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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter: Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In connection with the contribution "Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter" some problems are given to become more familiar with the techniques of many-particle physics.

G. Ropke; D. Zablocki

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

2

Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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3

Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K. | EMSLnanoparticlesQuantum

4

Quasiparticle light elements and quantum condensates in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclei in dense matter are influenced by the medium. In the cluster mean field approximation, an effective Schr\\"odinger equation for the $A$-particle cluster is obtained accounting for the effects of the surrounding medium, such as self-energy and Pauli blocking. Similar to the single-baryon states (free neutrons and protons), the light elements ($2 \\le A \\le 4$, internal quantum state $\

G. RŲpke

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

in Condensed Matter Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Master in Condensed Matter Physics ­ Master académique #12;2 #12;3 Students at the University. Condensed matter physics is about explaining and predicting the relationship between the atomic, and broad education in the field of condensed matter physics · introduce you to current research topics

van der Torre, Leon

6

Of Matters Condensed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting of condensed matter physics has grown to nearly 10,000 participants, comprises 23 individual APS groups, and even warrants its own hashtag (#apsmarch). Here we analyze the text and data from March Meeting abstracts of the past nine years and discuss trends in condensed matter physics over this time period. We find that in comparison to atomic, molecular, and optical physics, condensed matter changes rapidly, and that condensed matter appears to be moving increasingly toward subject matter that is traditionally in materials science and engineering.

Shulman, Michael

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Condensed Matter Theory Center Fall 2010 Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Fall 2010 Symposium November 2-4, 2010 2205 Physics Building bosons" Ryan Barnett, "Quantum dynamics in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic condensates" Hoi Yin Hui" Qi Zhou, "Inter-band coupling induced novel condensates in a double-well lattice" November 3, 2010

Lathrop, Daniel P.

8

Asymmetric condensed dark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

Aguirre, Anthony

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Condensed Matter Physics and the Nature of Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 16 Condensed Matter Physics and the Nature of Spacetime Jonathan Bain* Abstract This essay of a quantum liquid. It evaluates three examples of spacetime analogues in condensed matter systems that have literature not much attention has been given to concepts of spacetime arising from condensed matter physics

Aronov, Boris

10

Materials/Condensed Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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11

Materials/Condensed Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fund LasDubey selectedContractMaterials/Condensed Matter

12

Condensed Matter Theory Center Fall 2009 Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Fall 2009 Symposium September 28 - October 2, 2009 2202 Physics Barnett, "Vortex lattice locking in rotating BECs and spinor condensates" Maxim Dzero, "Cooper pair

Lathrop, Daniel P.

13

Condensed Matter Theory Center/JQI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint Condensed Matter Theory Center/JQI Seminar Wednesday, March 21, 11:00-12:30pm 2205 Physics in condensed matter physics. Among the exciting recent developments in this direction are the discoveries

Lathrop, Daniel P.

14

Condensed Matter Theory Center Tuesday, December 13  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Tuesday, December 13 11:00am-12:30pm 2205 Physics Building" Abstract: At sufficiently low temperatures, condensed-matter systems tend to develop order. An notable

Lathrop, Daniel P.

15

Condensed Matter Theory Center Wednesday, May 18  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Wednesday, May 18 11am-12pm 2205 Physics Building Zhengcheng condensed matter physics is based on two theories: symmetry breaking theory for phases and phase transitions

Lathrop, Daniel P.

16

Chiral condensate in neutron matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.

N. Kaiser; W. Weise

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

17

Condensed Matter Theory Center Wednesday, January 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Wednesday, January 4 11:00am-12:00pm 2205 Physics Building) methods may be used to address such a problem by calculating both global (condensate fraction, superfluid

Lathrop, Daniel P.

18

Lorentz violation and Condensed Matter Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present heuristic arguments that hint to a possible connection of Lorentz violation with observed phenomenon in condensed matter physics. Various references from condensed matter literature are cited where operators in the Standard Model Extension (SME) appear to be enhanced. Based on this we propose that, in the non-relativistic limit, Lorentz violation in the context of the SME exhibits itself in various condensed matter systems.

Muhammad Adeel Ajaib

2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

19

On the condensed matter scheme for emergent gravity and interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An increasingly popular approach to quantum gravity rests on the idea that gravity (and maybe electromagnetism and the other gauge fields) might be an 'emergent phenomenon', in the sense of representing a collective behaviour resulting from a very different microscopic physics. A prominent example of this approach is the condensed matter scheme for quantum gravity, which considers the possibility that gravity emerges as an effective low-energy phenomenon from the quantum vacuum in a way similar to the emergence of collective excitations in condensed matter systems. This condensed matter view of the quantum vacuum clearly hints that, while the term 'ether' has been discredited for about a century, quantum gravity holds many (if not all) of the characteristics that have led people in the past to label various hypothetical substances with the term 'ether'. Since the last burst of enthusiasm for an ether, at the end of the 19th century, was brought to the grave in part by the performance of a series of important experiments in interferometry, the suggestion then naturally arises that maybe interferometry could also play a role in the current discussion on quantum gravity. We will highlight some aspects of this suggestion in the context of the condensed matter scheme for emergent gravity.

G. Jannes

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

20

Condensed Matter Theory Center Ian Spielman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Ian Spielman (JQI) Tuesday, November 9 11:00am-12:30pm 2205 Physics Building "A Bose-Einstein condensate subject to synthetic gauge fields" Here will first present our experimental work creating a synthetic magnetic field in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC

Lathrop, Daniel P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Condensed Matter Theory Center 2011 Fall Symposium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center 2011 Fall Symposium October 3 & 4, 2011 2205 Physics Building and Collective Modes in Fermionic Condensates with Bragg Scattering" Benjamin Fregoso "Degenerate FloquetEinstein condensates" Tuesday, October 4 Afternoon Session: 25:30pm ChienHung Lin "Stabilizing topological

Lathrop, Daniel P.

22

Quark and Gluon Condensates in Isospin Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applying the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to a charged pion gas, the quark and gluon condensates at low isospin density are determined by precise pion properties. At intermediate density around $ f_\\pi^2m_\\pi$, from both the estimation for the dilute pion gas and the calculation with Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, the quark condensate is strongly and monotonously suppressed, while the gluon condensate is enhanced and can be larger than its vacuum value. This unusual behavior of the gluon condensate is universal for Bose condensed matter of mesons. Our results can be tested by lattice calculations at finite isospin density.

Lianyi He; Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang

2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

23

Neutron Scattering: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science, MPA...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neutron Scattering Neutron Scattering Capability description: Neutron scattering is a powerful probe of structure and collective modes of condensed matter. We are focused on direct...

24

8 Boltzmann Transport in Condensed Matter Franz Xaver Bronold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equations as applied to the analysis of transport and relaxation phenomena in condensed matter systems. 88 Boltzmann Transport in Condensed Matter Franz Xaver Bronold Institut f¨ur Physik, Universit of view. Envisaging the molecules of the gas to perform free flights, which are occasionally interrupted

Fehske, Holger

25

Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the bound nucleon sigma term and its effect on the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model it is shown that the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative. Thus, the correction decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar sigma field of the model. It appreciably moderates the decrease relative to the leading term at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Condensed matter lessons about the origin of time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is widely hoped that quantum gravity will shed a profound light on the origin of time in physics. The currently dominant approaches to a candidate quantum theory of gravity have quite naturally evolved from general relativity, on the one hand, and from particle physics, on the other hand. In this essay, I will argue that a third important branch of 20th century `fundamental' physics, namely condensed-matter physics, also offers an interesting perspective on quantum gravity, and thereby on the problem of time. The bottomline might sound disappointing to those who have become used to claims that quantum gravity or a `Theory of Everything' will solve most of the conceptual problems of fundamental physics: To understand the origin of time, experimental input is needed at much higher energies than what is available today. Moreover, it is far from obvious that we will ever discover the true origin of physical time, even if we become able to directly probe physics at the Planck scale. But we might learn plenty of interesting lessons about time and the structure of our universe in the process.

Gil Jannes

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

Critical temperature of antikaon condensation in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of $K^-$ mesons in neutron star matter. This is studied within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models at finite temperature where nucleon-nucleon and (anti)kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of mesons. The melting of the antikaon condensate is studied for different values of antikaon optical potential depths. We find that the critical temperature of antikaon condensation increases with baryon number density. Further it is noted that the critical temperature is lowered as antikaon optical potential becomes less attractive. We also construct the phase diagram of neutron star matter with $K^-$ condensate.

Sarmistha Banik; Walter Greiner; Debades Bandyopadhyay

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

Bose-Einstein condensation on quantum graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on general compact quantum graphs, i.e., one-dimensional systems with a (potentially) complex topology. We first investigate non-interacting many-particle systems and provide a complete classification of systems that exhibit condensation. We then consider models with interactions that consist of a singular part as well as a hardcore part. In this way we obtain generalisations of the Tonks-Girardeau gas to graphs. For this we find an absence of phase transitions which then indicates an absence of BEC.

Jens Bolte; Joachim Kerner

2014-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

29

Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sťbastien Manneville

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

30

Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

Monasterio VelŠsquez, Paul Rene

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Can dark matter be a Bose-Einstein condensate?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility that the dark matter, which is required to explain the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen clouds at large distances from the galactic center, could be in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the non-relativistic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. Hence dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index $n=1$. To test the validity of the model we fit the Newtonian tangential velocity equation of the model with a sample of rotation curves of low surface brightness and dwarf galaxies, respectively. We find a very good agreement between the theoretical rotation curves and the observational data for the low surface brightness galaxies. The deflection of photons passing through the dark matter halos is also analyzed, and the bending angle of light is computed. The bending angle obtained for the Bose-Einstein condensate is larger than that predicted by standard general relativistic and dark matter models. Therefore the study of the light deflection by galaxies and the gravitational lensing could discriminate between the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter model and other dark matter models.

C. G. Boehmer; T. Harko

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

32

Quantum top inside a Bose-Einstein-condensate Josephson junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider an atomic quantum dot confined between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, where the dot serves as an additional tunneling channel. It is shown that the thus-embedded atomic quantum dot is a pseudospin subject to an external torque, and therefore equivalent to a quantum top. We demonstrate by numerical analysis of the time-dependent coupled evolution equations that this microscopic quantum top is very sensitive to any deviation from linear oscillatory behavior of the condensates. For sufficiently strong dot-condensate coupling, the atomic quantum dot can induce or modify the tunneling between the macroscopic condensates in the two wells.

Bausmerth, Ingrid; Posazhennikova, Anna [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, Uwe R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

The inhomogeneous quark condensate in compressed skyrmion matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The inhomogeneous quark condensate, responsible for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the cold nuclear matter, is studied by putting skyrmions onto the face-centered cubic crystal and treating the skyrmion matter as a nuclear matter. By varying the crystal size, we explore the effect of density on the local structure of the quark-antiquark condensate. By endowing the light vector mesons $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ with hidden local symmetry and incorporating a scalar meson as a dilaton of spontaneously broken scale symmetry, we uncover the intricate interplay of heavy mesons in the local structure of quark condensate in dense baryonic matter described in terms of skyrmion crystal. It is found that that the inhomogeneous quark density persists to as high a density as $\\sim 4$ times nuclear matter density. The difference between the result from the present approach and that from the chiral density wave ansatz is also discussed.

Harada, Masayasu; Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Gluon condensation and deconfinement critical density in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An upper limit to the critical density for the transition to the deconfined phase, at zero temperature, has been evaluated by analyzing the behavior of the gluon condensate in nuclear matter. Due to the non linear baryon density effects, the upper limit to the critical density, \\rho_c turns out about nine times the saturation density, rho_0 for the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum =0.012 GeV^4. For neutron matter \\rho_c \\simeq 8.5 \\rho_0. The dependence of the critical density on the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum is studied.

M. Baldo; P. Castorina; D. Zappala'

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Quantum computational tensor network on string-net condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The string-net condensate is a new class of materials which exhibits the quantum topological order. In order to answer the important question, "how useful is the string-net condensate in quantum information processing?", we consider the most basic example of the string-net condensate, namely the $Z_2$ gauge string-net condensate on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and show that the universal measurement-based quantum computation (in the sense of the quantum computational webs) is possible on it by using the framework of the quantum computational tensor network. This result implies that even the most basic example of the string-net condensate is equipped with the correlation space that has the capacity for the universal quantum computation.

Tomoyuki Morimae

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

36

Kaon condensation and composition of neutron star matter in modified quark-meson coupling model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the modified quark-meson coupling (MQMC) model to study the composition profile of neutron star matter and compare the results with those calculated by quantum hadrodynamics (QHD). Both MQMC and QHD model parameters are adjusted to produce exactly the same saturation properties so that we can investigate the model dependences of the matter composition at high densities. We consider the possibility of deep kaon optical potential and find that the composition of matter is very sensitive to the interaction strength of kaons with matter. The onset densities of the kaon condensation are studied in detail by varying the kaon optical potentials. We find that the MQMC model produces the kaon condensation at lower densities than QHD. The presence of kaon condensation changes drastically the population of octet baryons and leptons. Once the kaon condensation takes place, the population of kaons builds up very quickly, and kaons become the dominant component of the matter. We find that the $\\omega$-meson plays an important role in increasing the kaon population and suppressing the hyperon population.

C. Y. Ryu; C. H. Hyun; S. W. Hong; B. T. Kim

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

SHM of Galaxies Embedded within Condensed Neutrino Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We re-examine the question of condensed neutrino objects (de- generate neutrino matter) based on new calculations. The potential show-stopper issue of free-streaming light neutrinos inhibiting galaxy formation is addressed. We compute the period associated with sim- ple harmonic motion (SHM) of galaxies embedded within condensed neutrino objects. For observational consequences, we examine the ro- tational velocities of embedded galaxies using Hickson 88A (N6978) as the prototype. Finally, we point out that degenerate neutrino objects repel each other in overlap and we compute directly the repulsive force between two interesting and relevant con?gurations. An outstanding issue is whether the accompanying tidal forces generated by condensed neutrino matter on embedded galaxies give rise to galactic bulges and halos.

Peter D. Morley; Douglas J. Buettner

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

38

CONDENSED MATTER THEORIST, MATERIALS SCIENCE DIVISION ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/29/11 CONDENSED MATTER THEORIST, MATERIALS SCIENCE DIVISION ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY Argonne Division, preferably by e-mail (norman@anl.gov), otherwise by regular mail (MSD-223, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL 60439). Please use the subject line "CMT Search" in any e-mail correspondence. Argonne

39

Condensed Matter Theory Center Wednesday, March 7, 11:00-12:30pm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Wednesday, March 7, 11:00-12:30pm 2205 Physics Building" Abstract: An exciting prospect in condensed matter physics is the possibility of realizing fractional

Lathrop, Daniel P.

40

Condensed Matter Theory Seminar Location: Room 413, School of Science Bldg. #5 ( 5 413 )  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Seminar Location: Room 413, School of Science Bldg. #5 ( 5 413 ) Date: 13-perturbative optical response" Speaker: Mr. Masaya Nakagawa (Condensed Matter Theory Group) Abstract: Kondo effect is a ubiquitous phenomenon in condensed matter physics, in which hybridization between localized and itinerant

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Temporal condensed matter physics in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman effect in gases can generate an extremely long-living wave of coherence that can lead to the establishment of an almost perfect periodic variation of the medium refractive index. We show theoretically and numerically that the equations, regulate the pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by Raman-active gas, are exactly identical to a classical problem in quantum condensed matter physics -- but with the role of space and time reversed -- namely an electron in a periodic potential subject to a constant electric field. We are therefore able to infer the existence of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch oscillations, and Zener tunneling, phenomena that are normally associated with condensed matter physics only, now realized with purely optical means in the temporal domain.

