Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL
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Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...
Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...
Color Glass Condensates in dense quark matter and quantum Hall states of gluons
Aiichi Iwazaki
2006-04-26
We apply the effective theory of color glass condensate to the analysis of gluon states in dense quark matter, in which the saturation region of gluons is also present. We find that in the region two point function of gluons shows algebraic long range order. The order is completely the same as the one gluons show in the dense quark matter, which form quantum Hall states. The order leads to the vanishing of massless gluon pole. We also find that the saturation region of gluons extends from small $x$ to even large $x\\lesssim 1$ in much dense quark matter. We point out a universality that the color glass condensate is a property of hadrons at high energy and of quark matter at high baryon density.
Quantum-Based Theories of Condensed Matter Emily A. Carter
Simons, Jack
, 2005 "Stainless steel optimization from DFT", Vitos et al., Nature: materials, 2002 "Interface between & Spin-Dependent Pseudopotential Theory for Open-Shell and Magnetic Systems - Materials Applications - Quantum-Based Multiscale Modeling of Materials For talk #1, thanks to: Dr. Vincent Cocula (COMSOL, Inc
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Aguirre, Anthony
2015-01-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...
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Condensed Matter and Magnet Science
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helimagnets and the development of a cryogen-free apparatus for spherical neutron polarimetry." Read more... Cutting-edge condensed matter physics research, high magnetic field...
Xavier Busch
2014-11-06
The two main predictions of quantum field theory in curved space-time, namely Hawking radiation and cosmological pair production, have not been directly tested and involve ultra high energy configurations. As a consequence, they should be considered with caution. Using the analogy with condensed matter systems, their analogue versions could be tested in the lab. Moreover, the high energy behavior of these systems is known and involves dispersion and dissipation, which regulate the theory at short distances. When considering experiments which aim to test the above predictions, there will also be a competition between the stimulated emission from thermal noise and the spontaneous emission out of vacuum. In order to measure these effects, one should thus compute the consequences of UV dispersion and dissipation, and identify observables able to establish that the spontaneous emission took place. In this thesis, we first analyze the effects of dispersion and dissipation on both Hawking radiation and pair particle production. To get explicit results, we work in the context of de Sitter space. Using the extended symmetries of the theory in such a background, exact results are obtained. These are then transposed to the context of black holes using the correspondence between de Sitter space and the black hole near horizon region. To introduce dissipation, we consider an exactly solvable model producing any decay rate. We also study the quantum entanglement of the particles so produced. In a second part, we consider explicit condensed matter systems, namely Bose Einstein condensates and exciton-polariton systems. We analyze the effects of dissipation on entanglement produced by the dynamical Casimir effect. As a final step, we study the entanglement of Hawking radiation in the presence of dispersion for a generic analogue system.
Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter
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Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...
Chiral condensate in neutron matter
N. Kaiser; W. Weise
2008-08-06
A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.
Aspects of symmetry, topology and anomalies in quantum matter
Wang, Juven Chun-Fan
2015-01-01
To understand the new physics and richness of quantum many-body system phenomena is one of the stimuli driving the condensed matter community forward. Importantly, the new insights and solutions for condensed matter theory ...
Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter KISHORE T. KAPALE
Allen, Roland E.
Bose-Einstein Condensate: A New state of matter KISHORE T. KAPALE June 24, 2003 #12;BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE: A NEW STATE OF MATTER 1 Outline ˇ Introductory Concepts Bosons and Fermions Classical and Quantum Statistics Intuitive picture of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) Statistical mechanics of BECs Experimental
Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter
Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir
2013-11-01
In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.
Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter
A. Sedrakian
2001-01-03
We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into separate branches is due to the finite momentum of the condensate, the isospin asymmetry, or the finite quasiparticle lifetime. The coupling of the isospin singlet and triplet paired states leads to further twofold splitting of each of these branches. We solve the gap equation numerically in the isospin singlet channel in the case where the pairing in the isospin triplet channel is neglected and find nontrivial solutions with finite total momentum of the pairs. The corresponding phase assumes a periodic spatial structure which carries a isospin density wave at constant total number of particles. The phase transition from the BCS to the inhomogeneous superconducting phase is found to be first order and occurs when the density asymmetry is increased above 0.25. The transition from the inhomogeneous superconducting to the unpaired normal state is second order. The maximal values of the critical total momentum (in units of the Fermi momentum) and the critical density asymmetry at which condensate disappears are $P_c/p_F = 0.3$ and $\\alpha_c = 0.41$. The possible spatial forms of the ground state of the inhomogeneous superconducting phase are briefly discussed.
Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY...
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Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND...
Bose Einstein Condensation as Dark Energy and Dark Matter
Masako Nishiyama; Masa-aki Morita; Masahiro Morikawa
2004-03-24
We study a cosmological model in which the boson dark matter gradually condensates into dark energy. Negative pressure associated with the condensate yields the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the rapid collapse of the smallest scale fluctuations into many black holes, which become the seeds of the first galaxies. The cycle of gradual sedimentation and rapid collapse of condensate repeats many times and self-regularizes the ratio of dark energy and dark matter to be order one.
Condensed matter lessons about the origin of time
Gil Jannes
2015-05-13
It is widely hoped that quantum gravity will shed light on the question of the origin of time in physics. The currently dominant approaches to a candidate quantum theory of gravity have naturally evolved from general relativity, on the one hand, and from particle physics, on the other hand. A third important branch of 20th century `fundamental' physics, condensed-matter physics, also offers an interesting perspective on quantum gravity, and thereby on the problem of time. The bottomline might sound disappointing: to understand the origin of time, much more experimental input is needed than what is available today. Moreover it is far from obvious that we will ever find out the true origin of physical time, even if we become able to directly probe physics at the Planck scale. But we might learn some interesting lessons about time and the structure of our universe in the process. A first lesson is that there are probably several characteristic scales associated with "quantum gravity" effects, rather than the single Planck scale usually considered. These can differ by several orders of magnitude, and thereby conspire to hide certain effects expected from quantum gravity, rendering them undetectable even with Planck-scale experiments. A more tentative conclusion is that the hierarchy between general relativity, special relativity and Newtonian physics, usually taken for granted, might have to be interpreted with caution.
Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter
K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce
2006-10-10
We study the bound nucleon sigma term and the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative, i.e., it decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar $\\sigma$ field. Compared to the leading term, it moderates the decrease more than that of the nuclear sigma term alone at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.
On the Condensed Matter Analog of Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory
Bruegger, C.; Moser, M.; Wiese, U.-J.; Hofmann, C. P.; Kaempfer, F.; Pepe, M.
2009-04-20
It is shown that baryon chiral perturbation theory, i.e., the low-energy effective theory for pions and nucleons in quantum chromodynamics, has its condensed matter analog: A low-energy effective theory describing magnons as well as holes (or electrons) doped into antiferromagnets. We briefly present a symmetry analysis of the Hubbard and t-J-type models, and review the construction of the leading terms in the effective Lagrangian. As a nontrivial application we study different phases of hole- and electron-doped antiferromagnets--in particular, we investigate whether a so-called spiral phase with an inhomogeneous staggered magnetization (order parameter) may be stable. We would like to emphasize that the effective theory is universal and makes model-independent predictions for a large class of systems, whereas the material-specific properties enter the effective theory only through the numerical values of a few low-energy parameters.
Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter
Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville
2015-02-18
We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.
Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter
Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene
2010-01-01
This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...
Surface Tension between Kaon Condensate and Normal Nuclear Matter Phase
Michael B. Christiansen; Norman K. Glendenning; Jurgen Schaffner-Bielich
2000-03-20
We calculate for the first time the surface tension and curvature coefficient of a first order phase transition between two possible phases of cold nuclear matter, a normal nuclear matter phase in equilibrium with a kaon condensed phase, at densities a few times the saturation density. We find the surface tension is proportional to the difference in energy density between the two phases squared. Furthermore, we show the consequences for the geometrical structures of the mixed phase region in a neutron star.
Quantum vacuum and dark matter
Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic
2011-11-21
Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Dark Matter Axions
P. Sikivie; Q. Yang
2009-09-02
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.
Yang-Mills condensate dark energy coupled with matter and radiation
Y. Zhang; T. Y. Xia; W. Zhao
2006-09-26
The coincidence problem is studied for the dark energy model of effective Yang-Mills condensate in a flat expanding universe during the matter-dominated stage. The YMC energy $\\rho_y(t)$ is taken to represent the dark energy, which is coupled either with the matter, or with both the matter and the radiation components. The effective YM Lagrangian is completely determined by quantum field theory up to 1-loop order. It is found that under very generic initial conditions and for a variety of forms of coupling, the existence of the scaling solution during the early stages and the subsequent exit from the scaling regime are inevitable. The transition to the accelerating stage always occurs around a redshift $z\\simeq (0.3\\sim 0.5)$. Moreover, when the Yang-Mills condensate transfers energy into matter or into both matter and radiation, the equation of state $w_y$ of the Yang-Mills condensate can cross over -1 around $z\\sim 2$, and takes on a current value $\\simeq -1.1$. This is consistent with the recent preliminary observations on supernovae Ia. Therefore, the coincidence problem can be naturally solved in the effective YMC dark energy models.
NUCLEAR ASPECTS OF CONDENSED-MATTER NANOSYSTEMS
Yannouleas, Constantine
. Ekardt (John-Wiley, New York, 1999) Ch. 4, p. 145; [3] C. Yannouleas and U. Landman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70 an improvement compared to the use of Thomas-Fermi gradient expansions for the kinetic energy density functional Landau level [5], which are an alternative to the fractional-quantum-Hall-effect (FQHE) composite
Possible Bose-condensate Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating...
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Possible Bose-condensate Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating in a Collective Excitation in the Chemically and Optically Doped Mott-Hubbard System UO2+x Citation Details...
Measuring entanglement in condensed matter systems
M. Cramer; M. B. Plenio; H. Wunderlich
2010-09-15
We show how entanglement may be quantified in spin and cold atom many-body systems using standard experimental techniques only. The scheme requires no assumptions on the state in the laboratory and a lower bound to the entanglement can be read off directly from the scattering cross section of Neutrons deflected from solid state samples or the time-of-flight distribution of cold atoms in optical lattices, respectively. This removes a major obstacle which so far has prevented the direct and quantitative experimental study of genuine quantum correlations in many-body systems: The need for a full characterization of the state to quantify the entanglement contained in it. Instead, the scheme presented here relies solely on global measurements that are routinely performed and is versatile enough to accommodate systems and measurements different from the ones we exemplify in this work.
Greenaway, Alan
Strategy for SUPA Condensed Matter and Material Physics Theme, 2012 Introduction Condensed Matter optics Energy/Photonics: photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and fuel-cells PALS: statistical mechanics the best students who are available on the UK, European, and world-wide markets. With this in mind
Characteristic Size and Mass of Galaxies in the Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Model
Lee, Jae-Weon
2015-01-01
We study an inherent length scale of galactic halos in the Bose-Einstein condensate (or scalar field) dark matter model. Considering evolution of the density perturbation we show that the average background matter density determines a quantum Jeans mass and hence the spatial size of galaxies. In this model the minimum size of galaxies increases, while the minimum mass of the galaxies decreases as the universe evolves. The observed values of the mass and the size of the dwarf galaxies are successfully reproduced with the dark matter particle mass $m\\simeq 5\\times 10^{-22}eV$. The rotation velocity of dwarf galaxies is $O(\\sqrt{H/m}$) c, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter. We also suggest that ultra compact dwarf galaxies are remnants of dwarf galaxies formed in the early universe.
Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr
2007-01-01
Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...
Correlation functions for a di-neutron condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter
A. A. Isayev
2008-07-10
Recent calculations with an effective isospin dependent contact interaction show the possibility of the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in $^1S_0$ pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron bound states in dilute nuclear matter. The density and spin correlation functions are calculated for a di-neutron condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter with the aim to find the possible features of the BCS-BEC crossover. It is shown that the zero-momentum transfer spin correlation function satisfies the sum rule at zero temperature. In symmetric nuclear matter, the density correlation function changes sign at low momentum transfer across the BCS-BEC transition and this feature can be considered as a signature of the crossover. At finite isospin asymmetry, this criterion gives too large value for the critical asymmetry $\\alpha_c^d\\sim0.9$, at which the BEC state is quenched. Therefore, it can be trusted for the description of the density-driven BCS-BEC crossover of neutron pairs only at small isospin asymmetry. This result generalizes the conclusion of the study in Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 95}, 090402 (2005), where the change of sign of the density correlation function at low momentum transfer in two-component quantum fermionic atomic gas with the balanced populations of fermions of different species was considered as an unambiguous signature of the BCS-BEC transition.
Atomic quantum corrals for Bose-Einstein condensates
Xiong Hongwei [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu Biao [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); International Center for Quantum Materials, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2010-11-15
We consider the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in a corral-like potential. Compared to the electronic quantum corrals, the atomic quantum corrals have the advantages of allowing direct and convenient observation of the wave dynamics, together with adjustable interaction strength. Our numerical study shows that these advantages not only allow exploration of the rich dynamical structures in the density distribution but also make the corrals useful in many other aspects. In particular, the corrals for atoms can be arranged into a stadium shape for the experimental visualization of quantum chaos, which has been elusive with electronic quantum corrals. The density correlation is used to describe quantitatively the dynamical quantum chaos. Furthermore, we find that the interatomic interaction can greatly enhance the dynamical quantum chaos, for example, inducing a chaotic behavior even in circle-shaped corrals.
Genesis of electroweak and dark matter scales from a bilinear scalar condensate
Jisuke Kubo; Masatoshi Yamada
2015-05-22
The condensation of scalar bilinear in a classically scale invariant strongly interacting hidden sector is used to generate electroweak scale, where the excitation of the condensate is identified as dark matter. We formulate an effective theory for the condensation of scalar bilinear and find in the self-consistent mean field approximation that the dark matter mass is of $O(1)$ TeV with the spin-independent elastic cross section off the nucleon slightly below the LUX upper bound.
A Topological Framework for Local Structure Analysis in Condensed Matter
Lazar, Emanuel A; Srolovitz, David J
2015-01-01
Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect, as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural analysis than continuous d...
Condensation of Anyons in Frustrated Quantum Magnets
Cristian D. Batista; Rolando D. Somma
2012-08-12
We derive the exact ground space of a family of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains with uniaxial exchange anisotropy (XXZ) and interactions between nearest and next-nearest-neighbor spins. The Hamiltonian family, H(Q), is parametrized by a single variable Q. By using a generalized Jordan-Wigner transformation that maps spins into anyons, we show that the exact ground states of H(Q) correspond to a condensation of anyons with statistical phase phi=-4Q. We also provide matrix-product state representations of some ground states that allow for the efficient computation of spin-spin correlation functions.
??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates : machine construction and quantum Zeno experiments
Streed, Erik William
2006-01-01
This thesis details construction of a new apparatus for the production of 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates and a subsequent quantum Zeno effect experiment. An experimental apparatus for producing large Bose-Einstein condensates ...
Optical, electronic, and dynamical phenomena in the shock compression of condensed matter
Reed, Evan J. (Evan John), 1976-
2003-01-01
Despite the study of shock wave compression of condensed matter for over 100 years, scant progress has been made in understanding the microscopic details. This thesis explores microscopic phenomena in shock compression of ...
Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable helium for quantum correlation experiments
Michael Keller; Mateusz Kotyrba; Florian Leupold; Mandip Singh; Maximilian Ebner; Anton Zeilinger
2015-01-05
We report on the realization of Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium-4. After exciting helium to its metastable state in a novel pulse-tube cryostat source, the atomic beam is collimated and slowed. We then trap several 10^8 atoms in a magneto-optical trap. For subsequent evaporative cooling, the atoms are transferred into a magnetic trap. Degeneracy is achieved with typically a few 10^6 atoms. For detection of atomic correlations with high resolution, an ultrafast delay-line detector has been installed. Consisting of four quadrants with independent readout electronics that allow for true simultaneous detection of atoms, the detector is especially suited for quantum correlation experiments that require the detection of correlated subsystems. We expect our setup to allow for the direct demonstration of momentum entanglement in a scenario equivalent to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment. This will pave the way to matter-wave experiments exploiting the peculiarities of quantum correlations.
Interaction-induced quantum ratchet in a Bose-Einstein condensate Dario Poletti,1
Li, Baowen
Interaction-induced quantum ratchet in a Bose-Einstein condensate Dario Poletti,1 Giuliano Benenti August 2007 We study the dynamics of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a toroidal trap condensates BECs of dilute gases has opened new opportunities for the study of dynamical systems in the pres
Entropy of isolated horizons from quantum gravity condensates
Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2015-01-01
We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of an isolated horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e. without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits an holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the isolated horizon boundary conditions and semi-classical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein--Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one.
Schmidt, Matthias
2008-01-01
IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 (2008) 494237 (10 OX1 3NP, UK 5 Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department III, Kasprzaka contributed greatly to the emerging understanding of dynamic phenomena in condensed matter. Examples include
Y. Funaki; H. Horiuchi; G. Röpke; P. Schuck; A. Tohsaki; T. Yamada
2008-01-21
At low densities, with decreasing temperatures, in symmetric nuclear matter alpha-particles are formed, which eventually give raise to a quantum condensate with four-nucleon alpha-like correlations (quartetting). Starting with a model of alpha-matter, where undistorted alpha particles interact via an effective interaction such as the Ali-Bodmer potential, the suppression of the condensate fraction at zero temperature with increasing density is considered. Using a Jastrow-Feenberg approach, it is found that the condensate fraction vanishes near saturation density. Additionally, the modification of the internal state of the alpha particle due to medium effects will further reduce the condensate. In finite systems, an enhancement of the S state wave function of the c.o.m. orbital of alpha particle motion is considered as the correspondence to the condensate. Wave functions have been constructed for self-conjugate 4n nuclei which describe the condensate state, but are fully antisymmetrized on the nucleonic level. These condensate-like cluster wave functions have been successfully applied to describe properties of low-density states near the n alpha threshold. Comparison with OCM calculations in 12C and 16O shows strong enhancement of the occupation of the S-state c.o.m. orbital of the alpha-particles. This enhancement is decreasing if the baryon density increases, similar to the density-induced suppression of the condensate fraction in alpha matter. The ground states of 12C and 16O show no enhancement at all, thus a quartetting condensate cannot be formed at saturation densities.
Novel ground states of Bose-condensed gases
Abo-Shaeer, Jamil R
2005-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) provide a novel tool for the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena and condensed matter systems. Two of the recent frontiers, quantized vortices and ultracold molecules, are the subject of ...
Radiation to atom quantum mapping by collective recoil in a BoseEinstein condensate
Paris, Matteo G. A.
Radiation to atom quantum mapping by collective recoil in a BoseEinstein condensate Matteo G a scheme to realize radiation to atom continuous variable quantum mapping, i.e., to teleport the quantum a novel scheme to realize radiation to atom quantum state mapping, Optics Communications 227 (2003) 349
Cascading Quantum Light-Matter Interfaces
Mehdi Namazi; Thomas Mittiga; Connor Kupchak; Eden Figueroa
2015-03-10
The ability to interface multiple optical quantum devices is a key milestone towards the development of future quantum networks that are capable of sharing and processing quantum information encoded in light. One of the requirements for any node of these quantum networks will be cascadability, i.e. the ability to drive the input of a node using the output of another node. Here, we report the cascading of quantum light-matter interfaces by storing few-photon level pulses of light in warm vapor followed by the subsequent storage of the retrieved field onto a second ensemble. We demonstrate that even after the sequential storage, the final signal-to-background ratio can remain greater than 1 for weak pulses containing 8 input photons on average.
Byer, Robert L.
2003-01-01
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15 in the form of 0.5 mm thick single-crystal polished wafers of area 1 cm2 , cut out perpendicularly
Gallas, Márcia Russman
2005-01-01
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 Mendes Filho2 and J Hanuza1,5 1 Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy
Vińa, Luis
2007-01-01
IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 295204 (30. 180 D-01099, Dresden, Germany. 2 Present address: Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences years, this possibility of achieving a polariton condensation at the bottom of the dispersion relation
Condensed Matter Physics, 2012, Vol. 15, No 4, 47101: 18 DOI: 10.5488/CMP.15.47101
Condensed Matter Physics, 2012, Vol. 15, No 4, 47101: 1Â8 DOI: 10.5488/CMP.15.47101 http Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St in Ukrainian. The backside contains the year (1904) and the names written by ink either in Polish
Quantum Simulations for Dense Matter
Ceperley, David M
2010-06-07
High pressure systems are important, for example, to understand the interiors of giant planets (Jupiter and Saturn), for experiments at NIF (the National Ignition Facility at Livermore) related to inertially confined fusion and for other interests of DOE. In this project, we are developing innovative simulation methods (Quantum Monte Carlo methods) to allow more accurate calculation of properties of systems under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These methods can use the power of current day supercomputers made of very many processors, starting from the basic equations of physics to model quantum phenomena important at the microscopic scale. During the grant period, we have settled two important questions of the physics of hydrogen and helium under extreme conditions. We have found the pressures and temperatures when hydrogen and helium mix together; this is important to understand the difference of the interiors of the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Secondly, we have shown that there exists a sharp transition as a function of pressure between molecular and atomic liquid hydrogen at temperatures below 2000K. This prediction can be confirmed with high pressure experiments.
Alex Kaivarainen
2000-03-31
1. Theoretical background for macroscopic oscillations in condensed matter; 2. The hypothesis of [entropy - mass - time] interrelation; 3. The entropy - information content of matter as a hierarchic system; 4. Experimentally revealed macroscopic oscillations; 5. Phenomena in water and aqueous systems, induced by magnetic field: Coherent radio-frequency oscillations in water, revealed by C. Smith; 6. Influence of weak magnetic field on the properties of solid bodies; 7. Possible mechanism of perturbations of nonmagnetic materials under magnetic treatment.
Galaxy phase-space density data exclude Bose-Einstein condensate Axion Dark Matter
H. J. de Vega; N. G. Sanchez
2014-11-18
Light scalars (as the axion) with mass m ~ 10^{-22} eV forming a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) exhibit a Jeans length in the kpc scale and were therefore proposed as dark matter (DM) candidates. Our treatment here is generic, independent of the particle physics model and applies to all DM BEC, in or out of equilibrium. Two observed quantities crucially constrain DM in an inescapable way: the average DM density rho_{DM} and the phase-space density Q. The observed values of rho_{DM} and Q in galaxies today constrain both the possibility to form a BEC and the DM mass m. These two constraints robustly exclude axion DM that decouples just after the QCD phase transition. Moreover, the value m ~ 10^{-22} eV can only be obtained with a number of ultrarelativistic degrees of freedom at decoupling in the trillions which is impossible for decoupling in the radiation dominated era. In addition, we find for the axion vacuum misalignment scenario that axions are produced strongly out of thermal equilibrium and that the axion mass in such scenario turns to be 17 orders of magnitude too large to reproduce the observed galactic structures. Moreover, we also consider inhomogenous gravitationally bounded BEC's supported by the bosonic quantum pressure independently of any particular particle physics scenario. For a typical size R ~ kpc and compact object masses M ~ 10^7 Msun they remarkably lead to the same particle mass m ~ 10^{-22} eV as the BEC free-streaming length. However, the phase-space density for the gravitationally bounded BEC's turns to be more than sixty orders of magnitude smaller than the galaxy observed values. We conclude that the BEC's and the axion cannot be the DM particle. However, an axion in the mili-eV scale may be a relevant source of dark energy through the zero point cosmological quantum fluctuations.
Condensed matter physics IFF Scientific Report 2009 Phase change memory materials: an
Condensed matter physics ˇ IFF Scientific Report 2009 6464 Phase change memory materials: an update supercomputers. Phase change (PC) materials are familiar to us all as rewritable media (CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD.70Te0.30) are also in common use, particularly in DVD-RW systems. We discuss alloys from both
Saskatchewan, University of
radiation to study new materials. The goal is the understanding of the electronic structure in orderThe Beamteam The Materials Research Group in Condensed Matter Physics at the University to design materials with novel electronic, optical, magnetic, photochemical and catalytic properties
Dynamics of quantum-classical hybrid systems: Effect of matter-wave pressure
Shen, J. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, X. L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H. [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)
2010-12-15
Radiation pressure affects the kinetics of a system exposed to radiation and it constitutes the basis of laser cooling. In this article, we study matter-wave pressure through examining the dynamics of a quantum-classical hybrid system. The quantum and classical subsystems are affected mutually via a changing boundary condition. Two systems, that is, an atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), are considered as the quantum subsystems, while an oscillating wall is taken as the classical subsystem. We show that the classical subsystem would experience a force proportional to Q{sup -3} from the quantum atom, where Q denotes the distance between the two walls, whereas it acquires an additional force proportional to Q{sup -2} from the BEC due to the atom-atom interaction in the BEC. These forces can be understood as the matter-wave pressure.
Cheng, Yuan-Chung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2006-01-01
In this thesis, we develop analytical models for quantum systems and perform theoretical investigations on several dynamical processes in condensed phases. First, we study charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular ...
Theory of the colossal Van-der-Waals binding in soft and hard condensed matter
Mladen Georgiev; Alexander Gochev; Jai Singh
2005-10-12
A simple theory is proposed for the dispersive molecular binding of unusually high magnitude due to an enhanced polarizability. Two alternative ways have so far been considered in the literature leading to the polarizability enhancement: (i) a vibronic energy level gap narrowing, as proposed by us with regard to a hypothetical exciton matter, and (ii) a giant electric dipole in a Rydberg state of constituent atoms, as proposed by Gilman with regard to an enigmatic substance building the ball lightning. We now combine the two mechanisms to obtain concrete expressions for the colossal binding energy. The problem is exemplified for a three-level system coupled to the umbrella mode of an ammonia molecule. Other possibilities for the design of enhanced-polarizability molecules are also discussed. The colossal Van-der-Waals binding is most likely to materialize in hard condensed matter and perhaps less so in soft condensed matter.
Nuclear condensation and the equation of state of nuclear matter
J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar
2007-10-01
The isothermal compression of a dilute nucleonic gas invoking cluster degrees of freedom is studied in an equilibrium statistical model; this clusterized system is found to be more stable than the pure nucleonic system. The equation of state (EoS) of this matter shows features qualitatively very similar to the one obtained from pure nucleonic gas. In the isothermal compression process, there is a sudden enhancement of clusterization at a transition density rendering features analogous to the gas-liquid phase transition in normal dilute nucleonic matter. Different observables like the caloric curves, heat capacity, isospin distillation, etc. are studied in both the models. Possible changes in the observables due to recently indicated medium modifications in the symmetry energy are also investigated.
