode ?1) . .. Fig. 4. 5 Electrode ?2... . . . . . 32 Fig. 4. 8 Electrode ?3 . Fig. 4. 9 Photograph of liquid extraction (detail A), and liquid removal (detail B) at 15 kV (electrode ?3) . . Fig. 4. 10 Electrode ?4. Fig. 4. 11 Electrode ?5. Fig. 4. 12 Photograph of electrode ?5 at 12 kV...
Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation
Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.
Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity
Agostino Prástaro
2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.
Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity
Agostino Prástaro
2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.
Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity
Agostino Prástaro
2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.
Effects of the symmetry energy on the kaon condensates in the QMC Model
Prafulla K. Panda; Débora P. Menezes; Constança Providência
2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we investigate protoneutron star properties within a modified version of the quark coupling model (QMC) that incorporates a omega-rho interaction plus kaon condensed matter at finite temperature. Fixed entropy and trapped neutrinos are taken into account. Our results are compared with the ones obtained with the GM1 parametrization of the non-linear Walecka model for similar values of the symmetry energy slope. Contrary to GM1, within the QMC the formation of low mass black-holes during cooling are not probable. It is shown that the evolution of the protoneutron star may include the melting of the kaon condensate driven by the neutrino diffusion, followed by the formation of a second condensate after cooling. The signature of this complex proccess could be a neutrino signal followed by a gamma ray burst. We have seen that both models can, in general, describe very massive stars.
The role of the in-medium four-quark condensates revised
E. G. Drukarev; M. G. Ryskin; V. A. Sadovnikova
2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter in the QCD sum rules approach, taking into account the contributions of the four-quark condensates. We analyze the dependence of the results on the model employed for the calculation of the condensates and demonstrate that the relativistic character of the models is important. The condensates are calculated with inclusion of the most important terms beyond the gas approximation. This corresponds to inclusion of the two-body nucleon forces and of the most important three-body forces. The results are consistent with the convergence of the operator product expansion. The density dependence of the nucleon self-energies is obtained. The results are consistent with those obtained by the standard nuclear physics methods, thus inspiring further development of the approach.
From Boson Condensation to Quark Deconfinement: The Many Faces of Neutron Star Interiors
Fridolin Weber
1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
Gravity compresses the matter in the cores of neutron stars to densities which are significantly higher than the density of ordinary atomic nuclei, thus providing a high-pressure environment in which numerous particle processes - from the generation of new baryonic particles to quark deconfinement to the formation of Boson condensates and H-matter - may compete with each other. There are theoretical suggestions of even more `exotic' processes inside pulsars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter, a configuration of matter even more stable than the most stable atomic nucleus, iron. In the latter event, neutron stars would be largely composed of pure quark matter, eventually enveloped in nuclear crust matter. No matter which physical processes are actually realized inside neutron stars, each one leads to fingerprints, some more pronounced than others though, in the observable stellar quantities. This feature combined with the tremendous recent progress in observational radio and X-ray astronomy, renders neutron stars to nearly ideal probes for a wide range of dense matter studies, complementing the quest of the behavior of superdense matter in terrestrial collider experiments.
Chih-Chun Chien; Massimiliano Di Ventra; Michael Zwolak
2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
We compare the Landauer, Kubo, and microcanonical [J. Phys. Cond. Matter {\\bf 16}, 8025 (2004)] approaches to quantum transport for the average current, the entanglement entropy and the semiclassical full-counting statistics (FCS). Our focus is on the applicability of these approaches to isolated quantum systems such as ultra-cold atoms in engineered optical potentials. For two lattices connected by a junction, we find that the current and particle number fluctuations from the microcanonical approach compare well with the values predicted by the Landauer formalism and FCS assuming a binomial distribution. However, we demonstrate that well-defined reservoirs (i.e., particles in Fermi-Dirac distributions) are not present for a substantial duration of the quasi-steady state. Thus, the Landauer assumption of reservoirs and/or inelastic effects is not necessary for establishing a quasi-steady state. Maintaining such a state indefinitely requires an infinite system, and in this limit well-defined Fermi-Dirac distributions can occur. A Kubo approach -- in the spirit of the microcanonical picture -- bridges the gap between the two formalisms, giving explicit analytical expressions for the formation of the steady state. The microcanonical formalism is designed for closed, finite-size quantum systems and is thus more suitable for studying particle dynamics in ultra-cold atoms. Our results highlight both the connection and differences with more traditional approaches to calculating transport properties in condensed matter systems, and will help guide the way to their simulations in cold-atom systems.
Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Masayasu Tsuge
2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.
The Condensate from Torus Knots
A. Gorsky; A. Milekhin; N. Sopenko
2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss recently formulated instanton-torus knot duality in $\\Omega$-deformed 5D SQED on $\\mathbb{R}^4 \\times S^1$ focusing at the microscopic aspects of the condensate formation in the instanton ensemble. Using the chain of dualities and geometric transitions we embed the SQED with a surface defect into the $SU(2)$ SQCD with $N_f=4$ and identify the numbers $(n,m)$ of the torus $T_{n,m}$ knot as instanton charge and electric charge. The HOMFLY torus knot invariants in the fundamental representation provide entropic factor in the condensate of the massless flavor counting the degeneracy of the instanton--W-boson web with instanton and electric numbers $(n,m)$ but different spin and flavor content. Using the inverse geometrical transition we explain how our approach is related to the evaluation of the HOMFLY invariants in terms of Wilson loop in 3d CS theory. The reduction to 4D theory is briefly considered and some analogy with baryon vertex is conjectured.
Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing interference between two Bose condensates [1]. They were created by cooling atoms the condensates expand for 40 milliseconds and overlap (see figure). This demonstrates that Bose condensed atoms
Boson topological insulators: A window into highly entangled quantum phases
Wang, Chong
We study several aspects of the realization of global symmetries in highly entangled phases of quantum matter. Examples include gapped topological ordered phases, gapless quantum spin liquids, and non-Fermi liquid phases. ...
5.74 Introductory Quantum Mechanics II, Spring 2007
Tokmakoff, Andrei
Time-dependent quantum mechanics and spectroscopy. Topics covered include perturbation theory, two-level systems, light-matter interactions, relaxation in quantum systems, correlation functions and linear response theory, ...
5.74 Introductory Quantum Mechanics II, Spring 2003
Tokmakoff, Andrei
Time-dependent quantum mechanics and spectroscopy. Topics covered include perturbation theory, two-level systems, light-matter interactions, relaxation in quantum systems, correlation functions and linear response theory, ...
Chiral-Symmetry Breaking in Pseudo Quantum Electrodynamics at Finite Temperature
Leandro O. Nascimento; Van Sérgio Alves; Francisco Peña; C. Morais Smith; E. C. Marino
2015-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
We use the Schwinger-Dyson equations in the presence of a thermal bath, in order to study chiral symmetry breaking in a system of massless Dirac fermions interacting through pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED3), in (2+1) dimensions. We show that there is a critical temperature $T_c$, below which chiral symmetry is broken, and a corresponding mass gap is dynamically generated, provided the coupling is above a certain, temperature dependent, critical value $\\alpha_c$. The ratio between the energy gap and the critical temperature for this model is estimated to be $2 \\pi$. These results are confirmed by analytical and numerical investigations of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the electron. In addition, we calculate the first finite-temperature corrections to the static Coulomb interaction. The relevance of this result in the realm of condensed matter systems, like graphene, is briefly discussed.
Vacuum energy: quantum hydrodynamics vs quantum gravity
G. E. Volovik
2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
We compare quantum hydrodynamics and quantum gravity. They share many common features. In particular, both have quadratic divergences, and both lead to the problem of the vacuum energy, which in the quantum gravity transforms to the cosmological constant problem. We show that in quantum liquids the vacuum energy density is not determined by the quantum zero-point energy of the phonon modes. The energy density of the vacuum is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the liquid including the radius of the liquid droplet. In the same manner the cosmological constant is not determined by the zero-point energy of quantum fields. It is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the Universe dynamics: the Hubble radius, the Newton constant and the energy density of matter. The same may hold for the Higgs mass problem: the quadratically divergent quantum correction to the Higgs potential mass term is also cancelled by the microscopic (trans-Planckian) degrees of freedom due to thermodynamic stability of the whole quantum vacuum.
Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate
Heikki Mäntysaari
2015-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available experimental data. In addition to single particle production, the correlations between two hadrons at forward rapidity are computed. The RHIC measurements are shown to be naturally explainable in the CGC framework, and the previous CGC calculations are improved by including the so called inelastic and double parton scattering contributions. This improvement is shown to be required in order to get results compatible with the experimentally measured correlations. Exclusive vector meson production, which can be a powerful tool to study the gluonic structure of nuclei at small Bjorken-$x$, is also considered. The cross sections are calculated within the CGC framework in the context of a future electron-ion collider. In particular, the cross section for incoherent diffractive vector meson production is derived and a centrality estimator for this process is proposed.