Saleh, Mohammed F; Tran, Truong X; Marini, Andrea; Belli, Federico; Abdolvand, Amir; Biancalana, Fabio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Can dark matter be a Bose-Einstein condensate?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility that the dark matter, which is required to explain the dynamics of the neutral hydrogen clouds at large distances from the galactic center, could be in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the non-relativistic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. Hence dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index $n=1$. To test the validity of the model we fit the Newtonian tangential velocity equation of the model with a sample of rotation curves of low surface brightness and dwarf galaxies, respectively. We find a very good agreement between the theoretical rot...

Boehmer, C G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Finding new signature effects on galactic dynamics to constrain Bose-Einstein-condensed cold dark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) consists of light enough bosonic particles that their phase-space density exceeds unity, they will comprise a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The nature of this BEC-CDM as a quantum fluid may then distinguish it dynamically from the standard form of CDM involving a collisionless gas of non-relativistic particles that interact purely gravitationally. We summarize some of the dynamical properties of BEC-CDM that may lead to observable signatures in galactic halos and present some of the bounds on particle mass and self-interaction coupling strength that result from a comparison with observed galaxies.

Tanja Rindler-Daller; Paul R. Shapiro

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Tuesday, October 28 at 11:00 AM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Theory Center Seminar Tuesday, October 28 at 11:00 AM 2205 Physics Building bosons neither condense (and become a superfluid) nor localize (and insulate) at T=0. The system

Lathrop, Daniel P.

45

Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...

Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dark Matter Halos as Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Galactic dark matter is modelled by a scalar field in order to effectively modify Kepler's law without changing standard Newtonian gravity. In particular, a solvable toy model with a self-interaction U(Phi) borrowed from non-topological solitons produces already qualitatively correct rotation curves and scaling relations. Although relativistic effects in the halo are very small, we indicate corrections arising from the general relativistic formulation. Thereby, we can also probe the weak gravitational lensing of our soliton type halo. For cold scalar fields, it corresponds to a gravitationally confined Boson-Einstein condensate, but of galactic dimensions.

Eckehard W. Mielke; Burkhard Fuchs; Franz E. Schunck

2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

47

Bose-Einstein condensation of a quantum group gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Bose-Einstein condensation of a gas with $SU_q(2)$ symmetry. We show, in the thermodynamic limit, that the boson interactions introduced by the quantum group symmetries enhance Bose-Einstein condensation giving a discontinuity in the heat capacity $C_v$ at the critical temperature $T_c$. The critical temperature and the gap in $C_v$ increase with the value of the parameter $q$ and become approximately constant for $q>3$.

Marcelo R. Ubriaco

1997-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Generalized quantum gravity condensates for homogeneous geometries and cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a generalized class of quantum gravity condensate states, that allows the description of continuum homogeneous quantum geometries within the full theory. They are based on similar ideas already applied to extract effective cosmological dynamics from the group field theory formalism, and thus also from loop quantum gravity. However, they represent an improvement over the simplest condensates used in the literature, in that they are defined by an infinite superposition of graph-based states encoding in a precise way the topology of the spatial manifold. The construction is based on the definition of refinement operators on spin network states, written in a second quantized language. The construction lends itself easily to be applied also to the case of spherically symmetric quantum geometries.

Daniele Oriti; Daniele Pranzetti; James P. Ryan; Lorenzo Sindoni

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

49

Emergent quantum Euler equation and Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, proceeding from the recently developed way of deriving the quantum-mechanical equations from the classical ones, the complete system of hydrodynamical equations, including the quantum Euler equation, is derived for a perfect fluid and an imperfect fluid with pairwise interaction between the particles. For the Bose-Einstein condensate of the latter one the Bogolyubov spectrum of elementary excitations is easily reproduced in the acoustic approximation.

Maxim V. Eingorn; Vitaliy D. Rusov

2014-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

50

Correlation functions for a di-neutron condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent calculations with an effective isospin dependent contact interaction show the possibility of the crossover from superfluidity of neutron Cooper pairs in $^1S_0$ pairing channel to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of di-neutron bound states in dilute nuclear matter. The density and spin correlation functions are calculated for a di-neutron condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter with the aim to find the possible features of the BCS-BEC crossover. It is shown that the zero-momentum transfer spin correlation function satisfies the sum rule at zero temperature. In symmetric nuclear matter, the density correlation function changes sign at low momentum transfer across the BCS-BEC transition and this feature can be considered as a signature of the crossover. At finite isospin asymmetry, this criterion gives too large value for the critical asymmetry $\\alpha_c^d\\sim0.9$, at which the BEC state is quenched. Therefore, it can be trusted for the description of the density-driven BCS-BEC crossover of neutron pairs only at small isospin asymmetry. This result generalizes the conclusion of the study in Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 95}, 090402 (2005), where the change of sign of the density correlation function at low momentum transfer in two-component quantum fermionic atomic gas with the balanced populations of fermions of different species was considered as an unambiguous signature of the BCS-BEC transition.

A. A. Isayev

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

51

Effect of Quantum Fluctuations on the Dipolar Motion of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Quantum Fluctuations on the Dipolar Motion of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical of condensate atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices and harmonic magnetic traps including quantum is reduced, on the contrary, strong quantum fluctuations lead to finite damping of condensate oscillations

Wang, Daw-Wei

52

Quantum-limited metrology and Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a quantum-metrology protocol designed to estimate a physical parameter in a Bose-Einstein condensate of N atoms, and we show that the measurement uncertainty can decrease faster than 1/N. The 1/N scaling is usually thought to be the best possible in any measurement scheme. From the perspective of quantum information theory, we outline the main idea that leads to a measurement uncertainty that scales better than 1/N. We examine in detail some potential problems and challenges that arise in implementing such a measurement protocol using a Bose-Einstein condensate. We discuss how some of these issues can be dealt with by using lower-dimensional condensates trapped in nonharmonic potentials.

Sergio Boixo; Animesh Datta; Matthew J. Davis; Anil Shaji; Alexandre B. Tacla; Carlton M. Caves

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Condensed Matter Seminar Location: Room 413, School of Science Bldg. 5 ( 5 413 )  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Seminar Location: Room 413, School of Science Bldg. 5 ( 5 413 ) Time and date-Einstein condensate Speaker: Dr. Shun Uchino ( ) (Université de Genève) Abstract: Ultracold atoms have offered an ideal playground to study a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) thanks to high controllability

54

Onsager-Kraichnan Condensation in Decaying Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A negative-temperature statistical equilibrium state of two-dimensional quantum vortices can exhibit clustering of same-circulation vortices and a macroscopic accumulation of kinetic energy at the system length scale, which we term an Onsager-Kraichnan condensate (OKC). We develop a method for microcanonical sampling of equilibrium vortex configurations in the homogeneous 2D Gross-Pitaevskii theory. Varying the system energy at fixed vortex number, we characterize the possible states of vortex matter in a bulk superfluid, from the vortex-dipole gas at positive temperature, to negative-temperature OKC states exhibiting macroscopic vortex clustering and kinetic energy condensation. Dynamical simulations reveal that negative-temperature OKC states emerge as the end states of decaying two-dimensional quantum turbulence. Our work provides the first realization of Onsager's point-vortex model, and its negative temperature states, in a microscopic theory of a 2D superfluid.

Billam, Thomas P; Anderson, Brian P; Bradley, Ashton S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Dynamical quantum noise in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Steel,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical quantum noise in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Steel,1,2 M. K. Olsen,1, * L. I introduce the study of dynamical quantum noise in Bose-Einstein condensates through numerical simu- lation equations for a single trapped condensate in both the positive-P and Wigner representations and perform

Queensland, University of

56

Quantum-information approach to rotating Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the two-dimensional weakly interacting rotating Bose-Einstein condensate by the tools of quantum information theory. The critical exponents of the ground-state fidelity susceptibility and the correlation length of the system are obtained for the sudden change of the ground state when the first vortex is formed. This sudden change can also be indicated by the ground state entanglement. We also find the single-particle entanglement can be an indicator of the angular momentums for some real ground states. The single-particle entanglement of fractional quantum Hall states such as Laughlin state and Pfaffian state is also studied.

Liu Zhao; Guo Hongli; Chen Shu; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates : machine construction and quantum Zeno experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis details construction of a new apparatus for the production of 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates and a subsequent quantum Zeno effect experiment. An experimental apparatus for producing large Bose-Einstein condensates ...

Streed, Erik William

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Optical, electronic, and dynamical phenomena in the shock compression of condensed matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite the study of shock wave compression of condensed matter for over 100 years, scant progress has been made in understanding the microscopic details. This thesis explores microscopic phenomena in shock compression of ...

Reed, Evan J. (Evan John), 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Supersymmetric quantum solution for FRW cosmological model with matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using technique of supersymmetric quantum mechanics we present new cosmological quantum solution, in the regime for FRW cosmological model using a barotropic perfect fluid as matter field.

J. Socorro

2001-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

60

Pion condensation in electrically neutral cold matter with finite baryon density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possibility of the pion condensation phenomenon in cold and electrically neutral dense baryonic matter is investigated in $\\beta$-equilibrium. For simplicity, the consideration is performed in the framework of a NJL model with two quark flavors at zero current quark mass and for rather small values of the baryon chemical potential, where the diquark condensation might be ignored. Two sets of model parameters are used. For the first one, the pion condensed phase with finite baryon density is realized. In this phase both electrons and the pion condensate take part in the neutralization of the quark electric charge. For the second set of model parameters, the pion condensation is impossible if the neutrality condition is imposed. The behaviour of meson masses vs quark chemical potential has been studied in electrically neutral matter.

D. Ebert; K. G. Klimenko

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

Evidence for spontaneous interlayer phase coherence in a bilayer quantum Hall exciton condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

double layer 2D electron gas sample. There are several equivalent ways to view the strongly correlatedEvidence for spontaneous interlayer phase coherence in a bilayer quantum Hall exciton condensate J of the excitonic Bose condensate which describes this remarkable quantum Hall state. q 2003 Published by Elsevier

Eisenstein, Jim

62

Quantum dynamics and macroscopic quantum tunneling of two weakly coupled condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the quantum dynamics of a Bose Josephson junction(BJJ) made up of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. Apart from the usual ac Josephson oscillations, two different dynamical states of BJJ can be observed by tuning the inter-particle interaction strength, which are known as '$\\pi$-oscillation' with relative phase $\\pi$ between the condensates and 'macroscopic self-trapped' (MST) state with finite number imbalance. By choosing appropiate intial state we study above dynamical branches quantum mechanically and compare with classical dynamics. The stability region of the '$\\pi$-oscillation' is separated from that of 'MST' state at a critical coupling strength. Also a significant change in the energy spectrum takes place above the critical coupling strength, and pairs of (quasi)-degenerate excited states appear. The original model of BJJ can be mapped on to a simple Hamiltonian describing quantum particle in an 'effective potential' with an effective Planck constant. Different dynamical states and degenerate excited states in the energy spectrum can be understood in this 'effective potential' approach. Also possible novel quantum phenomena like 'macroscopic quantum tunneling'(MQT) become evident from the simple picture of 'effective potential'. We study decay of metastable '$\\pi$-oscillation' by MQT through potential barrier. The doubly degenerate excited states in the energy spectrum are associated with the classically degenerate MST states with equal and opposite number imbalance. We calculate the energy splitting between these quasi-degenerate excited states due to MQT of the condensate between classically degenerate MST states.

Renť John Kerkdyk; S. Sinha

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

63

Evolution and dynamical properties of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using recently developed nonrelativistic numerical simulation code, we investigate the stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed due to the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Due to dark matter accretion, a Bose-Einstein condensed core can also be formed inside massive astrophysical objects such as neutron stars or white dwarfs, for example. Numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of coupled differential equations, we demonstrate, with longer simulation runs, that within the computational limits of the simulation the objects we investigate are stable. Physical properties of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate are examined both in non-rotating and rotating cases.

Eniko J. M. Madarassy; Viktor T. Toth

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Coherent Control of Quantum Matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This talk addresses some recent work aimed at controlling the low-lying electrodynamics of quantum solids using strong field transients. The excitation of selected vibrational resonances to manipulate the many-body physics of one dimensional Mott Hubbard Insulators and to perturb competing orders in High-Tc superconductors is also covered. Finally, the speaker shows how the electrodynamics of layered superconductors can be driven through the orderparameter phase gradient, demonstrating ultrafast transistor action in a layered superconductor. Advances in the use of coherent optics, from tabletop sources to THz and x-ray free-electron lasers are also discussed.

Cavalleri, Andrea (Max Planck Institute) [Max Planck Institute

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Matter Waves and Orbital Quantum Numbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The atom's orbital electron structure in terms of quantum numbers (principal, azimuthal, magnetic and spin) results in space for a maximum of: 2 electrons in the n=1 orbit, 8 electrons in the n=2 orbit, 18 electrons in the n=3 orbit, and so on. Those dispositions are correct, but that is not because of quantum numbers nor angular momentum nor a "Pauli exclusion principle". Matter waves were discovered in the early 20th century from their wavelength, which was predicted by DeBroglie to be, Planck's constant divided by the particle's momentum. But, the failure to obtain a reasonable theory for the matter wave frequency resulted in loss of interest. That problem is resolved in "A Reconsideration of Matter Waves" in which a reinterpretation of Einstein's derivation of relativistic kinetic energy [which produced his famous E = mc^2] leads to a valid matter wave frequency and a new understanding of particle kinetics and the atom's stable orbits. It is analytically shown that the orbital electron arrangement is enforced by the necessity of accommodating the space that each orbiting electron's matter wave occupies.

Roger Ellman

2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

66

Quantum Simulations for Dense Matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure systems are important, for example, to understand the interiors of giant planets (Jupiter and Saturn), for experiments at NIF (the National Ignition Facility at Livermore) related to inertially confined fusion and for other interests of DOE. In this project, we are developing innovative simulation methods (Quantum Monte Carlo methods) to allow more accurate calculation of properties of systems under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These methods can use the power of current day supercomputers made of very many processors, starting from the basic equations of physics to model quantum phenomena important at the microscopic scale. During the grant period, we have settled two important questions of the physics of hydrogen and helium under extreme conditions. We have found the pressures and temperatures when hydrogen and helium mix together; this is important to understand the difference of the interiors of the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Secondly, we have shown that there exists a sharp transition as a function of pressure between molecular and atomic liquid hydrogen at temperatures below 2000K. This prediction can be confirmed with high pressure experiments.

Ceperley, David M

2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

67

Manipulating Quantum States of Molecules Created via Photoassociation of Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show the quantum state transfer technique in two-color photoassociation (PA) of a Bose-Einstein condensate, where a quantized field is used to couple the free-bound transition from atom state to excited molecular state. Under the weak excitation condition, we find that quantum states of the quantized field can be transferred to the created molecular condensate. The feasibility of this technique is confirmed by considering the atomic and molecular decays discovered in the current PA experiments. The present results allow us to manipulate quantum states of molecules in the photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Xiao-Ting Zhou; Xiong-Jun Liu; Hui Jing; C. H. Lai; C. H. Oh

2007-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

LASER-INDUCED SHOCK WAVES IN CONDENSED MATTER: SOME TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LASER-INDUCED SHOCK WAVES IN CONDENSED MATTER: SOME TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS S. N. LUOa,√? , D. C, NV 89154, USA; c GPS Division, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA Laser pressure physics. We briefly review some techniques in laser-induced shock waves, including direct laser

Asimow, Paul D.