Quantum Corrections in Galileons from Matter Loops
Lavinia Heisenberg
2014-10-09
Galileon interactions represent a class of effective field theories that have received much attention since their inception. They can be treated in their own right as scalar field theories with a specific global shift and Galilean symmetry or as a descendant of a more fundamental theory like massive gravity. It is well known that the Galileon theories are stable under quantum corrections thanks to the non-renormalization theorem which is not due to the symmetry. We consider different covariant couplings of this Galileon scalar field with the matter field: the conformal coupling, the disformal coupling and the longitudinal coupling. We compute the one-loop quantum corrections to the Galileon interactions from the coupling to the external matter fields. In all the considered cases of covariant couplings we show that the terms generated by one-loop matter corrections not only renormalize the Galileon interactions but also give rise to higher order derivative ghost interactions. However, the renormalized version of the Galileon interactions as well as the new interactions come at a scale suppressed by the original classical coupling scale and hence are harmless within the regime of validity of the effective field theory.
Entanglement, Holography, and the Quantum Phases of Matter Sachdev...
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Matter Sachdev, Subir Harvard University 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS Electrons in many interesting materials, such as the high temperature...
Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter
Kuschewski, Frederik; Green, Bert; Bauer, Christian; Gensch, Michael; Eng, Lukas M
2015-01-01
Recently, the fundamental and nanoscale understanding of complex phenomena in materials research and the life sciences, witnessed considerable progress. However, elucidating the underlying mechanisms, governed by entangled degrees of freedom such as lattice, spin, orbit, and charge for solids or conformation, electric potentials, and ligands for proteins, has remained challenging. Techniques that allow for distinguishing between different contributions to these processes are hence urgently required. In this paper we demonstrate the application of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) as a novel type of nano-probe for tracking transient states of matter. We introduce a sideband-demodulation technique that allows for probing exclusively the stimuli-induced change of near-field optical properties. We exemplify this development by inspecting the decay of an electron-hole plasma generated in SiGe thin films through near-infrared laser pulses. Our approach can universally be applied to opt...
Complex Langevin simulation of quantum vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Tomoya Hayata; Arata Yamamoto
2015-11-04
The ab-initio simulation of quantum vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate is performed by adopting the complex Langevin techniques. We simulate the nonrelativistic boson field theory at finite chemical potential under rotation. In the superfluid phase, vortices are generated above a critical angular velocity and the circulation is clearly quantized even in the presence of quantum fluctuations.
Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation: a model beyond Cold Dark Matter
Yang, Q
2010-01-01
Cold dark matter axions form a Bose-Einstein condensate if the axions thermalize. Recently, it was found that they do thermalize when the photon temperature reaches T ~ 100 eV(f/10^12GeV)^1/2 and that they continue to do so thereafter. We discuss the differences between axion BEC and CDM in the linear regime and the non-linear regime of evolution of density perturbations. We find that axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multi-poles.
Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation: a model beyond Cold Dark Matter
Q. Yang
2010-04-15
Cold dark matter axions form a Bose-Einstein condensate if the axions thermalize. Recently, it was found that they do thermalize when the photon temperature reaches T ~ 100 eV(f/10^12GeV)^1/2 and that they continue to do so thereafter. We discuss the differences between axion BEC and CDM in the linear regime and the non-linear regime of evolution of density perturbations. We find that axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multi-poles.
Superfluid states with moving condensate in nuclear matter
A. A. Isayev
2001-09-17
Superfluid states of symmetric nuclear matter with finite total momentum of Cooper pairs (nuclear LOFF phase) are studied with the use of Fermi-liquid theory in the model with Skyrme effective forces. It is considered the case of four-fold splitting of the excitation spectrum due to finite superfluid momentum and coupling of T=0 and T=1 pairing channels. It has been shown that at zero temperature the energy gap in triplet-singlet (TS) pairing channel (in spin and isospin spaces) for the SkM$^*$ force demonstrates double-valued behavior as a function of superfluid momentum. As a consequence, the phase transition at the critical superfluid momentum from the LOFF phase to the normal state will be of a first order. Behavior of the energy gap as a function of density for TS pairing channel under increase of superfluid momentum changes from one-valued to universal two-valued. It is shown that two-gap solutions, describing superposition of states with singlet-triplet (ST) and TS pairing of nucleons appear as a result of branching from one-gap ST solution. Comparison of the free energies shows that the state with TS pairing of nucleons is thermodynamically most preferable.
Lattice Gauge Theory for Condensed Matter Physics: Ferromagnetic Superconductivity as its Example
Ikuo Ichinose; Tetsuo Matsui
2014-09-07
Recent theoretical studies of various strongly-correlated systems in condensed matter physics reveal that the lattice gauge theory(LGT) developed in high-energy physics is quite a useful tool to understand physics of these systems. Knowledges of LGT are to become a necessary item even for condensed matter physicists. In the first part of this paper, we present a concise review of LGT for the reader who wants to understand its basics for the first time. For illustration, we choose the abelian Higgs model, a typical and quite useful LGT, which is the lattice verison of the Ginzburg-Landau model interacting with a U(1) gauge field (vector potential). In the second part, we present an account of the recent progress in the study of ferromagnetic superconductivity (SC) as an example of application of LGT to topics in condensed matter physics, . As the ferromagnetism (FM) and SC are competing orders with each other, large fluctuations are expected to take place and therefore nonperturbative methods are required for theoretical investigation. After we introduce a LGT describing the FMSC, we study its phase diagram and topological excitations (vortices of Cooper pairs) by Monte-Carlo simulations.
Condensed Matter Physics 2011, Vol. 14, No 1, 13601: 112 DOI:10.5488/CMP.14.13601
Condensed Matter Physics 2011, Vol. 14, No 1, 13601: 1Â12 DOI:10.5488/CMP.14.13601 httpÂ´an 04510, MÂ´exico 2 Department of Physical Chemistry of Porous Materials, Institute of Agrophysics Polish
Condensed Matter Physics 2011, Vol. 14, No 1, 13601: 1--12 DOI:10.5488/CMP.14.13601
Condensed Matter Physics 2011, Vol. 14, No 1, 13601: 1--12 DOI:10.5488/CMP.14.13601 http â?? an 04510, M â?? exico 2 Department of Physical Chemistry of Porous Materials, Institute of Agrophysics Polish
Alexey Novikov; Mikhail Ovchinnikov
2008-05-27
In this paper we considered a quantum particle moving through delute Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature. In our formulation the impurity particle interacts with the gas of uncoupled Bogoliubov's excitations. We constructed the perturbation theory for the Green's function of the impurity particle with respect to the impurity-condensate interaction employing the coherent-state path integral approach. The perturbative expansion for the Green's function is resumed into the expansion for its poles with the help of the diagrammatic technique developed in this work. The dispersion relation for the impurity clothed by condensate excitations is obtained and effective mass is evaluated beyond the Golden rule approximation.
Quantum radiations from exciton condensate in Electron-Hole Bilayer Systems
Jinwu Ye; T. Shi; Longhua Jiang; C. P. Sun
2009-07-10
Superfluid has been realized in Helium-4, Helium-3 and ultra-cold atoms. It has been widely used in making high-precision devices and also in cooling various systems. There have been extensive experimental search for possible exciton superfluid (ESF) in semiconductor electron-hole bilayer (EHBL) systems below liquid Helium temperature. However, exciton superfluid are meta-stable and will eventually decay through emitting photons. Here we study quantum nature of photons emitted from the excitonic superfluid (ESF) phase in the semiconductor EHBL and find that the light emitted from the excitonic superfluid has unique and unusual features not shared by any other atomic or condensed matter systems. We show that the emitted photons along the direction perpendicular to the layer are in a coherent state, those along all tilted directions are in a two modes squeezed state. We determine the two mode squeezing spectra, the angle resolved power spectrum, the line shapes of both the momentum distribution curve (MDC) and the energy distribution curve (EDC). From the two photon correlation functions, we find there are photon bunching, the photo-count statistics is super-Poissonian. We discuss how several important parameters such as the chemical potential, the exciton decay rate, the quasiparticle energy spectrum and the dipole-dipole interaction strength between the excitons in our theory can be extracted from the experimental data and comment on available experimental data on both EDC and MDC.
Radiation to atom quantum mapping by collective recoil in Bose-Einstein condensate
Matteo G. A. Paris; Mary Cola; Nicola Piovella; Rodolfo Bonifacio
2003-02-20
We propose an experiment to realize radiation to atom continuous variable quantum mapping, i.e. to teleport the quantum state of a single mode radiation field onto the collective state of atoms with a given momentum out of a Bose-Einstein condensate. The atoms-radiation entanglement needed for the teleportation protocol is established through the interaction of a single mode with the condensate in presence of a strong far off-resonant pump laser, whereas the coherent atomic displacement is obtained by the same interaction with the radiation in a classical coherent field. In principle, verification of the protocol requires a joint measurement on the recoiling atoms and the condensate, however, a partial verification involving populations, i.e. diagonal matrix elements may be obtained through counting atoms experiments.
Oshmyansky, A
2007-01-01
An alternative quantum field theory for gravity is proposed for low energies based on an attractive effect between contaminants in a Bose-Einstein Condensate rather than on particle exchange. In the ``contaminant in condensate effect," contaminants cause a potential in an otherwise uniform condensate, forcing the condensate between two contaminants to a higher energy state. The energy of the system decreases as the contaminants come closer together, causing an attractive force between contaminants. It is proposed that mass-energy may have a similar effect on Einstein's space-time field, and gravity is quantized by the same method by which the contaminant in condensate effect is quantized. The resulting theory is finite and, if a physical condensate is assumed to underly the system, predictive. However, the proposed theory has several flaws at high energies and is thus limited to low energies. Falsifiable predictions are given for the case that the Higgs condensate is assumed to be the condensate underlying gr...
Alexander Oshmyansky
2007-03-08
An alternative quantum field theory for gravity is proposed for low energies based on an attractive effect between contaminants in a Bose-Einstein Condensate rather than on particle exchange. In the ``contaminant in condensate effect," contaminants cause a potential in an otherwise uniform condensate, forcing the condensate between two contaminants to a higher energy state. The energy of the system decreases as the contaminants come closer together, causing an attractive force between contaminants. It is proposed that mass-energy may have a similar effect on Einstein's space-time field, and gravity is quantized by the same method by which the contaminant in condensate effect is quantized. The resulting theory is finite and, if a physical condensate is assumed to underly the system, predictive. However, the proposed theory has several flaws at high energies and is thus limited to low energies. Falsifiable predictions are given for the case that the Higgs condensate is assumed to be the condensate underlying gravity.
Quantum decoherence of an anharmonic oscillator monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate
D. Alonso; S. Brouard; D. Sokolovski
2014-10-28
The dynamics of a quantum anharmonic oscillator whose position is monitored by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a symmetric double well potential is studied. The (non-exponential) decoherence induced on the oscillator by the measuring device is analysed. A detailed quasiclassical and quantum analysis is presented. In the first case, for an arbitrary initial coherent state, two different decoherence regimes are observed: An initial Gaussian decay followed by a power law decay for longer times. The characteristic time scales of both regimes are reported. Analytical approximated expressions are obtained in the full quantum case where algebraic time decay of decoherence is observed.
Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate
Clovis Jacinto de Matos; Pavol Valko
2010-12-17
Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.
University) [Johns Hopkins University] 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM...
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Zlatko (Johns Hopkins University) Johns Hopkins University 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY;...
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet
Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-01
I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.
Glyde, Henry R.
PHYS 624 INTRODUCTION TO CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS FALL 2013-3-642-02068-1 Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Edition, Charles Kittel (Wiley, New York, 1986) ISBN 978-0-471-41526-8 TOPICS: This is an introduction to Condensed Matter Physics. It is the first course in a series: (1
Bosonic stimulation in the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate Quantum-mechanical symmetry leads to bosonic stimulation, i.e. the probability of non-condensed atoms scattering into the condensate is proportional to the number of condensed atoms already present. This process is analogous to stimulated emission
Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes
O. Tapia
2014-10-29
A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.
Matter-wave interferometry with composite quantum objects
Markus Arndt; Nadine Dörre; Sandra Eibenberger; Philipp Haslinger; Jonas Rodewald; Klaus Hornberger; Stefan Nimmrichter; Marcel Mayor
2015-01-30
We discuss modern developments in quantum optics with organic molecules, clusters and nanoparticles -- in particular recent realizations of near-field matter-wave interferometry. A unified theoretical description in phase space allows us to describe quantum interferometry in position space and in the time domain on an equal footing. In order to establish matter-wave interferometers as a universal tool, which can accept and address a variety of nanoparticles, we elaborate on new quantum optical elements, such as diffraction gratings made of matter and light, as well as their absorptive and dispersive interaction with complex materials. We present Talbot-Lau interferometry (TLI), the Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometer (KDTLI) and interferometry with pulsed optical gratings (OTIMA) as the most advanced devices to study the quantum wave nature of composite matter. These experiments define the current mass and complexity record in interferometric explorations of quantum macroscopicity and they open new avenues to quantum assisted metrology with applications in physical chemistry and biomolecular physics.
Janke, Wolfhard
Condensed Matter Physics 2009, Vol. 12, No 4, pp. 739752 Football fever: self-affirmation model, Germany Received July 22, 2009 The outcome of football games, as well as matches of most other popular football score data with the toolbox of mathematical statistics in order to separate deterministic from
Temperature jump in degenerate quantum gases in the presence of a Bose - Einstein condensate
A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov
2010-01-04
We construct a kinetic equation modeling the behavior of degenerate quantum Bose gases whose collision rate depends on the momentum of elementary excitations. We consider the case where the phonon component is the decisive factor in the elementary excitations. We analytically solve the half-space boundary value problem of the temperature jump at the boundary of the degenerate Bose gas in the presence of a Bose -- Einstein condensate.
Hiroki Nishihara; Masayasu Harada
2014-10-19
We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and it's slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: The critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the 4-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.
Analogue quantum gravity phenomenology from a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner
2006-03-16
We present an analogue spacetime model that reproduces the salient features of the most common ansatz for quantum gravity phenomenology. We do this by investigating a system of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. This system can be tuned to have two "phonon" modes (one massive, one massless) which share the same limiting speed in the hydrodynamic approximation [Phys. Rev. D72 (2005) 044020, gr-qc/0506029; cond-mat/0409639]. The system nevertheless possesses (possibly non-universal) Lorentz violating terms at very high energies where "quantum pressure" becomes important. We investigate the physical interpretation of the relevant fine-tuning conditions, and discuss the possible lessons and hints that this analogue spacetime could provide for the phenomenology of real physical quantum gravity. In particular we show that the effective field theory of quasi-particles in such an emergent spacetime does not exhibit the so called "naturalness problem".
Recent Applications of Small-angle Neutron Scattering in Strongly Interacting Soft-condensed Matter
Wignall, George D [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL
2005-01-01
Before the application of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to the study of polymer structure, chain conformation studies were limited to light and small-angle x-ray scattering techniques, usually conducted in dilute solution owing to the difficulties of separating the inter- and intrachain contributions to the structure. The unique role of neutron scattering in soft condensed matter arises from the difference in the coherent scattering length between deuterium (b{sub D} = 0.67 x 10{sup -12} cm) and hydrogen (b{sub H} = -0.37 x 10{sup -12} cm), which results in a marked difference in scattering power (contrast) between molecules synthesized from normal (hydrogeneous) and deuterated monomer units. Thus, deuterium labelling techniques may be used to 'stain' molecules and make them 'visible' in the condensed state and other crowded environments, such as concentrated solutions of overlapping chains. For over two decades, SANS has proved to be a powerful tool for studies of structure-property relationships in polymeric systems and has made it possible to extract unique information about their size, shape, conformational changes and molecular associations. These applications are now so numerous that an exhaustive review of the field is no longer practical, so the authors propose to focus on the use of SANS for studies of strongly interacting soft matter systems. This paper will therefore discuss basic theory and practical aspects of the technique and will attempt to explain the physics of scattering with the minimum of unnecessary detail and mathematical rigour. Examples will be given to demonstrate the power of SANS and to show how it has helped to unveil universal aspects of the behaviour of macromolecules in such apparently diverse systems as polymer solutions, blends, polyelectrolytes and supercritical mixtures. The aim of the authors is to aid potential users who have a general scientific background, but no specialist knowledge of scattering, to understand the potential of the technique and, if they so choose, to apply it to provide new information in areas of their own particular research interests.
Boothroyd, Andrew
Concepts of Neutron ScatteringConcepts of Neutron Scattering 66thth PSI Summer School on Condensed Andrew Boothroyd University of Oxford Basic features of neutron scattering Neutron diffraction Neutron on the lattice * * * #12;ScatteringScattering ``nuts and boltsnuts and bolts'' Neutrons, photons, electrons
On the detectability of quantum radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates
Ralf Schützhold
2006-05-04
Based on doubly detuned Raman transitions between (meta) stable atomic or molecular states and recently developed atom counting techniques, a detection scheme for sound waves in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates is proposed whose accuracy might reach down to the level of a few or even single phonons. This scheme could open up a new range of applications including the experimental observation of quantum radiation phenomena such as the Hawking effect in sonic black-hole analogues or the acoustic analogue of cosmological particle creation. PACS: 03.75.Kk, 04.70.Dy, 42.65.Dr.
Photonic dark matter portal and quantum physics
S. A. Alavi; F. S. Kazemian
2015-06-14
We study a model of dark matter in which the hidden sector interacts with standard model particles via a hidden photonic portal. We investigate the effects of this new interaction on the hydrogen atom, including the Stark, Zeeman and hyperfine effects. Using the accuracy of the measurement of energy, we obtain an upper bound for the coupling constant of the model. We also calculate the contribution from the hidden photonic portal to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, which provides an important probe of physics beyond the standard model.
Emergent quantum phases in a heteronuclear molecular Bose--Einstein condensate model
Melissa Duncan; Angela Foerster; Jon Links; Eduardo Mattei; Norman Oelkers; Arlei Prestes Tonel
2006-10-30
We study a three-mode Hamiltonian modelling a heteronuclear molecular Bose--Einstein condensate. Two modes are associated with two distinguishable atomic constituents, which can combine to form a molecule represented by the third mode. Beginning with a semi-classical analogue of the model, we conduct an analysis to determine the phase space fixed points of the system. Bifurcations of the fixed points naturally separate the coupling parameter space into different regions. Two distinct scenarios are found, dependent on whether the imbalance between the number operators for the atomic modes is zero or non-zero. This result suggests the ground-state properties of the model exhibit an unusual sensitivity on the atomic imbalance. We then test this finding for the quantum mechanical model. Specifically we use Bethe ansatz methods, ground-state expectation values, the character of the quantum dynamics, and ground-state wavefunction overlaps to clarify the nature of the ground-state phases. The character of the transition is smoothed due to quantum fluctuations, but we may nonetheless identify the emergence of a quantum phase boundary in the limit of zero atomic imbalance.
Nakai, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Atsushi
2014-11-07
We propose a novel quantum chemical method, called the harmonic solvation model (HSM), for calculating thermochemical parameters in the condensed phase, particularly in the liquid phase. The HSM represents translational and rotational motions of a solute as vibrations interacting with a cavity wall of solvent molecules. As examples, the HSM and the ideal-gas model (IGM) were used for the standard formation reaction of liquid water, combustion reactions of liquid formic acid, methanol, and ethanol, vaporliquid equilibration of water and ethanol, and dissolution of gaseous CO{sub 2} in water. The numerical results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the HSM. In particular, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of liquid molecules was accurately reproduced by the HSM; for example, the boiling point of water was reasonably determined using the HSM, whereas the conventional IGM treatment failed to obtain a crossing of the two Gibbs energy curves for gaseous and liquid water.
Quantum statistical calculation of cluster abundances in hot dense matter
Gerd Ropke
2014-07-01
The cluster abundances are calculated from a quantum statistical approach taking into account in-medium corrections. For arbitrary cluster size the self-energy and Pauli blocking shifts are considered. Exploratory calculations are performed for symmetric matter at temperature $T=5$ MeV and baryon density $\\varrho=0.0156$ fm$^{-3}$ to be compared with the solar element distribution. It is shown that the abundances of weakly bound nuclei with mass number $4
Soft matter and fractional mathematics: insights into mesoscopic quantum and time-space structures
mesoscopic quantum mechanics and time-space structures governing "anomalous" behaviors of soft matter. Our and space. But the theory does not hold at the microscopic subatomic level, where quantum mechanics theory-known soft matter are polymers, colloids, emulsions, foams, living organisms, rubber, oil, soil, other porous
The matter bounce scenario in loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward, E-mail: wilson-ewing@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS UMR 7332, CPT, 13288 Marseille (France)
2013-03-01
In the matter bounce scenario, a dust-dominated contracting space-time generates scale-invariant perturbations that, assuming a nonsingular bouncing cosmology, propagate to the expanding branch and set appropriate initial conditions for the radiation-dominated era. Since this scenario depends on the presence of a bounce, it seems appropriate to consider it in the context of loop quantum cosmology where a bouncing universe naturally arises. For a pressureless collapsing universe in loop quantum cosmology, the predicted power spectrum of the scalar perturbations after the bounce is scale-invariant and the tensor to scalar ratio is negligibly small. A slight red tilt can be given to the scale-invariance of the scalar perturbations by a scalar field whose equation of state is P = ???, where ? is a small positive number. Then, the power spectrum for tensor perturbations is also almost scale-invariant with the same red tilt as the scalar perturbations, and the tensor to scalar ratio is expected to be r ? 9 × 10{sup ?4}. Finally, for the predicted amplitude of the scalar perturbations to agree with observations, the critical density in loop quantum cosmology must be of the order ?{sub c} ? 10{sup ?9}?{sub Pl}.
Anatoly V. Latyshev; Alexander A. Yushkanov
2010-01-18
The linearized kinetic equation modelling behaviour of the degenerate quantum bose gas with the frequency of collisions depending on momentum of elementary excitations is constructed. The general case of dependence of the elementary excitations energy on momentum according to Bogolyubov formula is considered. The analytical solution of the half-space boundary problem on temperature jump on border of degenerate bose gas in the presence of a Bose - Einstein condensate is received. Expression for Kapitsa resistance is received.
Quantum field theoretic approach to neutrino oscillations in matter
Evgeny Kh. Akhmedov; Alina Wilhelm
2012-10-25
We consider neutrino oscillations in non-uniform matter in a quantum field theoretic (QFT) approach, in which neutrino production, propagation and detection are considered as a single process. We find the conditions under which the oscillation probability can be sensibly defined and demonstrate how the properly normalized oscillation probability can be obtained in the QFT framework. We derive the evolution equation for the oscillation amplitude and discuss the conditions under which it reduces to the standard Schr\\"odinger-like evolution equation. It is shown that, contrary to the common usage, the Schr\\"odinger-like evolution equation is not applicable in certain cases, such as oscillations of neutrinos produced in decays of free pions provided that sterile neutrinos with $\\Delta m^2\\gtrsim 1$ eV$^2$ exist.
Matter-enhanced transition probabilities in quantum field theory
Ishikawa, Kenzo Tobita, Yutaka
2014-05-15
The relativistic quantum field theory is the unique theory that combines the relativity and quantum theory and is invariant under the Poincaré transformation. The ground state, vacuum, is singlet and one particle states are transformed as elements of irreducible representation of the group. The covariant one particles are momentum eigenstates expressed by plane waves and extended in space. Although the S-matrix defined with initial and final states of these states hold the symmetries and are applied to isolated states, out-going states for the amplitude of the event that they are detected at a finite-time interval T in experiments are expressed by microscopic states that they interact with, and are surrounded by matters in detectors and are not plane waves. These matter-induced effects modify the probabilities observed in realistic situations. The transition amplitudes and probabilities of the events are studied with the S-matrix, S[T], that satisfies the boundary condition at T. Using S[T], the finite-size corrections of the form of 1/T are found. The corrections to Fermis golden rule become larger than the original values in some situations for light particles. They break Lorentz invariance even in high energy region of short de Broglie wave lengths. -- Highlights: S-matrix S[T] for the finite-time interval in relativistic field theory. S[T] satisfies the boundary condition and gives correction of 1/T . The large corrections for light particles breaks Lorentz invariance. The corrections have implications to neutrino experiments.
Boyer, Edmond
Foreword Neutron and X-ray Scattering Techniques have proved so successful in condensed matter whose function is to develop and optimise the techniques appropriate to neutron scattering. Since other neutron and X-ray research centres have similar technical support groups, it was felt timely to unité
Classical dynamics of a two-species condensate driven by a quantum field
B. M. Rodríguez-Lara; Ray-Kuang Lee
2011-07-08
We present a stability analysis of an interacting two-species Bose-Einstein condensate driven by a quantized field in the semi-classical limit. Transitions from Rabi to Josephson dynamics are identified depending on both the inter-atomic interaction to field-condensate coupling ratio and the ratio between the total excitation number and the condensate size. The quantized field is found to produce asymmetric dynamics for symmetric initial conditions for both Rabi and Josephson oscillations.
Carl H. Gibson
2003-05-19
The first structures were proto-voids formed in the primordial plasma. Viscous and weak turbulence forces balanced gravitational forces when the scale of causal connection at time 30,000 years matched the viscous and turbulent Schwarz scales of hydro-gravitational theory (Gibson 1996). The photon viscosity allows only weak turbulence from the Reynolds number Re = 200, with fragmentation to give proto-supercluster voids, buoyancy forces, fossil vorticity turbulence, and strong sonic damping. The expanding, cooling, plasma continued fragmentation to proto-galaxy-mass with the density and rate-of-strain preserved as fossils of the weak turbulence and first structure. Turbulence fossilization by self-gravitational buoyancy explains the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations, not sonic oscillations in cold-dark-matter fragments. After plasma to gas transition at 300,000 years, gas fragmentation occurred within the proto-galaxies to form proto-globular-star-cluster (PGCs) clouds of small-planetary-mass primordial-fog-particles (PFPs). Dark PGC clumps of frozen PFPs persist as the inner-galaxy-halo dark matter, supporting Schild's 1996 quasar-microlensing interpretation. Non-baryonic dark matter diffused into the plasma proto-cluster-voids and later fragmented as outer-galaxy-halos at diffusive Schwarz scales, indicating light, weakly-collisional fluid particles (possibly neutrinos). Observations support the theory (Gibson and Schild 2003).
Mukamel, Shaul
2015-01-01
by quantum light Shaul Mukamel* and Konstantin E. Dorfman Department of Chemistry, University of California with classical light and may be used for monitoring the properties of matter by novel types of spectroscopy field; the quantum light thus merely provides a novel gating window for the classical response functions
De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C., E-mail: jose.souza@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Cięncias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia 166, Santo André, SP, 09210-170 (Brazil)
2014-03-01
We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.
Can Spacetime be a Condensate?