NISTIR 6095 Horizontal Convective Condensation of
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
NISTIR 6095 Horizontal Convective Condensation of Alternative Refrigerants within a Micro-Fin Tube Horizontal Convective Condensation of Alternative Refrigerants Within a Micro-Fin Tube Mark A. Kedzierski J for flow boiling pressure drop in a smooth tube. Correlation of the pressure drop measurements suggested
Dual condensate and QCD phase transition
Zhang Bo; Bruckmann, Falk [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Fodor, Zoltan; Szabo, Kalman K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, D-42119 (Germany); Gattringer, Christof [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)
2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
The dual condensate is a new QCD phase transition order parameter, which connnects confinement and chiral symmetry breaking as different mass limits. We discuss the relation between the fermion spectrum at general boundary conditions and the dual condensate and show numerical results for the latter from unquenched SU(3) lattice configurations.
Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system
Grant, D.C.H.
1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.
Proceedings: 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing
None
2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensate polishing aims to control impurities in a nuclear power plant, thus allowing the unit to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 36 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) units.
Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells
Reza, Rostami Ravari
2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas...
Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants
Akhtar, S. Z.
Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...
Synthesize Neutron-Drip-Line-Nuclides with Free-Neutron Bose-Einstein Condensates Experimentally
Bao-Guo Dong
2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
We first show a possible way to create a new type of matter, free-neutron Bose-Einstein condensate by the ultracold free-neutron-pair Bose-Einstein condensation and then determine the neutron drip line experimentally. The Bose-Einstein condensation of bosonic and fermionic atoms in atomic gases was performed experimentally and predicted theoretically early. Neutrons are similar to fermionic atoms. We found free neutrons could be cooled to ultracold neutrons with very low energy by other colder neutral atoms which are cooled by the laser. These neutrons form neutron pairs with spin zero, and then ultracold neutron-pairs form Bose-Einstein condensate. Our results demonstrate how these condensates can react with accelerated ion beams at different energy to synthesize very neutron-rich nuclides near, on or/and beyond the neutron drip line, to determine the neutron drip line and whether there are long-life nuclide or isomer islands beyond the neutron drip line experimentally. Otherwise, these experimental results will confirm our prediction that is in the whole interacting region or distance of nuclear force in all energy region from zero to infinite, Only repulsive nuclear force exists among identical nucleons and only among different nucleons exists attractive nuclear force.
Parametric Resonance and Dark Matter Axion-Like Particles
Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the local effects of an external time-dependent magnetic field on axion-like particles assuming they are all the dark matter of the universe. We find that under suitable conditions the amplitude of the dark matter field can resonate parametrically. The resonance depends on the velocity of the axion-like particles and scales quadratically with the strength} of the external magnetic field, $\\frac{\\rho}{\\rho_{DM}} \\sim {B_0}^3$. By considering typical experimental benchmark values, we find the resonance could amplify around two orders of magnitude the local energy density stored in the dark matter condensate.
Interferometry with correlated matter-waves
Oksana I. Streltsova; Alexej I. Streltsov
2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
Matter-wave interferometry of ultra-cold atoms with attractive interactions is studied at the full many-body level. First, we study how a coherent light-pulse applied to an initially-condensed solitonic system splits it into two matter-waves. The split system looses its coherence and develops correlations with time, and inevitably becomes fragmented due to inter-particle attractions. Next, we show that by re-colliding the sub-clouds constituting the split density together, along with a simultaneous application of the same laser-pulse, one creates three matter-waves propagating with different momenta. We demonstrate that the number of atoms in the sub-cloud with zero-momentum is directly proportional to the degree of fragmentation in the system. This interferometric-based protocol to discriminate, probe, and measure the fragmentation is general and can be applied to ultra-cold systems with attractive, repulsive, short- and long-range interactions.
Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles
Xiao-Gang Wen
2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z
The origin of light is a unsolved mystery in nature. Recently, it was suggested that light may originate from a new kind of order - quantum order. To test this idea in experiments, we study systems of screened magnetic/electric dipoles in 2D and 3D lattices. We show that our models contain an artificial light -- a photon-like collective excitation. We discuss how to design realistic devices that realize our models. We show that the ``speed of light'' and the ``fine structure constant'' of the artificial light can be tuned in our models. The properties of artificial atoms (bound states of pairs of artificial charges) are also discussed. The existence of artificial light (as well as artificial electron) in condensed matter systems suggests that elementary particles, such as light and electron, may not be elementary. They may be collective excitations of quantum order in our vacuum. Our models further suggest that a gauge theory is a string-net theory in disguise. Light is a fluctuation of nets of large closed strings and charge is the end of open strings.
Permutational Quantum Computing
Stephen P. Jordan
2009-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
In topological quantum computation the geometric details of a particle trajectory are irrelevant; only the topology matters. Taking this one step further, we consider a model of computation that disregards even the topology of the particle trajectory, and computes by permuting particles. Whereas topological quantum computation requires anyons, permutational quantum computation can be performed with ordinary spin-1/2 particles, using a variant of the spin-network scheme of Marzuoli and Rasetti. We do not know whether permutational computation is universal. It may represent a new complexity class within BQP. Nevertheless, permutational quantum computers can in polynomial time approximate matrix elements of certain irreducible representations of the symmetric group and simulate certain processes in the Ponzano-Regge spin foam model of quantum gravity. No polynomial time classical algorithms for these problems are known.
Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps
Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...
New technology in condensate polishing
Kunin, R.; Salem, E.; Libutti, B. (Graver Co., Union, NJ (United States). Water Div.)
1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Sulfonic acid ion exchange resins. when carried into a boiler or steam generator, thermally decompose releasing large amounts of corrosive, sulfates. Replacement of the sulfonic acid resin with a carboxylic acid resin would eliminate this source of contamination. The sulfonic acid resin is a strong acid: the carboxylic acid resin is a weak acid. The carboxylic acid resin alone is not capable of splitting salts which limits its use to mixed resin beds or to its use in single or individual beds with feeds of high alkalinity or high pH values. Laboratory, pilot plant and full scale plant tests compared the two resins in precoat filters. When the resins in mixed beds were in the acid form, the weakly acid resin was almost as effective in removing sodium ion as the strongly acid resin. In the ammonium form. the weakly acid resin was generally more effective in removing sodium than the strongly acid resin. Condensate polishing reduced the sodium ion to a few parts per billion (ppB). Complete resin separation before regeneration is more important for the weakly acid resin than for the strongly acid resin. Another development found that the hydrazine reaction with oxygen could be catalyzed by powdered activated carbon combined with microfibers on a Powdex substrate. The carbon should be thoroughly washed to reduce its residual sodium content. In plant tests, the carbon reduced the oxygen concentration in condensate about 50% during startup. In preliminary tests believed to be typical, carbon lowered the oxygen concentration below 10 ppB in about 6 hours compared to 18 hours without the carbon. Oxygen is also reduced during normal operation.
Clusters in nuclear matter and Mott points
G. Röpke
2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
Light clusters (mass number $A \\leq 4$) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach. In addition to self-energy and Pauli-blocking, effects of continuum correlations are taken into account to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. Medium-modified quasiparticle properties are important ingredients to derive a nuclear matter equation of state applicable in the entire region of warm dense matter below saturation density. The influence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction on the quasiparticle shift is discussed.
Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system
Ezawa, Z. F. [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsitsishvili, G. [Georgia Department of Physics, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi 0179 (Georgia); Sawada, A. [Research Center for Low Temperature and Materials Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (–e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries.
Dynamical Casimir Effect in Quantum Information Processing
Giuliano Benenti; Antonio D'Arrigo; Stefano Siccardi; Giuliano Strini
2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate, in the regime of ultrastrong matter-field coupling, the strong connection between the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE) and the performance of quantum information protocols. Our results are illustrated by means of a realistic quantum communication channel and show that the DCE is a fundamental limit for quantum computation and communication and that novel schemes are required to implement ultrafast and reliable quantum gates. Strategies to partially counteract the DCE are also discussed.
Effect of the Minimal Length on Bose-Einstein Condensation in the Relativistic Ideal Bose Gas
Xiuming Zhang; Chi Tian
2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the critical temperature and the Helmholtz free energy of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in the relativistic ideal Bose gas are investigated. At the non-relativistic limit and the ultra-relativistic limit, we calculate the analytical form of the shifts of the critical temperature and the Helmholtz free energy caused by weak quantum gravitational effects. The exact numerical results of these shifts are obtained. Quantum gravity effects lift the critical temperature of BEC. By measuring the shift of the critical temperature, we can constrain the deformation parameter $\\beta_0$. Furthermore, at lower densities, omitting quantum gravitational effects may lead to a metastable state while at sufficiently high densities, quantum gravitational effects tend to make BEC unstable. Using the numerical methods, the stable-unstable transition temperature is found.
Description of quantum effects in the condensed phase
Silbey, Robert
Recent experiments on light harvesting complexes have shown clear indication of coherent transport of excitations in these aggregates. We review the theoretical models that have been used to study energy transfer in molecular ...
Supersolids Bose-Einstein Condensation in Quantum Solids
Mullin, William J.
and energies Particles with short wavelengths (high energies) behave like marbles. Particles with long fall into the lowest energy state. Laser cooling plus magnetic evaporation. This is the phase
Experimental signatures of cosmological neutrino condensation
Mofazzal Azam; Jitesh R. Bhatt; Utpal Sarkar
2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
Superfluid condensation of neutrinos of cosmological origin at a low enough temperature can provide simple and elegant solution to the problems of neutrino oscillations and the accelerated expansion of the universe. It would give rise to a late time cosmological constant of small magnitude and also generate tiny Majorana masses for the neutrinos as observed from their flavor oscillations. We show that carefully prepared beta decay experiments in the laboratory would carry signatures of such a condensation, and thus, it would be possible to either establish or rule out neutrino condensation of cosmological scale in laboratory experiments.
Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels
Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.
Collecting and Using Condensate on Site
Glawe, D.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Antonio Condensate Collection and Use Manual for Commercial Buildings. Pending publication) ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 How Much Condensate? ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean... Condensate Collection and Use Manual for Commercial Buildings. Pending publication) Measured Gallons 8 gpd per ton 0.3 gph per ton 0.1 gph per ton 0.6 gph per 1000 sq ft 0.5 gph per 1000 sq ft 10 gpd per 1000 sq ft 3 gpd per 1000 sq ft AWE Bryant & Ahmed...
Jacopo Bechi
2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate.
A disoriented chiral condensate search at the Fermilab Tevatron
Convery, M.E.
1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
MiniMax (Fermilab T-864) was a small test/experiment at the Tevatron designed to search for disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) in the forward direction. Relativistic quantum field theory treats the vacuum as a medium, with bulk properties characterized by long-range order parameters. This has led to suggestions that regions of {open_quotes}disoriented vacuum{close_quotes} might be formed in high-energy collision processes. In particular, the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD could lead to regions of vacuum which have chiral order parameters disoriented to directions which have non-zero isospin, i.e. disoriented chiral condensates. A signature of DCC is the resulting distribution of the fraction of produced pions which are neutral. The MiniMax detector at the C0 collision region of the Tevatron was a telescope of 24 multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC`s) with a lead converter behind the eighth MWPC, allowing the detection of charged particles and photon conversions in an acceptance approximately a circle of radius 0.6 in pseudorapidity-azimuthal-angle space, centered on pseudorapidity {eta} {approx} 4. An electromagnetic calorimeter was located behind the MWPC telescope, and hadronic calorimeters and scintillator were located in the upstream anti-proton direction to tag diffractive events.
Analogue spacetime based on 2-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser
2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
Analogue spacetimes are powerful models for probing the fundamental physical aspects of geometry - while one is most typically interested in ultimately reproducing the pseudo-Riemannian geometries of interest in general relativity and cosmology, analogue models can also provide useful physical probes of more general geometries such as pseudo-Finsler spacetimes. In this chapter we shall see how a 2-component Bose-Einstein condensate can be used to model a specific class of pseudo-Finsler geometries, and after suitable tuning of parameters, both bi-metric pseudo-Riemannian geometries and standard single metric pseudo-Riemannian geometries, while independently allowing the quasi-particle excitations to exhibit a "mass". Furthermore, when extrapolated to extremely high energy the quasi-particles eventually leave the phononic regime and begin to act like free bosons. Thus this analogue spacetime exhibits an analogue of the "Lorentz violation" that is now commonly believed to occur at or near the Planck scale defined by the interplay between quantum physics and gravitational physics. In the 2-component Bose-Einstein analogue spacetime we will show that the mass generating mechanism for the quasi-particles is related to the size of the Lorentz violations. This relates the "mass hierarchy" to the so-called "naturalness problem". In short the analogue spacetime based on 2-component Bose-Einstein condensates exhibits a very rich mathematical and physical structure that can be used to investigate many issues of interest to the high-energy physics, cosmology, and general relativity communities.
Self-guiding of matter waves in optical lattices
Alexander, Tristram J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 (Australia) and Nonlinear Physics Centre and ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown numerically that Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices may be localized as self-induced waveguides and that these waveguides may take complex forms, including bends and X junctions. The waveguides are found to support continuous condensate flow, even around multiple right-angle bends. It is demonstrated that pulsed matter-wave transport may also occur along single-site waveguides in the form of solitons and that these solitons may propagate around bends and collide without change of shape or dependence on phase. A scheme based on single-site addressability techniques and the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is proposed for observing these effects.
Magnetic field in holographic superconductor with dark matter sector
Nakonieczny, L; Wysokinski, K I
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the analytical technique the effect of the static magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductor with dark matter sector of U(1)-gauge field type coupled to the Maxwell field has been examined. In the probe limit, we obtained the mean value of the condensation operator. The nature of the condensate in an external magnetic field as well as the behaviour of the critical field close to the transition temperature has been revealed. The obtained upturn of the critical field curves as a function of temperature, both in four and five spacetime dimensions, is a fingerprint of the strong coupling approach.
Measuring the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas undergoing a structural phase transition
Renate Landig; Ferdinand Brennecke; Rafael Mottl; Tobias Donner; Tilman Esslinger
2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
The dynamic structure factor is a central quantity describing the physics of quantum many-body systems, capturing structure and collective excitations of a material. In condensed matter, it can be measured via inelastic neutron scattering, which is an energy-resolving probe for the density fluctuations. In ultracold atoms, a similar approach could so far not be applied due to the diluteness of the system. Here, we report on a direct, real-time and non-destructive measurement of the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas exhibiting cavity-mediated long-range interactions. The technique relies on inelastic scattering of photons, stimulated by the enhanced vacuum field inside a high finesse optical cavity. We extract the density fluctuations, their energy and lifetime while the system undergoes a structural phase transition. We observe an occupation of the relevant quasi-particle mode on the level of a few excitations, and provide a theoretical description of this dissipative quantum many-body system.
Eugene A. Demler Harvard University, Department of Physics
Correlated Quantum Systems , ITAMP, Cambridge, Massachusetts Organizer, 2006 Winter Aspen Conference Matter and Materials Physics, Colorado. Organizer, 2002 Aspen Winter Conference on Condensed Matter
Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps
Kyoo-Chul Park; Philseok Kim; Neil He; Joanna Aizenberg
2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared to superhydrophobic surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and innovative design of bumps can be applied to lead enhanced performance in various phase change applications including water harvesting.
Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))
1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.
Neutrino matter potentials induced by Earth
J. Linder
2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
An instructive method of deriving the matter potentials felt by neutrinos propagating through matter on Earth is presented. This paper thoroughly guides the reader through the calculations involving the effective weak Hamiltonian for lepton and quark scattering. The matter potentials are well-known results since the late 70's, but a detailed and pedagogical calculation of these quantities is hard to find. We derive potentials due to charged and neutral current scattering on electrons, neutrons and protons. Intended readership is for undergraduates/graduates in the fields of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. In addition to the derivation of the potentials for neutrinos, we explicitely study the origin of the reversed sign for potentials in the case of antineutrino-scattering.
Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces
Miljkovic, Nenad
In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...
Cold condensation of dust in the ISM
Rouillé, Gaël; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...
Condensation heat transfer on nanoengineered surfaces
Paxson, Adam Taylor
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents a series of three related studies with the aim of developing a surface that promotes robust dropwise condensation. Due to their remarkably low droplet adhesion, superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated ...
Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study
Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel ...
Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy
Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello
2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.
Modeling and Optimization of Superhydrophobic Condensation
Miljkovic, Nenad
Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding water droplets via coalescence-induced ...
Hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for condensation applications
Lopez, Ken, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Many existing industrial systems, including thermal desalination plants and air conditioning systems, involve the process of condensation and are heavily dependent on this process for achieving adequate levels of energy ...
Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces
Miljkovic, Nenad
Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight ...
Advanced materials for enhanced condensation heat transfer
Paxson, Adam Taylor
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis investigates the use of three classes advanced materials for promoting dropwise condensation: 1. robust hydrophobic functionalizations 2. superhydrophobic textures 3. lubricant-imbibed textures We first define ...
Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading
Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...
Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation
Yong-Yi Huang
2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.
Bose-Einstein Condensation (For the 9th
Bose-Einstein Condensation (For the 9th Edition of the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science of bosonic particles is cooled below a critical temperature, it condenses into a Bose-Einstein condensate. Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is a phase-transition, which does not depend on the specific
Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol
Collins, Gary S.
Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets
Mechanistic Modelling of Water Vapour Condensation in Presence of
Haviland, David
analysis of the water vapour condensation from the multicomponent mixture of condensable and noncondensable attention has been paid to the influence of the light gas and induced buoyancy forces on the condensation the multicomponent gas distribution and condensation heat transfer degradation are directly related
Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness
Chen, Chuan-Hua
Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness Chuan-Hua Chen,a Qingjun condensation. Superhydrophobicity appears ideal to promote continued dropwise condensation which requires rapid. This letter reports continuous dropwise condensation on a superhydrophobic surface with short carbon nanotubes
Chikkatur, Ananth P.
2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose- Einstein condensates. The second set
Quark condensates and the deconfinement transition
Christian S. Fischer; Jens A. Mueller
2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
In this talk we present results on the chiral and the deconfinement transition of quenched QCD from Dyson-Schwinger equations. We determine the ordinary quark condensate signaling the chiral transition and the dual quark condensate signaling the deconfinement transition from the Landau gauge quark propagator evaluated at generalized boundary conditions. We find only slightly different transition temperatures at finite quark masses, whereas the transition temperatures coincide in the chiral limit.