69

Quantum dynamics in condensed phases : charge carrier mobility, decoherence, and excitation energy transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we develop analytical models for quantum systems and perform theoretical investigations on several dynamical processes in condensed phases. First, we study charge-carrier mobilities in organic molecular ...

Cheng, Yuan-Chung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Devil's staircase and order without periodicity in classical condensed matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existence of incommensurate structures proves that crystal ordering is not always the most stable one for nonquantum matter. Some properties of structures which are obtained by minimizing a free energy are investigated in the Frenkel Kontorova and related models. It is shown that an incommensurate structure can be either quasi-sinusoidal with a phason mode or built out of a sequence of equidistant defects (discommensurations) which are locked to the lattice by the Peierls force. In that situation the variation of the commensurability ratio with physical parameters forms a complete devil's staircase with interesting physical consequences. Some general results for all structures which minimize a free energy are given. In addition to the known crystal and incommensurate structures, the existence of a new class of structures which have local order at all scale is predicted. Properties of the new class are described in physical terms and possible applications to certain amorphous or nonstoichiometric compounds are discussed.

Aubry, S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Zoology of condensed matter: Framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincar\\'e-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern---the "framid"---does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries---and possibly rotational ones---and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and---if they exist---supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries ...

Nicolis, Alberto; Piazza, Federico; Rattazzi, Riccardo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A condensed matter interpretation of SM fermions and gauge fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the bundle Aff(3) x C x /(R^3), with a geometric Dirac equation on it, as a three-dimensional geometric interpretation of the SM fermions. Each C x /(R^3) describes an electroweak doublet. The Dirac equation has a doubler-free staggered spatial discretization on the lattice space Aff(3) x C (Z^3). This space allows a simple physical interpretation as a phase space of a lattice of cells in R^3. We find the SM SU(3)_c x SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y action on Aff(3) x C x /(R^3) to be a maximal anomaly-free special gauge action preserving E(3) symmetry and symplectic structure, which can be constructed using two simple types of gauge-like lattice fields: Wilson gauge fields and correction terms for lattice deformations. The lattice fermion fields we propose to quantize as low energy states of a canonical quantum theory with Z_2-degenerated vacuum state. We construct anticommuting fermion operators for the resulting Z_2-valued (spin) field theory. A metric theory of gravity compatible with this model is presented too.

I. Schmelzer

2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

73

Optimal quantum control of Bose Einstein condensates in magnetic microtraps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transport of Bose-Einstein condensates in magnetic microtraps, controllable by external parameters such as wire currents or radio-frequency fields, is studied within the framework of optimal control theory (OCT). We derive from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation the optimality system for the OCT fields that allow to efficiently channel the condensate between given initial and desired states. For a variety of magnetic confinement potentials we study transport and wavefunction splitting of the condensate, and demonstrate that OCT allows to drastically outperfrom more simple schemes for the time variation of the microtrap control parameters.

Ulrich Hohenester; Per Kristian Rekdal; Alfio Borzi; Joerg Schmiedmayer

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Density-Functional-Theory Calculations of Matter in Strong Magnetic Fields: II. Infinite Chains and Condensed Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new, ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of one-dimensional infinite chains and three-dimensional condensed matter in strong magnetic fields ranging from B=10^12 G to 2x10^15 G, appropriate for observed magnetic neutron stars. At these field strengths, the magnetic forces on the electrons dominate over the Coulomb forces, and to a good approximation the electrons are confined to the ground Landau level. Our calculations are based on the density functional theory, and use a local magnetic exchange-correlation function appropriate in the strong field regime. The band structures of electrons in different Landau orbitals are computed self-consistently. Numerical results of the ground-state energies and electron work functions are given for one-dimensional chains of H, He, C, and Fe. Fitting formulae for the B-dependence of the energies are also provided. For all the field strengths considered in this paper, hydrogen, helium, and carbon chains are found to be bound relative to individual atoms (although for B less than a few x 10^12 G, the relative binding between C and C_infinity is small). Iron chains are significantly bound for B>10^14 G and are weakly bound if at all at B<10^13 G. We also study the cohesive property of three-dimensional condensed matter of H, He, C, and Fe at zero pressure, constructed from interacting chains in a body-centered tetragonal lattice. Such three-dimensional condensed matter is found to be bound relative to individual atoms, with the cohesive energy increasing rapidly with increasing B.

Zach Medin; Dong Lai

2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system.

Carlos SabŪn; Angela White; Lucia Hackermuller; Ivette Fuentes

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

76

RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Function Research Group Emergent Bioinspired Soft Matter Research Team Emergent Device Research Bioengineering Materials Research Team Materials Characterization Support Unit Quantum Information Electronics Condensate Research Team Macroscopic Quantum Coherence Research Team Superconducting Quantum Electronics

Fukai, Tomoki

77

Instability of Bose-Einstein condensation on quantum graphs under repulsive perturbations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Note we investigate Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting quantum many-particle systems on graphs. We extend previous results obtained for particles on an interval and show that even arbitrarily small repulsive two-particle interactions destroy a condensate in the non-interacting Bose gas. Our results also cover singular two-particle interactions, such as the well-known Lieb-Lininger model, in the thermodynamic limit.

Jens Bolte; Joachim Kerner

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Big Bang quantum cosmology: The matter-energy production epoch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exactly solvable quantum model of the homogeneous, isotropic and closed universe in the matter-energy production epoch is considered. It is assumed that the universe is originally filled with a uniform scalar field and a perfect fluid which defines a reference frame. The stationary state spectrum and the wave functions of the quantum universe are calculated. In this model the matter-energy in the universe has a component in the form of a condensate of massive zero-momentum excitation quanta of oscillations of primordial scalar field. The mean value of the scale factor of the universe in a given state is connected with the mass of a condensate by a linear relation. The nucleation rate of the universe from the initial cosmological singularity point is calculated. It is demonstrated that the process of nucleation of the universe can have an exponential (explosive) nature. The evolution of the universe is described as transitions with non-zero probabilities between the states of the universe with different masses of a condensate.

V. E. Kuzmichev; V. V. Kuzmichev

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 (2008) 362201 (5pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/20/36/362201  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon Peter J F Harris1 , Zheng Liu2 and Kazu Suenaga2 1 Centre for Advanced Microscopy, J J Thomson 305-8565, Japan E-mail: p.j.f.harris@reading.ac.uk and suenaga-kazu@aist.go.jp Received 27 June 2008IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20 (2008) 362201 (5pp

Harris, Peter J F

80

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 (2009) 355009 (4pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/21/35/355009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

synthetic graphite Peter J F Harris Centre for Advanced Microscopy, J J Thomson Physical Laboratory, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AF, UK E-mail: p.j.f.harris@reading.ac.uk Received 8 AprilIOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 (2009) 355009 (4pp

Harris, Peter J F

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 116105 (10pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/19/11/116105  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 116105 (10. Analysis of the hydrogen-bond net across the phase diagram indicates that the density anomaly] was proposed. The associating lattice gas model (ALG) [20, 21] is based on the competition between the filling

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

82

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 (2002) 29012927 PII: S0953-8984(02)28377-0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 and orthogonal tight- binding calculations. The efficiency of the method enables the first simulations be as high as 80­85%, leading to a structure which is also extremely hard, is a weak p-type semiconductor

Powles, Rebecca

83

Quantum radiations from exciton condensate in Electron-Hole Bilayer Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superfluid has been realized in Helium-4, Helium-3 and ultra-cold atoms. It has been widely used in making high-precision devices and also in cooling various systems. There have been extensive experimental search for possible exciton superfluid (ESF) in semiconductor electron-hole bilayer (EHBL) systems below liquid Helium temperature. However, exciton superfluid are meta-stable and will eventually decay through emitting photons. Here we study quantum nature of photons emitted from the excitonic superfluid (ESF) phase in the semiconductor EHBL and find that the light emitted from the excitonic superfluid has unique and unusual features not shared by any other atomic or condensed matter systems. We show that the emitted photons along the direction perpendicular to the layer are in a coherent state, those along all tilted directions are in a two modes squeezed state. We determine the two mode squeezing spectra, the angle resolved power spectrum, the line shapes of both the momentum distribution curve (MDC) and the energy distribution curve (EDC). From the two photon correlation functions, we find there are photon bunching, the photo-count statistics is super-Poissonian. We discuss how several important parameters such as the chemical potential, the exciton decay rate, the quasiparticle energy spectrum and the dipole-dipole interaction strength between the excitons in our theory can be extracted from the experimental data and comment on available experimental data on both EDC and MDC.

Jinwu Ye; T. Shi; Longhua Jiang; C. P. Sun

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Baryons and Dark Matter from the Late Decay of a Supersymmetric Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possibility that both the baryon asymmetry and dark matter arise from the late decay of a population of supersymmetric particles is considered. If the decay takes place below the LSP freeze out temperature, a nonthermal distribution of LSPs results. With conserved $R$ parity these relic LSPs contribute to the dark matter density. A net asymmetry can exist in the population of decaying particles if it arises from coherent production along a supersymmetric flat direction. The asymmetry is transferred to baryons if the condensate decays through the lowest order nonrenormalizable operators which couple to $R$ odd combinations of standard model particles. This also ensures at least one LSP per decay. The relic baryon and LSP number densities are then roughly equal. The ratio of baryon to dark matter densities is then naturally $\\Omegab / \\OmegaLSP \\sim {\\cal O}(\\mb / \\mLSP)$. The resulting upper limit on the LSP mass is model dependent but in the range ${\\cal O}(30-140)$ GeV. The total relic density is related to the order at which the flat direction which gives rise to the condensate is lifted. The observed density is obtained for a direction which is lifted by a fourth order Planck scale suppressed operator in the superpotential.

Scott Thomas

1995-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

85

Quantum Haplodynamics, Dark Matter and Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In quantum haplodynamics (QHD) the weak bosons, quarks and leptons are bound states of fundamental constituents, denoted as haplons. The confinement scale of the associated gauge group SU(2)_h is of the order of $\\Lambda_h\\simeq 0.3$ TeV. One scalar state has zero haplon number and is the resonance observed at the LHC. In addition, there exist new bound states of haplons with no counterpart in the SM, having a mass of the order of 0.5 TeV up to a few TeV. In particular, a neutral scalar state with haplon number 4 is stable and can provide the dark matter in the universe. The QHD, QCD and QED couplings can unify at the Planck scale. If this scale changes slowly with cosmic time, all of the fundamental couplings, the masses of the nucleons and of the DM particles, including the cosmological term (or vacuum energy density), will evolve with time. This could explain the dark energy of the universe.

Harald Fritzsch; Joan Sola

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

86

Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticlesHumanJune 2008 BasicCharlesCondensed Matter and Materials

87

Many-body quantum ratchet in a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a toroidal trap and exposed to a pair of periodically flashed optical lattices. We first prove that in the noninteracting case this system can present a quantum symmetry which forbids the ratchet effect classically expected. We then show how many-body atom-atom interactions, treated within the mean-field approximation, can break this quantum symmetry, thus generating directed transport.

Dario Poletti; Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati; Baowen Li

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Quantum Billiards: Kicking, Ricocheting, Splitting, and Recombination of a Bose-Einstein Condensate Soliton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interactions in a BEC of lithium-7 atoms, which collapses the condensate into a solitonic wave where dispersion-dimensional harmonic trap, as well as interactions with a repulsive optical defect at the trap center. The defect can interactions, the defect may enable coherent recombination of the soliton, thus realizing a matter

89

Interferometry with independent Bose-Einstein condensates: parity as an EPR/Bell quantum variable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interferometry with independent Bose-Einstein condensates: parity as an EPR/Bell quantum variable F arrangements. PACS numbers: 03.65.Ud, 03.75.Gg, 42.50.Xa The original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument [1 called "orthodox"), the notion of reality introduced by EPR is inappropriate. Later, Bell extended

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Influence of quantum matter fluctuations on geodesic deviation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the passive influence of quantum matter fluctuations on the expansion parameter of a congruence of timelike geodesics in a semiclassical regime. In particular, we show that, the perturbations of this parameter can be considered to be elements of the algebra of matter fields at all perturbative order. Hence, once a quantum state for matter is chosen, it is possible to explicitly evaluate the behavior of geometric fluctuations. After introducing the formalism necessary to treat similar problems, in the last part of the paper, we estimate the approximated probability of having a geodesic collapse in a flat spacetime due to those fluctuations.

NicolÚ Drago; Nicola Pinamonti

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

On the Consistency of Approximate Quantum Dynamics Simulation Methods for Vibrational Spectra in the Condensed Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer (LMon) model and a mixed quantum-classical (MQC) model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics (TRPMD) as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D$_2$O doped with HOD and pure H$_2$O at three distinc...

Rossi, Mariana; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A Proposed Alternative Low Energy Quantum Field Theory of Gravity Based on a Bose-Einstein Condensate Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An alternative quantum field theory for gravity is proposed for low energies based on an attractive effect between contaminants in a Bose-Einstein Condensate rather than on particle exchange. In the ``contaminant in condensate effect," contaminants cause a potential in an otherwise uniform condensate, forcing the condensate between two contaminants to a higher energy state. The energy of the system decreases as the contaminants come closer together, causing an attractive force between contaminants. It is proposed that mass-energy may have a similar effect on Einstein's space-time field, and gravity is quantized by the same method by which the contaminant in condensate effect is quantized. The resulting theory is finite and, if a physical condensate is assumed to underly the system, predictive. However, the proposed theory has several flaws at high energies and is thus limited to low energies. Falsifiable predictions are given for the case that the Higgs condensate is assumed to be the condensate underlying gravity.

Alexander Oshmyansky

2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Big-Bang quantum cosmology: The matter-energy production epoch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exactly solvable quantum model of the homogeneous, isotropic and closed universe in the matter-energy production epoch is considered. It is assumed that the universe is originally filled with a uniform scalar field and a perfect fluid which defines a reference frame. The stationary state spectrum and the wave functions of the quantum universe are calculated. In this model the matter-energy in the universe has a component in the form of a condensate of massive zero-momentum excitation quanta of oscillations of primordial scalar field. The mean value of the scale factor of the universe in a given state is connected with the mass of a condensate by a linear relation. The nucleation rate of the universe from the initial cosmological singularity point is calculated. It is demonstrated that the process of nucleation of the universe can have an exponential (explosive) nature. The evolution of the universe is described as transitions with non-zero probabilities between the states of the universe with different ma...

Kuzmichev, V E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States); [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Calcutta 700073 (India); [Azad Physics Centre, Maulana Azad College, Calcutta 700013 (India)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.

O. Tapia

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

96

Disruption of reflecting Bose-Einstein condensates due to interatomic interactions and quantum noise  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform fully three-dimensional simulations, using the truncated Wigner method, to investigate the reflection of Bose-Einstein condensates from abrupt potential barriers. We show that the interatomic interactions can disrupt the internal structure of a cigar-shaped cloud with a high atom density at low approach velocities, damping the center-of-mass motion and generating vortices. Furthermore, by incorporating quantum noise we show that scattering halos form at high approach velocities, causing an associated condensate depletion. We compare our results to recent experimental observations.

Scott, R. G.; Hutchinson, D. A. W.; Gardiner, C. W. [The Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos; Pavol Valko

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

98

Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.

Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 406208 (17pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/19/40/406208  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terzyk1,5,6 , Sylwester Furmaniak1 , Piotr A Gauden1 , Peter J F Harris2,5,7 , Jerzy Wloch3 and Piotr@chem.uni.torun.pl and p.j.f.harris@rdg.ac.uk Received 21 June 2007, in final form 18 July 2007 Published 11 September 2007IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 406208 (17

Harris, Peter J F

100

An informationally-complete unification of quantum spacetime and matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It was known long ago that quantum theory and general relativity, two pillars of modern physics, are in sharp conflict in their foundations. Their fundamental inconsistencies render a consistent theory of quantum gravity the most challenging problem in physics. Here we propose an informationally-complete quantum field theory (ICQFT), which describes elementary particles, their gauge fields and gravity as a trinity without the Hilbert-space inconsistency of Einstein's equation. We then argue that the ICQFT provides a coherent picture and conceptual framework of unifying matter and spacetime. The trinary field is characterized by dual entanglement and dual dynamics. Spacetime-matter entanglement allows us to give a natural explanation of the holographic principle, as well as two conjectures on black-hole states and on a possible candidate to dark matter/energy.

Zeng-Bing Chen

2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Bose-Einstein Condensation of Gases in the Frame of Quantum Electrodynamics: Interconnection of Constituents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose-Einstein condensate of rarified atomic gases is considered as the state formed by exchange of virtual photons, resonant to the lowest levels of atoms; such representation corresponds to the Einstein opinion about an inter-influence of condensable particles. Considered interactions directly lead to the QED structure of nonlinear potential in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Linear momenta that correspond to the thermal energy of condensable atoms are connected to near field of particles and therefore leave atoms immovable. The estimations of these effects do not contradict the observed data; the general quantum principles predict possibility of stimulating of BEC formation by resonant irradiation. All this requires the spectroscopic investigation of BEC on different steps of formation.

Mark E. Perel'man

2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

102

Analogue Cosmological Particle Creation: Quantum Correlations in Expanding Bose Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the structure of quantum correlations in an expanding Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) through the analogue gravity framework. We consider both a 3+1 isotropically expanding BEC as well as the experimentally relevant case of an elongated, effectively 1+1 dimensional, expanding condensate. In this case we include the effects of inhomogeneities in the condensate, a feature rarely included in the analogue gravity literature. In both cases we link the BEC expansion to a simple model for an expanding spacetime and then study the correlation structure numerically and analytically (in suitable approximations). We also discuss the expected strength of such correlation patterns and experimentally feasible BEC systems in which these effects might be detected in the near future.

Angus Prain; Serena Fagnocchi; Stefano Liberati

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

A firmware-defined digital direct-sampling NMR spectrometer for condensed matter physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the design and implementation of a new digital, broad-band nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for probing condensed matter. The spectrometer uses direct sampling in both transmission and reception. It relies on a single, commercially-available signal processing device with a user-accessible field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Its functions are defined exclusively by the FPGA firmware and the application software. Besides allowing for fast replication, flexibility, and extensibility, our software-based solution preserves the option to reuse the components for other projects. The device operates up to 400?MHz without, and up to 800?MHz with undersampling, respectively. Digital down-conversion with Ī10?MHz passband is provided on the receiver side. The system supports high repetition rates and has virtually no intrinsic dead time. We describe briefly how the spectrometer integrates into the experimental setup and present test data which demonstrates that its performance is competitive with that of conventional designs.

Pikulski, M., E-mail: marekp@ethz.ch; Shiroka, T.; Ott, H.-R.; Mesot, J. [Laboratorium fŁr FestkŲrperphysik, ETH HŲnggerberg, CH-8093 ZŁrich, Switzerland and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Generation of directional, coherent matter beams through dynamical instabilities in Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a theoretical analysis of a coupled, two-state Bose-Einstein condensate with nonequal scattering lengths and show that dynamical instabilities can be excited. We demonstrate that these instabilities are exponentially amplified, resulting in highly directional, oppositely propagating, coherent matter beams at specific momenta. To accomplish this we prove that the mean field of our system is periodic and extend the standard Bogoliubov approach to consider a time-dependent, but cyclic, background. This allows us to use Floquet's theorem to gain analytic insight into such systems, rather than employing the usual Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, which is usually limited to numerical solutions. We apply our theory to the metastable helium atom laser experiment by Dall et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 011601(R) (2009)] and show that it explains the anomalous beam profiles they observed. Finally, we demonstrate that the paired particle beams will be Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled on formation.

Dennis, Graham R.; Johnsson, Mattias T. [Department of Quantum Science, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Phenomenology of "dark matter"- from the Everett's quantum cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is widely accepted that the Everett's (or "many-worlds") interpretation of quantum mechanics is the only one which is appropriate for quantum cosmology because no environment may exist for Universe as a whole. We discuss, in the framework of the Everett's interpretation, the (quasi-) classical stage of evolution of the Universe when there coexist "classically incompatible" configurations of matter, or classical alternative realities ("alternatives" for short). In the framework of the Everett's interpretation the semiclassical gravity (where the gravitational field is classical and the non-gravitational fields are quantum) is more natural than theories including quantizing gravitational field. It is shown that the semiclassical (at least on the astrophysical and cosmological scales) Everett-type gravity leads to the observational effect known as the effect of dark matter. Instead of assuming special forms of matter (weakly interacting with the known matter), the role of the dark matter is played in this case by the matter of the usual kind which however belongs to those alternative realities (Everett's worlds) which remain {\\guillemotleft}invisible{\\guillemotright}, i.e. not perceived with the help of non-gravitational fields.

M. B. Mensky

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

106

COLD ATOMS AND CREATION OF NEW STATES OF MATTER: BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES, KAPITZA STATES, AND '2D MAGNETIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLD ATOMS AND CREATION OF NEW STATES OF MATTER: BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES, KAPITZA STATES, AND '2D MAGNETIC HYDROGEN ATOMS' LENE VESTERGAARD HAU, B. D. BUSCH, CHIEN LIU, MICHAEL M. BURNS, AND J. A, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (Invited papers of the Twentieth International Conference on the Physics

Hau, Lene Vestergaard

107

Condensed Matter Physics 2006, Vol. 9, No 3(47), pp. 603617 Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Matter Physics 2006, Vol. 9, No 3(47), pp. 603≠617 Nonlinear Peltier effect Received April 19, 2006, in final form May 24, 2006 We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related

Freericks, Jim

108

In Shock Compression of Condensed Matter-2003, Ed. M. Furnish, Portland, OR, 2003. A NEW H2O ICE HUGONIOT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Collisions on icy planetary bodies produce impact melt water, redistribute ground ice, and deposit thermalIn Shock Compression of Condensed Matter-2003, Ed. M. Furnish, Portland, OR, 2003. 1 A NEW H2O ICE the onset of phase transformations on the ice Hugoniot, and consequently, the criteria for shock melting

Stewart, Sarah T.

109

Quantum-field dynamics of expanding and contracting Bose-Einstein condensates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the dynamics of quantum statistics in a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate, whose two-body interaction strength is controlled via a Feshbach resonance. From an initially noninteracting coherent state, the quantum field undergoes Kerr squeezing, which can be qualitatively described with a single mode model. To render the effect experimentally accessible, we propose a homodyne scheme, based on two hyperfine components, which converts the quadrature squeezing into number squeezing. The scheme is numerically demonstrated using a two-component Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism.

Wuester, S.; Dabrowska-Wuester, B. J.; Scott, S. M.; Close, J. D.; Savage, C. M. [Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Functional Wigner representation of quantum dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a method of simulating the full quantum field dynamics of multi-mode multi-component Bose-Einstein condensates in a trap. We use the truncated Wigner representation to obtain a probabilistic theory that can be sampled. This method produces c-number stochastic equations which may be solved using conventional stochastic methods. The technique is valid for large mode occupation numbers. We give a detailed derivation of methods of functional Wigner representation appropriate for quantum fields. Our approach describes spatial evolution of spinor components and properly accounts for nonlinear losses. Such techniques are applicable to calculating the leading quantum corrections, including effects such as quantum squeezing, entanglement, EPR correlations, and interactions with engineered nonlinear reservoirs. By using a consistent expansion in the inverse density, we are able to explain an inconsistency in the nonlinear loss equations found by earlier authors.

Opanchuk, B.; Drummond, P. D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia)] [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Equation of state in the pion condensation phase in the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the asymmetric nuclear matter using a holographic QCD model by introducing a baryonic charge in the infrared boundary. We first show that, in the normal hadron phase, the predicted values of the symmetry energy and it's slope parameter are comparable with the empirical values. We find that the phase transition from the normal phase to the pion condensation phase is delayed compared with the pure mesonic matter: The critical chemical potential is larger than the pion mass which is obtained for the pure mesonic matter. We also show that, in the pion condensation phase, the pion contribution to the isospin number density increases with the chemical potential, while the baryonic contribution is almost constant. Furthermore, the value of chiral condensation implies that the enhancement of the chiral symmetry breaking occurs in the asymmetric nuclear matter as in the pure mesonic matter. We also give a discussion on how to understand the delay in terms of the 4-dimensional chiral Lagrangian including the rho and omega mesons based on the hidden local symmetry.

Hiroki Nishihara; Masayasu Harada

2014-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

Quantum metrology with rotating matter waves in different geometries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A promising practical application of entanglement is metrology, where quantum states can be used to make measurements beyond the shot noise limit. Here we consider how metrology schemes could be realised using atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in different potentials. In particular, we show that if a trapped BEC is rotated at just the right frequency, it can undergo a quantum phase transition characterised by large-scale entanglement spreading across the system. This simple process of stirring can generate interesting quantum states such as macroscopic superpositions of all the atoms flowing in opposite directions around a ring-shaped potential. We consider different trapping potentials and show how this leads to different entangled states. In particular, we find that by reducing the dimensionality of the system to one or two dimensions, it is possible to generate entangled states that are remarkably robust to the loss of atoms and so are ideally suited to precision measurement schemes.

Dunningham, J. A.; Cooper, J. J.; Hallwood, D. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, Auckland (New Zealand)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Peeling and Multi-critical Matter Coupled to Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to determine the unknown functions arising when the peeling decomposition is applied to multi-critical matter coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity and compute the loop-loop correlation functions. The results that $\\eta=2+2/(2K-3)$ and $\

Martin G. Harris; John F. Wheater

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

114

Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of symmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon--nucleon interactions by means of Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and can provide quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.

Stefano Gandolfi; Francesco Pederiva; Stefano Fantoni; Kevin E. Schmidt

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Analogue quantum gravity phenomenology from a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an analogue spacetime model that reproduces the salient features of the most common ansatz for quantum gravity phenomenology. We do this by investigating a system of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. This system can be tuned to have two "phonon" modes (one massive, one massless) which share the same limiting speed in the hydrodynamic approximation [Phys. Rev. D72 (2005) 044020, gr-qc/0506029; cond-mat/0409639]. The system nevertheless possesses (possibly non-universal) Lorentz violating terms at very high energies where "quantum pressure" becomes important. We investigate the physical interpretation of the relevant fine-tuning conditions, and discuss the possible lessons and hints that this analogue spacetime could provide for the phenomenology of real physical quantum gravity. In particular we show that the effective field theory of quasi-particles in such an emergent spacetime does not exhibit the so called "naturalness problem".

Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner

2006-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

116

The analogue cosmological constant in Bose-Einstein condensates: a lesson for quantum gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For almost a century, the cosmological constant has been a mysterious object, in relation to both its origin and its very small value. By using a Bose-Einstein condensate analogue model for gravitational dynamics, we address here the cosmological constant issue from an analogue gravity standpoint. Starting from the fundamental equations describing a system of condensed bosons, we highlight the presence of a vacuum source term for the analogue gravitational field, playing the role of a cosmological constant. In this simple system it is possible to compute from scratch the value of this constant, to compare it with other characteristic energy scales and hence address the problem of its magnitude within this framework, suggesting a different path for the solution of this longstanding puzzle. We find that, even though this constant term is related with quantum vacuum effects, it is not immediately related to the ground state energy of the condensate. On the gravity side this result suggests that the interpretation and computation of the cosmological term as a form of renormalized vacuum energy might be misleading, its origin being related to the mechanism that instead produces spacetime from its pregeometric progenitor, shedding a different light on the subject and at the same time suggesting a potentially relevant role of analogue models in the understanding of quantum gravity.

Stefano Finazzi; Stefano Liberati; Lorenzo Sindoni

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

117

Renormalization theory of a two dimensional Bose gas: quantum critical point and quasi-condensed state  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a renormalization group construction of a weakly interacting Bose gas at zero temperature in the two-dimensional continuum, both in the quantum critical regime and in the presence of a condensate fraction. The construction is performed within a rigorous renormalization group scheme, borrowed from the methods of constructive field theory, which allows us to derive explicit bounds on all the orders of renormalized perturbation theory. Our scheme allows us to construct the theory of the quantum critical point completely, both in the ultraviolet and in the infrared regimes, thus extending previous heuristic approaches to this phase. For the condensate phase, we solve completely the ultraviolet problem and we investigate in detail the infrared region, up to length scales of the order $(\\lambda^3 \\rho_0)^{-1/2}$ (here $\\lambda$ is the interaction strength and $\\rho_0$ the condensate density), which is the largest length scale at which the problem is perturbative in nature. We exhibit violations to the formal Ward Identities, due to the momentum cutoff used to regularize the theory, which suggest that previous proposals about the existence of a non-perturbative non-trivial fixed point for the infrared flow should be reconsidered.

Serena Cenatiempo; Alessandro Giuliani

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Bose-Einstein condensate strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound general relativistic strings consisting of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) matter which is described, in the Newtonian limit, by the zero temperature time-dependent nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (the Gross-Pitaevskii equation), with repulsive interparticle interactions. In the Madelung representation of the wave function, the quantum dynamics of the condensate can be formulated in terms of the classical continuity equation and the hydrodynamic Euler equations. In the case of a condensate with quartic nonlinearity, the condensates can be described as a gas with two pressure terms, the interaction pressure, which is proportional to the square of the matter density, and the quantum pressure, which is without any classical analogue though, when the number of particles in the system is high enough, the latter may be neglected. By assuming cylindrical symmetry, we analyze the physical properties of the BEC strings in both the interaction pressure and quantum pressure dominated limits, by numerically integrating the gravitational field equations. In this way we obtain a large class of stable stringlike astrophysical objects, whose basic parameters (mass density and radius) depend sensitively on the mass and scattering length of the condensate particle, as well as on the quantum pressure of the Bose-Einstein gas.

Tiberiu Harko; Matthew J. Lake

2015-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

119

Concepts of Neutron ScatteringConcepts of Neutron Scattering 66thth PSI Summer School on Condensed Matter ResearchPSI Summer School on Condensed Matter Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concepts of Neutron ScatteringConcepts of Neutron Scattering 66thth PSI Summer School on Condensed Andrew Boothroyd University of Oxford Basic features of neutron scattering Neutron diffraction Neutron on the lattice * * * #12;ScatteringScattering ``nuts and boltsnuts and bolts'' Neutrons, photons, electrons

Boothroyd, Andrew

120

Exact Topological Quantum Order in D=3 and Beyond: Branyons and Brane-Net Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct an exactly solvable Hamiltonian acting on a 3-dimensional lattice of spin-$\\frac 1 2$ systems that exhibits topological quantum order. The ground state is a string-net and a membrane-net condensate. Excitations appear in the form of quasiparticles and fluxes, as the boundaries of strings and membranes, respectively. The degeneracy of the ground state depends upon the homology of the 3-manifold. We generalize the system to $D\\geq 4$, were different topological phases may occur. The whole construction is based on certain special complexes that we call colexes.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Symmetric Nuclear Matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an accurate numerical study of the equation of state of nuclear matter based on realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions by means of auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) calculations. The AFDMC method samples the spin and isospin degrees of freedom allowing for quantum simulations of large nucleonic systems and represents an important step forward towards a quantitative understanding of problems in nuclear structure and astrophysics.