B. L. Hu
2005-05-21
We explore further the proposal that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, i.e., spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of such micro-theories. In this view it is more relevant to find ways to deduce the microscopic ingredients of spacetime and matter from their macroscopic attributes than to find ways to quantize general relativity because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not the equivalents of atoms or quantum electrodyanmics. It may turn out that spacetime is merely a representation of collective state of matter in some limiting regime of interactions, which is the view expressed by Sakharov. In this talk, working within the conceptual framework of geometro-hydrodynamics, we suggest a new way to look at the nature of spacetime inspired by Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) physics. We ask the question whether spacetime could be a condensate, even without the knowledge of what the `atom of spacetime' is. We begin with a summary of the main themes for this new interpretation of cosmology and spacetime physics, and the `bottom-up' approach to quantum gravity. We then describe the `Bosenova' experiment of controlled collapse of a BEC and our cosmology-inspired interpretation of its results. We discuss the meaning of a condensate in different context. We explore how far this idea can sustain, its advantages and pitfalls, and its implications on the basic tenets of physics and existing programs of quantum gravity.
Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe
Gattobigio, G. L. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Couvert, A. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Georgeot, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT UMR5152 (IRSAMC), 31062 Toulouse (France); Guery-Odelin, D. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France)
2011-12-16
We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantum-classical correspondence.
Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density
Larry McLerran
2008-12-08
This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition . At high baryon density and low temperature, large $N_c$ arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.
Testing quantum physics in space using high-mass matter-wave interferometry
Rainer Kaltenbaek
2015-08-31
Quantum superposition is central to quantum theory but challenges our concepts of reality and spacetime when applied to macroscopic objects like Schr\\"odinger's cat. For that reason, it has been a long-standing question whether quantum physics remains valid unmodified even for truly macroscopic objects. By now, the predictions of quantum theory have been confirmed via matter-wave interferometry for massive objects up to $10^4\\,$ atomic mass units (amu). The rapid development of new technologies promises to soon allow tests of quantum theory for significantly higher test masses by using novel techniques of quantum optomechanics and high-mass matter-wave interferometry. Such experiments may yield novel insights into the foundations of quantum theory, pose stringent limits on alternative theoretical models or even uncover deviations from quantum physics. However, performing experiments of this type on Earth may soon face principal limitations due to requirements of long times of flight, ultra-low vibrations, and extremely high vacuum. Here, we present a short overview of recent developments towards the implementation of the proposed space-mission MAQRO, which promises to overcome those limitations and to perform matter-wave interferometry in a parameter regime orders of magnitude beyond state-of-the-art.
Condensate-free superfluidity induced by frustrated proximity effect
Laflorencie, Nicolas
2010-01-01
Since the discovery of superfluidity in He4 and Landau's phenomenological theory, the relationship between Bose condensation and superfluidity has been intensely debated. He4 is known by now to be both superfluid and condensed at low temperature, and more generally, in dimension D \\geq 2, all superfluid bosonic models realized in experiments are condensed in their ground state. Recent examples include ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in an optical lattice or effective bosons describing magnetic excitations in quantum magnets. In this paper, it is shown that a 2D gas of bosons which is superfluid but not condensed at T=0 can be achieved by populating a layer through a frustrated proximity effect from a superfluid reservoir. This bosonic fluid is characterized by specific scaling laws and incommensurate correlations. This leads to several predictions for the quantum antiferromagnet BaCuSi2O6 (Han purple) in a magnetic field, a good candidate to realize this novel state of matter.
Bose-Einstein condensation as an alternative to inflation
Das, Saurya
2015-01-01
It was recently shown that gravitons with a very small mass should have formed a Bose-Einstein condensate in the very early Universe, whose density and quantum potential can account for the dark matter and dark energy in the Universe respectively. Here we show that the condensation can also naturally explain the observed large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. Furthermore gravitons continue to fall into their ground state within the condensate at every epoch, accounting for the observed flatness of space at cosmological distances scales. Finally, we argue that the density perturbations due to quantum fluctuations within the condensate give rise to a scale invariant spectrum. This therefore provides a viable alternative to inflation, which is not associated with the well-known problems associated with the latter.
Fischer, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Worschech, L.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Z.; Deng, H.
2014-03-03
We comparably investigate the diamagnetic shift of an uncoupled quantum well exciton with a microcavity exciton-polariton condensate on the same device. The sample is composed of multiple GaAs quantum wells in an AlAs microcavity, surrounded by a Bragg reflector and a sub-wavelength high contrast grating reflector. Our study introduces an independent and easily applicable technique, namely, the measurement of the condensate diamagnetic shift, which directly probes matter contributions in polariton condensates and hence discriminates it from a conventional photon laser.
Weatherall, James; Search, Christopher; Jääskeläinen, Markku
2008-01-01
double-well Bose-Einstein condensate James Owen Weatherall,atomic Bose-Einstein condensate ?BEC? trapped in a double-and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates ?BECs? ?7?, and is now
Quantum Hall effect and Landau-level crossing of Dirac fermions in trilayer graphene
Taychatanapat, Thiti
The physics of Dirac fermions in condensed-matter systems has received extraordinary attention following the discoveries of two new types of quantum Hall effect in single-layer and bilayer graphene1, 2, 3. The electronic ...
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M. Bienert; J. Flores; S. Yu. Kun; T. H. Seligman
2006-02-27
Thermalization in highly excited quantum many-body system does not necessarily mean a complete memory loss of the way the system was formed. This effect may pave a way for a quantum computing, with a large number of qubits $n\\simeq 100$--1000, far beyond the quantum chaos border. One of the manifestations of such a thermalized non-equilibrated matter is revealed by a strong asymmetry around 90$^\\circ $ c.m. of evaporating proton yield in the Bi($\\gamma$,p) photonuclear reaction. The effect is described in terms of anomalously slow cross symmetry phase relaxation in highly excited quantum many-body systems with exponentially large Hilbert space dimensions. In the above reaction this phase relaxation is about eight orders of magnitude slower than energy relaxation (thermalization).
Bienert, M; Kun, S Yu; Seligman, T H
2006-01-01
Thermalization in highly excited quantum many-body system does not necessarily mean a complete memory loss of the way the system was formed. This effect may pave a way for a quantum computing, with a large number of qubits $n\\simeq 100$--1000, far beyond the quantum chaos border. One of the manifestations of such a thermalized non-equilibrated matter is revealed by a strong asymmetry around 90$^\\circ $ c.m. of evaporating proton yield in the Bi($\\gamma$,p) photonuclear reaction. The effect is described in terms of anomalously slow cross symmetry phase relaxation in highly excited quantum many-body systems with exponentially large Hilbert space dimensions. In the above reaction this phase relaxation is about eight orders of magnitude slower than energy relaxation (thermalization).
Quantum localization and bound-state formation in Bose-Einstein condensates
Franzosi, Roberto; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-12-15
We discuss the possibility of exponential quantum localization in systems of ultracold bosonic atoms with repulsive interactions in open optical lattices without disorder. We show that exponential localization occurs in the maximally excited state of the lowest energy band. We establish the conditions under which the presence of the upper energy bands can be neglected, determine the successive stages and the quantum phase boundaries at which localization occurs, and discuss schemes to detect it experimentally by visibility measurements. The discussed mechanism is a particular type of quantum localization that is intuitively understood in terms of the interplay between nonlinearity and a bounded energy spectrum.
Miley, George H. [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, NPL Associates 216 Talbot Laboratory 104 S. Wright St. Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hora, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales Sydney (Australia); Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Sheng Zhengming [Beijing National Laboratory for CondensedMatter Physics Institute of Physics Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijing 100080 (China); Zhang Jie [School of Computer Sciences, University of Western Sydney, Penrith (Australia); Osman, F. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China); Zhang Weiyan [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing (China); Tuhe Xia [Institute of Physics, Academy of Science, Prague (Czech Republic)
2009-03-16
The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B{sup 11} with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B{sup 11} fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B{sup 11} power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p-B{sup 11} have been discussed for such applications before, but prior designs face formidable physics/technology issues, largely overcome with the present approach.
RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division
Fukai, Tomoki
Condensate Research Team Superconducting Quantum Electronics Research Team Emergent Phenomena Observation Team Quantum Condensed Phases Research Team Superconducting Quantum Simulation Research Team Cross
MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...
Mukamel, Shaul
Nonlinear spectroscopy with entangled photons: Manipulating quantum pathways of matter Oleksiy be selected by using nonclassical fields, through the entanglement of photon and material pathways, which scattering and two-photon-absorption pathways in a pump-probe experiment are separated by controlling
A molecular dynamics study of nuclear quantum effect on the diffusion of hydrogen in condensed phase
Nagashima, Hiroki; Tokumasu, Takashi; Tsuda, Shin-ichi; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Koshi, Mitsuo; Hayashie, A. Koichi
2014-10-06
In this paper, the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule on its diffusivity is analyzed using Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. The path integral centroid MD (CMD) method is applied for the reproduction method of time evolution of the molecules. The diffusion coefficient of liquid hydrogen is calculated using the Green-Kubo method. The simulation is performed at wide temperature region and the temperature dependence of the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule is addressed. The calculation results are compared with those of classical MD results. As a result, it is confirmed that the diffusivity of hydrogen molecule is changed depending on temperature by the quantum effect. It is clarified that this result can be explained that the dominant factor by quantum effect on the diffusivity of hydrogen changes from the swollening the potential to the shallowing the potential well around 30 K. Moreover, it is found that this tendency is related to the temperature dependency of the ratio of the quantum kinetic energy and classical kinetic energy.
Gao, Hongjun
2004-01-01
nanoparticles, Si and InP quantum dots. The model will be useful for understanding the origins of the phonon. Semiconductor nanocrystals, including nanoparticles and quantum dots, have drawn a great deal of attention]. However, these models are limited to small-sized quantum dots of a few nanometres. A microscopic lattice
Anderson, Paul R.
space Paul R. Anderson* Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina the validity of the approximation used, provided the profile of the flow varies smoothly on scales compared fluctuations are converted into real on shell quanta. One quantum (the positive energy one) is emitted outside
A quantum model of space-time-matter
Isaac Cohen
2005-03-24
We study a quantum mechanics with the usual postulates but in which the Heisenberg algebra of canonical commutation relations and the Poincare algebra are replaced by the Lie algebra of the homogeneous Lorentz group SO(5,1). It arises from the hypothesis that the above group is the fundamental group of invariance for the laws of physics. The observables of the theory like position, time, momentum, energy, angular momentum and others are the generators of the algebra of the group. Neither position and time observables commute between them, nor momentum and energy observables. The algebra of Poincare quantum mechanics is recovered in the limit in which two parameters, that we physically interpret as the Hubble constant and the Planck mass, are taken to zero and infinite respectively. We consider the equations that are satisfied by the spinor representation of the group.
Absence of a local rest frame in far from equilibrium quantum matter
Peter Arnold; Paul Romatschke; Wilke van der Schee
2014-10-21
In a collision of strongly coupled quantum matter we find that the dynamics of the collision produces regions where a local rest frame cannot be defined because the energy-momentum tensor does not have a real time-like eigenvector. This effect is purely quantum mechanical, since for classical systems, a local rest frame can always be defined. We study the relation with the null and weak energy condition, which are violated in even larger regions, and compare with previously known examples. While no pathologies or instabilities arise, it is interesting that regions without a rest frame are possibly present in heavy ion collisions.
Quantum Treatment for Bose-Einstein Condensation in Non-Equilibrium Systems
H. Flayac; I. G. Savenko; M. Möttönen; T. Ala-Nissila
2015-03-29
We develop an approach based on stochastic quantum trajectories for an incoherently pumped system of interacting bosons relaxing their energy in a thermal reservoir. Our approach enables the study of the versatile coherence properties of the system. We apply the model to exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity. Our results demonstrate the onset of macroscopic occupation in the lowest-energy mode accompanied by the establishment of both temporal and spatial coherence. We show that temporal coherence exhibits a transition from a thermal to coherent statistics and the spatial coherence reveals off-diagonal long-range order.
Alessandro Sergi
2009-07-11
A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since without it most (if not all) of the biological structures and signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-range quantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization, may be invoked to explain signal amplification process in biological systems in general.
Manifestations of quantum phase transitions in transport through nanosystems
Pustilnik, Michael
2014-08-28
The award led to several important new results in theory of interacting low-dimensional systems. The results are relevant for both traditional condensed matter systems, such as quantum wires and quantum spin chains, and for the relatively new field of ultra-cold atomic gases.
Periodically-driven quantum matter: the case of resonant modulations
N. Goldman; J. Dalibard; M. Aidelsburger; N. R. Cooper
2015-03-06
Quantum systems can show qualitatively new forms of behavior when they are driven by fast time-periodic modulations. In the limit of large driving frequency, the long-time dynamics of such systems can often be described by a time-independent effective Hamiltonian, which is generally identified through a perturbative treatment. Here, we present a general formalism that describes time-modulated physical systems, in which the driving frequency is large, but resonant with respect to energy spacings inherent to the system at rest. Such a situation is currently exploited in optical-lattice setups, where superlattice (or Wannier-Stark-ladder) potentials are resonantly modulated so as to control the tunneling matrix elements between lattice sites, offering a powerful method to generate artificial fluxes for cold-atom systems. The formalism developed in this work identifies the basic ingredients needed to generate interesting flux patterns and band structures using resonant modulations. Additionally, our approach allows for a simple description of the micro-motion underlying the dynamics; we illustrate its characteristics based on diverse dynamic-lattice configurations. It is shown that the impact of the micro-motion on physical observables strongly depends on the implemented scheme, suggesting that a theoretical description in terms of the effective Hamiltonian alone is generally not sufficient to capture the full time-evolution of the system.
de Nova, J R M
2015-01-01
The work is divided in three parts. We devote the first part to the study of analog Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates. We study numerically the birth of a sonic black hole in an outcoupled Bose-Einstein condensate after relaxing the confinement provided by an optical lattice. We also study possible signatures of spontaneous Hawking radiation. We propose that the violation of CS inequalities is a smoking gun of the presence of the Hawking effect. We compare this criterion with the presence of entaglement, finding that both are equivalent under usual assumptions. Finally, we study a different gravitational analogue: the so-called black-hole laser. The most interesting result is the appearance of a regime of continuous and periodic emission of solitons, providing the most strong analogue with optical lasers. In the second part, we analyze the effect of the introduction of a short Bragg pulse in a thermal cloud. We show that the induced periodic density pattern decays to the equilibrium profile. Howe...
J. R. M. de Nova
2015-11-11
The work is divided in three parts. We devote the first part to the study of analog Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates. We study numerically the birth of a sonic black hole in an outcoupled Bose-Einstein condensate after relaxing the confinement provided by an optical lattice. We also study possible signatures of spontaneous Hawking radiation. We propose that the violation of CS inequalities is a smoking gun of the presence of the Hawking effect. We compare this criterion with the presence of entaglement, finding that both are equivalent under usual assumptions. Finally, we study a different gravitational analogue: the so-called black-hole laser. The most interesting result is the appearance of a regime of continuous and periodic emission of solitons, providing the most strong analogue with optical lasers. In the second part, we analyze the effect of the introduction of a short Bragg pulse in a thermal cloud. We show that the induced periodic density pattern decays to the equilibrium profile. However, instead of the usual collisional relaxation, the mechanism responsible for the decay is the thermal disorder of the particles, with a characteristic time that only depends on the temperature. We find a very good agreement with actual experimental data. In the last part, we switch to a very different system: the $\
Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a nanomechanical resonator on an atom chip
Philipp Treutlein; David Hunger; Stephan Camerer; Theodor W. Hänsch; Jakob Reichel
2007-10-04
We theoretically study the coupling of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms to the mechanical oscillations of a nanoscale cantilever with a magnetic tip. This is an experimentally viable hybrid quantum system which allows one to explore the interface of quantum optics and condensed matter physics. We propose an experiment where easily detectable atomic spin-flips are induced by the cantilever motion. This can be used to probe thermal oscillations of the cantilever with the atoms. At low cantilever temperatures, as realized in recent experiments, the backaction of the atoms onto the cantilever is significant and the system represents a mechanical analog of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With high but realistic cantilever quality factors, the strong coupling regime can be reached, either with single atoms or collectively with Bose-Einstein condensates. We discuss an implementation on an atom chip.
Kenji Fukushima
2014-10-01
We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.
From the Cosmological Constant: Higgs Boson, Dark Matter, and Quantum Gravity Scales
James R. Bogan
2010-11-08
We suggest discovery targets for the Higgs boson, dark matter, and quantum gravity mass scales, motivated by the Dirac equation for the electron in deSitter space, and a sixth-order constraint between the electron QED parameters and the cosmological constant. We go on to show that this constraint can be viewed as a structural parameter of the electron, and leads naturally to a new cosmic horizon. A dual fourth-order constraint implies a second-order one, from which the electron neutrino mass is derived.
Quantum singularities in (2+1) dimensional matter coupled black hole spacetimes
Unver, O.; Gurtug, O.
2010-10-15
Quantum singularities considered in the 3D Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime by Pitelli and Letelier [Phys. Rev. D 77, 124030 (2008)] is extended to charged BTZ and 3D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes. The occurrence of naked singularities in the Einstein-Maxwell extension of the BTZ spacetime both in linear and nonlinear electrodynamics as well as in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes are analyzed with the quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We show that with the inclusion of the matter fields, the conical geometry near r=0 is removed and restricted classes of solutions are admitted for the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Hence, the classical central singularity at r=0 turns out to be quantum mechanically singular for quantum particles obeying the Klein-Gordon equation but nonsingular for fermions obeying the Dirac equation. Explicit calculations reveal that the occurrence of the timelike naked singularities in the considered spacetimes does not violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis as far as the Dirac fields are concerned. The role of horizons that clothes the singularity in the black hole cases is replaced by repulsive potential barrier against the propagation of Dirac fields.
Quantum control in spintronics
Ardavan, A
2011-01-01
Superposition and entanglement are uniquely quantum phenomena. Superposition incorporates a phase which contains information surpassing any classical mixture. Entanglement offers correlations between measurements in quantum systems that are stronger than any which would be possible classically. These give quantum computing its spectacular potential, but the implications extend far beyond quantum information processing. Early applications may be found in entanglement enhanced sensing and metrology. Quantum spins in condensed matter offer promising candidates for investigating and exploiting superposition and entanglement, and enormous progress is being made in quantum control of such systems. In GaAs, individual electron spins can be manipulated and measured, and singlet-triplet states can be controlled in double-dot structures. In silicon, individual electron spins can be detected by ionisation of phosphorous donors, and information can be transferred from electron spins to nuclear spins to provide long memor...
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity
H. Müntinga; H. Ahlers; M. Krutzik; A. Wenzlawski; S. Arnold; D. Becker; K. Bongs; H. Dittus; H. Duncker; N. Gaaloul; C. Gherasim; E. Giese; C. Grzeschik; T. W. Hänsch; O. Hellmig; W. Herr; S. Herrmann; E. Kajari; S. Kleinert; C. Lämmerzahl; W. Lewoczko-Adamczyk; J. Malcolm; N. Meyer; R. Nolte; A. Peters; M. Popp; J. Reichel; A. Roura; J. Rudolph; M. Schiemangk; M. Schneider; S. T. Seidel; K. Sengstock; V. Tamma; T. Valenzuela; A. Vogel; R. Walser; T. Wendrich; P. Windpassinger; W. Zeller; T. van Zoest; W. Ertmer; W. P. Schleich; E. M. Rasel
2013-01-24
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Due to their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this paper we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far-field of a double-slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
A lattice bosonic model as a quantum theory of gravity Zheng-Cheng Gu
Wen, Xiao-Gang
as a theory of quantum gravity. It solves a long standing problem of putting quantum mechanics and gravity to- gether. On the other hand, the model provides a design of a condensed matter system which has an emergent everything as made of some simple indi- visible building blocks the elementary particles. How- ever
Observation of Chiral Heat Transport in the Quantum Hall Regime G. Granger,1
Eisenstein, Jim
Observation of Chiral Heat Transport in the Quantum Hall Regime G. Granger,1 J. P. Eisenstein,1 and J. L. Reno2 1 Condensed Matter Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; published 23 February 2009) Heat transport in the quantum Hall regime is investigated using micron
Zuelicke, U
2012-01-01
The most fundamental characteristics of a physical system can often be deduced from its behaviour under discrete symmetry transformations such as time reversal, parity and chirality. Here we review basic symmetry properties of the relativistic quantum theories for free electrons in (2+1)- and (1+1)-dimensional spacetime. Additional flavour degrees of freedom are necessary to properly define symmetry operations in (2+1) dimensions and are generally present in physical realisations of such systems, e.g., in single sheets of graphite. We find that there exist two possibilities for defining any flavour-coupling discrete symmetry operation of the two-flavour (2+1)-dimensional Dirac theory. Physical implications of this duplicity are discussed.
The Color Glass Condensate and Glasma
Larry McLerran
2008-04-10
These two lectures concern the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. These are forms of matter which might be studied in high energy hadronic collisions. The Color Glass Condensate is high energy density gluonic matter. It constitutes the part of a hadron wavefunction important for high energy processes. The Glasma is matter produced from the collision of two high energy hadrons. Both types of matter are associated with coherent fields. The Color Glass Condensate is static and related to a hadron wavefunction where the glasma is transient and evolves quickly after a collision. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.
Thomas Weinacht
2011-08-05
Quantum control of light and matter is the quest to steer a physical process to a desirable outcome, employing constructive and destructive interference. Three basic questions address feasibility of quantum control: (1) The problem of controllability, does a control field exist for a preset initial and target state; (2) Synthesis, constructively finding the field that leads to the target; and (3) Optimal Control Theory - optimizing the field that carries out this task. These continue to be the fundamental theoretical questions to be addressed in the conference. How to realize control fields in the laboratory is an ongoing challenge. This task is very diverse viewing the emergence of control scenarios ranging from attoseconds to microseconds. How do the experimental observations reflect on the theoretical framework? The typical arena of quantum control is an open environment where much of the control is indirect. How are control scenarios realized in dissipative open systems? Can new control opportunities emerge? Can one null decoherence effects? An ideal setting for control is ultracold matter. The initial and final state can be defined more precisely. Coherent control unifies many fields of physical science. A lesson learned in one field can reflect on another. Currently quantum information processing has emerged as a primary target of control where the key issue is controlling quantum gate operation. Modern nonlinear spectroscopy has emerged as another primary field. The challenge is to unravel the dynamics of molecular systems undergoing strong interactions with the environment. Quantum optics where non-classical fields are to be generated and employed. Finally, coherent control is the basis for quantum engineering. These issues will be under the limelight of the Gordon conference on Quantum Control of Light and Matter.
Quantifying Quantum Resource Sharing
Xiao-Feng Qian; Miguel A. Alonso; J. H. Eberly
2015-11-13
Entanglement is a key resource of quantum science for tasks that require it to be shared among participants. Within atomic, condensed matter and photonic many-body systems the distribution and sharing of entanglement is of particular importance for information processing by progressively larger and larger quantum networks. Here we report a singly-bipartitioned qubit entanglement inequality that applies to any N-party qubit pure state and is completely tight. It provides the first prescription for a direct calculation of the amount of entanglement sharing that is possible among N qubit parties. A geometric representation of the measure is easily visualized via polytopes within entanglement hypercubes.
Axions: Bose Einstein Condensate or Classical Field?
Sacha Davidson
2014-12-20
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligeable.
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
new construction * More expensive * More maintenance * Newer designs not as well proven * More parts to break * Condensate disposal * Retrofits are complex * Orphaned WH THANK YOU...
Magnets & Magnet Condensed Matter Science
McQuade, D. Tyler
Sights from around the Magnet Lab in 2010. On the cover MAGNETS & MAGNET MATERIALS Engineering materials in Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 31 YBCO Pancake Wound Test Coil for 32-T Magnet Development 32 Strong Vortex Pinning from Marine Cyanobacteria 37 Heavy Petroleum Composition 2. Progression of the Boduszynski Model
STAFF POSITION CONDENSED MATTER THEORY
; and Human Health. By conducting fundamental and applied research, we work on long-term solutions for major electromagnetic radiation, which will be observed by SwissFEL. To develop close collaborations have a sound working experience in developing theoretical and computational tools to predict
Condensed Matter and Magnet Science
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
employee skills database Janoschek receives Wolfram-Prandl Prize Los Alamos researcher Marc Janoschek was honored recently for "his pioneering studies of the spin dynamics in...
Condensed Matter and Magnet Science
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) - A New !CMMS
RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division
Fukai, Tomoki
Quantum Condencsed Matter Research Group Macroscopic Quantum Coherence Research Team Superconducting
Prabir Rudra
2012-11-09
In this work we have investigated the emergent scenario of the universe described by Loop quantum cosmology model, DGP brane model and Kaluza-Klein cosmology. Scalar field along with barotropic fluid as normal matter is considered as the matter content of the universe. In Loop quantum cosmology it is found that the emergent scenario is realized with the imposition of some conditions on the value of the density of normal matter in case of normal and phantom scalar field. This is a surprising result indeed considering the fact that scalar field is the dominating matter component. In case of Tachyonic field, emergent scenario is realized with some constraints on the value of $\\rho_{1}$ for both normal and phantom tachyon. In case of DGP brane-world realization of an emergent scenario is possible almost unconditionally for normal and phantom fields. Plots and table have been generated to testify this fact. In case of tachyonic field emergent scenario is realized with some constraints on $\\dot{H}$. In Kaluza-Klein cosmology emergent scenario is possible only for a closed universe in case of normal and phantom scalar field. For a tachyonic field realization of emergent universe is possible for all models(closed, open and flat).
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
2009-09-01
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
Dark matter, Mach's ether and the QCD vacuum
Cohen-Tannoudji, Gilles
2015-01-01
Here is proposed the idea of linking the dark matter issue, (considered as a major problem of contemporary research in physics) with two other open theoretical questions, one, almost centenary about the existence of an unavoidable ether in general relativity agreeing with the Mach's principle, and one more recent about the properties of the quantum vacuum of the quantum field theory of strong interactions, QuantumChromodynamics (QCD). According to this idea, on the one hand, dark matter and dark energy that, according to the current standard model of cosmology represent about 95% of the universe content, can be considered as two distinct forms of the Mach's ether, and, on the other hand, dark matter, as a perfect fluid emerging from the QCD vacuum could be modeled as a Bose Einstein condensate.
Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate
Chen, Guangyao
2013-08-06
Nuclei at very high energy, characterized by a saturation scale, can be described by an e?ective theory of Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) called Color Glass Condensates. The earliest phase of the collision of two nuclei is ...