Proceedings: 2003 EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing
None
2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator and the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing the units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2003 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.
Frustrated Magnetism in Low-Dimensional Lattices
Tovar, Mayra
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and C. Baines. Quantum magnetism in the paratacamite family:14] Stephen Blundell. Magnetism in Condensed Matter. OxfordElectrons and Quantum Magnetism. Graduate Texts in Con-
Quantum Hall phases and plasma analogy in rotating trapped Bose gases
. In this regime, the atoms all condense in the same one-particle state and the gas forms a Bose. Our analysis is based on the interpretation of the densities of quantum Hall trial states as Gibbs-Einstein condensate (BEC). Th
Cosmology with a stiff matter era
Pierre-Henri Chavanis
2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a simple analytical solution of the Friedmann equations for a universe made of stiff matter, dust matter, and dark energy. A stiff matter era is present in the cosmological model of Zel'dovich (1972) where the primordial universe is assumed to be made of a cold gas of baryons. It also occurs in certain cosmological models where dark matter is made of relativistic self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). When the energy density of the stiff matter is positive, the primordial universe is singular. It starts from a state with a vanishing scale factor and an infinite density. We consider the possibility that the energy density of the stiff matter is negative (anti-stiff matter). This happens, for example, when the BECs have an attractive self-interaction. In that case, the primordial universe is non-singular. It starts from a state in which the scale factor is finite and the energy density is equal to zero. For the sake of generality, we consider a cosmological constant of arbitrary sign. When the cosmological constant is positive, the universe asymptotically reaches a de Sitter phase where the scale factor increases exponentially rapidly. This can account for the accelerating expansion of the universe that we observe at present. When the cosmological constant is negative (anti-de Sitter), the evolution of the universe is cyclic. Therefore, depending on the sign of the energy density of the stiff matter and of the dark energy, we obtain singular and non-singular expanding or cyclic universes.
Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Optical Tweezers Conventional condensate production to manipulate and study condensates has been a major restriction to previous experiments. So far, most experiments were carried out within a few millimeters of where the condensate was created. What is highly
RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM FIELD THEORY OF A HYPERNUCLEI
Boguta, J.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
0 Nuclei in Relativistic Field Theory of Nuclear Matter, LBLRelativistic Quantum Field Theory of Finite Nuclei, LBL prein a Relativistic Mean-Field Theory, Stanford preprint F.E.
Reginald T. Cahill
2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z
In 1990 Alcubierre, within the General Relativity model for space-time, proposed a scenario for `warp drive' faster than light travel, in which objects would achieve such speeds by actually being stationary within a bubble of space which itself was moving through space, the idea being that the speed of the bubble was not itself limited by the speed of light. However that scenario required exotic matter to stabilise the boundary of the bubble. Here that proposal is re-examined within the context of the new modelling of space in which space is a quantum system, viz a quantum foam, with on-going classicalisation. This model has lead to the resolution of a number of longstanding problems, including a dynamical explanation for the so-called `dark matter' effect. It has also given the first evidence of quantum gravity effects, as experimental data has shown that a new dimensionless constant characterising the self-interaction of space is the fine structure constant. The studies here begin the task of examining to what extent the new spatial self-interaction dynamics can play a role in stabilising the boundary without exotic matter, and whether the boundary stabilisation dynamics can be engineered; this would amount to quantum gravity engineering.
Dynamics of wave fluctuations in the homogeneous Yang-Mills condensate
George Prokhorov; Roman Pasechnik; Grigory Vereshkov
2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z
In the present work, the Yang-Mills (YM) quantum-wave excitations of the classical homogeneous YM condensate have been studied in quasi-classical approximation. The formalism is initially formulated in the Hamilton gauge and is based upon canonical quantisation in the Heisenberg representation. This canonical framework is then extended and related to YM dynamics in arbitrary gauge and symmetry group containing at least one $SU(2)$ subgroup. Such generic properties of the interacting YM system as excitation of longitudinal wave modes and energy balance between the evolving YM condensate and waves have been established. In order to prove these findings, the canonical quasi-classical YM system "waves + condensate" in the pure simplest $SU(2)$ gauge theory has been thoroughly analysed numerically in the linear and next-to-linear approximations in the limit of small wave amplitudes. The effective gluon mass dynamically generated by wave self-interactions in the gluon plasma has been derived. A complete set of equations of motion for the YM "condensate + waves" system accounting for second- and third-order interactions between the waves has been obtained. In the next-to-linear approximation in waves we have found that due to interactions between the YM waves and the YM condensate, the latter looses its energy leading to the growth of amplitudes of the YM wave modes. A similar effect has been found in the maximally-supersymmetric ${\\cal N}=4$ Yang-Mills theory as well as in two-condensate $SU(4)$ model. Possible implications of these findings to Cosmology and gluon plasma physics have been discussed.
Dorfman, Konstantin E.
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
description of a dilute Bose gas was formulated by Bogoliubov [5-8, 22, 23]. The main idea is in separating the condensate contribution to the bosonic field operator. In general, the field operator can be written as ??(r) =summationtextk?k(r)?ak, where ?k... of the systematic application of the quantum field theory to an interacting sys- tem of bosons due to Beliaev [7, 8, 22]. This leads to a generalized Green?s function formalism, which builds in the crucial role of the Bose condensate and allows one to determine...
Dorfman, Konstantin E.
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
description of a dilute Bose gas was formulated by Bogoliubov [5-8, 22, 23]. The main idea is in separating the condensate contribution to the bosonic field operator. In general, the field operator can be written as ??(r) =summationtextk?k(r)?ak, where ?k... of the systematic application of the quantum field theory to an interacting sys- tem of bosons due to Beliaev [7, 8, 22]. This leads to a generalized Green?s function formalism, which builds in the crucial role of the Bose condensate and allows one to determine...
Color superconductivity and dense quark matter
Massimo Mannarelli
2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z
The properties of cold and dense quark matter have been the subject of extensive investigation, especially in the last decade. Unfortunately, we still lack of a complete understanding of the properties of matter in these conditions. One possibility is that quark matter is in a color superconducting phase which is characterized by the formation of a diquark condensate. We review some of the basic concepts of color superconductivity and some of the aspects of this phase of matter which are relevant for compact stars. Since quarks have color, flavor as well as spin degrees of freedom many different color superconducting phases can be realized. At asymptotic densities QCD predicts that the color flavor locked phase is favored. At lower densities where the QCD coupling constant is large, perturbative methods cannot be applied and one has to rely on some effective model, eventually trying to constrain such a model with experimental observations. The picture is complicated by the requirement that matter in the interior of compact stars is in weak equilibrium and neutral. These conditions and the (possible) large value of the strange quark mass conspire to separate the Fermi momenta of quarks with different flavors, rendering homogenous superconducting phases unstable. One of the aims of this presentation is to introduce non-experts in the field to some of the basic ideas of color superconductivity and to some of its open problems.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505)...
April 22, 2011 Institute for Quantum Matter
von der Heydt, Rüdiger
Spectroscopy · Neutron (SNS, NIST) · THz photon (JHU) · Micro waves (JHU) · Raman (JHU) · Angle Resolved Photo #12;Spectroscopy at National facilities Spallation Neutron Source, ORNL Advanced Light Source, LBNL NIST Center for Neutron Research #12;Accomplishments 2008-present · The Experimental Frontier Cold
Briens, Frederic Jean-Louis
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of drawdown or buildup tests, the formation permeability can be estimated. Although these conventional techniques have been successfully applied to 'dry' gas well analysis, they have not been extended to high-pressure gas condensate wells. The application... Condensate Reser voir Data. . 43 Elf Aquitaine Gas Condensate Reservoir Fluid Composition Elf Aquitaine Gas Condensate Well Production Test Data. Drawdown Test F1 of Elf Aquitaine Gas Condensate Mell 45 46 Drawdown Test F2 of Elf Aquitaine Gas...
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.
1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.
Color superconductivity with determinant interaction in strange quark matter
Amruta Mishra; Hiranmaya Mishra
2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the effect of six fermion determinant interaction on color superconductivity as well as on chiral symmetry breaking. Coupled mass gap equations and the superconducting gap equation are derived through the minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. The effect of nonzero quark -- antiquark condensates on the superconducting gap is derived. This becomes particularly relevant for the case of 2-flavor superconducting matter with unpaired strange quarks in the diquark channel. While the effect of six fermion interaction leads to an enhancement of u-d superconductivity, due to nonvanishing strange quark--antiquark condensates, such an enhancement will be absent at higher densities for u-s or d-s superconductivity due to early (almost) vanishing of light quark-- antiquark condensates.
Instability of condensate lm and capillary blocking in small-diameter-thermosyphon condensers
Zhao, Tianshou
. Teng, P. Cheng*, T.S. Zhao Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science, such as air-conditioning, refriger- ation, and heat-pipe condensers, etc. The concurrent two be encountered in both concurrent and countercurrent condensers. In large-diameter (either concurrent
Dark matter, dark energy and gravitational proprieties of antimatter
Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic
2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
We suggest that the eventual gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter may be a key for understanding of the nature of dark matter and dark energy. If there is gravitational repulsion, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the vacuum, may be considered as gravitational dipoles. We use a simple toy model to reveal a first indication that the gravitational polarization of such a vacuum, caused by baryonic matter in a Galaxy, may produce the same effect as supposed existence of dark matter. In addition, we argue that cancellation of gravitational charges in virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, may be a basis for a solution of the cosmological constant problem and identification of dark energy with vacuum energy. Hence, it may be that dark matter and dark energy are not new, unknown forms of matter-energy but an effect of complex interaction between quantum vacuum and known baryonic matter.