Gandolfi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pederiva, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); CNR-DEMOCRITOS National Supercomputing Center, Trieste (Italy); Fantoni, Stefano [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati and INFN via Beirut 2/4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); CNR-DEMOCRITOS National Supercomputing Center, Trieste (Italy); Schmidt, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States)

2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

'Dark Matter' as a Quantum Foam In-Flow Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The galactic `dark matter' effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Here it is explained as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, and so is not caused by an unknown form of matter. Because it was based on Kepler's Laws for the motion of the planets in the solar system the Newtonian theory of gravity was too restricted. A reformulation and generalisation of the Newtonian theory of gravity in terms of a velocity in-flow field, representing at a classical level the relative motion of a quantum-foam substructure to space, reveals a key dynamical feature of the phenomenon of gravity, namely the so called `dark matter' effect, which manifests not only in spiral galaxy rotation curves, but also in the borehole g anomaly, globular and galactic black holes, and in ongoing problems in improving the accuracy with which Newton's gravitational constant G is measured. The new theory of gravity involves an additional new dimensionless gravitational constant, and experimental data reveals this to be the fine structure constant. The new theory correctly predicts the globular cluster black hole masses, and that the `frame-dragging' effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow. The relationship of the new theory of gravity to General Relativity which, like Newtonian gravity, does not have the `dark matter' dynamics, is explained.

Reginald T. Cahill

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

Quantum statistical calculation of cluster abundances in hot dense matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cluster abundances are calculated from a quantum statistical approach taking into account in-medium corrections. For arbitrary cluster size the self-energy and Pauli blocking shifts are considered. Exploratory calculations are performed for symmetric matter at temperature $T=5$ MeV and baryon density $\\varrho=0.0156$ fm$^{-3}$ to be compared with the solar element distribution. It is shown that the abundances of weakly bound nuclei with mass number $4

Gerd Ropke

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Optimal quantum control of Bose-Einstein condensates in magnetic microtraps: Comparison of GRAPE and Krotov optimization schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study optimal quantum control of the dynamics of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: The targets are to split a condensate, residing initially in a single well, into a double well, without inducing excitation; and to excite a condensate from the ground to the first excited state of a single well. The condensate is described in the mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We compare two optimization approaches in terms of their performance and ease of use, namely gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) and Krotov's method. Both approaches are derived from the variational principle but differ in the way the control is updated, additional costs are accounted for, and second order derivative information can be included. We find that GRAPE produces smoother control fields and works in a black-box manner, whereas Krotov with a suitably chosen step size parameter converges faster but can produce sharp features in the control fields.

Georg Jšger; Daniel Reich; Michael H. Goerz; Christiane P. Koch; Ulrich Hohenester

2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

125

hal-00110808,version1-2Nov2006 Bose-Einstein condensates and EPR quantum non-locality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal-00110808,version1-2Nov2006 Bose-Einstein condensates and EPR quantum non-locality F. Lalo The EPR argument points to the existence of additional variables that are necessary to complete standard systems, independently of the macroscopic measurement apparatus. Here, we transpose the EPR argument

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry: Proposal of a harmonic solvation model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a novel quantum chemical method, called the harmonic solvation model (HSM), for calculating thermochemical parameters in the condensed phase, particularly in the liquid phase. The HSM represents translational and rotational motions of a solute as vibrations interacting with a cavity wall of solvent molecules. As examples, the HSM and the ideal-gas model (IGM) were used for the standard formation reaction of liquid water, combustion reactions of liquid formic acid, methanol, and ethanol, vaporĖliquid equilibration of water and ethanol, and dissolution of gaseous CO{sub 2} in water. The numerical results confirmed the reliability and applicability of the HSM. In particular, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy of liquid molecules was accurately reproduced by the HSM; for example, the boiling point of water was reasonably determined using the HSM, whereas the conventional IGM treatment failed to obtain a crossing of the two Gibbs energy curves for gaseous and liquid water.

Nakai, Hiromi, E-mail: nakai@waseda.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); ESICB, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Ishikawa, Atsushi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ESICB, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1 Submitted March 12th of high matter density expected in the early Universe I show that primordial inflation and dark energy (i , 2004 ABSTRACT I present a theory of quantum gravity based on the principle of gravitational energy

Giles, C. Lee

128

Quantum Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.

I. M. Georgescu; S. Ashhab; Franco Nori

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - antikaon condensed matter Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4... 0124 Inclusive e+ e- pair production in cold nuclear matter. Michael Weber, HADES Collaboration. PoS Bormio2011... (2011) 052. Talk: Bormio 20110124 Probing...

130

Matter-enhanced transition probabilities in quantum field theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relativistic quantum field theory is the unique theory that combines the relativity and quantum theory and is invariant under the Poincarť transformation. The ground state, vacuum, is singlet and one particle states are transformed as elements of irreducible representation of the group. The covariant one particles are momentum eigenstates expressed by plane waves and extended in space. Although the S-matrix defined with initial and final states of these states hold the symmetries and are applied to isolated states, out-going states for the amplitude of the event that they are detected at a finite-time interval T in experiments are expressed by microscopic states that they interact with, and are surrounded by matters in detectors and are not plane waves. These matter-induced effects modify the probabilities observed in realistic situations. The transition amplitudes and probabilities of the events are studied with the S-matrix, S[T], that satisfies the boundary condition at T. Using S[T], the finite-size corrections of the form of 1/T are found. The corrections to Fermiís golden rule become larger than the original values in some situations for light particles. They break Lorentz invariance even in high energy region of short de Broglie wave lengths. -- Highlights: ēS-matrix S[T] for the finite-time interval in relativistic field theory. ēS[T] satisfies the boundary condition and gives correction of 1/T . ēThe large corrections for light particles breaks Lorentz invariance. ēThe corrections have implications to neutrino experiments.

Ishikawa, Kenzo, E-mail: ishikawa@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Tobita, Yutaka

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

The Dicke model phase transition in the quantum motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the motion of a laser-driven Bose-Einstein condensate in a high-finesse optical cavity realizes the spin-boson Dicke-model. The quantum phase transition of the Dicke-model from the normal to the superradiant phase corresponds to the self-organization of atoms from the homogeneous into a periodically patterned distribution above a critical driving strength. The fragility of the ground state due to photon measurement induced back action is calculated.

D. Nagy; G. Konya; G. Szirmai; P. Domokos

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

132

Dark matter and dark energy production in quantum model of the universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum model of the homogeneous, isotropic, and spatially closed universe predicts an existence of two types of collective quantum states in the universe. The states of one type characterize a gravitational field, the others describe a matter (uniform scalar) field. In the first stage of the evolution of the universe a primordial scalar field evolves slowly into its vacuum-like state. In the second stage the scalar field oscillates about an equilibrium due to the quantum fluctuations. The universe is being filled with matter in the form of elementary quantum excitations of the vibrations of the scalar field. The separate quantum excitations are characterized by non-zero values of their energies (masses). Under the action of gravitational forces mainly these excitations decay into ordinary particles (baryons and leptons) and dark matter. The elementary quantum excitations of the vibrations of the scalar field which have not decayed up to now form dark energy. The numerical estimations lead to realistic va...

Kuzmichev, V E

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Techniques have proved so successful in condensed matter studies that a wide variety of sample environments have been developed in consquence. Many  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foreword Neutron and X-ray Scattering Techniques have proved so successful in condensed matter whose function is to develop and optimise the techniques appropriate to neutron scattering. Since other neutron and X-ray research centres have similar technical support groups, it was felt timely to unité

Boyer, Edmond

134

May 23, 2012 0:24 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9.75in x 6.5in sachdevsolvay5 The quantum phases of matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

duals of compressible quantum matter. Rapporteur presentation at the 25th Solvay Conference on Physics

135

Kaon condensation in neutron star using relativistic mean field models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the modified quark-meson coupling and the quantum hadrodynamics models to study the properties of neutron star. Coupling constants of both models are adjusted to reproduce the same saturation properties. The onset of kaon condensation in neutron star matter is studied in detail over a wide range of kaon optical potential values. Once the kaon condensation takes place, the population of kaons increases very rapidly, and kaons become the dominant component, possibly making the neutron star matter a kaonic matter if the kaon optical potential is large.

S. W. Hong; C. H. Hyun; C. Y. Ryu

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

136

Understanding, constructing, and probing highly-entangled phases of quantum matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I explore three classes of quantum phases of matter that cannot be understood purely on the basis of symmetry, and can be regarded (to varying degrees) as having highly-entangled ground-states. The first ...

Potter, Andrew C. (Andrew Cole)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hydro-gravitational fragmentation, diffusion and condensation of the primordial plasma, dark-matter and gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first structures were proto-voids formed in the primordial plasma. Viscous and weak turbulence forces balanced gravitational forces when the scale of causal connection at time 30,000 years matched the viscous and turbulent Schwarz scales of hydro-gravitational theory (Gibson 1996). The photon viscosity allows only weak turbulence from the Reynolds number Re = 200, with fragmentation to give proto-supercluster voids, buoyancy forces, fossil vorticity turbulence, and strong sonic damping. The expanding, cooling, plasma continued fragmentation to proto-galaxy-mass with the density and rate-of-strain preserved as fossils of the weak turbulence and first structure. Turbulence fossilization by self-gravitational buoyancy explains the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations, not sonic oscillations in cold-dark-matter fragments. After plasma to gas transition at 300,000 years, gas fragmentation occurred within the proto-galaxies to form proto-globular-star-cluster (PGCs) clouds of small-planetary-mass primordial-fog-particles (PFPs). Dark PGC clumps of frozen PFPs persist as the inner-galaxy-halo dark matter, supporting Schild's 1996 quasar-microlensing interpretation. Non-baryonic dark matter diffused into the plasma proto-cluster-voids and later fragmented as outer-galaxy-halos at diffusive Schwarz scales, indicating light, weakly-collisional fluid particles (possibly neutrinos). Observations support the theory (Gibson and Schild 2003).

Carl H. Gibson

2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Quantum reflection and interference of matter waves from periodically doped surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that periodically doped, flat surfaces can act as reflective diffraction gratings for atomic and molecular matter waves. The diffraction element is realized by exploiting that charged dopants locally suppress quantum reflection from the Casimir-Polder potential. We present a general quantum scattering theory for reflection off periodically charged surfaces and discuss the requirements for the observation of multiple diffraction peaks.

Benjamin A. Stickler; Uzi Even; Klaus Hornberger

2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dark matter and dark energy production in quantum model of the universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum model of the homogeneous, isotropic, and spatially closed universe predicts an existence of two types of collective quantum states in the universe. The states of one type characterize a gravitational field, the others describe a matter (uniform scalar) field. In the first stage of the evolution of the universe a primordial scalar field evolves slowly into its vacuum-like state. In the second stage the scalar field oscillates about an equilibrium due to the quantum fluctuations. The universe is being filled with matter in the form of elementary quantum excitations of the vibrations of the scalar field. The separate quantum excitations are characterized by non-zero values of their energies (masses). Under the action of gravitational forces mainly these excitations decay into ordinary particles (baryons and leptons) and dark matter. The elementary quantum excitations of the vibrations of the scalar field which have not decayed up to now form dark energy. The numerical estimations lead to realistic values of both the matter density \\Omega_{M} = 0.29 (with the contributions from dark matter, \\Omega_{DM} = 0.25, and optically bright baryons, \\Omega_{stars} = 0.0025) and the dark energy density \\Omega_{X} = 0.71 if one takes that the mean energy ~ 10 GeV is released in decay of dark energy quantum and fixes baryonic component \\Omega_{B} = 0.04 according to observational data. The energy (mass) of dark energy quantum is equal to ~ 17 GeV and the energy > 2 x 10^{10} GeV is needed in order to detect it. Dark matter particle has the mass ~ 6 GeV. The Jeans mass for dark matter which is considered as a gas of such massive particles is equal to M_{J} ~ 10^{5} M_{\\odot}.

V. E. Kuzmichev; V. V. Kuzmichev

2004-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

140

The Cosmological Constant of One-Dimensional Matter Coupled Quantum Gravity is Quantized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coupling any interacting quantum mechanical system to gravity in one dimension requires the cosmological constant to belong to the matter energy spectrum and thus to be quantized, even though the gravity sector is free of any quantum dynamics, while physical states are also confined to the subspace of matter quantum states whose energy coincides with the cosmological constant value. These general facts are illustrated through some simple examples. The physical projector quantization approach readily leads to the correct representation of such systems, whereas other approaches relying on gauge fixing methods are often plagued by Gribov problems in which case the quantization rule is not properly recovered. Whether such a quantization of the cosmological constant as well as the other ensuing consequences in terms of physical states extend to higher dimensional matter-gravity coupled quantum systems is clearly a fascinating open issue.

Govaerts, J

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Multimode mean-field model for the quantum phase transition of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical resonator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a mean-field model describing the Hamiltonian interaction of ultracold atoms and the optical field in a cavity. The Bose-Einstein condensate is properly defined by means of a grand-canonical approach. The model is efficient because only the relevant excitation modes are taken into account. However, the model goes beyond the two-mode subspace necessary to describe the self-organization quantum phase transition observed recently. We calculate all the second-order correlations of the coupled atom field and radiation field hybrid bosonic system, including the entanglement between the two types of fields.

G. Konya; G. Szirmai; P. Domokos

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

142

Quantum potential induced emergence of massive scalar fields in the analogue gravity model of a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show here a general approach to include the quantum potential term in the emergent gravity model of Bose-Einstein condensate by using multiple scales. Our main result shows the emergence of a massive scalar modulating field at larger length scales as a result of Lorentz symmetry breaking at the length scales comparable to the healing length. We also propose that, the nonlocal interactions induced tuning of healing length can be exploited experimentally to observe the systematics of small and large scale coupling as emerges in our present analysis.

Supratik Sarkar; A. Bhattacharyay

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantum-classical correspondence.

Gattobigio, G. L. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Couvert, A. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Georgeot, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT UMR5152 (IRSAMC), 31062 Toulouse (France); Guery-Odelin, D. [Laboratoire de Collisions Agregats Reactivite, CNRS UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France)

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

144

An integrated processor for photonic quantum states using a broadband light-matter interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faithful storage and coherent manipulation of quantum optical pulses are key for long distance quantum communications and quantum computing. Combining these functions in a light-matter interface that can be integrated on-chip with other photonic quantum technologies, e.g. sources of entangled photons, is an important step towards these applications. To date there have only been a few demonstrations of coherent pulse manipulation utilizing optical storage devices compatible with quantum states, and that only in atomic gas media (making integration difficult) and with limited capabilities. Here we describe how a broadband waveguide quantum memory based on the Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC) protocol can be used as a programmable processor for essentially arbitrary spectral and temporal manipulations of individual quantum optical pulses. Using weak coherent optical pulses at the few photon level, we experimentally demonstrate sequencing, time-to-frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing, splitting, interfering, temporal and spectral filtering, compressing and stretching as well as selective delaying. Our integrated light-matter interface offers high-rate, robust and easily configurable manipulation of quantum optical pulses and brings fully practical optical quantum devices one step closer to reality. Furthermore, as the AFC protocol is suitable for storage of intense light pulses, our processor may also find applications in classical communications.