Physicalism versus quantum mechanics
Stapp, Henry P; Theoretical Physics Group; Physics Division
2009-01-01
Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. (Princeton UniversityMind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics, (Springer, Berlin & NewMindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating
New Horizons in Gravity: Dark Energy and Condensate Stars
Emil Mottola
2011-07-25
Black holes are an apparently unavoidable prediction of classical General Relativity, at least if matter obeys the strong energy condition rho + 3p > 0. However quantum vacuum fluctuations generally violate this condition, as does the eq. of state of cosmological dark energy. When quantum effects are considered, black holes lead to a number of thermodynamic paradoxes associated with the Hawking temperature and assumption of black hole entropy, which are briefly reviewed. It is argued that the largest quantum effects arise from the conformal scalar degrees of freedom generated by the trace anomaly of the stress-energy tensor in curved space. At event horizons these can have macroscopically large backreaction effects on the geometry, potentially removing the classical event horizon of black hole and cosmological spacetimes, replacing them with a quantum phase boundary layer, where the effective value of the gravitational vacuum energy density can change. In the effective theory including the quantum effects of the anomaly, the cosmological term becomes a dynamical condensate, whose value depends upon boundary conditions at the horizon. By taking a positive value in the interior of a fully collapsed star, the effective cosmological term removes any singularity, replacing it with a smooth dark energy de Sitter interior. The resulting gravitational vacuum condensate star (or gravastar) configuration resolves all black hole paradoxes, and provides a testable alternative to black holes as the final quantum mechanical end state of complete gravitational collapse. The observed dark energy of our universe likewise may be a macroscopic finite size effect whose value depends not on Planck scale or other microphysics but on the cosmological Hubble horizon scale itself.
Stability of Equilibria with a Condensate Marco Merkli y
Stability of Equilibria with a Condensate #3; Marco Merkli y Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics Bose gas with a condensate, interacting with a small system (quantum dot) which can trap #12;nitely many Bosons. Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the presence of the condensate, the system has
Martin Bojowald
2015-01-20
In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.
Fast quantum control and light-matter interactions at the 10,000 quanta level
J. Alonso; F. M. Leupold; Z. U. Soler; M. Fadel; M. Marinelli; B. C. Keitch; V. Negnevitsky; J. P. Home
2015-09-23
Fast control of quantum systems is essential in order to make use of quantum properties before they are degraded by decoherence. This is important for quantum-enhanced information processing, as well as for pushing quantum systems into macroscopic regimes at the boundary between quantum and classical physics. Bang-bang control attains the ultimate speed limit by making large changes to control fields on timescales much faster than the system can respond, however these methods are often challenging to implement experimentally. Here we demonstrate bang-bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator using nano-second switching of the trapping potentials. We perform controlled displacements which allow us to realize quantum states with up to 10,000 quanta of energy. We use these displaced states to verify the form of the ion-light interaction at high excitations which are far outside the usual regime of operation. These methods provide new possibilities for quantum-state manipulation and generation, alongside the potential for a significant increase in operational clock speed for ion-trap quantum information processing.
Fast quantum control and light-matter interactions at the 10,000 quanta level
Alonso, J; Soler, Z U; Fadel, M; Marinelli, M; Keitch, B C; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P
2015-01-01
Fast control of quantum systems is essential in order to make use of quantum properties before they are degraded by decoherence. This is important for quantum-enhanced information processing, as well as for pushing quantum systems into macroscopic regimes at the boundary between quantum and classical physics. Bang-bang control attains the ultimate speed limit by making large changes to control fields on timescales much faster than the system can respond, however these methods are often challenging to implement experimentally. Here we demonstrate bang-bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator using nano-second switching of the trapping potentials. We perform controlled displacements which allow us to realize quantum states with up to 10,000 quanta of energy. We use these displaced states to verify the form of the ion-light interaction at high excitations which are far outside the usual regime of operation. These methods provide new possibilities for quantum-state manipulation and generation, alongside the poten...
Quantum control in spintronics
A. Ardavan; G. A. D. Briggs
2011-02-08
Superposition and entanglement are uniquely quantum phenomena. Superposition incorporates a phase which contains information surpassing any classical mixture. Entanglement offers correlations between measurements in quantum systems that are stronger than any which would be possible classically. These give quantum computing its spectacular potential, but the implications extend far beyond quantum information processing. Early applications may be found in entanglement enhanced sensing and metrology. Quantum spins in condensed matter offer promising candidates for investigating and exploiting superposition and entanglement, and enormous progress is being made in quantum control of such systems. In GaAs, individual electron spins can be manipulated and measured, and singlet-triplet states can be controlled in double-dot structures. In silicon, individual electron spins can be detected by ionisation of phosphorous donors, and information can be transferred from electron spins to nuclear spins to provide long memory times. Electron and nuclear spins can be manipulated in nitrogen atoms incarcerated in fullerene molecules, which in turn can be assembled in ordered arrays. Spin states of charged nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond can be manipulated and read optically. Collective spin states in a range of materials systems offer scope for holographic storage of information. Conditions are now excellent for implementing superposition and entanglement in spintronic devices, thereby opening up a new era of quantum technologies.
Towards continuous-wave regime teleportation for light matter quantum relay stations
Florian Kaiser; Amandine Issautier; Lutfi A. Ngah; Djeylan Aktas; Tom Delord; Sébastien Tanzilli
2014-12-24
We report a teleportation experiment involving narrowband entangled photons at 1560 nm and qubit photons at 795 nm emulated by faint laser pulses. A nonlinear difference frequency generation stage converts the 795 nm photons to 1560 nm in order to enable interference with one photon out of the pairs, i.e., at the same wavelength. The spectral bandwidth of all involved photons is of about 25 MHz, which is close to the emission bandwidth of emissive quantum memory devices, notably those based on ensembles of cold atoms and rare earth ions. This opens the route towards the realization of hybrid quantum nodes, i.e., combining quantum memories and entanglement-based quantum relays exploiting either a synchronized (pulsed) or asynchronous (continuous- wave) scenario.
Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics
Konstantinos Orginos, Silas Beane, Emmanuel Chang, Saul Cohen, Huey-Wen Lin, Tom Luu, Assumpta Parreno, Martin Savage, Andre Walker-Loud, William Detmold
2012-10-01
The low-energy n{Sigma}{sup -} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase-shifts for this system are determined from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our results, performed at a pion mass of m{sub {pi}} ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The calculated interactions indicate that the strange quark plays an important role in dense matter.
Koustubh Kabe
2010-02-10
A spin (dependent) system treatment of gravity is adopted akin to the Sen-Ashtekar treatment. Time is reinserted into the space ``fluid'' at the quantum Level. This time - the Lorentzian one- is shown to be a vorticity of a ``fluid particle'' of the space and the effect is integrated over all the fluid particles to incorporate time in quantum gravity. This spacetime is viewed as a fluid of future light cones called the SU(2) dipoles of causality here in the paper.The future light cone structure is soldered internally to the new variables derived in this paper to accomodate a background free physics of quantum strings. The emergence of spacetime is shown to be a first order phase transition and that of separation of gravity from the unified field to be a second order phase transition. For the former case the cosmic time is chosen as the order parameter and for the latter case the angular momentum is chosen as the order parameter. A quantum blackhole thus nucleates at transition temperature which is the Planck temperature, $\\tau_{pl}$. Then the SU(2) dipoles enable interpretation of this black hole as a gravity gauge SL(2,$\\mathbb{C}$) dual of the U(1) gauge ferromagnetic phase. The usual QFT interpretation of this effect is the existence of locally Lorentzian spacetimes.
Vladimir A. Miransky; Igor A. Shovkovy
2015-04-10
A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chiral magnetic and separation effects, we also review their possible phenomenological implications in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars. We also discuss the application of the magnetic catalysis ideas for the description of the quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene, and conclude that the generalized magnetic catalysis, including both the magnetic catalysis condensates and the quantum Hall ferromagnetic ones, lies at the basis of this phenomenon. We also consider how an external magnetic field affects the underlying physics in a class of three-dimensional quasirelativistic condensed matter systems, Dirac semimetals. While at sufficiently low temperatures and zero density of charge carriers, such semimetals are expected to reveal the regime of the magnetic catalysis, the regime of Weyl semimetals with chiral asymmetry is realized at nonzero density...
Theory of decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry
B J Dalton
2007-02-03
A full treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in BEC interferometry has been developed based on using quantum correlation functions for treating interferometric effects. The BEC is described via a phase space distribution functional of the Wigner type for the condensate modes and the positive P type for the non-condensate modes. Ito equations for stochastic condensate and non-condensate field functions replace the functional Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution functional and stochastic averages of field function products determine the quantum correlation functions.
Light front distribution of the chiral condensate
Lei Chang; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt
2013-09-19
The pseudoscalar projection of the pion's Poincare'-covariant Bethe-Salpeter amplitude onto the light-front may be understood to provide the probability distribution of the chiral condensate within the pion. Unlike the parton distribution amplitudes usually considered and as befitting a collective effect, this condensate distribution receives contributions from all Fock space components of the pion's light-front wave-function. We compute this condensate distribution using the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) framework and show the result to be a model-independent feature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our analysis establishes that this condensate is concentrated in the neighbourhood of the boundaries of the distribution's domain of support. It thereby confirms the dominant role played by many-particle Fock states within the pion's light-front wave function in generating the chiral condensate on the light-front and verifies that light-front longitudinal zero modes do not play a material role in that process.
The interplay between the condensate and instantons
David Vercauteren; Henri Verschelde
2011-02-10
Using the Local Composite Operator formalism, we analytically study the dimension two gluon condensate in the presence of instantons. We first use the dilute gas approximation and partially solve the infrared problem of instanton physics. In order to find quantitative results, however, we turn to an instanton liquid model, where we find a two-component picture of the condensate: one component comes from instantons, a second component is non-perturbatively generated by quantum fluctuations around the instantons.
Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai
2012-11-19
While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.
Evolutionary games of condensates in coupled birth-death processes
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin
2015-01-01
Condensation phenomena arise through a collective behaviour of particles. They are observed in both classical and quantum systems, ranging from the formation of traffic jams in mass transport models to the macroscopic occupation of the energetic ground state in ultra-cold bosonic gases (Bose-Einstein condensation). Recently, it has been shown that a driven and dissipative system of bosons may form multiple condensates. Which states become the condensates has, however, remained elusive thus far. The dynamics of this condensation are described by coupled birth-death processes, which also occur in evolutionary game theory. Here, we apply concepts from evolutionary game theory to explain the formation of multiple condensates in such driven-dissipative bosonic systems. We show that vanishing of relative entropy production determines their selection. The condensation proceeds exponentially fast, but the system never comes to rest. Instead, the occupation numbers of condensates may oscillate, as we demonstrate for a...
Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics
Beane, S R; Cohen, S D; Detmold, W; Lin, H -W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J
2012-10-01
The low-energy neutron-{Sigma}{sup -} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m{sub pi} ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties, and strengthen theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.
Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics
S. R. Beane; E. Chang; S. D. Cohen; W. Detmold; H. -W. Lin; T. C. Luu; K. Orginos; A. Parreno; M. J. Savage; A. Walker-Loud
2012-04-16
The low-energy neutron-Sigma^- interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m_pi ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties, and strengthen theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.
Quantum integrability and Bethe ansatz solution for interacting matter-radiation systems
Anjan Kundu
2004-05-21
A unified integrable system, generating a new series of interacting matter-radiation models with interatomic coupling and different atomic frequencies, is constructed and exactly solved through algebraic Bethe ansatz. Novel features in Rabi oscillation and vacuum Rabi splitting are shown on the example of an integrable two-atom Buck-Sukumar model with resolution of some important controversies in the Bethe ansatz solution including its possible degeneracy for such models.
Quantum coherent states in cosmology
Houri Ziaeepour
2015-02-15
Coherent states consist of superposition of infinite number of particles and do not have a classical analogue. We study their evolution in a FLRW cosmology and show that only when full quantum corrections are considered, they may survive the expansion of the Universe and form a global condensate. This state of matter can be the origin of accelerating expansion of the Universe, generally called dark energy, and inflation in the early universe. Additionally, such a quantum pool may be the ultimate environment for decoherence at shorter distances. If dark energy is a quantum coherent state, its dominant contribution to the total energy of the Universe at present provides a low entropy state which may be necessary as an initial condition for a new Big Bang in the framework of bouncing cosmology models.
Erken, Ozgur; Tam, Heywood; Yang, Qiaoli
2011-01-01
Cold dark matter axions thermalize through gravitational self-interactions and form a Bose-Einstein condensate when the photon temperature reaches approximately 500 eV. Axion Bose-Einstein condensation provides an opportunity to distinguish axions from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation. The rethermalization of axions that are about to fall in a galactic potential well causes them to acquire net overall rotation, whereas ordinary cold dark matter falls in with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics of galactic halos are different in the two cases.
Ozgur Erken; Pierre Sikivie; Heywood Tam; Qiaoli Yang
2011-11-16
Cold dark matter axions thermalize through gravitational self-interactions and form a Bose-Einstein condensate when the photon temperature reaches approximately 500 eV. Axion Bose-Einstein condensation provides an opportunity to distinguish axions from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation. The rethermalization of axions that are about to fall in a galactic potential well causes them to acquire net overall rotation, whereas ordinary cold dark matter falls in with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics of galactic halos are different in the two cases.
Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Anirban Saha; Swarup Saha
2014-09-11
The response of a test particle, both for the free case and under the harmonic oscillator potential, to circularly polarized gravitational waves is investigated in a noncommutative quantum mechanical setting. The system is quantized following the prescription in \\cite{ncgw1}. Standard algebraic techniques are then employed to solve the Hamiltonian of the system. The solutions, in both cases, show signatures of the coordinate noncommutativity. In the harmonic oscillator case, this signature plays a key role in altering the resonance point and the oscillation frequency of the system.
Localization and topology protected quantum coherence at the edge of 'hot' matter
Yasaman Bahri; Ronen Vosk; Ehud Altman; Ashvin Vishwanath
2013-10-04
Topological phases are often characterized by special edge states confined near the boundaries by an energy gap in the bulk. On raising temperature, these edge states are lost in a clean system due to mobile thermal excitations. Recently however, it has been established that disorder can localize an isolated many body system, potentially allowing for a sharply defined topological phase even in a highly excited state. Here we show this to be the case for the topological phase of a one dimensional magnet with quenched disorder, which features spin one-half excitations at the edges. The time evolution of a simple, highly excited, initial state is used to reveal quantum coherent edge spins. In particular, we demonstrate, using theoretical arguments and numerical simulation, the coherent revival of an edge spin over a time scale that grows exponentially bigger with system size. This is in sharp contrast to the general expectation that quantum bits strongly coupled to a 'hot' many body system will rapidly lose coherence.
Hyperon bulk viscosity in the presence of antikaon condensate
Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay
2009-10-31
We investigate the hyperon bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process $n + p \\rightleftharpoons p + \\Lambda $ in $K^-$ condensed matter and its effect on the r-mode instability in neutron stars. We find that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient in the presence of antikaon condensate is suppressed compared with the case without the condensate. The suppressed hyperon bulk viscosity in the superconducting phase is still an efficient mechanism to damp the r-mode instability in neutron stars.
Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu
2014-12-01
We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel version of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.
Kun, S; Zhao, M H; Huang, M R
2013-01-01
The idea of a thermalized non-equilibrated state of matter offers a conceptually new understanding of the strong angular asymmetry. In this compact review we present some clarifications, corrections and further developments of the approach, and provide a brief account of results previously discussed but not reported in the literature. The cross symmetry compound nucleus $S$-matrix correlations are obtained (i) starting from the unitary $S$-matrix representation, (ii) by explicitly taking into account a process of energy equilibration, and (iii) without taking the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of particles in the thermalized system. It is conjectured that the long phase memory is due to the exponentially small total spin off-diagonal resonance intensity correlations. This manifestly implies that the strong angular asymmetry intimately relates to extremely small deviations of the eigenfunction distribution from Gaussian law. The spin diagonal resonance intensity correlations determine a new time/ene...
Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver
2013-01-01
Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...
E. Brezin; S. Hikami
1992-04-08
In the usual matrix-model approach to random discretized two-dimensional manifolds, one introduces n Ising spins on each cell, i.e. a discrete version of 2D quantum gravity coupled to matter with a central charge n/2. The matrix-model consists then of an integral over $2^{n}$ matrices, which we are unable to solve for $n>1$. However for a fixed genus we can expand in the cosmological constant g for arbitrary values of n, and a simple minded analysis of the series yields for n=0,1 and 2 the expected results for the exponent $\\gamma_{string}$ with an amazing precision given the small number of terms that we considered. We then proceed to larger values of n. Simple tests of universality are successfully applied; for instance we obtain the same exponents for n=3 or for one Ising model coupled to a one dimensional target space. The calculations are easily extended to states Potts models, through an integration over $q^{n}$ matrices. We see no sign of the tachyonic instability of the theory, but we have only considered genus zero at this stage.
Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation with Lithium-7 atoms
Yu, Yichao
2014-01-01
This thesis presents our work on developing and improving the techniques of trapping and cooling an ultra-cold cloud of Lithium-7 atoms and the realization of the Bose- Einstein condensate as a first step to study quantum ...
Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)
2008-08-15
Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.
Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates
E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta
2013-01-22
In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.
Quantum chaos and fluctuations in isolated nuclear-spin systems
Ludlow, J. A.; Sushkov, O. P. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)
2007-01-15
Using numerical simulations we investigate dynamical quantum chaos in isolated nuclear spin systems. We determine the structure of quantum states, investigate the validity of the Curie law for magnetic susceptibility and find the spectrum of magnetic noise. The spectrum is the same for positive and negative temperatures. The study is motivated by recent interest in condensed-matter experiments for searches of fundamental parity- and time-reversal-invariance violations. In these experiments nuclear spins are cooled down to microkelvin temperatures and are completely decoupled from their surroundings. A limitation on statistical sensitivity of the experiments arises from the magnetic noise.
Exact results in N=8 Chern-Simons-matter theories and quantum geometry
Santiago Codesido; Alba Grassi; Marcos Marino
2015-06-25
We show that, in ABJ(M) theories with N=8 supersymmetry, the non-perturbative sector of the partition function on the three-sphere simplifies drastically. Due to this simplification, we are able to write closed form expressions for the grand potential of these theories, which determines the full large N asymptotics. Moreover, we find explicit formulae for the generating functionals of their partition functions, for all values of the rank N of the gauge group: they involve Jacobi theta functions on the spectral curve associated to the planar limit. Exact quantization conditions for the spectral problem of the Fermi gas are then obtained from the vanishing of the theta function. We also show that the partition function, as a function of N, can be extended in a natural way to an entire function on the full complex plane, and we explore some possible consequences of this fact for the quantum geometry of M-theory and for putative de Sitter extensions.
S. Kun; Y. Li; M. H. Zhao; M. R. Huang
2013-07-17
The idea of a thermalized non-equilibrated state of matter offers a conceptually new understanding of the strong angular asymmetry. In this compact review we present some clarifications, corrections and further developments of the approach, and provide a brief account of results previously discussed but not reported in the literature. The cross symmetry compound nucleus $S$-matrix correlations are obtained (i) starting from the unitary $S$-matrix representation, (ii) by explicitly taking into account a process of energy equilibration, and (iii) without taking the thermodynamic limit of an infinite number of particles in the thermalized system. It is conjectured that the long phase memory is due to the exponentially small total spin off-diagonal resonance intensity correlations. This manifestly implies that the strong angular asymmetry intimately relates to extremely small deviations of the eigenfunction distribution from Gaussian law. The spin diagonal resonance intensity correlations determine a new time/energy scale for a validity of random matrix theory. Its definition does not involve overlaps of the many-body interacting configurations with shell model non-interacting states and thus is conceptually different from the physical meaning (inverse energy relaxation time) of the spreading widths introduced by Wigner. Exact Gaussian distribution of the resonance wave functions corresponds to the instantaneous phase relaxation. We invite the nuclear reaction community for the competition to describe, as the first challenge, the strong forward peaking in the typically evaporation part of the proton spectra. This is necessary to initiate revealing long-term misconduct in the heavily cross-disciplinary field, also important for nuclear industry applications.
Boson stars from a gauge condensate
V. Dzhunushaliev; K. Myrzakulov; R. Myrzakulov
2006-12-28
The boson star filled with two interacting scalar fields is investigated. The scalar fields can be considered as a gauge condensate formed by SU(3) gauge field quantized in a non-perturbative manner. The corresponding solution is regular everywhere, has a finite energy and can be considered as a quantum SU(3) version of the Bartnik - McKinnon particle-like solution.
Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T.
2004-01-01
of Condensate = %CR [%] Return Steam Flow Rate = SFR [lbs/hr] Installation Labor Rate = LR [$] Length of Condensate = L [ft] Pipe Cost to install condensate = Ccp [$] pipes Condensate Load to be = CL....00044 × (P) 2 + 0.154 × (P) + 1.767 Equation (1) SFR = TS × (%CR) × (%FS) Equation (2) Ccp = [62.838 × LN (SFR) + 107.14] × [1 + 0.5 × ((LR ? 60) / 60)] × L Equation (3) Use: LR = 30 if unknown & Internal Labor...
Vortex reconnections in atomic condensates at finite temperature A. J. Allen1
Zuccher, Simone
superfluid turbu- lence, a phenomenon recently also reported in trapped atomic BoseEinstein condensates, vortex dynamics, quantum turbulence, Bose-Einstein condensates, Superfluid He In classical hydrodynamics 3 He and atomic BoseEinstein condensates (BECs) is currently debated. For example, one would like
Bose-Einstein Condensate general relativistic stars
P. H. Chavanis; T. Harko
2011-08-19
We analyze the possibility that due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with arbitrary non-linearity. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. The non-relativistic and Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate can be described as a gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index one. In the framework of the Thomas-Fermi approximation the structure of the Newtonian gravitational condensate is described by the Lane-Emden equation, which can be exactly solved. The case of the rotating condensate is also discussed. General relativistic configurations with quartic non-linearity are studied numerically with both non-relativistic and relativistic equations of state, and the maximum mass of the stable configuration is determined. Condensates with particle masses of the order of two neutron masses (Cooper pair) and scattering length of the order of 10-20 fm have maximum masses of the order of 2 M_sun, maximum central density of the order of 0.1-0.3 10^16 g/cm^3 and minimum radii in the range of 10-20 km. In this way we obtain a large class of stable astrophysical objects, whose basic astrophysical parameters (mass and radius) sensitively depend on the mass of the condensed particle, and on the scattering length. We also propose that the recently observed neutron stars with masses in the range of 2-2.4 M_sun are Bose-Einstein Condensate stars.
Amplification of Fluctuations in a Spinor Bose Einstein Condensate
S. R. Leslie; J. Guzman; M. Vengalattore; J. D. Sau; M. L. Cohen; D. M. Stamper-Kurn
2008-06-10
Dynamical instabilities due to spin-mixing collisions in a $^{87}$Rb F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate are used as an amplifier of quantum spin fluctuations. We demonstrate the spectrum of this amplifier to be tunable, in quantitative agreement with mean-field calculations. We quantify the microscopic spin fluctuations of the initially paramagnetic condensate by applying this amplifier and measuring the resulting macroscopic magnetization. The magnitude of these fluctuations is consistent with predictions of a beyond-mean-field theory. The spinor-condensate-based spin amplifier is thus shown to be nearly quantum-limited at a gain as high as 30 dB.
Efimov effect in quantum magnets
Yusuke Nishida; Yasuyuki Kato; Cristian D. Batista
2013-08-23
Physics is said to be universal when it emerges regardless of the underlying microscopic details. A prominent example is the Efimov effect, which predicts the emergence of an infinite tower of three-body bound states obeying discrete scale invariance when the particles interact resonantly. Because of its universality and peculiarity, the Efimov effect has been the subject of extensive research in chemical, atomic, nuclear and particle physics for decades. Here we employ an anisotropic Heisenberg model to show that collective excitations in quantum magnets (magnons) also exhibit the Efimov effect. We locate anisotropy-induced two-magnon resonances, compute binding energies of three magnons and find that they fit into the universal scaling law. We propose several approaches to experimentally realize the Efimov effect in quantum magnets, where the emergent Efimov states of magnons can be observed with commonly used spectroscopic measurements. Our study thus opens up new avenues for universal few-body physics in condensed matter systems.
Postdoctoral fellowship Computational condensed matter / materials physics
Montréal, Université de
, in particular first-principles electronic structure calculations, ab- initio (Car-Parrinello), tight of the following topics : semiconductor structure, dynamics and relaxation; glass structure and glass transition-binding, and semi-empirical (e.g., EAM, EMT) molecular dynamics, atomistic and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, etc
COLLOQUIUM: Environmental Condensed Matter Physics | Princeton Plasma
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Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems
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Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter
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Rekik, Najeh; Freedman, Holly; Hanna, Gabriel [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Hsieh, Chang-Yu [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2013-04-14
We apply two approximate solutions of the quantum-classical Liouville equation (QCLE) in the mapping representation to the simulation of the laser-induced response of a quantum subsystem coupled to a classical environment. These solutions, known as the Poisson Bracket Mapping Equation (PBME) and the Forward-Backward (FB) trajectory solutions, involve simple algorithms in which the dynamics of both the quantum and classical degrees of freedom are described in terms of continuous variables, as opposed to standard surface-hopping solutions in which the classical degrees of freedom hop between potential energy surfaces dictated by the discrete adiabatic state of the quantum subsystem. The validity of these QCLE-based solutions is tested on a non-trivial electron transfer model involving more than two quantum states, a time-dependent Hamiltonian, strong subsystem-bath coupling, and an initial energy shift between the donor and acceptor states that depends on the strength of the subsystem-bath coupling. In particular, we calculate the time-dependent population of the photoexcited donor state in response to an ultrafast, on-resonance pump pulse in a three-state model of an electron transfer complex that is coupled asymmetrically to a bath of harmonic oscillators through the optically dark acceptor state. Within this approach, the three-state electron transfer complex is treated quantum mechanically, while the bath oscillators are treated classically. When compared to the more accurate QCLE-based surface-hopping solution and to the numerically exact quantum results, we find that the PBME solution is not capable of qualitatively capturing the population dynamics, whereas the FB solution is. However, when the subsystem-bath coupling is decreased (which also decreases the initial energy shift between the donor and acceptor states) or the initial shift is removed altogether, both the PBME and FB results agree better with the QCLE-based surface-hopping results. These findings highlight the challenges posed by various conditions such as a time-dependent external field, the strength of the subsystem-bath coupling, and the degree of asymmetry on the accuracy of the PBME and FB algorithms.