Roll Wave Effects on Annular Condensing Heat Transfer in Horizontal PCCS Condenser Tube
Masaya Kondo; Hideo Nakamura; Yoshinari Anoda [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura 319-1195 (Japan); Sadanori Saishu; Hiroyuki Obata; Rumi Shimada [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan); Shinichi Kawamura [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 1-3, Uchisaiwai-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 1008560 (Japan)
2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A horizontal in-tube condensation heat exchanger is under investigation to be used for a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a next generation-type BWR. The flow conditions in the horizontal condenser tube were observed both visually and by local void fraction fluctuation. The observed flow regimes at a rated condition were annular flow at the tube inlet, and turned gradually into wavy flow and smooth stratified flow along the length of the tube. It was found further that frequency of the roll waves that appear on the liquid film in the annular flow is closely related to the measured local condensation heat transfer coefficient. Based on the flow observation, the roll wave frequency and measured condensation heat transfer coefficient, a model is proposed which predicts the condensation heat transfer coefficient particularly for annular flows around the tube inlet region. The proposed heat transfer model predicts well the influences of pressure, local gas-phase velocity and film thickness. (authors)
New generation low-energy probes for ultralight axion and scalar dark matter
Stadnik, Yevgeny V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a brief overview of a new generation of high-precision laboratory and astrophysical measurements to search for ultralight (sub-eV) axion, axion-like pseudoscalar and scalar dark matter, which form either a coherent condensate or topological defects (solitons). In these new detection methods, the sought effects are linear in the interaction constant between dark matter and ordinary matter, which is in stark contrast to traditional searches for dark matter, where the sought effects are quadratic or higher order in the underlying interaction constants (which are extremely small).
New generation low-energy probes for ultralight axion and scalar dark matter
Yevgeny V. Stadnik; Victor V. Flambaum
2015-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
We present a brief overview of a new generation of high-precision laboratory and astrophysical measurements to search for ultralight (sub-eV) axion, axion-like pseudoscalar and scalar dark matter, which form either a coherent condensate or topological defects (solitons). In these new detection methods, the sought effects are linear in the interaction constant between dark matter and ordinary matter, which is in stark contrast to traditional searches for dark matter, where the sought effects are quadratic or higher order in the underlying interaction constants (which are extremely small).
Speculations on a Unified Theory of Matter and Mind
Manoj K. Samal
2001-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
Physics is so successful today in understanding the nature of matter. What can it say about mind ? Is it possible to have a unified theory of matter and mind within the framework of modern science ? Is Consciousness an accident or is it a natural consequence of laws of nature ? Are these laws of nature the same as the laws of physics ? We make an attempt here to unify mind with matter based on an extended formalism borrowed from Quantum theory where information plays a more fundamental role than matter or thought.
Explorations of Magnetic Phases in F = 1 87Rb Spinor Condensates
Guzman, Jennie Sara
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
5 Equilibrium Properties of Spinor Condensates 5.1 SpinorThe condensate axes as compared to the geographicalTemporal evolution of condensate fractions for ? = 0 and ? =
Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems
Clifton, F.T.
1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.
Boson stars: Chemical potential and quark condensates
Jitesh R. Bhatt; V. Sreekanth
2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
We study the properties of a star made of self-gravitating bosons gas in a mean-field approximation. A generalized set of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov(TOV) equations is derived to incorporate the effect of chemical-potential in the general relativistic frame work. The metric-dependence of the chemical-potential gives a new class of solutions for the boson stars. It is demonstrated that the maximum mass and radius of the star change in a significant way when the effect of finite chemical-potential is considered. We also discuss the case of a boson star made of quark-condensates. It is found that when the self-interaction between the condensates is small as compared to their mass, the typical density is too high to form a diquark-boson star. Our results indicate that the star of quark-condensate may be formed in a low-density and high-pressure regime.
M. G. Romania; N. C. Tsamis; R. P. Woodard
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
We review some perturbative results obtained in quantum gravity in an accelerating cosmological background. We then describe a class of non-local, purely gravitational models which have the correct structure to reproduce the leading infrared logarithms of quantum gravitational back-reaction during the inflationary regime. These models end inflation in a distinctive phase of oscillations with slight and short violations of the weak energy condition and should, when coupled to matter, lead to rapid reheating. By elaborating this class of models we exhibit one that has the same behaviour during inflation, goes quiescent until the onset of matter domination, and induces a small, positive cosmological constant of about the right size thereafter. We also briefly comment on the primordial density perturbations that this class of models predict.
QCD sum rules for the baryon octet in nuclear matter
E. L. Kryshen
2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The baryon self-energies are expressed in terms of the QCD condensates of the lowest dimension in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter within the QCD sum-rule approach. The self-energies are shown to satisfy the Gell-Mann--Okubo relations in the linear SU(3) breaking approximation. The results are in qualitative agreement with those obtained by the standard nuclear physics methods.
C. P. Search; H. Pu; W. Zhang; P. Meystre
2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
The quasiparticle excitations and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of atoms at zero temperature is studied. The Fermi gas is assumed to be either in the normal state or to have undergone a phase transition to a superfluid state by forming Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate exhibit a dynamical instability due to a resonant exchange of energy and momentum with quasiparticle excitations of the Fermi gas. The stability regime for the bosons depends on whether the Fermi gas is in the normal state or in the superfluid state. We show that the energy gap in the quasiparticle spectrum for the superfluid state stabilizes the low energy energy excitations of the condensate. In the stable regime, we calculate the boson quasiparticle spectrum, which is modified by the fluctuations in the density of the Fermi gas.
Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface
Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun
2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.
Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface
Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)
2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.
Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems
P. Marini; H. Zheng; M. Boisjoli; G. Verde; A. Chbihi; G. Ademard; L. Auger; C. Bhattacharya; B. Borderie; R. Bougault; J. Frankland; E. Galichet; D. Gruyer; S. Kundu; M. La Commara; I. Lombardo; O. Lopez; G. Mukherjee; P. Napolitani; M. Parlog; M. F. Rivet; E. Rosato; R. Roy; G. Spadaccini; M. Vigilante; P. C. Wigg; A. Bonasera
2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
We report experimental signals of Bose-Einstein condensation in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4$\\pi$ detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed us to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. Furthermore, by means of quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and mean volumes per particle "as seen by" bosons and fermions separately are correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The obtained results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed (bosons/fermions) systems, where bosons experience a smaller volume as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall similar phenomena observed in the study of boson condensates in atomic traps.
Nonclassical Velocity Statistics in a Turbulent Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensate
White, A. C.; Barenghi, C. F.; Proukakis, N. P.; Youd, A. J.; Wacks, D. H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent experiment Paoletti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 154501 (2008)] monitored the motion of tracer particles in turbulent superfluid helium and inferred that the velocity components do not obey the Gaussian statistics observed in ordinary turbulence. Motivated by their experiment, we create a small 3D turbulent state in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, compute directly the velocity field, and find similar nonclassical power-law tails. We obtain similar results in 2D trapped and 3D homogeneous condensates, and in classical 2D vortex points systems. This suggests that non-Gaussian turbulent velocity statistics describe a fundamental property of quantum turbulence. We also track the decay of the vortex tangle in the presence of the thermal cloud.
Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems
Marini, P; Boisjoli, M; Verde, G; Chbihi, A; Ademard, G; Auger, L; Bhattacharya, C; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Frankland, J; Galichet, E; Gruyer, D; Kundu, S; La Commara, M; Lombardo, I; Lopez, O; Mukherjee, G; Napolitani, P; Parlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Wigg, P C; Bonasera, A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report experimental signals of Bose-Einstein condensation in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4$\\pi$ detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed us to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. Furthermore, by means of quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and mean volumes per particle "as seen by" bosons and fermions separately are correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The obtained results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed (bosons/fermions) systems, where bosons experience a smaller volume as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall similar phenomena observed in the study of boson condensates in atomic traps.
ANTENNA-COUPLED LIGHT-MATTER INTERACTIONS
NOVOTNY, LUKAS
2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
This project is focused on antenna-coupled photon emission from single quantum emitters. The properties of optical antennas are tailored to control different photophysical parameters, such as the excited state lifetime, the saturation intensity, and the quantum yield [3]. Using a single molecule coupled to an optical antenna whose position and properties can be controllably adjusted we established a detailed and quantitative understanding of light-matter interactions in nanoscale environments. We have studied various quantum emitters: single molecules [11], quantum dots [7], rareearth ions [2], and NV centers in diamond [19]. We have systematically studied the interaction of these emitters with optical antennas. The overall objective was to establish a high-level of control over the light-matter interaction. In order to eliminate the coupling to the environment, we have taken a step further and explored the possibility of levitating the quantum emitter in high vacuum. What started as a side-project soon became a main activity in our research program and led us to the demonstration of vacuum trapping and cooling of a nanoscale particle [14].
Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.
2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.
Zach Medin; Dong Lai
2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z
For sufficiently strong magnetic fields and/or low temperatures, the neutron star surface may be in a condensed state with little gas or plasma above it. Such surface condensation can significantly affect the thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, and may lead to the formation of a charge-depleted acceleration zone ("vacuum gap") in the magnetosphere above the stellar polar cap. Using the latest results on the cohesive property of magnetic condensed matter, we quantitatively determine the conditions for surface condensation and vacuum gap formation in magnetic neutron stars. We find that condensation can occur if the thermal energy kT of the neutron star surface is less than about 8% of its cohesive energy Q_s, and that a vacuum gap can form if the neutron star's rotation axis and magnetic moment point in opposite directions and kT is less than about 4% of Q_s. Thus, vacuum gap accelerators may exist for some neutron stars. Motivated by this result, we also study the physics of pair cascades in the vacuum gap model for photon emission by accelerating electrons and positrons due to both curvature radiation and resonant/nonresonant inverse Compton scattering. Our calculations of the condition of cascade-induced vacuum breakdown and the related pulsar death line/boundary generalize previous works to the superstrong field regime. We find that inverse Compton scatterings do not produce a sufficient number of high energy photons in the gap and thus do not lead to pair cascades for most neutron star parameters. We discuss the implications of our results for the recent observations of neutron star thermal radiation as well as for the detection/non-detection of radio emission from high-B pulsars and magnetars.
An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options
Risko, J. R.
for those installations with unsuitable condensate drainage include: ? Condensate being visibly wasted from the heat exchanger discharge side, either from a hose connection at the strainer, or an opened union or drain valve on the steam trap's outlet...
??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices
Campbell, Gretchen K. (Gretchen Kathleen)
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices have proven to be a powerful tool for studying a wide variety of physics. In this thesis a series of experiments using optical lattices to manipulate 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates ...
New inflow performance relationships for gas condensate reservoirs
Del Castillo Maravi, Yanil
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we propose two new Vogel-type Inflow Performance Relations (or IPR) correlations for gas-condensate reservoir systems. One correlation predicts dry gas production the other predicts condensate (liquid) production. These correlations...
Buffer-Gas Cooled Bose-Einstein Condensate
Ketterle, Wolfgang
We report the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate using buffer-gas cooling, the first realization of Bose-Einstein condensation using a broadly general method which relies neither on laser cooling nor unique atom-surface ...
air handler condensate: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
forced air 3 Experimental Performance Analysis of Air-Cooled Condenser for Low Pressure Steam Condensation CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: An experimental set up is made for an...
New inflow performance relationships for gas condensate reservoirs
Del Castillo Maravi, Yanil
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we propose two new Vogel-type Inflow Performance Relations (or IPR) correlations for gas-condensate reservoir systems. One correlation predicts dry gas production the other predicts condensate (liquid) ...
Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study
Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for electricity). The site generates steam for its process operation from 3 gas fired boilers at 525-psig pressure. The steam is consumed at 5 process areas; Acid, Basics, Crystals, Derivatives & Hydrogen plants. All of the process areas recover condensate inside...
Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation
Geng, Jun
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a competitive aerosol condensation...
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Compactified Spaces
Kiyoshi Shiraishi
2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the thermodynamic potential of a charged Bose gas with the chemical potential in arbitrary dimensions. The critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is investigated. In the case of the compactified background metric, it is shown that the critical temperature depends on the size of the extra spaces. The asymmetry of the "Kaluza-Klein charge" is also discussed.
Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers
California at Davis, University of
Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10
Di-Antiquarks condensation in Color Superconductivity
Fabio L. Braghin
2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
Some consequences of a classical vector field (chromo-electromagnetic field) coupled to quarks, which undergo to superfluid and/or superconductive states with diquark / diantiquark condensation, are investigated. For this, one scalar field exchange is considered in the lines investigated by Pisarski and Rischke \\cite{PISARSKI-RISCHKE} in the mean field approach. Some effects and possible consequences are discussed.
Coil Condensation Detection For Humidity Control
Kaneb, Charles Peckitt
2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
of an enthalpy economizer. A spreadsheet simulation of enthalpy economizer use showed that the savings available are heavily dependent on the ability to avoid its use on very hot, humid days. A newly-designed condensation sensor was developed for this project...
Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation
B. G. Sidharth
1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.
Proof of Concept: Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter
Delene, David J.
North Dakota project. The solid circle is the mean value, the horizontal line is the 50th percentile Price High Price #12;Research Applications · One commercially available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. · Available since 2002 · Sold over 100 Units, Mostly Labs · Price is Approximately $70
Quantum Dynamics of Solitons in Strongly Interacting Systems on Optical Lattices
Rubbo, Chester P; Reinhardt, William P; Balakrishnan, Radha; Rey, Ana Maria; Manmana, Salvatore R
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Mean-field dynamics of strongly interacting bosons has been shown to support two species of solitons: one of Gross-Pitaevski (GP)-type where the condensate fraction remains dark and a novel non-GP-type characterized by brightening of the condensate fraction. Here we study the effects of quantum fluctuations on these solitons using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method, which takes into account the effect of strong correlations. We use local observables as the density, condensate density and correlation functions as well as the entanglement entropy to characterize the stability of the initial states. We find both species of solitons to be stable under quantum evolution for a finite duration, their tolerance to quantum fluctuations being enhanced as the width of the soliton increases. We describe possible experimental realizations in atomic Bose Einstein Condensates, polarized degenerate Fermi gases, and in systems of polar molecules on optical lattices.
Dimension two vacuum condensates in gauge-invariant theories
D. V. Bykov; A. A. Slavnov
2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge dependence of the dimension two condensate in Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory is investigated.
Modular invariant gaugino condensation in the presence of ananomalous U(1)*
Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel; Mints, Aleksey L.
2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
Starting from the previously constructed effective supergravity theory below the scale of U(1) breaking in orbifold compactifications of the weakly coupled heterotic string, we study the effective theory below the scale of supersymmetry breaking by gaugino and matter condensation in a hidden sector. Questions we address include vacuum stability and the masses of the various moduli fields, including those associated with flat directions at the U(1) breaking scale, and of their fermionic superpartners. The issue of soft supersymmetry-breaking masses in the observable sector presents a particularly serious challenge for this class of models.
Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...
Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates
Loss, Daniel
LETTERS Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates S. UTSUNOMIYA1 predicted the occurrence of BoseÂEinstein condensation (BEC) in an ideal gas of non-interacting bosonic Bose condensed system was developed by Bogoliubov in 1947, which predicted the phonon-like excitation
Microtraps and Waveguides for Bose-Einstein Condensates
Microtraps and Waveguides for Bose-Einstein Condensates by Aaron E. Leanhardt Submitted and Waveguides for Bose-Einstein Condensates by Aaron E. Leanhardt Submitted to the Department of Physics Abstract Gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates containing up to 3 Ã? 106 23 Na atoms were loaded into magnetic
Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates Benjamin Schlein
Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates Benjamin Schlein Department of Mathematics, University the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates, ob- tained in a series of joint papers [5, 6] with L. Erdos and H SchrÂ¨odinger equation known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the time evolution of the condensate
GROUND STATES AND DYNAMICS OF MULTICOMPONENT BOSEEINSTEIN CONDENSATES
Bao, Weizhu
GROUND STATES AND DYNAMICS OF MULTICOMPONENT BOSEÂEINSTEIN CONDENSATES WEIZHU BAO MULTISCALE MODEL a multicomponent BoseÂEinstein condensate (BEC) at zero or a very low temperature. In preparation for the numerics of multicomponent BEC. Key words. multicomponent, BoseÂEinstein condensate, vector GrossÂPitaevskii equations
Manipulating Bose-Einstein condensates with laser light Shin Inouye
Manipulating Bose-Einstein condensates with laser light by Shin Inouye Submitted to the Department-Einstein condensates with laser light by Shin Inouye Submitted to the Department of Physics on June 7, 2001, in partial-Einstein condensate was probed and manipulated by off-resonant laser beams. Spontaneous and stimulated off
DISORDERED BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATES WITH INTERACTION IN ONE DIMENSION
Boyer, Edmond
DISORDERED BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATES WITH INTERACTION IN ONE DIMENSION ROBERT SEIRINGER, JAKOB- Pitaevskii regime. We prove that Bose Einstein condensation survives even a strong random potential with a high density of scatterers. The character of the wave func- tion of the condensate, however, depends
Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate
Loss, Daniel
, for example, a BoseÂEinstein condensate or a degenerate Fermi gas, the phase space accessible to low of coherent spin-changing collisions in a gas of spin-1 bosons. Starting with condensates occupying two spin of the gas, although it does not change the nature of the coherence of the condensate--indeed it has been
Gibbons-Hawking Effect in the Sonic de Sitter Space-Time of an Expanding Bose-Einstein-Condensed Gas
Petr O. Fedichev; Uwe R. Fischer
2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We propose an experimental scheme to observe the Gibbons-Hawking effect in the acoustic analog of a 1+1-dimensional de Sitter universe, produced in an expanding, cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate. It is shown that a two-level system created at the center of the trap, an atomic quantum dot interacting with phonons, observes a thermal Bose distribution at the de Sitter temperature.