Erhan Saglamyurek; Neil Sinclair; Joshua A. Slater; Khabat Heshami; Daniel Oblak; Wolfgang Tittel

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

145

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:17575 Please cite this article in press as: A.G. Ramm, Wave scattering by many small particles embedded in a medium, Physics Letters A (2008),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:17575 Please cite this article in press as: A.1016/j.physleta.2008.01.006 JID:PLA AID:17575 /SCO Doctopic: Condensed matter [m5+; v 1.89; Prn:5/03/2008; 14:59] P.1 (1-7) Physics Letters A ··· (····) ···­··· www.elsevier.com/locate/pla Wave scattering

146

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:17759 Please cite this article in press as: A.G. Ramm, Electromagnetic wave scattering by small bodies, Physics Letters A (2008), doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2008.03.010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:17759 Please cite this article in press as: A.physleta.2008.03.010 JID:PLA AID:17759 /SCO Doctopic: Condensed matter [m5+; v 1.91; Prn:24/04/2008; 15:29] P.1 (1-9) Physics Letters A ··· (····) ···­··· www.elsevier.com/locate/pla Electromagnetic wave

147

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:17463 Please cite this article in press as: A.G. Ramm, A recipe for making materials with negative refraction in acoustics, Physics Letters A (2007),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:17463 Please cite this article in press as: A), doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2007.11.037 JID:PLA AID:17463 /SCO Doctopic: Condensed matter [m5+; v 1.84; Prn:30/11/2007; 14:54] P.1 (1-3) Physics Letters A ··· (····) ···­··· www.elsevier.com/locate/pla

148

Can Spacetime be a Condensate?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore further the proposal that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, i.e., spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of such micro-theories. In this view it is more relevant to find ways to deduce the microscopic ingredients of spacetime and matter from their macroscopic attributes than to find ways to quantize general relativity because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not the equivalents of atoms or quantum electrodyanmics. It may turn out that spacetime is merely a representation of collective state of matter in some limiting regime of interactions, which is the view expressed by Sakharov. In this talk, working within the conceptual framework of geometro-hydrodynamics, we suggest a new way to look at the nature of spacetime inspired by Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) physics. We ask the question whether spacetime could be a condensate, even without the knowledge of what the `atom of spacetime' is. We begin with a summary of the main themes for this new interpretation of cosmology and spacetime physics, and the `bottom-up' approach to quantum gravity. We then describe the `Bosenova' experiment of controlled collapse of a BEC and our cosmology-inspired interpretation of its results. We discuss the meaning of a condensate in different context. We explore how far this idea can sustain, its advantages and pitfalls, and its implications on the basic tenets of physics and existing programs of quantum gravity.

B. L. Hu

2005-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

Bogoliubov space of a Bose-Einstein condensate and quantum spacetime fluctuations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the role that metric fluctuations could have on the features of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Particularly, the Bogoliubov space associated to it is considered and it will be shown that the pressure and the speed of sound of the ground state define an expression allowing us to determine the average size of these fluctuations.

Rivas, J. I.; Camacho, A.; Goeklue, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Apartado Postal 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

150

Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms in a uniform potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have observed Bose-Einstein condensation of an atomic gas in the (quasi-)uniform three-dimensional potential of an optical box trap. Condensation is seen in the bimodal momentum distribution and the anisotropic time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. The critical temperature agrees with the theoretical prediction for a uniform Bose gas. The momentum distribution of our non-condensed quantum-degenerate gas is also clearly distinct from the conventional case of a harmonically trapped sample and close to the expected distribution in a uniform system. We confirm the coherence of our condensate in a matter-wave interference experiment. Our experiments open many new possibilities for fundamental studies of many-body physics.

Gaunt, Alexander L; Gotlibovych, Igor; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms in a uniform potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have observed Bose-Einstein condensation of an atomic gas in the (quasi-)uniform three-dimensional potential of an optical box trap. Condensation is seen in the bimodal momentum distribution and the anisotropic time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. The critical temperature agrees with the theoretical prediction for a uniform Bose gas. The momentum distribution of our non-condensed quantum-degenerate gas is also clearly distinct from the conventional case of a harmonically trapped sample and close to the expected distribution in a uniform system. We confirm the coherence of our condensate in a matter-wave interference experiment. Our experiments open many new possibilities for fundamental studies of many-body physics.

Alexander L. Gaunt; Tobias F. Schmidutz; Igor Gotlibovych; Robert P. Smith; Zoran Hadzibabic

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

152

Materials/Condensed Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region serviceMissionreal-time

153

Quantum Hall effect and Landau-level crossing of Dirac fermions in trilayer graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physics of Dirac fermions in condensed-matter systems has received extraordinary attention following the discoveries of two new types of quantum Hall effect in single-layer and bilayer graphene1, 2, 3. The electronic ...

Taychatanapat, Thiti

154

Dark energy from quantum wave function collapse of dark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical wave function collapse models entail the continuous liberation of a specified rate of energy arising from the interaction of a fluctuating scalar field with the matter wave function. We consider the wave function collapse process for the constituents of dark matter in our universe. Beginning from a particular early era of the universe chosen from physical considerations, the rate of the associated energy liberation is integrated to yield the requisite magnitude of dark energy around the era of galaxy formation. Further, the equation of state for the liberated energy approaches $w \\to -1$ asymptotically, providing a mechanism to generate the present acceleration of the universe.

A. S. Majumdar; D. Home; S. Sinha

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

CCDM model from quantum particle creation: constraints on dark matter mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work the results from the quantum process of matter creation have been used in order to constrain the mass of the dark matter particles in an accelerated Cold Dark Matter model (Creation Cold Dark Matter, CCDM). In order to take into account a back reaction effect due to the particle creation phenomenon, it has been assumed a small deviation $\\varepsilon$ for the scale factor in the matter dominated era of the form $t^{\\frac{2}{3}+\\varepsilon}$. Based on recent $H(z)$ data, the best fit values for the mass of dark matter created particles and the $\\varepsilon$ parameter have been found as $m=1.6\\times10^3$ GeV, restricted to a 68.3\\% c.l. interval of ($1.5quantum mechanical result for the creation rate of real massive scalar particles, given a self consistent justification for the physical process. This method also indicates a possible solution to the so called "dark degeneracy", where one can not distinguish if it is the quantum vacuum contribution or quantum particle creation which accelerates the Universe expansion.

J. F. Jesus; S. H. Pereira

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

156

QUANTUM PHASE TRANSITIONS IN MAGNETIC SYSTEMS Omid Nohadani  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the discovery of a new phase of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate, out of a gas of rubidium atoms. 4 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.2 Quantum Phase Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.3 Scaling Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5 Bose-Einstein Condensation of Magnons 93 5.1 Introduction

Nohadani, Omid

157

Analog quantum simulation of gravitational waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to vary the physical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in order to mimic an effective gravitational-wave spacetime. In particular, we focus in the simulation of the recently discovered creation of particles by real spacetime distortion in box-type traps. We show that, by modulating the speed of sound in the BEC, the phonons experience the effects of a simulated spacetime ripple with experimentally amenable parameters. These results will inform the experimental programme of gravitational wave astronomy with cold atoms.

Tupac Bravo; Carlos SabŪn; Ivette Fuentes

2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

158

A molecular dynamics study of nuclear quantum effect on the diffusion of hydrogen in condensed phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule on its diffusivity is analyzed using Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. The path integral centroid MD (CMD) method is applied for the reproduction method of time evolution of the molecules. The diffusion coefficient of liquid hydrogen is calculated using the Green-Kubo method. The simulation is performed at wide temperature region and the temperature dependence of the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule is addressed. The calculation results are compared with those of classical MD results. As a result, it is confirmed that the diffusivity of hydrogen molecule is changed depending on temperature by the quantum effect. It is clarified that this result can be explained that the dominant factor by quantum effect on the diffusivity of hydrogen changes from the swollening the potential to the shallowing the potential well around 30 K. Moreover, it is found that this tendency is related to the temperature dependency of the ratio of the quantum kinetic energy and classical kinetic energy.

Nagashima, Hiroki; Tokumasu, Takashi [Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Shin-ichi [Shinshu University, 77-7 Minamibori, Nagano, Nagano (Japan); Tsuboi, Nobuyuki [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Koshi, Mitsuo [Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashie, A. Koichi [AoyamaGakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

159

Continuous quantum measurement of a light-matter system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuous measurements on correlated quantum systems, in addition to providing information on the state vector of the system in question, induce evolution in the unmeasured degrees of freedom conditioned on the measurement outcome. However, experimentally accessing these nontrivial regimes requires high-efficiency measurements over time scales much longer than the temporal resolution of the measurement apparatus. We report the observation of such a continuous conditioned evolution in the state of a light-collective atomic excitation system undergoing photoelectric measurement.

Zhao, R.; Jenkins, S. D.; Campbell, C. J.; Kennedy, T. A. B.; Kuzmich, A. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States); Matsukevich, D. N. [JQI and Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Chaneliere, T. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS-UPR 3321, Batiment 505, Campus Universitaire, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 (2002) 45334542 PII: S0953-8984(02)30766-5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$ - see front matter q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. Z .PII: S0378-7753 99 00298-0 #12

Medvedeva, Julia E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Matter pulse carving: Manipulating quantum wave packets via time-dependent absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A pulse of matter waves may dramatically change its shape when traversing an absorbing barrier with time-dependent transparency. Here we show that this effect can be utilized for controlled manipulation of spatially-localized quantum states. In particular, in the context of atom-optics experiments, we explicitly demonstrate how the proposed approach can be used to generate spatially shifted, split, squeezed and cooled atomic wave packets. We expect our work to be useful in devising new interference experiments with atoms and molecules and, more generally, to enable new ways of coherent control of matter waves.

Goussev, Arseni

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Quantum Monte Carlo study of inhomogeneous neutron matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an ab-initio study of neutron drops. We use Quantum Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the energy up to 54 neutrons in different external potentials, and we compare the results with Skyrme forces. We also calculate the rms radii and radial densities, and we find that a re-adjustment of the gradient term in Skyrme is needed in order to reproduce the properties of these systems given by the ab-initio calculation. By using the ab-initio results for neutron drops for close- and open-shell configurations, we suggest how to improve Skyrme forces when dealing with systems with large isospin-asymmetries like neutron-rich nuclei.

Stefano Gandolfi

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

aldol condensation reactions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium...

164

Periodically-driven quantum matter: the case of resonant modulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum systems can show qualitatively new forms of behavior when they are driven by fast time-periodic modulations. In the limit of large driving frequency, the long-time dynamics of such systems can often be described by a time-independent effective Hamiltonian, which is generally identified through a perturbative treatment. Here, we present a general formalism that describes time-modulated physical systems, in which the driving frequency is large, but resonant with respect to energy spacings inherent to the system at rest. Such a situation is currently exploited in optical-lattice setups, where superlattice (or Wannier-Stark-ladder) potentials are resonantly modulated so as to control the tunneling matrix elements between lattice sites, offering a powerful method to generate artificial fluxes for cold-atom systems. The formalism developed in this work identifies the basic ingredients needed to generate interesting flux patterns and band structures using resonant modulations. We also discuss the micro-motion underlying the dynamics, and illustrate its characteristics based on diverse dynamic-lattice configurations. It is shown that the impact of the micro-motion on physical observables strongly depends on the implemented scheme, suggesting that a theoretical description in terms of the effective Hamiltonian alone is generally not sufficient to capture the full time-evolution of the system.

N. Goldman; J. Dalibard; M. Aidelsburger; N. R. Cooper

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Quantum Biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since without it most (if not all) of the biological structures and signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-range quantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization, may be invoked to explain signal amplification process in biological systems in general.

Alessandro Sergi

2009-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

166

Quantum Coherence in Photosynthetic Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the following: How do light-harvesting systems deliver such high efficiency in the presence of disordered:333­61 First published online as a Review in Advance on December 13, 2011 The Annual Review of Condensed Matter quantum efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. Further, this speculation has led to much effort

Fleming, Graham R.

167

Manifestations of quantum phase transitions in transport through nanosystems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The award led to several important new results in theory of interacting low-dimensional systems. The results are relevant for both traditional condensed matter systems, such as quantum wires and quantum spin chains, and for the relatively new field of ultra-cold atomic gases.

Pustilnik, Michael

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:18955 Please cite this article in press as: A.G. Ramm, Physics Letters A (2009), doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2009.06.033  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:18955 Please cite this article in press as: A.G. Ramm, Physics Letters A (2009), doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2009.06.033 JID:PLA AID:18955 /SCO Doctopic lists available at ScienceDirect Physics Letters A www.elsevier.com/locate/pla Inverse scattering

169

Quantum Monte Carlo study of dilute neutron matter at finite temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report results of fully nonperturbative, path integral Monte Carlo calculations for dilute neutron matter. The neutron-neutron interaction in the s channel is parameterized by the scattering length and the effective range. We calculate the energy and the chemical potential as a function of temperature at density {rho}=0.003 fm{sup -3}. The critical temperature T{sub c} for the superfluid-normal phase transition is estimated from the finite size scaling of the condensate fraction. At low temperatures we extract the spectral weight function A(p,{omega}) from the imaginary time propagator using the methods of maximum entropy and singular value decomposition. We determine the quasiparticle spectrum, which can be accurately parameterized by three parameters: an effective mass m{sup *}, a mean-field potential U, and a gap {Delta}. Large values of {Delta}/T{sub c} indicate that the system is not a BCS-type superfluid at low temperatures.

Wlazlowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Ulica Koszykowa 75, PL-00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONDENSED MATTER J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 (2011) 234101 (11pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/23/23/234101  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-loop mechanism of PMF generation, taking place in the nitrate respiratory chain of the E. coli bacterium that both models can be described by the same approach, which can be significantly simplified if the system, temperature, and other system parameters. We show that the quantum yield in our models can be up to 100

Nori, Franco

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

From the Cosmological Constant: Higgs Boson, Dark Matter, and Quantum Gravity Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We suggest discovery targets for the Higgs boson, dark matter, and quantum gravity mass scales, motivated by the Dirac equation for the electron in deSitter space, and a sixth-order constraint between the electron QED parameters and the cosmological constant. We go on to show that this constraint can be viewed as a structural parameter of the electron, and leads naturally to a new cosmic horizon. A dual fourth-order constraint implies a second-order one, from which the electron neutrino mass is derived.

James R. Bogan

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Baryonic matter and beyond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

Kenji Fukushima

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Propagation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a magnetic waveguide Progress in the field of atom optics depends on developing improved sources of matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propagation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a magnetic waveguide Progress in the field of atom. Miniaturizing the current carrying structures used to confine Bose-Einstein condensates offer prospects for finer control over the clouds. We have demonstrated that a gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate transported

174

JID:PLA AID:20736 /SCO Doctopic: Condensed matter [m5Gv1.5; v 1.54; Prn:7/07/2011; 11:46] P.1 (1-7) Physics Letters A ()  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JID:PLA AID:20736 /SCO Doctopic: Condensed matter [m5Gv1.5; v 1.54; Prn:7/07/2011; 11:46] P.1 (1-7) Physics Letters A ··· (····) ···­··· Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Physics Letters A www.elsevier.com/locate/pla

Granada, Universidad de

175

2011 Quantum Control of Light & Matter Gordon Research Conference (July 31-August 5, 2011, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum control of light and matter is the quest to steer a physical process to a desirable outcome, employing constructive and destructive interference. Three basic questions address feasibility of quantum control: (1) The problem of controllability, does a control field exist for a preset initial and target state; (2) Synthesis, constructively finding the field that leads to the target; and (3) Optimal Control Theory - optimizing the field that carries out this task. These continue to be the fundamental theoretical questions to be addressed in the conference. How to realize control fields in the laboratory is an ongoing challenge. This task is very diverse viewing the emergence of control scenarios ranging from attoseconds to microseconds. How do the experimental observations reflect on the theoretical framework? The typical arena of quantum control is an open environment where much of the control is indirect. How are control scenarios realized in dissipative open systems? Can new control opportunities emerge? Can one null decoherence effects? An ideal setting for control is ultracold matter. The initial and final state can be defined more precisely. Coherent control unifies many fields of physical science. A lesson learned in one field can reflect on another. Currently quantum information processing has emerged as a primary target of control where the key issue is controlling quantum gate operation. Modern nonlinear spectroscopy has emerged as another primary field. The challenge is to unravel the dynamics of molecular systems undergoing strong interactions with the environment. Quantum optics where non-classical fields are to be generated and employed. Finally, coherent control is the basis for quantum engineering. These issues will be under the limelight of the Gordon conference on Quantum Control of Light and Matter.