Observing the Rosensweig instability of a quantum ferrofluid
Kadau, Holger; Wenzel, Matthias; Wink, Clarissa; Maier, Thomas; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2015-01-01
Ferrofluids show unusual hydrodynamic effects due to the magnetic nature of their constituents. For increasing magnetization a classical ferrofluid undergoes a Rosensweig instability and creates self-organized ordered surface structures or droplet crystals. A Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipolar interactions is a quantum ferrofluid that also shows superfluidity. The field of dipolar quantum gases is motivated by the search for new phases that break continuous symmetries. The simultaneous breaking of continuous symmetries like the phase invariance for the superfluid state and the translational symmetry for a crystal provides the basis of novel states of matter. However, interaction-induced crystallization in a superfluid has not been observed. Here we use in situ imaging to directly observe the spontaneous transition from an unstructured superfluid to an ordered arrangement of droplets in an atomic dysprosium Bose-Einstein condensate. By utilizing a Feshbach resonance to control the interparticle inter...
Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars
David Blaschke
2014-07-28
It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.
Emergent gravitational dynamics in relativistic Bose--Einstein condensate
Alessio Belenchia; Stefano Liberati; Arif Mohd
2014-10-22
Analogue models of gravity have played a pivotal role in the past years by providing a test bench for many open issues in quantum field theory in curved spacetime such as the robustness of Hawking radiation and cosmological particle production. More recently, the same models have offered a valuable framework within which current ideas about the emergence of spacetime and its dynamics could be discussed via convenient toy models. In this context, we study here an analogue gravity system based on a relativistic Bose--Einstein condensate. We show that in a suitable limit this system provides not only an example of an emergent spacetime (with a massive and a massless relativistic fields propagating on it) but also that such spacetime is governed by an equation with geometric meaning that takes the familiar form of Nordstr{\\"o}m theory of gravitation. In this equation the gravitational field is sourced by the expectation value of the trace of the effective stress energy tensor of the quasiparticles while the Newton and cosmological constants are functions of the fundamental scales of the microscopic system. This is the first example of analogue gravity in which a Lorentz invariant, geometric theory of semiclassical gravity emerges from an underlying quantum theory of matter in flat spacetime.
Spin-Nematic Squeezing in a Quantum Gas
Hamley, C D; Hoang, T M; Bookjans, E M; Chapman, M S
2011-01-01
Exotic types of magnetic order and phases resulting from collective behaviour of quantum spins are an important focus of many-body physics. Nematic or quadrupolar ordering of spins is one such example, which breaks O(3) rotational symmetry, has no magnetic moment and is analogous to the well-known ordering of molecules in nematic phases of liquid crystals. Spin nematic phases have been posited for a variety of condensed matter systems including frustrated quantum magnets, and heavy-fermion and iron-based superconductors, although they are challenging to detect directly. Spin-1 atomic Bose-Einstein condensates provide a natural system to investigate spin-nematic quantum phases with a key advantage that the nematic tensor is directly measurable. Here, we measure spin-nematic fluctuations in a spin-1 condensate following a quench through a nematic to ferromagnetic quantum phase transition and observe quadrature squeezing in the variance of the fluctuations up to -8.3 dB (-10.3 dB corrected for detection noise) b...
Charmonium mass in nuclear matter
Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.
2003-01-01
The mass shift of charmonium states in nuclear matter is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. The leading-order effect due to the change of gluon condensate in nuclear matter is evaluated using the leading-order QCD formula, while the higher...
Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers
German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.
2012-03-01
This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.
Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer
Wawzyniak, Markus
1993-01-01
In a condenser the thickness of the liquid condensate film covering the cooled surface constitutes a resistance to the heat transfer. By establishing a non uniform electric field in the vicinity of the condensation surface the extraction of liquid...
Leptogenesis via Higgs condensate relaxation
Yang, L; Pearce, L; Kusenko, A
2015-01-01
decays of the Higgs condensate, and we present a detailedthe time-dependent Higgs condensate and the lepton- number-we include the effects of Higgs condensate decay, with both
Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report
Galli, Giulia; Bai, Zhaojun; Ceperley, David; Cai, Wei; Gygi, Francois; Marzari, Nicola; Pickett, Warren; Spaldin, Nicola; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Schwegler, Eric
2015-09-16
The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word materials is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.
THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION
IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.
2001-08-06
In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.
Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems
Heinz-Peter Breuer; Elsi-Mari Laine; Jyrki Piilo; Bassano Vacchini
2015-05-06
The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markov process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modelled by a dynamical semigroup with a generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence and correlations. Here, recent results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This article further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments on the detection, quantification and control of non-Markovian quantum dynamics are also discussed.
Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)
1983-01-01
A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.
Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.
1983-02-08
A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa
2015-04-29
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
2014-10-19
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore ťinteractions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.Ť less
Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.
2014-10-19
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.
Identifying cosmological perturbations in group field theory condensates
Gielen, Steffen
2015-01-01
One proposal for deriving effective cosmological models from theories of quantum gravity is to view the former as a mean-field (hydrodynamic) description of the latter, which describes a universe formed by a 'condensate' of quanta of geometry. This idea has been successfully applied within the setting of group field theory (GFT), a quantum field theory of 'atoms of space' which can form such a condensate. We further clarify the interpretation of this mean-field approximation, and show how it can be used to obtain a semiclassical description of the GFT, in which the mean field encodes a classical statistical distribution of geometric data. In this sense, GFT condensates are quantum homogeneous geometries that also contain statistical information about cosmological inhomogeneities. We show in the isotropic case how this information can be extracted from geometric GFT observables and mapped to quantities of observational interest. Basic uncertainty relations of (non-commutative) Fourier transforms imply that thi...
Mechanism of dropwise condensation
Umur, Aydin
1963-01-01
From a study of surface phenomena, information is obtained about conditions under which net condensation can occur. An experimental examination of the surface, using an optical method capable of detecting thin films of ...
Bilic, Neven; Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za
2008-09-15
Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.
Current quark mass and nonzero-ness of chiral condensates in thermal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
Bang-Rong Zhou
2015-06-23
The effect that the current quark mass $M_0$ may result in nonzero-ness of chiral condensates is systematically reexamined and analyzed in a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model simulating Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at temperature $T$ and finite quark chemical potential $\\mu$ without and with electrical neutrality (EN) condition and at any $T$ and $\\mu$ without EN condition. By means of a quantitative investigation of the order parameter $m$, it is shown that a nonzero $M_0$ is bound to lead to nonzero quark-antiquark condensates throughout chiral phase transitions , no matter whether the order parameter $m$ varies discontinuously or continuously. In fact, a complete disappearance of the quark-antiquark condensates are proven to demand the non-physical and unrealistic conditions $\\mu \\,\\geq$ or $\\gg\\, \\sqrt{\\Lambda^2+M_0^2}$ if $T=0$ and finite, or $T\\to \\infty$ if $\\mu<\\sqrt{\\Lambda^2+M_0^2}$, where $\\Lambda$ is the 3D momentum cut of the loop integrals. Theoretically these results show that when $M_0$ is included, we never have a complete restoration of dynamical (spontaneous) chiral symmetry breaking, including after a first order chiral phase transition at low $T$ and high $\\mu$. In physical reality, it is the nonzero-ness of the quark-antiquark condensates that leads to the appearance of a critical end point in the first order phase transition line and the crossover behavior at high $T$ and/or high $\\mu$ cases, rather than a possible tricritical point and a second order phase transition line. They also provide a basic reason for that one must consider the interplay between the chiral and diquark condensates in the research on color superconductor at zero $T$ and high $\\mu$ case. The research shows that how a source term of the Lagrangian (at present i.e. the current quark mass term) can greatly affect dynamical behavior of a physical system.
Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers
German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.
2012-03-01
The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.
P. Sikivie
2009-09-04
The hypothesis of an `invisible' axion was made by Misha Shifman and others, approximately thirty years ago. It has turned out to be an unusually fruitful idea, crossing boundaries between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. An axion with mass of order $10^{-5}$ eV (with large uncertainties) is one of the leading candidates for the dark matter of the universe. It was found recently that dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter (CDM) in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles. Because there is evidence for these phenomena, unexplained with ordinary CDM, an argument can be made that the dark matter is axions.
Quantum transport via evanescent waves in undoped graphene
M. I. Katsnelson
2011-01-13
Charge carriers in graphene are chiral quasiparticles ("massless Dirac fermions"). Graphene provides therefore an amazing opportunity to study subtle quantum relativistic effects in condensed matter experiment. Here I review a theory of one of these unusual features of graphene, a "pseudodiffusive" transport in the limit of zero charge carrier concentration, which is related to existence of zero-modes of the Dirac operator and to the Zitterbewegung of unltrarelativistic particles. A conformal mapping technique is a powerful mathematical tool to study these phenomena, as demonstrated here, using the Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene rings with Corbino geometry as an example.
Quantum transport in ultracold atoms
Chih-Chun Chien; Sebastiano Peotta; Massimiliano Di Ventra
2015-04-11
Ultracold atoms confined by engineered magnetic or optical potentials are ideal systems for studying phenomena otherwise difficult to realize or probe in the solid state because their atomic interaction strength, number of species, density, and geometry can be independently controlled. This review focuses on quantum transport phenomena in atomic gases that mirror and oftentimes either better elucidate or show fundamental differences with those observed in mesoscopic and nanoscopic systems. We discuss significant progress in performing transport experiments in atomic gases, contrast similarities and differences between transport in cold atoms and in condensed matter systems, and survey inspiring theoretical predictions that are difficult to verify in conventional setups. These results further demonstrate the versatility offered by atomic systems in the study of nonequilibrium phenomena and their promise for novel applications.
Current quark mass and nonzero-ness of chiral condensates in thermal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
Zhou, Bang-Rong
2015-01-01
The effect that the current quark mass $M_0$ may result in nonzero-ness of chiral condensates is systematically reexamined and analyzed in a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model simulating Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at temperature $T$ and finite quark chemical potential $\\mu$ without and with electrical neutrality (EN) condition and at any $T$ and $\\mu$ without EN condition. By means of a quantitative investigation of the order parameter $m$, it is shown that a nonzero $M_0$ is bound to lead to nonzero quark-antiquark condensates throughout chiral phase transitions , no matter whether the order parameter $m$ varies discontinuously or continuously. In fact, a complete disappearance of the quark-antiquark condensates are proven to demand the non-physical and unrealistic conditions $\\mu \\,\\geq$ or $\\gg\\, \\sqrt{\\Lambda^2+M_0^2}$ if $T=0$ and finite, or $T\\to \\infty$ if $\\mu<\\sqrt{\\Lambda^2+M_0^2}$, where $\\Lambda$ is the 3D momentum cut of the loop integrals. Theoretically these results show that when $M_0$ i...
Curvature Condensation and Bifurcation in an Elastic Shell Moumita Das,1
Kudrolli, Arshad
ordered and partially ordered bulk condensed matter systems such as crystals, liquid crystals, and various context of an everyday example, a thin mylar sheet is bent into a half- cylindrical elastic shell
Schive, Hsi-Yu; Broadhurst, Tom; Huang, Kuan-Wei
2015-01-01
The newly established luminosity functions of high-z galaxies at $4 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 10$ can provide a stringent check on dark matter models that aim to explain the core properties of dwarf galaxies. The cores of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are understood to be too large to be accounted for by free streaming of warm dark matter without overly suppressing the formation of such galaxies. Here we demonstrate with cosmological simulations that wave dark matter, $\\psi$DM, appropriate for light bosons such as axions, does not suffer this problem, given a boson mass of $m_{\\psi} \\ge 1.2 \\times 10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}$ ($2\\sigma$). In this case, the halo mass function is suppressed below $\\sim 10^{10}{\\,M_\\odot}$ at a level that is consistent with the high-z luminosity functions, while simultaneously generating the kpc-scale cores in dwarf galaxies arising from the solitonic ground state in $\\psi$DM. We demonstrate that the reionization history in this scenario is consistent with the Thomson optical depth recently report...
BoseEinstein condensation of quasi-equilibrium magnons at room temperature under pumping
Demokritov, S.O.
BoseEinstein condensation of quasi-equilibrium magnons at room temperature under pumping S. O BoseEinstein condensation1,2 is one of the most fascinating phenomena predicted by quantum mechanics momentum (bosons), if the particle density exceeds a critical value. To achieve BoseEinstein conden
Economical Condensing Turbines?
Dean, J. E.
1997-01-01
Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown turbines reduce the pressure... of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: ? Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon power requirements, and ? If all...
Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer
Kirsner, W.
2000-01-01
mer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterham mer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing... to seek relief from the Owner. A compromise was negotiated after the first week- steam would be de-energized at midnight before each workday, asbestos abators would start work at 4:00 a.m. and finish by noontime at which time steam would be restored...
F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan
2010-02-01
We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.
Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)
1984-01-01
A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.
Chu, Shih-I
2011-01-01
-Einstein condensate through coupling to a superconducting resonator H. T. Ng1 and Shih-I Chu1,2 1 Center for Quantum 23 August 2011) We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential separated condensates can be generated by evolving to a mixture of dark states via the dissipation
Philosophy of Mind and the Problem of Free Will in the Light of Quantum Mechanics.
Stapp, Henry P
2008-01-01
Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. (Princeton UniversityMind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics, (Springer, Berlin & NewMindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating
Nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram with strangeness
Barz, H. W.; Friman, B. L.; Knoll, J.; Schulz, H.
1989-07-01
A phenomenological equation of state of strongly interacting matter, including strange degrees of freedom, is presented. It is shown that the hyperon and kaon interactions must be included, in order to obtain a reasonable description of the deconfinement transition at high baryon densities. The consequences of kaon condensation on the nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram are explored. The relative particle abundances obtained in an isentropic expansion of a blob of quark-gluon plasma are presented for different initial conditions. Implications for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.
DiracQ: A Quantum Many-Body Physics Package
John G. Wright; B. Sriram Shastry
2013-01-20
We present a software package DiracQ, for use in quantum many-body Physics. It is designed for helping with typical algebraic manipulations that arise in quantum Condensed Matter Physics and Nuclear Physics problems, and also in some subareas of Chemistry. DiracQ is invoked within a Mathematica session, and extends the symbolic capabilities of Mathematica by building in standard commutation and anticommutation rules for several objects relevant in many-body Physics. It enables the user to carry out computations such as evaluating the commutators of arbitrary combinations of spin, Bose and Fermi operators defined on a discrete lattice, or the position and momentum operators in the continuum. Some examples from popular systems, such as the Hubbard model, are provided to illustrate the capabilities of the package.
A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate
Hakio?lu, T.; Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet
2014-04-21
Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.
The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; /Wurzburg U.; Hughes, Taylor L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.
Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse
Loss, Daniel
2008; doi:10.1038/nphys887 Although the phenomenon of BoseEinstein condensation1 is a purely statistical effect that also appears in an ideal gas, the physics of BoseEinstein condensates (BECs, stabilizing a purely dipolar quantum gas. In the case of a homogeneous BoseEinstein condensate (BEC
Condensates in Relativistic Scalar Theories
Guy D. Moore
2015-11-02
Scalar field theory with large infrared initial occupancy develops very large deep-infrared occupancy, which locally resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the structure and spatial coherence of this condensate. The O(N) symmetric theory with N>1 is qualitatively different than N=1. We explain the thermodynamical reason why, for N>1, the condensate locally carries nearly maximal conserved charge density. We also show how this property impedes the condensate's decay, and we show that it prevents the condensate from ever becoming fully spatially homogeneous. For N condensate can carry topological defects, but these do not appear to control the large-k tail in its power spectrum, which is the same for N=8 where there are no topological defects.
Adams, Allan
Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasiparticles. Two systems that have recently ...
Color Glass Condensate and Glasma
Francois Gelis
2010-09-06
In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.
Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.
Quantum Mechanical Pressure Frank Rioux
Rioux, Frank
Quantum Mechanical Pressure Frank Rioux CSB|SJU Quantum mechanics is based on the concept of wave it to its quantum mechanical equivalent. 2 2 2 2 2 p h KE m m = = Because objects with wave-like properties" character of quantum mechanical kinetic energy is the ultimate basis for the stability of matter. It also
Identifying cosmological perturbations in group field theory condensates
Steffen Gielen
2015-08-03
One proposal for deriving effective cosmological models from theories of quantum gravity is to view the former as a mean-field (hydrodynamic) description of the latter, which describes a universe formed by a 'condensate' of quanta of geometry. This idea has been successfully applied within the setting of group field theory (GFT), a quantum field theory of 'atoms of space' which can form such a condensate. We further clarify the interpretation of this mean-field approximation, and show how it can be used to obtain a semiclassical description of the GFT, in which the mean field encodes a classical statistical distribution of geometric data. In this sense, GFT condensates are quantum homogeneous geometries that also contain statistical information about cosmological inhomogeneities. We show in the isotropic case how this information can be extracted from geometric GFT observables and mapped to quantities of observational interest. Basic uncertainty relations of (non-commutative) Fourier transforms imply that this statistical description can only be compatible with the observed near-homogeneity of the Universe if the typical length scale associated to the distribution is much larger than the fundamental 'Planck' scale. As an example of effective cosmological equations derived from the GFT dynamics, we then use a simple approximation in one class of GFT models to derive the 'improved dynamics' prescription of holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology.
C. Eichler; J. Mlynek; J. Butscher; P. Kurpiers; K. Hammerer; T. J. Osborne; A. Wallraff
2015-08-26
Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states - a class of states which has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) system we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to exotic models involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.
The Slicing Theory of Quantum Measurement: Derivation of Transient Many Worlds Behavior
Clifford Chafin
2015-03-01
An emergent theory of quantum measurement arises directly by considering the particular subset of many body wavefunctions that can be associated with classical condensed matter and its interaction with delocalized wavefunctions. This transfers questions of the "strangeness" of quantum mechanics from the wavefunction to the macroscopic material itself. An effectively many-worlds picture of measurement results for long times and induces a natural arrow of time. The challenging part is then justifying why our macroscopic world is dominated by such far-from-eigenstate matter. Condensing cold mesoscopic clusters provide a pathway to a partitioning of a highly correlated many body wavefunction to long lasting islands composed of classical-like bodies widely separated in Fock space. Low mass rapidly delocalizing matter that recombines with the solids "slice" the system into a set of nearby yet very weakly interacting subsystems weighted according to the Born statistics and yields a kind of many worlds picture but with the possibility of revived phase interference on iterative particle desorption, delocalization and readsorption. A proliferation of low energy photons competes with such a possibility. Causality problems associated with correlated quantum measurement are resolved and conserved quantities are preserved for the overall many body function despite their failure in each observer's bifurcating "slice-path." The necessity of such a state for a two state logic and reliable discrete state machine suggests that later stages of the universe's evolution will destroy the physical underpinnings required for consciousness and the arrow of time even without heat-death or atomic destruction. Some exotic possibilities outside the domain of usual quantum measurement are considered such as measurement with delocalized devices and revival of information from past measurements.
Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances
Khabat Heshami; Duncan G. England; Peter C. Humphreys; Philip J. Bustard; Victor M. Acosta; Joshua Nunn; Benjamin J. Sussman
2015-11-12
Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons are a prominent consequence of superb control over interactions between light and matter, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval into photonic excitations. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This has motivated several groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications and more advanced developments of quantum memories have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation, and nonlinear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.
Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane
Larry McLerran
2010-11-14
These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.
Qubit residence time measurements with a Bose-Einstein condensate
D. Sokolovski
2009-02-23
We show that an electrostatic qubit located near a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a symmetric double-well potential can be used to measure the duration the qubit has spent in one of its quantum states. The stronq, medium and weak measurement regimes are analysed and a new type of Zeno effect is discussed. The analogy between the residence and the traversal (tunnelling) times is highlighted.
Dark galactic halos without dark matter
R. K. Nesbet
2015-03-03
Using standard Einstein theory, baryonic mass cannot account for observed galactic rotation velocities and gravitational lensing, attributed to galactic dark matter halos. In contrast, theory constrained by Weyl conformal scaling symmetry explains observed galactic rotation in the halo region without invoking dark matter. An explanation of dark halos, gravitational lensing, and structural stabilization, without dark matter and consistent with conformal theory, is proposed here. Condensation of uniform primordial matter into a material cloud or galaxy vacates a large surrounding spherical halo. Within such an extended vacancy in the original cosmic background mass-energy density, conformal theory predicts centripetal acceleration of the observed magnitude.
Strategies in Optimizing Condensate Return
Bloom, D.
2003-01-01
good drainage. ? Install receiver vents of the proper size. Receiver vent lines that are too small restrict the loss of flash steam. This in turn results in hotter condensate return temperatures and potential problems with cavitation of electric...
Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization
Jenkins, B. V.
1983-01-01
the amount of alkalinity in boiler feedwater, and thus, the amount of carbon dioxide generated by alkalinity breakdown. 3. Condensate polishing, that is, using ion exchange resin to remove and filter hardness and corrosion products, is an effective... for this decision is the individual plant's trea ment performance and operating history. Another benefit of filming amines noted some users is an improvement in heat transfer, due to the film promoting nuc ate condensation. by e An alternative to filming...
C. D. Froggatt; H. B. Nielsen
2015-05-10
It is suggested that the Tunguska event in June 1908 cm-large was due to a cm-large ball of a condensate of bound states of 6 top and 6 anti-top quarks containing highly compressed ordinary matter. Such balls are supposed to make up the dark matter as we earlier proposed. The expected rate of impact of this kind of dark matter ball with the earth seems to crudely match a time scale of 200 years between the impacts. The main explosion of the Tunguska event is explained in our picture as material coming out from deep within the earth, where it has been heated and compressed by the ball penetrating to a depth of several thousand km. Thus the effect has some similarity with volcanic activity as suggested by Kundt. We discuss the possible identification of kimberlite pipes with earlier Tunguska-like events. A discussion of how the dark matter balls may have formed in the early universe is also given.
22.51 Interaction of Radiation with Matter, Spring 2003
Chen, Sow-Hsin
Basic principles of interaction of electromagnetic radiation, thermal neutrons, and charged particles with matter. Introduces classical electrodynamics, quantum theory of radiation, time-dependent perturbation theory, ...
RHIC PHYSICS: THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA AND THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE: 4 LECTURES
MCLERRAN,L.
2003-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the RHIC heavy ion program. These center around the production of new states of matter. The Quark Gluon Plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the big bang which may be made at RHIC. The Color Glass Condensate is a universal form of matter which controls the high energy limit of strong interactions. Both such forms of matter might be produced and probed at RHIC.
I. Stern
2014-03-21
Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.
Stern, I
2014-01-01
Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.
I. Stern
2015-11-17
Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.
Topological States in Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Systems
Li, Yi
dimensional LL problems by cutting an o?-center plane in the 3D LL Hamil- tonian or an o?-center hyper
Condensed Matter Theory 6 faculty,13 grads, 3 postdocs.
Duxbury, Phillip M.
and automotive sectors. Area 2 : Develop methods to see atoms inside nanoparticles. Nanostructure center 500 nm assembly -Training program in nanostructure characterization -Industrial partners for SBIR etc -Outreach
Characterisation of Soft Condensed Matter and Delicate Materials Using Environmental
Weeks, Eric R.
is the need for high vacuum conditions (10ą5 ą10ą7 torr) throughout the system, in order to prevent, emulsions, food systems and so on, contain water, oil or other volatile substances that evaporate under high vacuum. Preparation of such specimens may therefore involve dehydration, chemical fixing, and freeze
Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Soft Condensed Matter
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network Shaping of InherentInstitute (NTI):CNMSDesign
Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and...
Leptogenesis via neutrino production during Higgs condensate relaxation
Pearce, L; Yang, L; Kusenko, A; Peloso, M
2015-01-01
of the time-dependent condensate, the vacuum state caneffective when the Higgs condensate decays rapidly and attime-dependent scalar condensate to the lepton (and baryon)
Return Condensate to the Boiler | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Return Condensate to the Boiler Return Condensate to the Boiler This tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems...
Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces
Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)
2009-01-01
Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...
Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2
Xu, Ren-Xin
Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2 , Wei Liu1 and En-Guang Zhao2 1 a new phase structure of neutron star matter including nucleons and delta isobars is presented. Particle fractions populated and pion condensations in neutron star matter are investgated in this model
Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion
Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2010-11-15
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.
Atom loss from the $^{85}$Rb Bose-Einstein condensate by a Feshbach resonance
V. A. Yurovsky; A. Ben-Reuven
2003-08-22
Loss of atoms from a $^{85}$Rb condensate on passage through a Feshbach resonance is analyzed using the generalized parametric approximation that takes into account quantum many-body effects. These effects lead to a substantial increase of the losses. A better agreement with experiments is achieved, compared to predictions of mean-field theories. The method provides much insight into the quantum effects involved, and on the nature of entangled atom pairs produced by the loss.
Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience
Swainsbury, D. [Mission Energy Management Australia, Victoria (Australia)
1995-01-01
This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.
Yoo, S. J. Ben
OF THE FIRST ELECTRON MICROSCOPE & DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE ELECTRON AND SCANNING OF ATOMS 6. 2000 DEVELOPMENT OF SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROSTRUCTURES USED IN HIGH-SPEED- AND OPTO-ELECTRONICS. 1997 DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO COOL AND TRAP ATOMS WITH LASER LIGHT LASER TRAPPING OF ATOMS 9. 1996
Long-lived periodic revivals of coherence in an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Egorov, M.; Ivannikov, V.; Opanchuk, B.; Drummond, P.; Hall, B. V.; Sidorov, A. I. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics and Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Anderson, R. P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics and Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)
2011-08-15
We observe the coherence of an interacting two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) surviving for seconds in a trapped Ramsey interferometer. Mean-field-driven collective oscillations of two components lead to periodic dephasing and rephasing of condensate wave functions with a slow decay of the interference fringe visibility. We apply spin echo synchronous with the self-rephasing of the condensate to reduce the influence of state-dependent atom losses, significantly enhancing the visibility up to 0.75 at the evolution time of 1.5 s. Mean-field theory consistently predicts higher visibility than experimentally observed values. We quantify the effects of classical and quantum noise and infer a coherence time of 2.8 s for a trapped condensate of 5.5x10{sup 4} interacting atoms.
A fluid mechanical explanation of dark matter
Carl H. Gibson
1999-04-22
Matter in the universe has become ``dark'' or ``missing'' through misconceptions about the fluid mechanics of gravitational structure formation. Gravitational condensation occurs on non-acoustic density nuclei at the largest Schwarz length scale L_{ST}, L_{SV}, L_{SM}, L_{SD} permitted by turbulence, viscous, or magnetic forces, or by the fluid diffusivity. Non-baryonic fluids have diffusivities larger (by factors of trillions or more) than baryonic (ordinary) fluids, and cannot condense to nucleate baryonic galaxy formation as is usually assumed. Baryonic fluids begin to condense in the plasma epoch at about 13,000 years after the big bang to form proto-superclusters, and form proto-galaxies by 300,000 years when the cooling plasma becomes neutral gas. Condensation occurs at small planetary masses to form ``primordial fog particles'' from nearly all of the primordial gas by the new theory, Gibson (1996), supporting the Schild (1996) conclusion from quasar Q0957+651A,B microlensing observations that the mass of the lens galaxy is dominated by ``rogue planets ... likely to be the missing mass''. Non-baryonic dark matter condenses on superclusters at scale L_{SD} to form massive super-halos.