Anderson Localization of Matter Waves in 3D Anisotropic Disordered Potentials Marie Piraud,1, 2, 3
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Anderson Localization of Matter Waves in 3D Anisotropic Disordered Potentials Marie Piraud,1, 2, 3 (Dated: August 26, 2014) We develop a cut-off-free theory of Anderson localization in anisotropic. This phenomenon, known as Anderson localization (AL), is a widely studied problem at the fron- tier of condensed
Polaron Coherence Condensation in Layered Colossal Resistive...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are a generic controlling factor for novel quantum phenomena in doped transition-metal oxides. Coherence Rules the Day When physicists speak of coherence, they are...
Knaian, Ara N. (Ara Nerses), 1977-
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Programmable matter is a proposed digital material having computation, sensing, actuation, and display as continuous properties active over its whole extent. Programmable matter would have many exciting applications, like ...
Kumar, Jason [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.
Graham, Peter W.
We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, ...
Wei-Dong Li; Yunbo Zhang; J. -Q. Liang
2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
The energy band structure and energy splitting due to quantum tunneling in two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates were calculated by using the instanton method. The intrinsic coherent properties of Bose Josephson junction were investigated in terms of energy splitting. For $E_{C}/E_{J}\\ll 1$, the energy splitting is small and the system is globally phase coherent. In the opposite limit, $E_{C}/E_{J}\\gg 1$, the energy splitting is large and the system becomes a phase dissipation. Our reslults suggest that one should investigate the coherence phenomna of BJJ in proper condition such as $E_{C}/E_{J}\\sim 1$.
Hot-dark matter, cold dark matter and accelerating universe
Abbas Farmany; Amin Farmany; Mohammad Mahmoodi
2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
The Friedman equation is solved for a universe contains hotdark matter and cold dark matter. In this scenario, hot-dark matter drives an accelerating universe no cold dark matter.
Strong dark matter constraints on GMSB models
F. Staub; W. Porod; J. Niemeyer
2010-01-18T23:59:59.000Z
We reconsider the dark matter problem in supersymmetric models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, with and without R-parity breaking. In these classes of models, a light gravitino forms the dark matter.Consistency with the experimental data, in particular the dark matter abundance and the small-scale power spectrum, requires additional entropy production after the decoupling of the gravitino from the thermal bath. We demonstrate that the usual mechanism via messenger number violating interactions does not work in models where the messenger belongs to SU (5) representations. This is mainly a consequence of two facts: (i) there are at least two different types of lightest messenger particles and (ii) the lightest messenger particle with SU (2) quantum numbers decays dominantly into vector bosons once messenger number is broken, a feature which has been overlooked so far. In case of SO(10) messenger multiplets we find scenarios which work if the SM gauge singlet component is rather light.
Strong dark matter constraints on GMSB models
Staub, F; Niemeyer, J
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We reconsider the dark matter problem in supersymmetric models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, with and without R-parity breaking. In these classes of models, a light gravitino forms the dark matter.Consistency with the experimental data, in particular the dark matter abundance and the small-scale power spectrum, requires additional entropy production after the decoupling of the gravitino from the thermal bath. We demonstrate that the usual mechanism via messenger number violating interactions does not work in models where the messenger belongs to SU (5) representations. This is mainly a consequence of two facts: (i) there are at least two different types of lightest messenger particles and (ii) the lightest messenger particle with SU (2) quantum numbers decays dominantly into vector bosons once messenger number is broken, a feature which has been overlooked so far. In case of SO(10) messenger multiplets we find scenarios which work if the SM gauge singlet component is rather light.
Compact heat exchangers for condensation applications: Yesterday, today and tomorrow
Panchal, C.B.
1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Compact heat exchangers are being increasingly considered for condensation applications in the process, cryogenic, aerospace, power and refrigeration industries. In this paper, different configurations available for condensation applications are analyzed and the current state-of-the-knowledge for the design of compact condensers is evaluated. The key technical issues for the design and development of compact heat exchangers for condensation applications are analyzed and major advantages are identified. The experimental data and performance prediction methods reported in the literature are analyzed to evaluate the present design capabilities for different compact heat-exchanger configurations. The design flexibility is evaluated for the development of new condensation applications, including integration with other process equipment.
Gaugino Condensates and Fluxes in N = 1 Effective Superpotentials
Jean-Pierre Derendinger; Costas Kounnas; P. Marios Petropoulos
2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
In the framework of orbifold compactifications of heterotic and type II orientifolds, we study effective N = 1 supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates. These string solutions display a broad phenomenology which we analyze using the method of N = 4 supergravity gaugings. We give examples in type II and heterotic compactifications of combined fluxes and condensates leading to vacua with naturally small supersymmetry breaking scale controlled by the condensate, cases where the supersymmetry breaking scale is specified by the fluxes even in the presence of a condensate and also examples where fluxes and condensates conspire to preserve supersymmetry.
Ideal Quantum Gases with Planck Scale Limitations
Rainer Collier
2015-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
A thermodynamic system of non-interacting quantum particles changes its statistical distribution formulas if there is a universal limitation for the size of energetic quantum leaps (magnitude of quantum leaps smaller than Planck energy). By means of a restriction of the a priori equiprobability postulate one can reach a thermodynamic foundation of these corrected distribution formulas. The number of microstates is determined by means of a suitable counting method and combined with thermodynamics via the Boltzmann principle. The result is that, for particle energies that come close to the Planck energy, the thermodynamic difference between fermion and boson distribution vanishes. Both distributions then approximate a Boltzmann distribution. The wave and particle character of the quantum particles, too, can be influenced by choosing the size of the temperature and particle energy parameters relative to the Planck energy, as you can see from the associated fluctuation formulas. In the case of non-relativistic degeneration, the critical parameters Fermi momentum (fermions) and Einstein temperature (bosons) vanish as soon as the rest energy of the quantum particles reaches the Planck energy. For the Bose-Einstein condensation there exists, in the condensation range, a finite upper limit for the number of particles in the ground state, which is determined by the ratio of Planck mass to the rest mass of the quantum particles. In the relativistic high-temperature range, the energy densities of photon and neutrino radiation have finite limit values, which is of interest with regard to the start of cosmic expansion.
Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases
Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.
Condensate polishing at Surry Nuclear Power Station
McNea, D.A.; Siegwarth, D.P.; Friedman, K.A.; Sawochka, S.G.
1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Condensate polisher system design and operation at the Surry Nuclear Power Station of Virginia Electric and Power Company were evaluated relative to the ability of the polishers to achieve effluent water quality consistent with PWR Steam Generator Owners Group chemistry guidelines. Polishers regenerated employing a conventional process were evaluated during normal plant operation and during periods of simulated condenser inleakage. Polisher effluent quality was consistent with requirements for PWR steam generator corrosion minimization with minor exceptions, i.e., sodium and sulfate leakage immediately following initiation of most service cycles. Resin aging and incomplete separation of anion and cation resin during the regeneration process were the major reasons for non-optimum polisher performance.
Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization
Kullberg, Craig M.
2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.
Incompressibility of strange matter
Monika Sinha; Manjari Bagchi; Jishnu Dey; Mira Dey; Subharthi Ray; Siddhartha Bhowmick
2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Strange stars calculated from a realistic equation of state (EOS), that incorporate chiral symmetry restoration as well as deconfinement at high density show compact objects in the mass radius curve. We compare our calculations of incompressibility for this EOS with that of nuclear matter. One of the nuclear matter EOS has a continuous transition to ud-matter at about five times normal density. Another nuclear matter EOS incorporates density dependent coupling constants. From a look at the consequent velocity of sound, it is found that the transition to ud-matter seems necessary.
From semiconductors to quantum gravity: to centenary of Matvei Bronstein
G. E. Volovik
2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
Investigation of the many-body condensed-matter systems allows us to connect the microscopic physics at the atomic energy scale and the macroscopic physics emerging in the low-energy corner. It gives some hints on the mechanisms of the formation of the physical laws which our Universe obeys. The paper is devoted to the centenary of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein.
Pion condensation in a dense neutrino gas
Hiroaki Abuki; Tomas Brauner; Harmen J. Warringa
2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
We argue that using an equilibrated gas of neutrinos it is possible to probe the phase diagram of QCD for finite isospin and small baryon chemical potentials. We discuss this region of the phase diagram in detail and demonstrate that for large enough neutrino densities a Bose-Einstein condensate of positively charged pions arises. Moreover, we show that for nonzero neutrino density the degeneracy in the lifetimes and masses of the charged pions is lifted.
New silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases
Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.
2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This patent application relates to an invention for a new silicotitanate molecular sieve ion exchange material for the capture and immobilization of divalent cations from aqueous and/or hydrocarbon solutions, including elements such as radioactive strontium or industrial RCRA metal cations. The invention also relates to the ability to either recycle the captured metal for future use or to encapsulate the cation through thermal treatment of the molecular sieve to a condensed phase.
Evaluation of condensate polishers. Final report. [PWR
Lurie, S.W.