Thomas Weinacht

2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

176

Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological and Superconducting Phases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emerging properties in quantum matter is a major theme of modern physics, with the promise that insights gained would have implications far beyond these materials. This talk will address two interesting examples - topological insulators and high-temperature superconductors. The second part of the talk will report recent advances in the study of cuprate superconductors. It is now exactly 100 years since superconductivity was discovered and it took 45 years before a complete theory was formulated. High T_c superconductivity was discovered 25 years ago and it remains a major unsolved physics problem today. Recent ARPES results that suggest phase competition is a central piece of the cuprate physics will also be discussed.

Shen, Zhi-Xun (Stanford University) [Stanford University

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Variable Cosmological Parameter and S-channel Quantum Matter Fields Hadamard renormalization in Spherically Symmetric Curved Space Times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aim of the paper is to obtain 2d analogue of the backreaction equation which will be useful to study final state of quantum perturbed spherically symmetric curved space times. Thus we take Einstein-massless-scalar $\\psi$ tensor gravity model described on class of spherically symmetric curved space times. We rewrite the action functional in 2d analogue in terms of dimensionless dilaton-matter field $(\\chi=\\Phi\\psi)$ where dilaton field $\\Phi$ is conformal factor of 2-sphere. Then we seek renormalized expectation value of quantum dilaton-matter field stress tensor operator by applying Hadamard rennormalization prescription. Singularity of the Green function is assumed to be has logarithmic form. Covariantly conservation condition on the renormalized quantum dilaton-matter stress tensor demands to input a variable cosmological parameter $\\lambda(x)$. Energy conditions (weak, strong and null) is studied on the obtained renormalized stress tensor leading to dynamical equations for $\\lambda(x), \\Phi$ and quantum vacuum state $W_0(x)=_{ren}.$ In weak quantum field limits our obtained trace anomaly corresponds to one which obtained from zeta regularization. Setting null-like apparent horizon equation $\

Hossein Ghaffarnejad

2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

178

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:18239 Please cite this article in press as: A.G. Ramm, Does negative refraction make a perfect lens?, Physics Letters A (2008), doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2008.09.003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Doctopic: Condensed matter ARTICLE IN PRESS PLA:18239 Please cite this article in press as: A.physleta.2008.09.003 JID:PLA AID:18239 /SCO Doctopic: Condensed matter [m5G; v 1.60; Prn:15/09/2008; 13:09] P.1 A www.elsevier.com/locate/pla Does negative refraction make a perfect lens? A.G. Ramm Mathematics

179

Condensing vs. Non-Condensing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Non-Condensing Gas Appliances Gas Non-Condensing Furnace * Burners are ignited *Blower motor is turned on *Cool or return air enters, is filtered and blown through furnace heat...

180

Galaxies as condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel interpretation of MOND is presented. For galactic data, in addition to Newtonian acceleration, there is an attractive acceleration peaking at Milgrom's parameter a_0. The peak lies within experimental error where a_0 = cH_0/2\\pi and H_0 is the present-time value of the Hubble constant. This peaking may be understood in terms of quantum mechanical mixing between Newtonian gravitation and the condensation mechanism. There are five pointers towards galaxies being Fermi-Dirac condensates.

D. V. Bugg

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A Light-Matter Interface based on a Single InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot in a Nanometallic Cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Progress in solid-state optical cavities is tracked on a timeline of miniaturization. Here, we demonstrate a coupled emitter-cavity system consisting of an InAs/GaAs Quantum Dot embedded in a hybrid metal/semiconductor nanocavity. Key features of our nanometallic light-matter interface include: (i) order of magnitude reduction in mode volume compared to that of leading photonic crystal cQED systems, resulting in maximum atom-field coupling rate g/(2{\\pi})~180GHz; (ii) surface-emitting nanocylinder geometry and therefore good collection efficiency compared to the bulk (~5X enhancement); (iii) strong and broadband spontaneous emission rate enhancement (Purcell factor ~8); and finally (iv) the ability to efficiently optically address a multi-level quantum emitter based on a charged quantum dot inside the nanocavity. This light-matter interface could play an important role in studies of the cavity quantum electrodynamics as well as in its application to optical interconnects and quantum networks.

Thomas M. Babinec; Yousif A. Kelaita; Kevin A. Fischer; Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis; Tomas Sarmiento; Armand Rundquist; Arka Majumdar; Jelena Vuckovic

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

182

Geometric potentials in quantum optics: A semi-classical interpretation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis may help for the design and the implementation of novel geometric forces. Cold atomic gases are considered as efficient simulators of quantum condensed matter systems (for a review, see e.g. [1 in the implementation of these simulators is the possibil- ity to apply a gauge field to the cold atomic gas in or- der

183

Axions: Bose Einstein Condensate or Classical Field?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligeable.

Sacha Davidson

2014-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

184

arXiv:1406.4193v1[quant-ph]16Jun2014 Atomic Focusing by Quantum Fields: Entanglement Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, lithography, single atom manipulation, trace gas analysis and ultracold chemistry [3]. In addition, the area of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum the search for the matter wave Gouy phase in different systems: Bose-Einstein condensates [7], electron

Boyer, Edmond

185

Ultra-cold atomic matter and quantum information My group studies various many-body states of ultra cold atoms and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultra-cold atomic matter and quantum information My group studies various many-body states of ultra cold atoms and investigates possible applications towards quantum computation. Two subjects studies of nematic Mott states and dimerized valence bond states of spin-one atoms. We also have

Plotkin, Steven S.

186

Supermassive Black Holes as Giant Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Schwarzschild metric has a divergent energy density at the horizon, which motivates a new approach to black holes. If matter is spread uniformly throughout the interior of a supermassive black hole, with mass $M\\sim M_\\star= 2.34 10^8M_\\odot$, it may arise from a Bose-Einstein condensate of densely packed H-atoms. Within the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation with a positive cosmological constant, a bosonic quantum field is coupled to the curvature scalar. In the Bose-Einstein condensed groundstate an exact, selfconsistent solution for the metric is presented. It is regular with a specific shape at the origin. The redshift at the horizon is finite but large, $z\\sim 10^{14}$$M_\\star/M$. The binding energy remains as an additional parameter to characterize the BH; alternatively, the mass observed at infinity can be any fraction of the rest mass of its constituents.

Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

Charged Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of massive electrically charged scalars in a uniform background of charged fermions. We focus on the case when the scalar condensate screens the background charge, while the net charge of the system resides on its boundary surface. A distinctive signature of this substance is that the photon acquires a Lorentz-violating mass in the bulk of the condensate. Due to this mass, the transverse and longitudinal gauge modes propagate with different group velocities. We give qualitative arguments that at high enough densities and low temperatures a charged system of electrons and helium-4 nuclei, if held together by laboratory devices or by force of gravity, can form such a substance. We briefly discuss possible manifestations of the charged condensate in compact astrophysical objects.

Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A. Rosen

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

188

A quantum mechanical derivation of the Schwarzschild radius and its quantum correction using a model density distribution: Skin of a black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a single particle density distribution for a system of self-gravitating particles which ultimately forms a black hole, we from a condensed matter point of view derive the Schwarzschild radius and by including the quantum mechanical exchange energy we find a small correction to the Schwarzschild radius, which we designate as the skin of the black hole.

Subodha Mishra

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Unusual condensates in quark and atomic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In these lectures we discuss condensates which are formed in quark matter when it is squeezed and in a gas of fermionic atoms when it is cooled. The behavior of these two seemingly very different systems reveals striking similarities. In particular, in both systems the Bose-Einstein condensate to Bardeen--Cooper-Schrieffer (BEC-BCS) crossover takes place.

B. Kerbikov

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Inhomogeneous chiral condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chiral condensate, which is constant in vacuum, may become spatially modulated at moderately high densities where in the traditional picture of the QCD phase diagram a first-order chiral phase transition occurs. We review the current status of this idea, which originally dates back to Migdal's pion condensation, but recently received new momentum through studies on the nature of the chiral critical point and by the conjecture of a quarkyonic-matter phase. We discuss how these nonuniform phases emerge in generalized Ginzburg-Landau analyses as well as in specific calculations, both within effective models and in Dyson-Schwinger or large-$N_c$ approaches to QCD. Questions about the most favored shape of the modulations and its dimension, and about the effects of nonzero isospin chemical potential, strange quarks, color superconductivity, and external magnetic fields on these inhomogeneous phases will be addressed as well.

Michael Buballa; Stefano Carignano

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on some recent results concerning the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates, obtained in a series of joint papers with L. Erdos and H.-T. Yau. Starting from many body quantum dynamics, we present a rigorous derivation of a cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the time evolution of the condensate wave function.

Benjamin Schlein

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

Quantum cosmology: a review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

Bojowald, Martin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quantum cosmology: a review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

Martin Bojowald

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Quantum field theory in a magnetic field: From quantum chromodynamics to graphene and Dirac semimetals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chira...

Miransky, Vladimir A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Towards continuous-wave regime teleportation for light matter quantum relay stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a teleportation experiment involving narrowband entangled photons at 1560 nm and qubit photons at 795 nm emulated by faint laser pulses. A nonlinear difference frequency generation stage converts the 795 nm photons to 1560 nm in order to enable interference with one photon out of the pairs, i.e., at the same wavelength. The spectral bandwidth of all involved photons is of about 25 MHz, which is close to the emission bandwidth of emissive quantum memory devices, notably those based on ensembles of cold atoms and rare earth ions. This opens the route towards the realization of hybrid quantum nodes, i.e., combining quantum memories and entanglement-based quantum relays exploiting either a synchronized (pulsed) or asynchronous (continuous- wave) scenario.

Florian Kaiser; Amandine Issautier; Lutfi A. Ngah; Djeylan Aktas; Tom Delord; Sťbastien Tanzilli

2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

196

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a macroscopic number of particles in the lowest quantum state. Condensate fragmentation, the macroscopic occupation of two or more quantum states

197

Fidelity decay in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum coherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied using the concept of quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo). The condensate is confined in an elongated anharmonic trap and subjected to a small random potential such as that created by a laser speckle. Numerical experiments show that the quantum fidelity stays constant until a critical time, after which it drops abruptly over a single trap oscillation period. The critical time depends logarithmically on the number of condensed atoms and on the perturbation amplitude. This behavior may be observable by measuring the interference fringes of two condensates evolving in slightly different potentials.

G. Manfredi; P. -A. Hervieux

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

Nuclear Alpha-Particle Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The $\\alpha$-particle condensate in nuclei is a novel state described by a product state of $\\alpha$'s, all with their c.o.m. in the lowest 0S orbit. We demonstrate that a typical $\\alpha$-particle condensate is the Hoyle state ($E_{x}=7.65$ MeV, $0^+_2$ state in $^{12}$C), which plays a crucial role for the synthesis of $^{12}$C in the universe. The influence of antisymmentrization in the Hoyle state on the bosonic character of the $\\alpha$ particle is discussed in detail. It is shown to be weak. The bosonic aspects in the Hoyle state, therefore, are predominant. It is conjectured that $\\alpha$-particle condensate states also exist in heavier $n\\alpha$ nuclei, like $^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne, etc. For instance the $0^+_6$ state of $^{16}$O at $E_{x}=15.1$ MeV is identified from a theoretical analysis as being a strong candidate of a $4\\alpha$ condensate. The calculated small width (34 keV) of $0^+_6$, consistent with data, lends credit to the existence of heavier Hoyle-analogue states. In non-self-conjugated nuclei such as $^{11}$B and $^{13}$C, we discuss candidates for the product states of clusters, composed of $\\alpha$'s, triton's, and neutrons etc. The relationship of $\\alpha$-particle condensation in finite nuclei to quartetting in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated with the help of an in-medium modified four-nucleon equation. A nonlinear order parameter equation for quartet condensation is derived and solved for $\\alpha$ particle condensation in infinite nuclear matter. The strong qualitative difference with the pairing case is pointed out.

T. Yamada; Y. Funaki; H. Horiuchi; G. Roepke; P. Schuck; A. Tohsaki

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

Superlattices and Microstructures, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1997 Current distribution in the integer quantum Hall effect: The role of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Experimental setup The two-dimensional electron gas sample was fabricated from GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel Hadas Shtrikman Department of Condensed Matter currents in a two-dimensional electron gas under the conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE

Palevski, Alexander

200

Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.

Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Cosmic Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QCD axions are a well-motivated candidate for cold dark matter. Cold axions are produced in the early universe by vacuum realignment, axion string decay and axion domain wall decay. We show that cold axions thermalize via their gravitational self-interactions, and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. As a result, axion dark matter behaves differently from the other proposed forms of dark matter. The differences are observable.

Banik, Nilanjan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The low-energy neutron-Sigma^- interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m_pi ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties, and strengthen theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.

S. R. Beane; E. Chang; S. D. Cohen; W. Detmold; H. -W. Lin; T. C. Luu; K. Orginos; A. Parreno; M. J. Savage; A. Walker-Loud

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

203

Matter: Space without Time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

204

Condensed Geometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spin (dependent) system treatment of gravity is adopted akin to the Sen-Ashtekar treatment. Time is reinserted into the space ``fluid'' at the quantum Level. This time - the Lorentzian one- is shown to be a vorticity of a ``fluid particle'' of the space and the effect is integrated over all the fluid particles to incorporate time in quantum gravity. This spacetime is viewed as a fluid of future light cones called the SU(2) dipoles of causality here in the paper.The future light cone structure is soldered internally to the new variables derived in this paper to accomodate a background free physics of quantum strings. The emergence of spacetime is shown to be a first order phase transition and that of separation of gravity from the unified field to be a second order phase transition. For the former case the cosmic time is chosen as the order parameter and for the latter case the angular momentum is chosen as the order parameter. A quantum blackhole thus nucleates at transition temperature which is the Planck temperature, $\\tau_{pl}$. Then the SU(2) dipoles enable interpretation of this black hole as a gravity gauge SL(2,$\\mathbb{C}$) dual of the U(1) gauge ferromagnetic phase. The usual QFT interpretation of this effect is the existence of locally Lorentzian spacetimes.

Koustubh Kabe

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

205

Quantum field theory in a magnetic field: From quantum chromodynamics to graphene and Dirac semimetals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chiral magnetic and separation effects, we also review their possible phenomenological implications in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars. We also discuss the application of the magnetic catalysis ideas for the description of the quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene, and conclude that the generalized magnetic catalysis, including both the magnetic catalysis condensates and the quantum Hall ferromagnetic ones, lies at the basis of this phenomenon. We also consider how an external magnetic field affects the underlying physics in a class of three-dimensional quasirelativistic condensed matter systems, Dirac semimetals. While at sufficiently low temperatures and zero density of charge carriers, such semimetals are expected to reveal the regime of the magnetic catalysis, the regime of Weyl semimetals with chiral asymmetry is realized at nonzero density...