Forced-convection condensation inside tubes
Traviss, Donald P.
1971-01-01
High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...
The syllabus of the Course 624 Quantum Mechanics 2
The syllabus of the Course 624 Quantum Mechanics 2 Spring 2009. Instructor V.L. Pokrovsky. 1. Many-body quantum mechanics. Second quantization. Spin and statistics. Bose- Einstein condensation. 6's phase. Landau-Zener theory. Principal textbook: E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics, 3-d edition, Wiley
Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario
Jaume de Haro; Jaume Amorós
2014-11-27
It is shown that teleparallel $F({\\mathcal T})$ theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked thatthese bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.
Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport by Ananth P. Chikkatur Submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport
Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette
Taekoon Lee
2015-03-27
The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.
Vortices in condensate mixtures Christophe Josserand
Vortices in condensate mixtures Christophe Josserand Laboratoire de Mod´elisation en M Statistique de l'Ecole normale sup´erieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris C´edex 05, France In a condensate made of this observation. Thus if the two condensates are in slow relative translation one over the other, the composite
Color Glass Condensate and its relation to HERA physics
Edmond Iancu
2009-01-08
I give a brief overview of the effective theory for the Color Glass Condensate, which is the high-density gluonic matter which controls high-energy scattering in QCD in the vicinity of the unitarity limit. I concentrate on fundamental phenomena, like gluon saturation, unitarization, and geometric scaling, and the way how these are encoded in the formalism. I emphasize the importance of the next-to-leading order corrections, especially the running of the coupling, for both conceptual and phenomenological issues. I survey the implications of the CGC theory for the HERA physics and its phenomenological applications based on saturation models.
Heavy-quark expansion for D and B mesons in nuclear matter
Thomas Buchheim; Thomas Hilger; Burkhard Kampfer
2014-10-01
The planned experiments at FAIR enable the study of medium modifications of $D$ and $B$ mesons in (dense) nuclear matter. Evaluating QCD sum rules as a theoretical prerequisite for such investigations encounters heavy-light four-quark condensates. We utilize an extended heavy-quark expansion to cope with the condensation of heavy quarks.
Quasi-Nambu-Goldstone Modes in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Uchino, Shun [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kobayashi, Michikazu [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Ueda, Masahito [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Project, JST, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2010-12-03
We show that quasi-Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes, which play prominent roles in high energy physics but have been elusive experimentally, can be realized with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. The quasi-NG modes emerge when the symmetry of a ground state is larger than that of the Hamiltonian. When they appear, the conventional vacuum manifold should be enlarged. Consequently, topological defects that are stable within the conventional vacuum manifold become unstable and decay by emitting the quasi-NG modes. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, we show that the topological defects are stabilized by quantum fluctuations that make the quasi-NG modes massive, thereby suppressing their emission.
Joseph Silk
2010-01-08
One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.
Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate
Mäntysaari, Heikki
2015-01-01
In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available exp...
Holographic Superconductors with Various Condensates
Gary T. Horowitz; Matthew M. Roberts
2008-11-04
We extend earlier treatments of holographic superconductors by studying cases where operators of different dimension condense in both 2+1 and 3+1 superconductors. We also compute a correlation length. We find surprising regularities in quantities such as $\\omega_g/T_c$ where $\\omega_g$ is the gap in the frequency dependent conductivity. In special cases, new bound states arise corresponding to vector normal modes of the dual near-extremal black holes.
Color Glass Condensate and Glasma
F. Gelis
2012-11-26
We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.
Non-Abelian condensates as alternative for dark energy
Gal'tsov, Dmitri V
2009-01-01
We review basic features of cosmological models with large-scale classical non-Abelian Yang-Mills (YM) condensates. There exists a unique SU(2) YM configuration (generalizable to larger gauge groups) compatible with homogeneity and isotropy of the three-space which is parameterized by a single scalar field. In the past various aspects of Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) cosmology were discussed in the context of the Early Universe. Due to conformal invariance, solvable EYM FRW models exist both on the classical and quantum levels. To develop the YM model for dark energy one has to find mechanisms of the conformal symmetry breaking. We discuss the Born-Infeld generalization and some phenomenological models motivated by quantum corrections exploring possibility of transient DE and phantom regimes.
Non-Abelian condensates as alternative for dark energy
Dmitri V. Gal'tsov
2008-12-31
We review basic features of cosmological models with large-scale classical non-Abelian Yang-Mills (YM) condensates. There exists a unique SU(2) YM configuration (generalizable to larger gauge groups) compatible with homogeneity and isotropy of the three-space which is parameterized by a single scalar field. In the past various aspects of Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) cosmology were discussed in the context of the Early Universe. Due to conformal invariance, solvable EYM FRW models exist both on the classical and quantum levels. To develop the YM model for dark energy one has to find mechanisms of the conformal symmetry breaking. We discuss the Born-Infeld generalization and some phenomenological models motivated by quantum corrections exploring possibility of transient DE and phantom regimes.
Extreme-UV lithography condenser
Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)
2001-01-01
Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.
Dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetric triple-well trap
T. F. Viscondi; K. Furuya
2010-11-04
We present a complete analysis of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a symmetric triple-well potential. Our classical analogue treatment, based on a time-dependent variational method using SU(3) coherent states, includes the parameter dependence analysis of the equilibrium points and their local stability, which is closely related to the condensate collective behaviour. We also consider the effects of off-site interactions, and how these "cross-collisions" may become relevant for a large number of trapped bosons. Besides, we have shown analytically, by means of a simple basis transformation in the single-particle space, that an integrable sub-regime, known as twin-condensate dynamics, corresponds in the classical phase space to invariant surfaces isomorphic to the unit sphere. However, the quantum dynamics preserves the twin-condensate defining characteristics only partially, thus breaking the invariance of the associated quantum subspace. Moreover, the periodic geometry of the trapping potential allowed us to investigate the dynamics of finite angular momentum collective excitations, which can be suppressed by the emergence of chaos. Finally, using the generalized purity associated to the su(3) algebra, we were able to quantify the dynamical classicality of a quantum evolved system, as compared to the corresponding classical trajectory.
Spatially Separated and Correlated Atom-molecule Lasers from a Bose Condensate
Hui Jing; Wei Cai; Jing-Jun Xu; Ming-Sheng Zhan
2005-12-26
We propose a feasible scheme to create two spatially separated atomic and molecular beams from an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate by combining the Raman-type atom laser output and the two-color photo-association processes. We examine the quantum dynamics and statistical properties of the system under short-time limits, especially the quadrature-squeezed and mode-correlated behaviors of two output beams for different initial state of the condensate. The possibility to generate the entangled atom-molecule lasers by an optical technique was also discussed.
Modified uncertainty principle from the free expansion of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Elías Castellanos; Celia Escamilla-Rivera
2015-09-21
We develop a theoretical and numerical analysis of the free expansion of a Bose-Einstein condensate, in which we assume that the single particle energy spectrum is deformed due to a possible quantum structure of space time. Also we consider the presence of inter particle interactions in order to study more realistic and specific scenarios. The modified free velocity expansion of the condensate leads in a natural way to a modification of the uncertainty principle, which allows us to investigate some possible features of the Planck scale regime in low-energy earth-based experiments.
From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Kristina Giesel; Hanno Sahlmann
2013-01-02
We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.
Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter
F. A. Brito; M. L. F. Freire; W. Serafim
2014-11-20
In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase
Non-singular bounce scenarios in loop quantum cosmology and the effective field description
Cai, Yi-Fu; Wilson-Ewing, Edward E-mail: wilson-ewing@phys.lsu.edu
2014-03-01
A non-singular bouncing cosmology is generically obtained in loop quantum cosmology due to non-perturbative quantum gravity effects. A similar picture can be achieved in standard general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a non-standard kinetic term such that at high energy densities the field evolves into a ghost condensate and causes a non-singular bounce. During the bouncing phase, the perturbations can be stabilized by introducing a Horndeski operator. Taking the matter content to be a dust field and an ekpyrotic scalar field, we compare the dynamics in loop quantum cosmology and in a non-singular bouncing effective field model with a non-standard kinetic term at both the background and perturbative levels. We find that these two settings share many important properties, including the result that they both generate scale-invariant scalar perturbations. This shows that some quantum gravity effects of the very early universe may be mimicked by effective field models.
Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity
Agostino Prástaro
2015-03-23
Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.
Bio-oil fractionation and condensation
Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony
2013-07-02
A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.
Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto
2006-04-12
When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative...
Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia
2002-01-01
condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...
Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria
Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric
2015-01-01
Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.
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Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation
Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)
1990-01-01
A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.
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Zlatko Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS GENERAL PHYSICS CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY COPPER...
Chih-Chun Chien; Massimiliano Di Ventra; Michael Zwolak
2014-07-30
We compare the Landauer, Kubo, and microcanonical [J. Phys. Cond. Matter {\\bf 16}, 8025 (2004)] approaches to quantum transport for the average current, the entanglement entropy and the semiclassical full-counting statistics (FCS). Our focus is on the applicability of these approaches to isolated quantum systems such as ultra-cold atoms in engineered optical potentials. For two lattices connected by a junction, we find that the current and particle number fluctuations from the microcanonical approach compare well with the values predicted by the Landauer formalism and FCS assuming a binomial distribution. However, we demonstrate that well-defined reservoirs (i.e., particles in Fermi-Dirac distributions) are not present for a substantial duration of the quasi-steady state. Thus, the Landauer assumption of reservoirs and/or inelastic effects is not necessary for establishing a quasi-steady state. Maintaining such a state indefinitely requires an infinite system, and in this limit well-defined Fermi-Dirac distributions can occur. A Kubo approach -- in the spirit of the microcanonical picture -- bridges the gap between the two formalisms, giving explicit analytical expressions for the formation of the steady state. The microcanonical formalism is designed for closed, finite-size quantum systems and is thus more suitable for studying particle dynamics in ultra-cold atoms. Our results highlight both the connection and differences with more traditional approaches to calculating transport properties in condensed matter systems, and will help guide the way to their simulations in cold-atom systems.
Chemical Potential Dependence of Chiral Quark Condensate in Dyson-Schwinger Equation Approach of QCD
Lei Chang; Huan Chen; Bin Wang; Wei Yuan; Yu-xin Liu
2006-11-06
We propose a chemical potential dependent effective gluon propagator and study the chiral quark condensate in strongly interacting matter in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equation approach. The obtained results manifest that, as the effect of the chemical potential on the effective gluon propagator is taken into account, the chiral quark condensate decreases gradually with the increasing of the chemical potential if it is less than the critical value, and the condensate vanishes suddenly at the critical chemical potential. The inclusion of the chemical potential in the effective gluon propagator enhances the decreasing rate and decreases the critical chemical potential. It indicates that the chiral symmetry can be restored completely at a critical chemical potential and restored partially as the chemical potential is less than the critical value. If the effective gluon propagator is independent of the chemical potential, the chiral symmetry can only be restored suddenly but no gradual restoration.
Vacuum energy: quantum hydrodynamics vs quantum gravity
G. E. Volovik
2005-09-09
We compare quantum hydrodynamics and quantum gravity. They share many common features. In particular, both have quadratic divergences, and both lead to the problem of the vacuum energy, which in the quantum gravity transforms to the cosmological constant problem. We show that in quantum liquids the vacuum energy density is not determined by the quantum zero-point energy of the phonon modes. The energy density of the vacuum is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the liquid including the radius of the liquid droplet. In the same manner the cosmological constant is not determined by the zero-point energy of quantum fields. It is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the Universe dynamics: the Hubble radius, the Newton constant and the energy density of matter. The same may hold for the Higgs mass problem: the quadratically divergent quantum correction to the Higgs potential mass term is also cancelled by the microscopic (trans-Planckian) degrees of freedom due to thermodynamic stability of the whole quantum vacuum.
The Condensate from Torus Knots
A. Gorsky; A. Milekhin; N. Sopenko
2015-06-22
We discuss recently formulated instanton-torus knot duality in $\\Omega$-deformed 5D SQED on $\\mathbb{R}^4 \\times S^1$ focusing at the microscopic aspects of the condensate formation in the instanton ensemble. Using the chain of dualities and geometric transitions we embed the SQED with a surface defect into the $SU(2)$ SQCD with $N_f=4$ and identify the numbers $(n,m)$ of the torus $T_{n,m}$ knot as instanton charge and electric charge. The HOMFLY torus knot invariants in the fundamental representation provide entropic factor in the condensate of the massless flavor counting the degeneracy of the instanton--W-boson web with instanton and electric numbers $(n,m)$ but different spin and flavor content. Using the inverse geometrical transition we explain how our approach is related to the evaluation of the HOMFLY invariants in terms of Wilson loop in 3d CS theory. The reduction to 4D theory is briefly considered and some analogy with baryon vertex is conjectured.
Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing interference between two Bose condensates [1]. They were created by cooling atoms the condensates expand for 40 milliseconds and overlap (see figure). This demonstrates that Bose condensed atoms
Chiral-Symmetry Breaking in Pseudo Quantum Electrodynamics at Finite Temperature
Leandro O. Nascimento; Van Sérgio Alves; Francisco Peńa; C. Morais Smith; E. C. Marino
2015-11-04
We use the Schwinger-Dyson equations in the presence of a thermal bath, in order to study chiral symmetry breaking in a system of massless Dirac fermions interacting through pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED3), in (2+1) dimensions. We show that there is a critical temperature $T_c$, below which chiral symmetry is broken, and a corresponding mass gap is dynamically generated, provided the coupling is above a certain, temperature dependent, critical value $\\alpha_c$. The ratio between the energy gap and the critical temperature for this model is estimated to be $2 \\pi$. These results are confirmed by analytical and numerical investigations of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the electron. In addition, we calculate the first finite-temperature corrections to the static Coulomb interaction. The relevance of this result in the realm of condensed matter systems, like graphene, is briefly discussed.
Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate
Heikki Mäntysaari
2015-06-24
In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available experimental data. In addition to single particle production, the correlations between two hadrons at forward rapidity are computed. The RHIC measurements are shown to be naturally explainable in the CGC framework, and the previous CGC calculations are improved by including the so called inelastic and double parton scattering contributions. This improvement is shown to be required in order to get results compatible with the experimentally measured correlations. Exclusive vector meson production, which can be a powerful tool to study the gluonic structure of nuclei at small Bjorken-$x$, is also considered. The cross sections are calculated within the CGC framework in the context of a future electron-ion collider. In particular, the cross section for incoherent diffractive vector meson production is derived and a centrality estimator for this process is proposed.
Quark condensate in two-flavor QCD
Thomas DeGrand; Zhaofeng Liu; Stefan Schaefer
2006-11-03
We compute the condensate in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions using numerical simulation. The simulations use overlap fermions, and the condensate is extracted by fitting the distribution of low lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in sectors of fixed topological charge to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory.
Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants
Akhtar, S. Z.
2001-01-01
Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...
Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A Chaotic Potential
Moran, Roxanne Kimberly
2013-01-01
Smith, Bose-Einstein Condensates in Dilute Gases (CambridgeDipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A ChaoticDipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A Chaotic
Quark condensate for various heavy flavors
Dmitri Antonov; Jose Emilio F. T. Ribeiro
2012-10-04
The quark condensate is calculated within the world-line effective-action formalism, by using for the Wilson loop an ansatz provided by the stochastic vacuum model. Starting with the relation between the quark and the gluon condensates in the heavy-quark limit, we diminish the current quark mass down to the value of the inverse vacuum correlation length, finding in this way a 64%-decrease in the absolute value of the quark condensate. In particular, we find that the conventional formula for the heavy-quark condensate cannot be applied to the c-quark, and that the corrections to this formula can reach 23% even in the case of the b-quark. We also demonstrate that, for an exponential parametrization of the two-point correlation function of gluonic field strengths, the quark condensate does not depend on the non-confining non-perturbative interactions of the stochastic background Yang-Mills fields.
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 19 JUNE 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2012 Dynamical d-wave condensation of
Loss, Daniel
interacting particles. Prime examples are superfluidity in helium1 , atomic BoseEinstein condensation2 , s of excitonpolaritons are eight to nine orders of magnitude higher than those of atomic BoseEinstein in semiconductor quantum wells embedded in a planar microcavity structure. They behave as degenerate Bose gases
Synthesize Neutron-Drip-Line-Nuclides with Free-Neutron Bose-Einstein Condensates Experimentally
Bao-Guo Dong
2014-09-22
We first show a possible way to create a new type of matter, free-neutron Bose-Einstein condensate by the ultracold free-neutron-pair Bose-Einstein condensation and then determine the neutron drip line experimentally. The Bose-Einstein condensation of bosonic and fermionic atoms in atomic gases was performed experimentally and predicted theoretically early. Neutrons are similar to fermionic atoms. We found free neutrons could be cooled to ultracold neutrons with very low energy by other colder neutral atoms which are cooled by the laser. These neutrons form neutron pairs with spin zero, and then ultracold neutron-pairs form Bose-Einstein condensate. Our results demonstrate how these condensates can react with accelerated ion beams at different energy to synthesize very neutron-rich nuclides near, on or/and beyond the neutron drip line, to determine the neutron drip line and whether there are long-life nuclide or isomer islands beyond the neutron drip line experimentally. Otherwise, these experimental results will confirm our prediction that is in the whole interacting region or distance of nuclear force in all energy region from zero to infinite, Only repulsive nuclear force exists among identical nucleons and only among different nucleons exists attractive nuclear force.
Synthesize Neutron-Drip-Line-Nuclides with Free-Neutron Bose-Einstein Condensates Experimentally
Dong, Bao-Guo
2014-01-01
We first show a possible way to create a new type of matter, free-neutron Bose-Einstein condensate by the ultracold free-neutron-pair Bose-Einstein condensation and then determine the neutron drip line experimentally. The Bose-Einstein condensation of bosonic and fermionic atoms in atomic gases was performed experimentally and predicted theoretically early. Neutrons are similar to fermionic atoms. We found free neutrons could be cooled to ultracold neutrons with very low energy by other colder neutral atoms which are cooled by the laser. These neutrons form neutron pairs with spin zero, and then ultracold neutron-pairs form Bose-Einstein condensate. Our results demonstrate how these condensates can react with accelerated ion beams at different energy to synthesize very neutron-rich nuclides near, on or/and beyond the neutron drip line, to determine the neutron drip line and whether there are long-life nuclide or isomer islands beyond the neutron drip line experimentally. Otherwise, these experimental results ...
Nucleation and condensation model development
Fry, H.; Lyman, J.; Breshears, D.; Zerkle, D.; Wilson, C.; Hewitt, C.; Gallegos, D.
1996-09-01
This is a final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to bring to maturity a theoretical and experimental capability of the Laboratory to perform basic research in nucleation and condensation of water vapor. This report provides a general description of this capability and summarizes specific work in two areas: development and use of a combustive flow facility (CFF) to measure water monomer depletion in a supersonic nozzle and nucleation pulse experiments for investigation of transport effects on water droplet growth dynamics. The later work was performed in collaboration with Dr. Wehrner Strey in Goettingen, Germany. Preliminary water absorption data from the CFF experiment are presented. The nucleation pulse data is described along with an analysis that shows under the condition of the experiment the growth rate of water droplets is limited by monomer diffusion.
Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Journal Article: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured...
Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Uninsulated steam distribution and condensate return lines are a constant source of wasted energy. The table shows typical...
Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss; Industrial Technologies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
3 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Inspect the condensate traps and determine if they are operating properly. * Review your condensate removal...
Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate (Journal...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Authors: Qu, Xiaopeng 1 ;...
Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's...
Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Actions Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. Consider the following actions: If a condensate return system is absent,...
Anticipating Patentable Subject Matter
Burk, DL
2015-01-01
February 2013] PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER patentabilityimports into patent laws subject matter provisions theunder either novelty or subject matter. The proper question
Quantum emitters dynamically coupled to a quantum field
Acevedo, O. L.; Quiroga, L.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Johnson, N. F.
2013-12-04
We study theoretically the dynamical response of a set of solid-state quantum emitters arbitrarily coupled to a single-mode microcavity system. Ramping the matter-field coupling strength in round trips, we quantify the hysteresis or irreversible quantum dynamics. The matter-field system is modeled as a finite-size Dicke model which has previously been used to describe equilibrium (including quantum phase transition) properties of systems such as quantum dots in a microcavity. Here we extend this model to address non-equilibrium situations. Analyzing the systems quantum fidelity, we find that the near-adiabatic regime exhibits the richest phenomena, with a strong asymmetry in the internal collective dynamics depending on which phase is chosen as the starting point. We also explore signatures of the crossing of the critical points on the radiation subsystem by monitoring its Wigner function; then, the subsystem can exhibit the emergence of non-classicality and complexity.
Static Response of Neutron Matter
Buraczynski, Mateusz
2015-01-01
We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully non-perturbative microscopic Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems.
Dynamical tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate in periodically driven systems
R. K. Shrestha; J. Ni; W. K. Lam; G. S. Summy; S. Wimberger
2013-09-13
We report measurements of dynamical tunneling rates of a Bose-Einstein condensate across a barrier in classical phase space. The atoms are initially prepared in quantum states that extend over a classically regular island region. We focus on the specific system of quantum accelerator modes of the kicked rotor in the presence of gravity. Our experimental data is supported by numerical simulations taking into account imperfections mainly from spontaneous emission. Furthermore, we predict experimentally accessible parameter ranges over which direct tunneling could be readily observed if spontaneous emission was further suppressed. Altogether, we provide a proof-of-principle for the experimental accessibility of dynamical tunneling rates in periodically driven systems.
Quantum Chaos & Quantum Computers
D. L. Shepelyansky
2000-06-15
The standard generic quantum computer model is studied analytically and numerically and the border for emergence of quantum chaos, induced by imperfections and residual inter-qubit couplings, is determined. This phenomenon appears in an isolated quantum computer without any external decoherence. The onset of quantum chaos leads to quantum computer hardware melting, strong quantum entropy growth and destruction of computer operability. The time scales for development of quantum chaos and ergodicity are determined. In spite the fact that this phenomenon is rather dangerous for quantum computing it is shown that the quantum chaos border for inter-qubit coupling is exponentially larger than the energy level spacing between quantum computer eigenstates and drops only linearly with the number of qubits n. As a result the ideal multi-qubit structure of the computer remains rather robust against imperfections. This opens a broad parameter region for a possible realization of quantum computer. The obtained results are related to the recent studies of quantum chaos in such many-body systems as nuclei, complex atoms and molecules, finite Fermi systems and quantum spin glass shards which are also reviewed in the paper.
Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Masayasu Tsuge
2009-03-24
A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.
Quantum phase transition of condensed bosons in optical lattices
Jun-Jun Liang; J. -Q. Liang; W. -M. Liu
2004-03-23
In this paper we study the superfluid-Mott-insulator phase transition of ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice by means of Green function method and Bogliubov transformation as well. The superfluid- Mott-insulator phase transition condition is determined by the energy-band structure with an obvious interpretation of the transition mechanism. Moreover the superfluid phase is explained explicitly from the energy spectrum derived in terms of Bogliubov approach.
Crystalline chiral condensates as a component of compact stars
S. Carignano; E. J. Ferrer; V. de la Incera; L. Paulucci
2015-11-04
We investigate the influence of spatially inhomogeneous chiral symmetry-breaking condensates in a magnetic field background on the equation of state for compact stellar objects. After building a hybrid star composed of nuclear and quark matter using the Maxwell construction, we find, by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for stellar equilibrium, that our equation of state supports stars with masses around 2 $M_\\odot$ for values of the magnetic field that are in accordance with those inferred from magnetar data. The inclusion of a weak vector interaction term in the quark part allows one to reach 2 solar masses for relatively small central magnetic fields, making this composition a viable possibility for describing the internal degrees of freedom of this class of astrophysical objects.
Crystalline chiral condensates as a component of compact stars
Carignano, S; de la Incera, V; Paulucci, L
2015-01-01
We investigate the influence of spatially inhomogeneous chiral symmetry-breaking condensates in a magnetic field background on the equation of state for compact stellar objects. After building a hybrid star composed of nuclear and quark matter using the Maxwell construction, we find, by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for stellar equilibrium, that our equation of state supports stars with masses around 2 $M_\\odot$ for values of the magnetic field that are in accordance with those inferred from magnetar data. The inclusion of a weak vector interaction term in the quark part allows to reach 2 solar masses for relatively small central magnetic fields, making this composition a viable possibility for describing the internal degrees of freedom of this class of astrophysical objects.
Crystalline chiral condensates as a component of compact stars
S. Carignano; E. J. Ferrer; V. de la Incera; L. Paulucci
2015-05-19
We investigate the influence of spatially inhomogeneous chiral symmetry-breaking condensates in a magnetic field background on the equation of state for compact stellar objects. After building a hybrid star composed of nuclear and quark matter using the Maxwell construction, we find, by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for stellar equilibrium, that our equation of state supports stars with masses around 2 $M_\\odot$ for values of the magnetic field that are in accordance with those inferred from magnetar data. The inclusion of a weak vector interaction term in the quark part allows to reach 2 solar masses for relatively small central magnetic fields, making this composition a viable possibility for describing the internal degrees of freedom of this class of astrophysical objects.
Jacopo Bechi
2009-09-25
This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate.
Deconfinement phase transition and the quark condensate
Christian S. Fischer
2009-07-27
We study the dual quark condensate as a signal for the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of QCD. This order parameter for center symmetry has been defined recently by Bilgici et al. within the framework of lattice QCD. In this work we determine the ordinary and the dual quark condensate with functional methods using a formulation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark propagator on a torus. The temperature dependence of these condensates serves to investigate the interplay between the chiral and deconfinement transitions of quenched QCD.
Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels
Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2006-03-15
Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.
A disoriented chiral condensate search at the Fermilab Tevatron
Convery, M.E.
1997-05-01
MiniMax (Fermilab T-864) was a small test/experiment at the Tevatron designed to search for disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) in the forward direction. Relativistic quantum field theory treats the vacuum as a medium, with bulk properties characterized by long-range order parameters. This has led to suggestions that regions of {open_quotes}disoriented vacuum{close_quotes} might be formed in high-energy collision processes. In particular, the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD could lead to regions of vacuum which have chiral order parameters disoriented to directions which have non-zero isospin, i.e. disoriented chiral condensates. A signature of DCC is the resulting distribution of the fraction of produced pions which are neutral. The MiniMax detector at the C0 collision region of the Tevatron was a telescope of 24 multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC`s) with a lead converter behind the eighth MWPC, allowing the detection of charged particles and photon conversions in an acceptance approximately a circle of radius 0.6 in pseudorapidity-azimuthal-angle space, centered on pseudorapidity {eta} {approx} 4. An electromagnetic calorimeter was located behind the MWPC telescope, and hadronic calorimeters and scintillator were located in the upstream anti-proton direction to tag diffractive events.