1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The potential for steam generator corrosion caused by the release of resins or soluble impurity chemicals from full-flow condensate polishing was evaluated in a series of high temperature tests. The tests were designed to operate within the then prevailing NSSS steam generator chemistry specifications, consistent with realistic release of these impurities to steam generators. Each potential corrodent was tested separately in the absence of other corrosive conditions.
Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation
Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.
2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.
Lincoln, Don
2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.
Formation of a condensate during charged collapse
Ariel Edery; Benjamin Constantineau
2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
We observe a condensate forming in the interior of a black hole (BH) during numerical simulations of gravitational collapse of a massless charged (complex) scalar field. The magnitude of the scalar field in the interior tends to a non-zero constant; spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry occurs and a condensate forms. This phenomena occurs in the presence of a BH without the standard symmetry breaking quartic potential; the breaking occurs via the dynamics of the system itself. We also observe that the scalar field in the interior rotates in the complex plane and show that it matches numerically the electric potential to within $1\\%$. That a charged scalar condensate can form near the horizon of a black hole in the Abelian Higgs model without the standard symmetry breaking potential had previously been shown analytically in an explicit model involving a massive scalar field in an $AdS_4$ background. Our numerical simulation lends strong support to this finding, although in our case the scalar field is massless and the spacetime is asymptotically flat.
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
Adi Armoni; Biagio Lucini; Agostino Patella; Claudio Pica
2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lessons for the unquenched case are discussed.
Measuring non-condensable gases in steam
Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.
De finetti theorems, mean-field limits and bose-Einstein condensation
Nicolas Rougerie
2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
These notes deal with the mean-field approximation for equilibrium states of N-body systems in classical and quantum statistical mechanics. A general strategy for the justification of effective models based on statistical independence assumptions is presented in details. The main tools are structure theorems {\\`a} la de Finetti, describing the large N limits of admissible states for these systems. These rely on the symmetry under exchange of particles, due to their indiscernability. Emphasis is put on quantum aspects, in particular the mean-field approximation for the ground states of large bosonic systems, in relation with the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon. Topics covered in details include: the structure of reduced density matrices for large bosonic systems, Fock-space localization methods, derivation of effective energy functionals of Hartree or non-linear Schr{\\"o}dinger type, starting from the many-body Schr{\\"o}dinger Hamiltonian.
Théorèmes de de Finetti, limites de champ moyen et condensation de Bose-Einstein
Nicolas Rougerie
2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
These lecture notes treat the mean-field approximation for equilibrium states of N body systems in classical and quantum statistical mechanics. A general strategy to justify effective models based on assumptions of statistical independence of the particles is in presented in detail. The main tools are a structure theorems of de Finetti that describe large N limits of states accessible to the systems in question, exploiting the indistinguishablity of particles. The focus is on quantum aspects, particularly the mean-field approximation for the ground state of a large system of bosons, in connection with Bose-Einstein condensation: structure of reduced density matrices of a large bosonic system, localization methods in Fock space, derivation of Hartree and non-linear Schr\\"odinger effective energy functionals.
Condensation of an ideal gas with intermediate statistics on the horizon
Somayeh Zare; Zahra Raissi; Hosein Mohammadzadeh; Behrouz Mirza
2012-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a boson gas on the stretched horizon of the Schwartzschild and Kerr black holes. It is shown that the gas is in a Bose-Einstein condensed state with the Hawking temperature $T_c=T_H$ if the particle number of the system be equal to the number of quantum bits of space-time $ N \\simeq {A}/{{\\l_{p}}^{2}}$. Entropy of the gas is proportional to the area of the horizon $(A)$ by construction. For a more realistic model of quantum degrees of freedom on the horizon, we should presumably consider interacting bosons (gravitons). An ideal gas with intermediate statistics could be considered as an effective theory for interacting bosons. This analysis shows that we may obtain a correct entropy just by a suitable choice of parameter in the intermediate statistics.
Creation of NOON states by double Fock-state/Bose-Einstein condensates
W. J. Mullin \\and F. Laloë
2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
NOON states (states of the form $|N>_{a}|0>_{b}+|0>_{a}|N>_{b}$ where $a$ and $b$ are single particle states) have been used for predicting violations of hidden-variable theories (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger violations) and are valuable in metrology for precision measurements of phase at the Heisenberg limit. We show theoretically how the use of two Fock state/Bose-Einstein condensates as sources in a modified Mach Zender interferometer can lead to the creation of the NOON state in which $a$ and $b$ refer to arms of the interferometer and $N$ is the total number of particles in the two condensates. The modification of the interferometer involves making conditional ``side'' measurements of a few particles near the sources. These measurements put the remaining particles in a superposition of two phase states, which are converted into NOON states by a beam splitter. The result is equivalent to the quantum experiment in which a large molecule passes through two slits. The NOON states are combined in a final beam splitter and show interference. Attempts to detect through which ``slit'' the condensates passed destroys the interference.
Extracting Hidden-Photon Dark Matter From an LC-Circuit
Paola Arias; Ariel Arza; Babette Döbrich; Jorge Gamboa; Fernando Mendez
2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden- photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space.
Energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics
Ulf Leonhardt
2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In agreement with the experiment [G. K. Campbell et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 170403 (2005)] variations of the Minkowski momentum are imprinted onto the phase, whereas the Abraham tensor drives the flow of the dielectric. Our analysis indicates that the Abraham-Minkowski controversy has its root in the Roentgen interaction of the electromagnetic field in dielectric media.
Quantum Electrodynamics of Casimir Momentum: Momentum of the Quantum Vacuum?
Sebastien Kawka; Bart Van Tiggelen
2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
The electromagnetic vacuum is known to have energy. It has been recently argued that the quantum vacuum can possess momentum, that adds up to the momentum of matter. This ``Casimir momentum'' is closely related to the Casimir effect, in which case energy is exchanged. In previous theory it was treated semi-classically. We present a non-relativistic quantum theory for the linear momentum of electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations, considering an harmonic oscillator subject to crossed, quasi-static magnetic and electric and coupled to the quantum vacuum. We derive a contribution of the quantum vacuum to the linear pseudo-momentum and give a new estimate for the achievable speed. Our analysis show that the effect exists and that it is finite.
COVER IMAGE How quantum many-body systems
Loss, Daniel
the dynamics of strongly correlated cold atoms with theoretical analysis now provides quantitative insight established for spin-Â½ particles. Now an elegant demonstration of squeezing in spin-1 condensates generalizes. Pfleiderer, K. Everschor, M. Garst and A. Rosch 305 Spin-nematic squeezed vacuum in a quantum gas C. D
Experimental Realization of Quantum-Resonance Ratchets
I. Dana; V. Ramareddy; I. Talukdar; G. S. Summy
2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum-resonance ratchets associated with the periodically kicked particle are experimentally realized for the first time. This is achieved by using a Bose-Einstein condensate exposed to a pulsed standing light wave and prepared in an initial state differing from the usual plane wave. Both the standing-wave potential and the initial state have a point symmetry around some center and the ratchet arises from the non-coincidence of the two centers. The dependence of the directed quantum transport on the quasimomentum is studied. A detailed theoretical analysis is used to explain the experimental results.
Holographic superconductor with multiple competing condensates
Grabowska, Dorota M
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Holography is a novel approach to modeling strongly interacting many-body systems. By reorganizing the quantum many-body problem into an equivalent problem in classical gravity, holography makes it relatively easy, for ...
8.04 Quantum Physics I, Spring 2003
Lee, Young S.
Experimental basis of quantum physics: photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, photons, Franck-Hertz experiment, the Bohr atom, electron diffraction, deBroglie waves, and wave-particle duality of matter and light. ...
A Kinetic Theory Approach to Quantum Gravity
B. L. Hu
2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a kinetic theory approach to quantum gravity -- by which we mean a theory of the microscopic structure of spacetime, not a theory obtained by quantizing general relativity. A figurative conception of this program is like building a ladder with two knotted poles: quantum matter field on the right and spacetime on the left. Each rung connecting the corresponding knots represent a distinct level of structure. The lowest rung is hydrodynamics and general relativity; the next rung is semiclassical gravity, with the expectation value of quantum fields acting as source in the semiclassical Einstein equation. We recall how ideas from the statistical mechanics of interacting quantum fields helped us identify the existence of noise in the matter field and its effect on metric fluctuations, leading to the establishment of the third rung: stochastic gravity, described by the Einstein-Langevin equation. Our pathway from stochastic to quantum gravity is via the correlation hierarchy of noise and induced metric fluctuations. Three essential tasks beckon: 1) Deduce the correlations of metric fluctuations from correlation noise in the matter field; 2) Reconstituting quantum coherence -- this is the reverse of decoherence -- from these correlation functions 3) Use the Boltzmann-Langevin equations to identify distinct collective variables depicting recognizable metastable structures in the kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes of quantum matter fields and how they demand of their corresponding spacetime counterparts. This will give us a hierarchy of generalized stochastic equations -- call them the Boltzmann-Einstein hierarchy of quantum gravity -- for each level of spacetime structure, from the macroscopic (general relativity) through the mesoscopic (stochastic gravity) to the microscopic (quantum gravity).
Ronnie Kosloff
2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations. We claim that inconsistency is the result of faulty analysis pointing to flaws in approximations.