Chaotic dynamics in a periodically driven spin-1 condensate
Cheng Jing [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)
2010-02-15
We use periodically modulated magnetic fields to drive spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and study the corresponding spin-mixing dynamics. Due to the time-dependent driving, this system permits chaotic dynamics depending on the drive parameters, which could not occur in previous studies. From the investigation of the Poincare sections, we find there exist complex trajectories in the phase space, leading to very complicated structures of the phase space with mixed regular and chaotic regions. By calculating the quasienergy levels of the corresponding Floquet operators, the signatures of quantum chaos are also found in this system. The level spacing distribution is very close to the Poisson distribution or Wigner distribution when the corresponding classical dynamics is regular or chaotic.
Large scale quantum mechanical enzymology
Lever, Greg
2014-10-07
the problems of another community. One such example is when the importance of structural Introduction 5 heterogeneity in proteins was first revealed through experiments on myoglobin [16], using the cryogenic tools available to condensed matter physicists... it in fact be best to work relative to the calculated freezing point ? Whichever field it is applied to and whatever science underlies it, the testing of a simulation method is a vital part of any investigation and is a central theme in this dissertation. 1...
Measuring the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas undergoing a structural phase transition
Renate Landig; Ferdinand Brennecke; Rafael Mottl; Tobias Donner; Tilman Esslinger
2015-03-18
The dynamic structure factor is a central quantity describing the physics of quantum many-body systems, capturing structure and collective excitations of a material. In condensed matter, it can be measured via inelastic neutron scattering, which is an energy-resolving probe for the density fluctuations. In ultracold atoms, a similar approach could so far not be applied due to the diluteness of the system. Here, we report on a direct, real-time and non-destructive measurement of the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas exhibiting cavity-mediated long-range interactions. The technique relies on inelastic scattering of photons, stimulated by the enhanced vacuum field inside a high finesse optical cavity. We extract the density fluctuations, their energy and lifetime while the system undergoes a structural phase transition. We observe an occupation of the relevant quasi-particle mode on the level of a few excitations, and provide a theoretical description of this dissipative quantum many-body system.
Transport in inhomogeneous quantum critical fluids and in the Dirac fluid in graphene
Andrew Lucas; Jesse Crossno; Kin Chung Fong; Philip Kim; Subir Sachdev
2015-10-06
We develop a general hydrodynamic framework for computing direct current thermal and electric transport in a strongly interacting finite temperature quantum system near a Lorentz-invariant quantum critical point. Our framework is non-perturbative in the strength of long wavelength fluctuations in the background charge density of the electronic fluid, and requires the rate of electron-electron scattering to be faster than the rate of electron-impurity scattering. We use this formalism to compute transport coefficients in the Dirac fluid in clean samples of graphene near the charge neutrality point, and find results insensitive to long range Coulomb interactions. Numerical results are compared to recent experimental data on thermal and electrical conductivity in the Dirac fluid in graphene and substantially improved quantitative agreement over existing hydrodynamic theories is found. We comment on the interplay between the Dirac fluid and acoustic and optical phonons, and qualitatively explain experimentally observed effects. Our work paves the way for quantitative contact between experimentally realized condensed matter systems and the wide body of high energy inspired theories on transport in interacting many-body quantum systems.
Unconventional transformation of spin Dirac phase across a topological quantum phase transition
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Xu, Su -Yang; Neupane, Madhab; Belopolski, Ilya; Liu, Chang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Jia, Shuang; Landolt, Gabriel; Slomski, Batosz; Dil, J. Hugo; et al
2015-04-17
The topology of a topological material can be encoded in its surface states. These surface states can only be removed by a bulk topological quantum phase transition into a trivial phase. Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to image the formation of protected surface states in a topological insulator as we chemically tune the system through a topological transition. Surprisingly, we discover an exotic spin-momentum locked, gapped surface state in the trivial phase that shares many important properties with the actual topological surface state in anticipation of the change of topology. Using a spin-resolved measurement, we show that apart from amore ťsurface bandgap these states develop spin textures similar to the topological surface states well before the transition. Our results provide a general paradigm for understanding how surface states in topological phases arise from a quantum phase transition and are suggestive for the future realization of Weyl arcs, condensed matter supersymmetry and other fascinating phenomena in the vicinity of a quantum criticality.Ť less
A fluid mechanical explanation of dark matter
Gibson, C H
1999-01-01
Matter in the universe has become ``dark'' or ``missing'' through misconceptions about the fluid mechanics of gravitational structure formation. Gravitational condensation occurs on non-acoustic density nuclei at the largest Schwarz length scale L_{ST}, L_{SV}, L_{SM}, L_{SD} permitted by turbulence, viscous, or magnetic forces, or by the fluid diffusivity. Non-baryonic fluids have diffusivities larger (by factors of trillions or more) than baryonic (ordinary) fluids, and cannot condense to nucleate baryonic galaxy formation as is usually assumed. Baryonic fluids begin to condense in the plasma epoch at about 13,000 years after the big bang to form proto-superclusters, and form proto-galaxies by 300,000 years when the cooling plasma becomes neutral gas. Condensation occurs at small planetary masses to form ``primordial fog particles'' from nearly all of the primordial gas by the new theory, Gibson (1996), supporting the Schild (1996) conclusion from quasar Q0957+651A,B microlensing observations that the mass ...
Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps
Kyoo-Chul Park; Philseok Kim; Neil He; Joanna Aizenberg
2015-01-14
Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared to superhydrophobic surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and innovative design of bumps can be applied to lead enhanced performance in various phase change applications including water harvesting.
Osmotic pressure of matter and vacuum energy
G. E. Volovik
2009-10-04
The walls of the box which contains matter represent a membrane that allows the relativistic quantum vacuum to pass but not matter. That is why the pressure of matter in the box may be considered as the analog of the osmotic pressure. However, we demonstrate that the osmotic pressure of matter is modified due to interaction of matter with vacuum. This interaction induces the nonzero negative vacuum pressure inside the box, as a result the measured osmotic pressure becomes smaller than the matter pressure. As distinct from the Casimir effect, this induced vacuum pressure is the bulk effect and does not depend on the size of the box. This effect dominates in the thermodynamic limit of the infinite volume of the box. Analog of this effect has been observed in the dilute solution of 3He in liquid 4He, where the superfluid 4He plays the role of the non-relativistic quantum vacuum, and 3He atoms play the role of matter.
Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential
Zhang, Zhao
2015-01-01
The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.
Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces
Miljkovic, Nenad
In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...
Condensation heat transfer on nanoengineered surfaces
Paxson, Adam Taylor
2011-01-01
This thesis presents a series of three related studies with the aim of developing a surface that promotes robust dropwise condensation. Due to their remarkably low droplet adhesion, superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated ...
Advanced materials for enhanced condensation heat transfer
Paxson, Adam Taylor
2014-01-01
This thesis investigates the use of three classes advanced materials for promoting dropwise condensation: 1. robust hydrophobic functionalizations 2. superhydrophobic textures 3. lubricant-imbibed textures We first define ...
Hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for condensation applications
Lopez, Ken, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2012-01-01
Many existing industrial systems, including thermal desalination plants and air conditioning systems, involve the process of condensation and are heavily dependent on this process for achieving adequate levels of energy ...
Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces
Miljkovic, Nenad
Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight ...
Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential
Zhao Zhang; Qing Miao
2015-07-26
The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.
Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study
Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.
2011-01-01
Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...
Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading
Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.
1996-01-01
A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...
Cold condensation of dust in the ISM
Rouillé, Gaël; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas
2015-01-01
The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...
Modeling and Optimization of Superhydrophobic Condensation
Miljkovic, Nenad
Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding water droplets via coalescence-induced ...
Quantum chaos and order based on classically moving reference frames
Hai Wenhua [Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, Hunan (China); Xie Qiongtao; Fang Jianshu [Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)
2005-07-15
We develop a mathematically consistent approach for treating the quantum systems based on moving classical reference frames. The classical and quantum exact solutions show excellently classical-quantum correspondence, in which the quantum chaotic coherent states correspond to the classically chaotic motions. Applying the approach to the periodically driven linear and nonlinear oscillators, the regular and chaotic quantum states and quantum levels, and the quantum chaotic regions are evidenced. The results indicate that chaos may cause the collapse of matter wave packets and suppress the quantum effect of energy.
ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR AND SYMMETRY OF CONDENSATE SOLUTIONS IN ELECTROWEAK THEORY
Spirn, Daniel
ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR AND SYMMETRY OF CONDENSATE SOLUTIONS IN ELECTROWEAK THEORY ROBIN MING CHEN, YUJIN GUO, AND DANIEL SPIRN ABSTRACT. We study condensate solutions of a nonlinear elliptic equation of condensate solutions are discussed, based on which the refined asymptotic behavior of condensate solutions
Gluon Condensate in Pion Superfluid beyond Mean Field Approximation
Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang
2011-03-04
We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid, through calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.
Chikkatur, Ananth P.
2006-02-22
In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose- Einstein condensates. The second set
Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility
Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.
2008-08-15
Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.
Comprehensive Savings in Condensate Return Systems
Viola, E. J.
1999-01-01
SAVINGS IN CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS Eugene 1. Viola Market Specialist Swagelok Solon, Ohio ABSTRACT Every steam system is plagued by problems from malfunctioning steam traps. Effects of such problems can easily lead to downtime, loss of production... and reliably monitor the performance of condensate collection and, in turn, improves the overall efficiency of the entire steam distribution system. Overall efficiency in steam systems not only reduces energy usage but also significantly diminishes long...
Time and Matter An International Colloquium on the Science of Time
Time and Matter An International Colloquium on the Science of Time August 11 - 17, 2002 at Venice International University, Italy Topics: Precise measurements of time Arrow of time in classical and quantum physics Tunneling time and various paradoxa in quantum physics Matter, antimatter and microscopic time
Daniele Musso
2012-10-20
The non-perturbative dynamics of quantum field theories is studied using theoretical tools inspired by string formalism. Two main lines are developed: the analysis of stringy instantons in a class of four-dimensional N=2 gauge theories and the holographic study of the minimal model for a strongly coupled unbalanced superconductor. The field theory instanton calculus admits a natural and efficient description in terms of D-brane models. In addition, the string viewpoint offers the possibility of generalizing the ordinary instanton configurations. Even though such generalized, or stringy, instantons would be absent in a purely field-theoretical, low-energy treatment, we demonstrate that they do alter the IR effective description of the brane dynamics by introducing contributions related to the string scale. In the first part of this thesis we compute explicitly the stringy instanton corrections to the effective prepotential in a class of quiver gauge theories. In the second part of the thesis, we present a detailed analysis of the minimal holographic setup yielding an effective description of a superconductor with two Abelian currents. The model contains a scalar field whose condensation produces a spontaneous symmetry breaking which describes the transition to a superfluid phase. This system has important applications in both QCD and condensed matter physics; moreover, it allows us to study mixed electric-spin transport properties (i.e. spintronics) at strong coupling.
Everitt, Henry
established in atomic and molecular sys- tems [1Â3]. Control of coherent behavior in condensed matter systems that such problems are not insurmountable, and that control of coherent phenomena in condensed matter systems-flow horizontal reactor on double polished c-plane sapphire [15]. It consists of a ten period, 12 nm per period
QUANTUM CHAOS IN QUANTUM NETWORKS()
Shepelyansky, Dima
QUANTUM CHAOS IN QUANTUM NETWORKS() Chepelianskii Alexei LycÂ´ee Pierre de Fermat and Quantware MIPS Computers and Quantum Chaos", June 28 - 30, 2001, Villa Olmo, Como, Italy #12;SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE RESULTS Quantum chaos in a quantum small world We introduce and study a quantum small world model
Neutrino matter potentials induced by Earth
J. Linder
2006-01-15
An instructive method of deriving the matter potentials felt by neutrinos propagating through matter on Earth is presented. This paper thoroughly guides the reader through the calculations involving the effective weak Hamiltonian for lepton and quark scattering. The matter potentials are well-known results since the late 70's, but a detailed and pedagogical calculation of these quantities is hard to find. We derive potentials due to charged and neutral current scattering on electrons, neutrons and protons. Intended readership is for undergraduates/graduates in the fields of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. In addition to the derivation of the potentials for neutrinos, we explicitely study the origin of the reversed sign for potentials in the case of antineutrino-scattering.
Z. Haghshenasfard; M. H. Naderi; M. Soltanolkotabi
2008-01-16
In this paper, we investigate the propagation of a weak optical probe pulse in an f-deformed Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC) of a gas with the -type three- level atoms in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) regime. We use an f- deformed generalization of an effective two- level quantum model of the three- level configuration in which the Gardiner phonon operators for BEC are deformed by an operator- valued function, f(n), of the particle- number operator n. With making use of the quantum approach of the angular momentum theory we obtain the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the system up to first order approximation. We consider the collisions between the atoms as a special kind of f- deformation. The collision rate k is regarded as the deformation parameter and light propagation in the deformed BEC is analyzed. In particular, we show that the absorptive and dispersive properties of the deformed condensate can be controlled effectively by changing the deformation parameter k and the total number of atoms. We find that by increasing the value of k the group velocity of the probe pulse changes, through deformed condensate, from subluminal to superluminal.
New Horizons in Gravity: The Trace Anomaly, Dark Energy and Condensate Stars
Mottola, Emil
2010-01-01
General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degrees of freedom in the extended effective field theory of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. The origin of these conformal scalar degrees of freedom as massless poles in two-particle intermediate states of anomalous amplitudes in flat space is exposed. At event horizons the conformal anomaly scalar degrees of freedom can have macroscopically large effects on the geometry, potentially removing the classical event horizon of black hole and cosmological spacetimes, replacing them with a quantum boundary layer where the effective value of the gravitational vacuum energy density can change. In the effective theory, the cosmological term becomes a dynamical condensate, whose value depends upon boundary conditions near the horizon. In the conformal phase where the anomaly induced fluctutations dominate, and the conden...
Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation
Yong-Yi Huang
2015-02-12
The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.
Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression
Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.
2004-09-15
Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.
April 22, 2011 Institute for Quantum Matter
von der Heydt, Rüdiger
Spectroscopy ˇ Neutron (SNS, NIST) ˇ THz photon (JHU) ˇ Micro waves (JHU) ˇ Raman (JHU) ˇ Angle Resolved Photo #12;Spectroscopy at National facilities Spallation Neutron Source, ORNL Advanced Light Source, LBNL NIST Center for Neutron Research #12;Accomplishments 2008-present ˇ The Experimental Frontier Cold
Stringing together quantum phases of matter
classification is provided by nature of excitations with vanishing energy: 1. Gapped systems without zero energy classification is provided by nature of excitations with vanishing energy: 1. Gapped systems without zero energy classification is provided by nature of excitations with vanishing energy: 1. Gapped systems without zero energy
Color superconductivity and dense quark matter
Massimo Mannarelli
2008-12-26
The properties of cold and dense quark matter have been the subject of extensive investigation, especially in the last decade. Unfortunately, we still lack of a complete understanding of the properties of matter in these conditions. One possibility is that quark matter is in a color superconducting phase which is characterized by the formation of a diquark condensate. We review some of the basic concepts of color superconductivity and some of the aspects of this phase of matter which are relevant for compact stars. Since quarks have color, flavor as well as spin degrees of freedom many different color superconducting phases can be realized. At asymptotic densities QCD predicts that the color flavor locked phase is favored. At lower densities where the QCD coupling constant is large, perturbative methods cannot be applied and one has to rely on some effective model, eventually trying to constrain such a model with experimental observations. The picture is complicated by the requirement that matter in the interior of compact stars is in weak equilibrium and neutral. These conditions and the (possible) large value of the strange quark mass conspire to separate the Fermi momenta of quarks with different flavors, rendering homogenous superconducting phases unstable. One of the aims of this presentation is to introduce non-experts in the field to some of the basic ideas of color superconductivity and to some of its open problems.
Landau-Peierls instability in a Fulde-Ferrell type inhomogeneous chiral condensed phase
Tong-Gyu Lee; Eiji Nakano; Yasuhiko Tsue; Toshitaka Tatsumi; Bengt Friman
2015-04-13
We investigate the stability of an inhomogeneous chiral condensed phase against low energy fluctuations about a spatially modulated order parameter. This phase corresponds to the so-called dual chiral density wave in the context of quark matter, where the chiral condensate is spatially modulated with a finite wavevector in a single direction. From the symmetry viewpoint, the phase realizes a locking of flavor and translational symmetries. Starting with a Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson effective Lagrangian, we find that the associated Nambu-Goldstone modes, whose dispersion relations are spatially anisotropic and soft in the direction normal to the wavevector of the modulation, wash out the long-range order at finite temperatures, but support algebraically decaying long-range correlations. This implies that the phase can exhibit a quasi-one-dimensional order as in liquid crystals.
Color superconductivity with determinant interaction in strange quark matter
Amruta Mishra; Hiranmaya Mishra
2006-08-28
We investigate the effect of six fermion determinant interaction on color superconductivity as well as on chiral symmetry breaking. Coupled mass gap equations and the superconducting gap equation are derived through the minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. The effect of nonzero quark -- antiquark condensates on the superconducting gap is derived. This becomes particularly relevant for the case of 2-flavor superconducting matter with unpaired strange quarks in the diquark channel. While the effect of six fermion interaction leads to an enhancement of u-d superconductivity, due to nonvanishing strange quark--antiquark condensates, such an enhancement will be absent at higher densities for u-s or d-s superconductivity due to early (almost) vanishing of light quark-- antiquark condensates.
Z. Haghshenasfard; M. H. Naderi; M. Soltanolkotabi
2008-07-11
In this paper, we investigate the spectrum of light scattered from a Bose-Einstein condensate in the framework of f-deformed boson. We use an f-deformed quantum model in which the Gardiners phonon operators for BEC are deformed by an operator-valued function, f(n), of the particle-number operator n. We consider the collisions between the atoms as a special kind of f-deformation. The collision rate k is regarded as the deformation parameter and the spectrum of light scattered from the deformed BEC is analyzed. In particular, we find that with increasing the values of deformation parameters k and eta=1/N (N, total number of condensate atoms) the scattering spectrum shows deviation from the spectrum associated with nondeformed Bose-Einstein condensate.
Loss, Daniel
Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. *e-mail: cchen3 (a), polished at both ends, shaped into a 2-mm-diameter ring and pressed against the polycrystalline
Light-gas effect on steam condensation
Anderson, M.H.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigcaiones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)
1997-12-01
In a postulated reactor accident, the loss of coolant results in a release of high-temperature steam into the containment. Under these circumstances steam condensation onto containment walls provides an effective mechanism of energy removal. However, the presence of noncondensable gas is known to degrade the heat transfer. It has also been found that the introduction of a light noncondensable gas has little effect until sufficient quantities are present to disrupt the buoyancy forces. Our investigation shows the dramatic effect of high concentrations of light gas decreasing steam condensation rates under anticipated accident conditions for AP600, with helium as the simulant for hydrogen.
Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface
Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)
2007-07-03
Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.
Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface
Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun
2006-07-25
Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.
$?$-particle condensate states in $^{16}$O
S. Ohkubo; Y. Hirabayashi
2011-02-09
The existence of a rotational band with the $\\alpha$+$^{12}$C($0_2^+$) cluster structure, in which three $\\alpha$ particles in $^{12}$C($0_2^+$) are locally condensed, is demonstrated near the four-$\\alpha$ threshold of $^{16}$O in agreement with experiment. This is achieved by studying structure and scattering for the $\\alpha$+$^{12}$C($0_2^+$) system in a unified way. A drastic reduction (quenching) of the moment of the inertia of the $0^+$ state at 15.1 MeV just above the four-$\\alpha$ threshold in $^{16}$O suggests that it could be a candidate for the superfluid state in $\\alpha$-particle condensation.
Zach Medin; Dong Lai
2008-01-18
For sufficiently strong magnetic fields and/or low temperatures, the neutron star surface may be in a condensed state with little gas or plasma above it. Such surface condensation can significantly affect the thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, and may lead to the formation of a charge-depleted acceleration zone ("vacuum gap") in the magnetosphere above the stellar polar cap. Using the latest results on the cohesive property of magnetic condensed matter, we quantitatively determine the conditions for surface condensation and vacuum gap formation in magnetic neutron stars. We find that condensation can occur if the thermal energy kT of the neutron star surface is less than about 8% of its cohesive energy Q_s, and that a vacuum gap can form if the neutron star's rotation axis and magnetic moment point in opposite directions and kT is less than about 4% of Q_s. Thus, vacuum gap accelerators may exist for some neutron stars. Motivated by this result, we also study the physics of pair cascades in the vacuum gap model for photon emission by accelerating electrons and positrons due to both curvature radiation and resonant/nonresonant inverse Compton scattering. Our calculations of the condition of cascade-induced vacuum breakdown and the related pulsar death line/boundary generalize previous works to the superstrong field regime. We find that inverse Compton scatterings do not produce a sufficient number of high energy photons in the gap and thus do not lead to pair cascades for most neutron star parameters. We discuss the implications of our results for the recent observations of neutron star thermal radiation as well as for the detection/non-detection of radio emission from high-B pulsars and magnetars.
Finite-temperature phase diagram of a polarized Fermi condensate
Loss, Daniel
at zero temperature on the molecular BoseEinstein condensate side. On this basis, we argue investigation of the crossover from a BoseEinstein condensate (BEC) of diatomic molecules to the Bardeen
Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor
Kroger, Detlev Gustav
1966-01-01
The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...
Feasibility of waterflooding Soku E7000 gas-condensate reservoir
Ajayi, Arashi
2002-01-01
We performed a simple 3D compositional reservoir simulation study to examine the possibility of waterflooding the Soku E7 gas-condensate reservoir. This study shows that water injection results in higher condensate recovery than natural depletion...
Film condensation of liquid metals -- precision of measurement
Wilcox, Stanley James
1969-01-01
Major differences exist in results published by investigators of film condensation of liquid metal vapors. In particular, the reported dependence of the condensation coefficient on pressure has raised questions about both ...
Transient direct-contact condensation on liquid droplets
Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.
1987-01-01
In this paper, direct-contact condensation on subcooled liquid droplets is studied in two parts. In the first part, simple design correlations for the condensation in a steady environment are developed based upon a conduction model. These correlations include the convective heat-transfer coefficient, condensation rate, total condensation, and the droplet-thermalization time. In the second part of the paper, the effect of a time-dependent saturation temperature on the condensation process is investigated. A rapid decrease in saturation temperature is typical of condensation environments in which the steam-supply rate is limited and condensation-induced depressurization becomes important. Design correlations are developed for condensation in an environment in which the saturation temperature decreases linearly with time. These correlations are graphically compared to the design correlations of the first part through a quasi-steady approach. The error associated with this approach is quantified as a function of the rate of change of the saturation temperature.
Energy Conservation-As it Applies to Condensate Return Systems
Sneary, M. L.
1985-01-01
Valuable heat energy in condensate is wasted when it is vented to the atmosphere in the form of flash steam at many condensate pumping stations. This heat energy may be recovered and put to use if the pumping station can ...
Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers and Heat Exchangers
Someah, K.
1991-01-01
The on-line Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) for condensers and heat exchangers provide a positive means for automatic cleaning on a continuous basis, while the exchanger or condenser remains "on stream" and at ...
Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates
El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.
1992-01-01
condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates...
Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers & Heat Exchangers
Someah, K.
1993-01-01
Condenser tube fouling contributes up to 50% of the total condenser tube heat transfer resistance. This fouling results in reduced heat exchanger performance, reduced production, increased operational cost, increased back pressure, increased tube...
Fayer, Michael D.
Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense?Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean?What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why does it matter?Why does it matter? #12;Classical Mechanics
Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers
California at Davis, University of
Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10
Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation
B. G. Sidharth
1998-06-10
It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.
Di-Antiquarks condensation in Color Superconductivity
Fabio L. Braghin
2006-11-30
Some consequences of a classical vector field (chromo-electromagnetic field) coupled to quarks, which undergo to superfluid and/or superconductive states with diquark / diantiquark condensation, are investigated. For this, one scalar field exchange is considered in the lines investigated by Pisarski and Rischke \\cite{PISARSKI-RISCHKE} in the mean field approach. Some effects and possible consequences are discussed.
Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells
Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola
2004-09-30
This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production...
Proof of Concept: Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter
Delene, David J.
North Dakota project. The solid circle is the mean value, the horizontal line is the 50th percentile Price High Price #12;Research Applications ˇ One commercially available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. ˇ Available since 2002 ˇ Sold over 100 Units, Mostly Labs ˇ Price is Approximately $70
Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.
An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options
Risko, J. R.
1999-01-01
, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 POTENTIAL INSTALLAnON DESIGNS -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Steam Trap (Figure A). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Level Pot (Figure B). -Steam Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate Level Control... (Figure C). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve and Level Override (Figure D). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve for Drainage and Set Point Control (Figure E). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate PumplTrap Drainage (Figure F). An in...
Mean evaporation and condensation coefficients based on energy dependent condensation probability
Struchtrup, Henning
Maurice Bond and Henning Struchtrup* Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P. Ward, Phys. Rev. E 59, 419 (1999)]. It is shown that mean condensation and evaporation coefficients
Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-
2003-01-01
In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...
Coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop in an extended NJL model
Zhao Zhang; Yu-Xin Liu
2007-05-09
The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with a Polyakov loop is extended to finite isospin chemical potential case, which is characterized by simultaneous coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop. The pion condensate, chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop as functions of temperature and isospin chemical potential are investigated by minimizing the thermodynamic potential of the system. The resulting $(T,\\mu_I)$ phase diagram is studied with emphasis on the critical point and Polyakov loop dynamics. The tricritical point for the pion superfluidity phase transition is confirmed and the phase transition for isospin symmetry restoration in high isospin chemical potential region perfectly coincides with the crossover phase transition for Polyakov loop. These results are in agreement with the Lattice QCD data.
Quantum gravitational dust collapse does not result in a black hole
Cenalo Vaz
2014-12-22
Quantum gravity suggests that the paradox recently put forward by Almheiri et. al. (AMPS) can be resolved if matter does not undergo continuous collapse to a singularity but condenses on the apparent horizon. One can then expect a quasi-static object to form even after the gravitational field has overcome any degeneracy pressure of the matter fields. We consider dust collapse. If the collapse terminates on the apparent horizon, the Misner-Sharp mass function of the dust ball is predicted and we construct static solutions with no tangential pressure that would represent such a compact object. The collapse wave functions indicate that there will be processes by which energy extraction from the center occurs. These leave behind a negative point mass at the center which contributes to the total energy of the system but has no effect on the the energy density of the dust ball. The solutions describe a compact object whose boundary lies outside its Schwarzschild radius and which is hardly distinguishable from a neutron star.
WHAT IS LIFE - Sub-cellular Physics of Live Matter
Antti J. Niemi
2014-12-29
This is a set of lectures that I presented at the Les Houches 2014 Summer School "Topological Aspects in Condensed Matter Physics". The lectures are an introduction to physics of proteins. To physicists, and by a physicist. My lectures at les Houches were also celebration of the anniversary of Schroedinger's 1944 lectures, and for that reason I decided to share my title with his book.
Fermi points and topological quantum phase transitions in a model of superconducting wires
T. O. Puel; P. D. Sacramento; M. A. Continentino
2015-06-01
The importance of models with an exact solution for the study of materials with non-trivial topological properties has been extensively demonstrated. Among these, the Kitaev model of a one-dimensional $p$-wave superconductor plays a guiding role in the search for Majorana modes in condensed matter systems. Also, the $sp$ chain, with an anti-symmetric mixing among the $s$ and $p$ bands provides a paradigmatic example of a topological insulator with well understood properties. There is an intimate relation between these two models and in particular their topological quantum phase transitions share the same universality class. Here we consider a two-band $sp$ model of spinless fermions with an attractive (inter-band) interaction. Both the interaction and hybridization between the $s$ and $p$ fermions are anti-symmetric. The zero temperature phase diagram of the model presents a variety of phases including a Weyl superconductor, topological insulator and trivial phases. The quantum phase transitions between these phases can be either continuous or discontinuous. We show that the transition from the topological superconducting phase to the trivial one has critical exponents different from those of an equivalent transition in Kitaev's model.
REVIEW ARTICLE FOCUS BoseEinstein condensation in
Loss, Daniel
REVIEW ARTICLE FOCUS BoseEinstein condensation in magnetic insulators The BoseEinstein condensate-mail: thierry.giamarchi@physics.unige.ch; c.ruegg@ucl.ac.uk; olegt@jhu.edu Not long after Bose and Einstein . It is thus natural to ask whether these bosons can undergo Bose Einstein condensation and become superfluid
Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate
Loss, Daniel
ARTICLES Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate MING-SHIEN CHANG, QISHU QIN, WENXIAN, for example, a BoseEinstein condensate or a degenerate Fermi gas, the phase space accessible to low of coherent spin-changing collisions in a gas of spin-1 bosons. Starting with condensates occupying two spin
A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance
Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah
, SPE-~~~ SPE 21428 A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance A of depletion performance of gas condensate reservoirs report the existence of a A variable cell model for simulating gas relatively high, near-constant, oil saturation in condensate reeervoir performance has been
How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow
Loss, Daniel
ARTICLES How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow JUNG-JUNG SU* AND A. H. MACDONALD Department@physics.utexas.edu. Published online: 24 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1055 Among the many examples of Bose condensation considered in physics, electronhole-pair (exciton) condensation has maintained special interest because
Diffraction of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the time domain
Colombe, Yves; Mercier, Brigitte; Perrin, Helene; Lorent, Vincent
2005-12-15
We have observed the diffraction of a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms on a vibrating mirror potential. The matter wave packet bounces back at normal incidence on a blue-detuned evanescent light field after a 3.6 mm free fall. The mirror vibrates at a frequency of 500 kHz with an amplitude of 3 nm. The atomic carrier and side bands are directly imaged during their ballistic expansion. The locations and the relative weights of the diffracted atomic wave packets are in very good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Henkel et al. [J. Phys. II 4, 1877 (1994)].
ANTENNA-COUPLED LIGHT-MATTER INTERACTIONS
NOVOTNY, LUKAS
2014-01-10
This project is focused on antenna-coupled photon emission from single quantum emitters. The properties of optical antennas are tailored to control different photophysical parameters, such as the excited state lifetime, the saturation intensity, and the quantum yield [3]. Using a single molecule coupled to an optical antenna whose position and properties can be controllably adjusted we established a detailed and quantitative understanding of light-matter interactions in nanoscale environments. We have studied various quantum emitters: single molecules [11], quantum dots [7], rareearth ions [2], and NV centers in diamond [19]. We have systematically studied the interaction of these emitters with optical antennas. The overall objective was to establish a high-level of control over the light-matter interaction. In order to eliminate the coupling to the environment, we have taken a step further and explored the possibility of levitating the quantum emitter in high vacuum. What started as a side-project soon became a main activity in our research program and led us to the demonstration of vacuum trapping and cooling of a nanoscale particle [14].
Jain, Piyush; Cinti, Fabio; Boninsegni, Massimo [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)
2011-07-01
Low-temperature properties of harmonically confined two-dimensional assemblies of dipolar bosons are systematically investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Calculations carried out for different numbers of particles and strengths of the confining potential yield evidence of a quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a crystal-like phase, consistently with what is observed in the homogeneous system. It is found that the crystal phase nucleates in the center of the trap, as the density increases. Bose-Einstein condensation vanishes at T=0 upon entering the crystalline phase, concurrently with the disappearance of the superfluid response.
Gao-Chan Yong
2015-12-18
It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.
Yong, Gao-Chan
2015-01-01
It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.
Atomic ionization by keV-scale pseudoscalar dark-matter particles
Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Pospelov, M.
2010-05-15
Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we calculate the rates of atomic ionization by absorption of pseudoscalar particles in the mass range from 10 to {approx}50 keV. We present numerical results for atoms relevant for the direct dark-matter searches (e.g. Ar, Ge, I and Xe), as well as the analytical formula which fits numerical calculations with few per cent accuracy and may be used for multielectron atoms, molecules and condensed matter systems.
Relativistic Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the cosmological Bose Einstein Condensation
Takeshi Fukuyama; Masahiro Morikawa
2006-01-30
We do not know 96% of the total matter in the universe at present. In this paper, a cosmological model is proposed in which Dark Energy (DE) is identified as Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) of some boson field. Global cosmic acceleration caused by this BEC and multiple rapid collapses of BEC into black holes etc. (=Dark Matter (DM)) are examined based on the relativistic version of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We propose (a) a novel mechanism of inflation free from the slow-rolling condition, (b) a natural solution for the cosmic coincidence ('Why Now?') problem through the transition from DE into DM, (c) very early formation of highly non-linear objects such as black holes, which might trigger the first light as a form of quasars, and (d) log-z periodicity in the subsequent BEC collapsing time. All of these are based on the steady slow BEC process.
Influence of current mass on the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate
Shinji Maedan
2009-12-18
It is known that, in the chiral limit, spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density within a mean-field approximation. We study here how an introduction of current quark mass affects the ground state with the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate. Numerical calculations show that, even if the current quark mass is introduced, the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate can take place. In order to obtain the ground state, the thermodynamic potential is calculated with a mean-field approximation. The influence of finite current mass on the thermodynamic potential consists of following two parts. One is a part coming from the field energy of the condensate, which favors inhomogeneous chiral condensate. The other is a part coming from the Dirac sea and the Fermi sea, which favors homogeneous chiral condensate. We also find that when the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs, the baryon number density becomes spatially inhomogeneous.
Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F
2015-01-01
Quantum trapping potentials for ultracold gases change the landscape of classical properties of scattered light and matter. The atoms in a quantum many-body correlated phase of matter change the properties of light and vice versa. The properties of both light and matter can be tuned by design and depend on the interplay between long-range (nonlocal) interactions mediated by an optical cavity and short-range processes of the atoms. Moreover, the quantum properties of light get significantly altered by this interplay, leading the light to have nonclassical features. Further, these nonclassical features can be designed and optimised.
Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization
Kullberg, Craig M.
2004-05-11
A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.
Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases
Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM)
2002-01-01
A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.
Collecting and Using Condensate on Site
Glawe, D.
2013-01-01
o n D e c e m b e r 1 8 , 2 0 1 3 D i a n a D . G l a w e , P h D , P E , L E E D A P E n g i n e e r i n g S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t Collecting & using condensate on site ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air... the other way around too saving energy saves water) ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 On site water sources Condensate Rainwater Cooling...
Fast transport of Bose-Einstein condensates
E. Torrontegui; Xi Chen; M. Modugno; S. Schmidt; A. Ruschhaupt; J. G. Muga
2011-03-13
We propose an inverse method to accelerate without final excitation the adiabatic transport of a Bose Einstein condensate. The method, applicable to arbitrary potential traps, is based on a partial extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants, and provides transport protocols that satisfy exactly the no-excitation conditions without constraints or approximations. This inverse method is complemented by optimizing the trap trajectory with respect to different physical criteria and by studying the effect of noise.
Pion condensation in a dense neutrino gas
Hiroaki Abuki; Tomas Brauner; Harmen J. Warringa
2009-08-26
We argue that using an equilibrated gas of neutrinos it is possible to probe the phase diagram of QCD for finite isospin and small baryon chemical potentials. We discuss this region of the phase diagram in detail and demonstrate that for large enough neutrino densities a Bose-Einstein condensate of positively charged pions arises. Moreover, we show that for nonzero neutrino density the degeneracy in the lifetimes and masses of the charged pions is lifted.
Quantum metric fluctuations and Hawking radiation
R. Parentani
2000-09-05
In this Letter we study the gravitational interactions between outgoing configurations giving rise to Hawking radiation and in-falling configurations. When the latter are in their ground state, the near horizon interactions lead to collective effects which express themselves as metric fluctuations and which induce dissipation, as in Brownian motion. This dissipation prevents the appearance of trans-Planckian frequencies and leads to a description of Hawking radiation which is very similar to that obtained from sound propagation in condensed matter models.
De finetti theorems, mean-field limits and bose-Einstein condensation
Nicolas Rougerie
2015-06-17
These notes deal with the mean-field approximation for equilibrium states of N-body systems in classical and quantum statistical mechanics. A general strategy for the justification of effective models based on statistical independence assumptions is presented in details. The main tools are structure theorems {\\`a} la de Finetti, describing the large N limits of admissible states for these systems. These rely on the symmetry under exchange of particles, due to their indiscernability. Emphasis is put on quantum aspects, in particular the mean-field approximation for the ground states of large bosonic systems, in relation with the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon. Topics covered in details include: the structure of reduced density matrices for large bosonic systems, Fock-space localization methods, derivation of effective energy functionals of Hartree or non-linear Schr{\\"o}dinger type, starting from the many-body Schr{\\"o}dinger Hamiltonian.
Théorčmes de de Finetti, limites de champ moyen et condensation de Bose-Einstein
Nicolas Rougerie
2015-02-13
These lecture notes treat the mean-field approximation for equilibrium states of N body systems in classical and quantum statistical mechanics. A general strategy to justify effective models based on assumptions of statistical independence of the particles is in presented in detail. The main tools are a structure theorems of de Finetti that describe large N limits of states accessible to the systems in question, exploiting the indistinguishablity of particles. The focus is on quantum aspects, particularly the mean-field approximation for the ground state of a large system of bosons, in connection with Bose-Einstein condensation: structure of reduced density matrices of a large bosonic system, localization methods in Fock space, derivation of Hartree and non-linear Schr\\"odinger effective energy functionals.
Carlos Barcelo; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser
2003-08-14
Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) have recently been the subject of considerable study as possible analogue models of general relativity. In particular it was shown that the propagation of phase perturbations in a BEC can, under certain conditions, closely mimic the dynamics of scalar quantum fields in curved spacetimes. In two previous articles [gr-qc/0110036, gr-qc/0305061] we noted that a varying scattering length in the BEC corresponds to a varying speed of light in the ``effective metric''. Recent experiments have indeed achieved a controlled tuning of the scattering length in Rubidium 85. In this article we shall discuss the prospects for the use of this particular experimental effect to test some of the predictions of semiclassical quantum gravity, for instance, particle production in an expanding universe. We stress that these effects are generally much larger than the Hawking radiation expected from causal horizons, and so there are much better chances for their detection in the near future.
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
Adi Armoni; Biagio Lucini; Agostino Patella; Claudio Pica
2008-09-29
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lessons for the unquenched case are discussed.
Measuring non-condensable gases in steam
Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2013-11-15
In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.
Quantum Chaos and Quantum Algorithms
Daniel Braun
2001-10-05
It was recently shown (quant-ph/9909074) that parasitic random interactions between the qubits in a quantum computer can induce quantum chaos and put into question the operability of a quantum computer. In this work I investigate whether already the interactions between the qubits introduced with the intention to operate the quantum computer may lead to quantum chaos. The analysis focuses on two well--known quantum algorithms, namely Grover's search algorithm and the quantum Fourier transform. I show that in both cases the same very unusual combination of signatures from chaotic and from integrable dynamics arises.
Energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics
Ulf Leonhardt
2005-12-21
We calculate the energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In agreement with the experiment [G. K. Campbell et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 170403 (2005)] variations of the Minkowski momentum are imprinted onto the phase, whereas the Abraham tensor drives the flow of the dielectric. Our analysis indicates that the Abraham-Minkowski controversy has its root in the Roentgen interaction of the electromagnetic field in dielectric media.
P. Pfeiffer; I. L. Egusquiza; M. Di Ventra; M. Sanz; E. Solano
2015-11-06
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems.
Michele Mosca
2008-08-04
This article surveys the state of the art in quantum computer algorithms, including both black-box and non-black-box results. It is infeasible to detail all the known quantum algorithms, so a representative sample is given. This includes a summary of the early quantum algorithms, a description of the Abelian Hidden Subgroup algorithms (including Shor's factoring and discrete logarithm algorithms), quantum searching and amplitude amplification, quantum algorithms for simulating quantum mechanical systems, several non-trivial generalizations of the Abelian Hidden Subgroup Problem (and related techniques), the quantum walk paradigm for quantum algorithms, the paradigm of adiabatic algorithms, a family of ``topological'' algorithms, and algorithms for quantum tasks which cannot be done by a classical computer, followed by a discussion.
Kumar, Jason
2014-06-24
We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.
Knaian, Ara N. (Ara Nerses), 1977-
2008-01-01
Programmable matter is a proposed digital material having computation, sensing, actuation, and display as continuous properties active over its whole extent. Programmable matter would have many exciting applications, like ...
Hot-dark matter, cold dark matter and accelerating universe
Abbas Farmany; Amin Farmany; Mohammad Mahmoodi
2006-07-07
The Friedman equation is solved for a universe contains hotdark matter and cold dark matter. In this scenario, hot-dark matter drives an accelerating universe no cold dark matter.
Ronnie Kosloff
2013-05-10
Quantum thermodynamics addresses the emergence of thermodynamical laws from quantum mechanics. The link is based on the intimate connection of quantum thermodynamics with the theory of open quantum systems. Quantum mechanics inserts dynamics into thermodynamics giving a sound foundation to finite-time-thermodynamics. The emergence of the 0-law I-law II-law and III-law of thermodynamics from quantum considerations is presented. The emphasis is on consistence between the two theories which address the same subject from different foundations. We claim that inconsistency is the result of faulty analysis pointing to flaws in approximations.
Electric fields and quantum wormholes
Dalit Engelhardt; Ben Freivogel; Nabil Iqbal
2015-05-24
Electric fields can thread a classical Einstein-Rosen bridge. Maldacena and Susskind have recently suggested that in a theory of dynamical gravity the entanglement of ordinary perturbative quanta should be viewed as creating a quantum version of an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the particles, or a "quantum wormhole". We demonstrate within low-energy effective field theory that there is a precise sense in which electric fields can also thread such quantum wormholes. We define a non-perturbative "wormhole susceptibility" that measures the ease of passing an electric field through any sort of wormhole. The susceptibility of a quantum wormhole is suppressed by powers of the U(1) gauge coupling relative to that for a classical wormhole but can be made numerically equal with a sufficiently large amount of entangled matter.
A Kinetic Theory Approach to Quantum Gravity
B. L. Hu
2002-04-22
We describe a kinetic theory approach to quantum gravity -- by which we mean a theory of the microscopic structure of spacetime, not a theory obtained by quantizing general relativity. A figurative conception of this program is like building a ladder with two knotted poles: quantum matter field on the right and spacetime on the left. Each rung connecting the corresponding knots represent a distinct level of structure. The lowest rung is hydrodynamics and general relativity; the next rung is semiclassical gravity, with the expectation value of quantum fields acting as source in the semiclassical Einstein equation. We recall how ideas from the statistical mechanics of interacting quantum fields helped us identify the existence of noise in the matter field and its effect on metric fluctuations, leading to the establishment of the third rung: stochastic gravity, described by the Einstein-Langevin equation. Our pathway from stochastic to quantum gravity is via the correlation hierarchy of noise and induced metric fluctuations. Three essential tasks beckon: 1) Deduce the correlations of metric fluctuations from correlation noise in the matter field; 2) Reconstituting quantum coherence -- this is the reverse of decoherence -- from these correlation functions 3) Use the Boltzmann-Langevin equations to identify distinct collective variables depicting recognizable metastable structures in the kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes of quantum matter fields and how they demand of their corresponding spacetime counterparts. This will give us a hierarchy of generalized stochastic equations -- call them the Boltzmann-Einstein hierarchy of quantum gravity -- for each level of spacetime structure, from the macroscopic (general relativity) through the mesoscopic (stochastic gravity) to the microscopic (quantum gravity).
Preparing topological projected entangled pair states on a quantum computer
Schwarz, Martin
Simulating exotic phases of matter that are not amenable to classical techniques is one of the most important potential applications of quantum information processing. We present an efficient algorithm for preparing a large ...
Volkmar Putz; Karl Svozil
2015-08-17
We consider ways of conceptualizing, rendering and perceiving quantum music, and quantum art in general. Thereby, we give particular emphasis to its non-classical aspects, such as coherent superposition and entanglement.
Putz, Volkmar
2015-01-01
We consider ways of conceptualizing, rendering and perceiving quantum music, and quantum art in general. Thereby we give particular emphasis to its non-classical aspects, such as coherent superposition and entanglement.
Moments of $?$ meson spectral functions in vacuum and nuclear matter
Philipp Gubler; Wolfram Weise
2015-07-14
Moments of the $\\phi$ meson spectral function in vacuum and in nuclear matter are analyzed, combining a model based on chiral SU(3) effective field theory (with kaonic degrees of freedom) and finite-energy QCD sum rules. For the vacuum we show that the spectral density is strongly constrained by a recent accurate measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to K^+ K^-$ cross section. In nuclear matter the $\\phi$ spectrum is modified by interactions of the decay kaons with the surrounding nuclear medium, leading to a significant broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the $\\phi$ meson peak. We demonstrate that both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the first two moments of the spectral function are compatible with finite-energy QCD sum rules. A brief discussion of the next-higher spectral moment involving strange four-quark condensates is also presented.
The Properties of Matter in White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars
Shmuel Balberg; Stuart L. Shapiro
2000-04-24
White dwarfs and neutron stars are stellar objects with masses comparable to that of our sun. However, as the endpoint stages of stellar evolution, these objects do not sustain any thermonuclear burning and therefore can no longer support the gravitational load of their own mass by generating thermal pressure. Rather, matter in their interiors is compressed to much higher densities than commonly found in normal stars, and pressure is created by degenerate fermion kinetic energy and particle interactions. As a result, white dwarfs and neutron stars offer unique cosmic laboratories for studying matter at very high densities. In this review we discuss the basic properties of condensed matter at extreme densities and summarize the extent to which these properties can be examined by observations of compact objects.
The dark matter is mostly an axion BEC
Sikivie, Pierre
2010-01-01
Axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter, such as WIMPs or sterile neutrinos, because they form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). As a result, axions accreting onto a galactic halo fall in with net overall rotation. In contrast, ordinary CDM accretes onto galactic halos with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics are different in the two cases. It is shown that if the dark matter is axions, the phase space structure of the halos of isolated disk galaxies, such as the Milky Way, is precisely that of the caustic ring model for which observational support exists. The other dark matter candidates predict a far more chaotic phase space structure for galactic halos.
A two-component picture of the condensate with instantons
David Vercauteren; Henri Verschelde
2011-01-26
We study the interplay between the condensate and instantons in non-Abelian gauge theory. Therefore we use the formalism of Local Composite Operators, with which the vacuum expectation value of this condensate can be analytically computed. We first use the dilute gas approximation and partially solve the infrared problem of instanton physics. In order to find quantitative results, however, we turn to an instanton liquid model, where we find how the different contributions to the condensate add up.
Probing and Manipulating Fermionic and Bosonic Quantum Gases with Quantum Light
Thomas J. Elliott; Gabriel Mazzucchi; Wojciech Kozlowski; Santiago F. Caballero-Benitez; Igor B. Mekhov
2015-09-02
We study the atom-light interaction in the fully quantum regime, with focus on off-resonant light scattering into a cavity from ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. The detection of photons allows the quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of quantum correlations of the atomic ensemble, distinguishing between different quantum states. We analyse the entanglement between light and matter and show how it can be exploited for realising multimode macroscopic quantum superpositions such as Schr\\"odinger cat states, for both bosons and fermions. We provide examples utilising different measurement schemes, and study their robustness to decoherence. Finally, we address the regime where the optical lattice potential is a quantum dynamical variable and is modified by the atomic state, leading to novel quantum phases, and significantly altering the phase diagram of the atomic system.
I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer
Paola Zizzi
2009-05-28
The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.
Quantum technology and its applications
Boshier, Malcolm; Berkeland, Dana; Govindan, Tr; Abo - Shaeer, Jamil
2010-12-10
Quantum states of matter can be exploited as high performance sensors for measuring time, gravity, rotation, and electromagnetic fields, and quantum states of light provide powerful new tools for imaging and communication. Much attention is being paid to the ultimate limits of this quantum technology. For example, it has already been shown that exotic quantum states can be used to measure or image with higher precision or higher resolution or lower radiated power than any conventional technologies, and proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating measurement precision below the standard quantum limit (shot noise) are just starting to appear. However, quantum technologies have another powerful advantage beyond pure sensing performance that may turn out to be more important in practical applications: the potential for building devices with lower size/weight/power (SWaP) and cost requirements than existing instruments. The organizers of Quantum Technology Applications Workshop (QTAW) have several goals: (1) Bring together sponsors, researchers, engineers and end users to help build a stronger quantum technology community; (2) Identify how quantum systems might improve the performance of practical devices in the near- to mid-term; and (3) Identify applications for which more long term investment is necessary to realize improved performance for realistic applications. To realize these goals, the QTAW II workshop included fifty scientists, engineers, managers and sponsors from academia, national laboratories, government and the private-sector. The agenda included twelve presentations, a panel discussion, several breaks for informal exchanges, and a written survey of participants. Topics included photon sources, optics and detectors, squeezed light, matter waves, atomic clocks and atom magnetometry. Corresponding applications included communication, imaging, optical interferometry, navigation, gravimetry, geodesy, biomagnetism, and explosives detection. Participants considered the physics and engineering of quantum and conventional technologies, and how quantum techniques could (or could not) overcome limitations of conventional systems. They identified several auxiliary technologies that needed to be further developed in order to make quantum technology more accessible. Much of the discussion also focused on specific applications of quantum technology and how to push the technology into broader communities, which would in turn identify new uses of the technology. Since our main interest is practical improvement of devices and techniques, we take a liberal definition of 'quantum technology': a system that utilizes preparation and measurement of a well-defined coherent quantum state. This nomenclature encompasses features broader than entanglement, squeezing or quantum correlations, which are often more difficult to utilize outside of a laboratory environment. Still, some applications discussed in the workshop do take advantage of these 'quantum-enhanced' features. They build on the more established quantum technologies that are amenable to manipulation at the quantum level, such as atom magnetometers and atomic clocks. Understanding and developing those technologies through traditional engineering will clarify where quantum-enhanced features can be used most effectively, in addition to providing end users with improved devices in the near-term.
Thermally Activated Dynamics of the Capillary Condensation
F. Restagno; L. Bocquet; T. Biben; E. Charlaix
1999-08-10
This paper is devoted to the thermally activated dynamics of the capillary condensation. We present a simple model which enables us to identify the critical nucleus involved in the transition mechanism. This simple model is then applied to calculate the nucleation barrier from which we can obtain informations on the nucleation time. We present a simple estimation of the nucleation barrier in slab geometry both in the two dimensional case and in the three dimensional case. We extend the model in the case of rough surfaces which is closer to the experimental case and allows comparison with experimental datas.
Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design
Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.
1999-01-01
and the lifetime costs incurred are orders of magnitude greater than the purchase price of the unit As with most heat exchangers, two separate groups are involved in the specification and design of surface condensers: the process engineers and the equipment... can be a larger and heavier unit and one that may be more prone to fouling. The choice of cheaper material may result in both a more expensive unit and much higher life time costs. Allowable tubeside pressure drop can have a controlling influence...
Fermion mass generation without a condensate
Venkitesh Ayyar
2014-12-05
We study a lattice field theory model containing two flavors of massless staggered fermions with an onsite four-fermion interaction. The symmetry of the model forbids non-zero fermion bilinear order parameters that can generate a fermion mass. At weak couplings, we expect a massless fermion phase. At strong couplings, we can argue for the existence of massive fermions without the formation of any fermion bilinear condensate. Using Monte Carlo calculations in three space-time dimensions, we find evidence for a direct second order phase transition between the two phases.
Localized Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensates
B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; B. Mohanty; D. P. Mahapatra; Y. P. Viyogi
1999-03-12
A new method to search for localized domains of disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) has been proposed by utilising the (eta-phi) phase space distributions of charged particles and photons. Using the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) analysis technique, it has been found that the presence of DCC domains broadens the distribution of wavelet coefficients in comparison to that of normal events. Strength contours have been derived from the differences in rms deviations of these distributions by taking into account the size of DCC domains and the probability of DCC production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. This technique can be suitably adopted to experiments measuring multiplicities of charged particles and photons.
Nicolas Gisin
2015-07-18
Quantum Communication is the art of transferring an unknown quantum state from one location, Alice, to a distant one, Bob. This is a non-trivial task because of the quantum no-cloning theorem which prevents one from merely using only classical means.
Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...
Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...
,"New Mexico Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...
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Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2014,"0...
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in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...
Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8
2012-01-31
This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.
Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer, Energy Tips: STEAM...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
systems, wallboard production facilities, greenhouses, food processing plants, pulp and paper mills, textile plants, and hospitals. Condensing economiz- ers require site-specific...
Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser - Energy Innovation Portal
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Geothermal energy has been a viable energy source...
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Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...
,"Louisiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...
,"California Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...
,"TX, RRC District 10 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...
,"Federal Offshore U.S. Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...
,"Kansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...
,"TX, RRC District 10 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...
,"TX, RRC District 1 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...
,"LA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...
,"Texas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...
,"Oklahoma Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...
,"Colorado Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...
,"Indiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...
,"TX, RRC District 5 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...