Vladimir A. Miransky; Igor A. Shovkovy

2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

206

Quantum field theory in a magnetic field: From quantum chromodynamics to graphene and Dirac semimetals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A range of quantum field theoretical phenomena driven by external magnetic fields and their applications in relativistic systems and quasirelativistic condensed matter ones, such as graphene and Dirac/Weyl semimetals, are reviewed. We start by introducing the underlying physics of the magnetic catalysis. The dimensional reduction of the low-energy dynamics of relativistic fermions in an external magnetic field is explained and its role in catalyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking is emphasized. The general theoretical consideration is supplemented by the analysis of the magnetic catalysis in quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics and quasirelativistic models relevant for condensed matter physics. By generalizing the ideas of the magnetic catalysis to the case of nonzero density and temperature, we argue that other interesting phenomena take place. The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects are perhaps the most interesting among them. In addition to the general discussion of the physics underlying chiral magnetic and separation effects, we also review their possible phenomenological implications in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars. We also discuss the application of the magnetic catalysis ideas for the description of the quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene, and conclude that the generalized magnetic catalysis, including both the magnetic catalysis condensates and the quantum Hall ferromagnetic ones, lies at the basis of this phenomenon. We also consider how an external magnetic field affects the underlying physics in a class of three-dimensional quasirelativistic condensed matter systems, Dirac semimetals. While at sufficiently low temperatures and zero density of charge carriers, such semimetals are expected to reveal the regime of the magnetic catalysis, the regime of Weyl semimetals with chiral asymmetry is realized at nonzero density...

Vladimir A. Miransky; Igor A. Shovkovy

2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

207

Simulating weak localization using superconducting quantum circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding complex quantum matter presents a central challenge in condensed matter physics. The difficulty lies in the exponential scaling of the Hilbert space with the system size, making solutions intractable for both analytical and conventional numerical methods. As originally envisioned by Richard Feynman, this class of problems can be tackled using controllable quantum simulators. Despite many efforts, building an quantum emulator capable of solving generic quantum problems remains an outstanding challenge, as this involves controlling a large number of quantum elements. Here, employing a multi-element superconducting quantum circuit and manipulating a single microwave photon, we demonstrate that we can simulate the weak localization phenomenon observed in mesoscopic systems. By engineering the control sequence in our emulator circuit, we are also able to reproduce the well-known temperature dependence of weak localization. Furthermore, we can use our circuit to continuously tune the level of disorder, a parameter that is not readily accessible in mesoscopic systems. By demonstrating a high level of control and complexity, our experiment shows the potential for superconducting quantum circuits to realize scalable quantum simulators.

Yu Chen; P. Roushan; D. Sank; C. Neill; Erik Lucero; Matteo Mariantoni; R. Barends; B. Chiaro; J. Kelly; A. Megrant; J. Y. Mutus; P. J. J. O'Malley; A. Vainsencher; J. Wenner; T. C. White; Yi Yin; A. N. Cleland; John M. Martinis

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

208

Noncommutative quantum mechanics of simple matter systems interacting with circularly polarized gravitational waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The response of a test particle, both for the free case and under the harmonic oscillator potential, to circularly polarized gravitational waves is investigated in a noncommutative quantum mechanical setting. The system is quantized following the prescription in \\cite{ncgw1}. Standard algebraic techniques are then employed to solve the Hamiltonian of the system. The solutions, in both cases, show signatures of the coordinate noncommutativity. In the harmonic oscillator case, this signature plays a key role in altering the resonance point and the oscillation frequency of the system.

Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Anirban Saha; Swarup Saha

2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

Theory of decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A full treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in BEC interferometry has been developed based on using quantum correlation functions for treating interferometric effects. The BEC is described via a phase space distribution functional of the Wigner type for the condensate modes and the positive P type for the non-condensate modes. Ito equations for stochastic condensate and non-condensate field functions replace the functional Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution functional and stochastic averages of field function products determine the quantum correlation functions.

B J Dalton

2007-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

210

How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

Ahmed, Ashour; KŁhn, Oliver

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rydberg atoms provide a wide range of possibilities to tailor interactions in a quantum gas. Here we report on Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensed 87Rb atoms. The Rydberg fraction was investigated for various excitation times and temperatures above and below the condensation temperature. The excitation is locally blocked by the van der Waals interaction between Rydberg atoms to a density-dependent limit. Therefore the abrupt change of the thermal atomic density distribution to the characteristic bimodal distribution upon condensation could be observed in the Rydberg fraction. The observed features are reproduced by a simulation based on local collective Rydberg excitations.

Rolf Heidemann; Ulrich Raitzsch; Vera Bendkowsky; BjŲrn Butscher; Robert LŲw; Tilman Pfau

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

Revankar, S. T. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¬® mx my l¬© ¬™ y s ¬ß y m ¬ę¬¨ ly my wx l n¬ģ ¬ģ x np ¬© ¬Į Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

214

Normal matter storage of antiprotons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

Campbell, L.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking Induced by Vacuum Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a novel mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking which relies upon an ubiquitous feature of Quantum Field Theory, vacuum condensates. Such condensates play a crucial r\\^{o}le in many phenomena. Examples include Unruh effect, superconductors, particle mixing, and quantum dissipative systems. We argue that in all these phenomena supersymmetry, when present, is spontaneously broken. Evidence for our conjecture is given for the Wess--Zumino model, that can be considered an approximation to the supersymmetric extensions of the above mentioned systems. The magnitude of the effect is estimated for a recently proposed experimental setup based on an optical lattice.

Antonio Capolupo; Marco Di Mauro

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

216

Oscillation dynamics of multi-well condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new approach to the macroscopic dynamics of three-well Bose-Einstein condensates, giving particular emphasis to self-trapping and Josephson oscillations. Although these effects have been studied quite thoroughly in the mean-field approximation, a full quantum description is desirable, since it avoids pathologies due to the nonlinear character of the mean-field equations. Using superpositions of quantum eigenstates, we construct various oscillation and trapping scenarios.

S. Mossmann; C. Jung

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation with Lithium-7 atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents our work on developing and improving the techniques of trapping and cooling an ultra-cold cloud of Lithium-7 atoms and the realization of the Bose- Einstein condensate as a first step to study quantum ...

Yu, Yichao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

219

K+ and K- potentials in hadronic matter are observable quantities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The comparison of $K^+$ and $K^-$ spectra at low transverse momentum in light symmetric heavy ion reactions at energies around 2 AGeV allows for a direct experimental determination of the strength of the $K^+$ as well as of t he $K^-$ nucleus potential. Other little known or unknown input quantities like the production or rescattering cross sections of $K^+$ and $K^-$ mesons do not spoil this signal. This result, obtained by simulations of these reactio ns with the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model, may solve the longstanding question of the behaviour of the $K^-$ in hadronic matter and especially whether a $K^-$ condensate can be formed in heavy ion collisions.

Aman D. Sood; Ch. Hartnack; andJ. Aichelin

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

220

Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation of Molecules Molecular condensates could lead to a host of new scientific explorations. These  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of new scientific explorations. These include quantum gases with anisotropic dipolar interactions, tests-Einstein condensation of molecules was reported by three groups [1-3]. We observed BEC of lithium molecules. When a spin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Beyond spontaneously broken symmetry in Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for Bose-Einstein condensates cannot treat phase off-diagonal effects, and thus not explain Bell inequality violations. We describe another situation that is beyond a SSB treatment: an experiment where particles from two (possibly macroscopic) condensate sources are used for conjugate measurements of the relative phase and populations. Off-diagonal phase effects are characterized by a "quantum angle" and observed via "population oscillations", signaling quantum interference of macroscopically distinct states (QIMDS).

W. J. Mullin; F. LaloŽ

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Bose-Einstein Condensation on Holographic Screens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a boson gas on holographic screens of the Rindler and Schwartzschild spacetimes. It is shown that the gas on the stretched horizon is in a Bose-Einstein condensed state with the Hawking temperature $T_c=T_H$ if the particle number of the system be equal to the number of quantum bits of spacetime $ N \\simeq {A}/{{\\l_{p}}^{2}}$. A boson gas on a holographic screen $(r>2M)$ with the same number of particles and at Unruh temperature is also in a condensed state. Far from the horizon, the Unruh temperature is much lower than the condensation temperature $(T_c=T_{{Unruh}}+\\sqrt {f(r)} T_{Planck})$. This analysis implies a possible physical model for quantum bits of spacetime on a holographic screen. We propose a unique and physical interpretation for equipartition theorem on holographic screens. Also, we will argue that this gas is a fast scrambler.

Mirza, Behrouz; Raissi, Zahra

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from the Director 6 . . . Education, Outreach and Diversity CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS Graphene, Basic Superconductivity, Other Condensed Matter, Qubits & Quantum Entanglement,...

224

Boson stars from a gauge condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The boson star filled with two interacting scalar fields is investigated. The scalar fields can be considered as a gauge condensate formed by SU(3) gauge field quantized in a non-perturbative manner. The corresponding solution is regular everywhere, has a finite energy and can be considered as a quantum SU(3) version of the Bartnik - McKinnon particle-like solution.

V. Dzhunushaliev; K. Myrzakulov; R. Myrzakulov

2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

Condensation Particle Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model 3007 Condensation Particle Counter Operation and Service Manual 1930035, Revision C August 2002 P a r t i c l e I n s t r u m e n t s #12;#12;Model 3007 Condensation Particle Counter Operation............................................................................V 1. UNPACKING AND PARTS IDENTIFICATION..................................1 Unpacking the Condensation

Weber, Rodney

226

Phase diagram of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exact macroscopic wave functions of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice beyond the tight-binding approximation are studied by solving the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations. The phase diagram for superfluid and insulator phases of the condensates is determined analytically according to the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, which are seen to be traveling matter waves.

G. -P. Zheng; J. -Q. Liang; W. M. Liu

2005-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

227

ccsd00001592, Interference of an array of independent Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Einstein condensates Zoran Hadzibabic, Sabine Stock, Baptiste Battelier, Vincent Bretin, and Jean Dalibard Laboratoire-contrast matter wave interference between 30 Bose-Einstein condensates with uncorrelated phases. Interference patterns were observed after independent condensates were released from a one-dimensional optical lattice

228

Optical Spectroscopy: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science,...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

633nm, 785nm, 1064nm, visible argon-ion lines, various NIR diode lines Xe lamp and tungsten blackbody lamp Acton 300i, 500i spectrometers Princeton Instruments backthinned...

229

Condensed matter at high shock pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

1985-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

COLLOQUIUM: Environmental Condensed Matter Physics | Princeton Plasma  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy, science, andAnalysis15Information AgePrincetonPhysics

231

Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs space CombinedValuesRevolutionizing theLaser

232

Generalized coherent state representation of Bose-Einstein condensates V. Chernyak,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generalized coherent state representation of Bose-Einstein condensates V. Chernyak,1 S. Choi,2 2003 We show that the quantum many-body state of Bose-Einstein condensates consistent with the time of the condensate and noncondensate atoms required for the description of finite-temperature BEC

Mukamel, Shaul

233

Analogue model for quantum gravity phenomenology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

So called "analogue models" use condensed matter systems (typically hydrodynamic) to set up an "effective metric" and to model curved-space quantum field theory in a physical system where all the microscopic degrees of freedom are well understood. Known analogue models typically lead to massless minimally coupled scalar fields. We present an extended "analogue space-time" programme by investigating a condensed-matter system - in and beyond the hydrodynamic limit - that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and an essential first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model suggests constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology in terms of the "naturalness problem" and "universality issue".

Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

234

he transfer of a quantum state between distant locations can be realized using condensed matter systems such as spin chains and Josephson junction arrays. The  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems such as spin chains and Josephson junction arrays. The feasibility of such proposals may open, leads to clear signatures of crossed boxes are the Josephson junctions the modified properties

Abbondandolo, Alberto

235

TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Matter Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Graphene, Basic Superconductivity, Other Condensed Matter, Qubits & Quantum Entanglement,...

236

Bose-Einstein Condensate general relativistic stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the possibility that due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with arbitrary non-linearity. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. The non-relativistic and Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate can be described as a gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index one. In the framework of the Thomas-Fermi approximation the structure of the Newtonian gravitational condensate is described by the Lane-Emden equation, which can be exactly solved. The case of the rotating condensate is also discussed. General relativistic configurations with quartic non-linearity are studied numerically with both non-relativistic and relativistic equations of state, and the maximum mass of the stable configuration is determined. Condensates with particle masses of the order of two neutron masses (Cooper pair) and scattering length of the order of 10-20 fm have maximum masses of the order of 2 M_sun, maximum central density of the order of 0.1-0.3 10^16 g/cm^3 and minimum radii in the range of 10-20 km. In this way we obtain a large class of stable astrophysical objects, whose basic astrophysical parameters (mass and radius) sensitively depend on the mass of the condensed particle, and on the scattering length. We also propose that the recently observed neutron stars with masses in the range of 2-2.4 M_sun are Bose-Einstein Condensate stars.

P. H. Chavanis; T. Harko

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

237

Condensation and evolution of space-time network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we try to propose, in a novel way using the Bose and Fermi quantum network approach, a framework studying condensation and evolution of space time network described by the Loop quantum gravity. Considering quantum network connectivity features in the Loop quantum gravity, we introduce a link operator, and through extending the dynamical equation for the evolution of quantum network posed by Ginestra Bianconi to an operator equation, we get the solution of the link operator. This solution is relevant to the Hamiltonian of the network, and then is related to the energy distribution of network nodes. Showing that tremendous energy distribution induce huge curved space-time network, may have space time condensation in high-energy nodes. For example, in the black hole circumstances, quantum energy distribution is related to the area, thus the eigenvalues of the link operator of the nodes can be related to quantum number of area, and the eigenvectors are just the spin network states. This reveals that the degree distribution of nodes for space-time network is quantized, which can form the space-time network condensation. The black hole is a sort of result of space-time network condensation, however there may be more extensive space-time network condensation, for example, the universe singularity (big bang).

Bi Qiao

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Emergent gravitational dynamics in relativistic Bose--Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analogue models of gravity have played a pivotal role in the past years by providing a test bench for many open issues in quantum field theory in curved spacetime such as the robustness of Hawking radiation and cosmological particle production. More recently, the same models have offered a valuable framework within which current ideas about the emergence of spacetime and its dynamics could be discussed via convenient toy models. In this context, we study here an analogue gravity system based on a relativistic Bose--Einstein condensate. We show that in a suitable limit this system provides not only an example of an emergent spacetime (with a massive and a massless relativistic fields propagating on it) but also that such spacetime is governed by an equation with geometric meaning that takes the familiar form of Nordstr{\\"o}m theory of gravitation. In this equation the gravitational field is sourced by the expectation value of the trace of the effective stress energy tensor of the quasiparticles while the Newton and cosmological constants are functions of the fundamental scales of the microscopic system. This is the first example of analogue gravity in which a Lorentz invariant, geometric theory of semiclassical gravity emerges from an underlying quantum theory of matter in flat spacetime.

Alessio Belenchia; Stefano Liberati; Arif Mohd

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

239

Transition of a mesoscopic bosonic gas into a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The condensate number distribution during the transition of a dilute, weakly interacting gas of N=200 bosonic atoms into a Bose-Einstein condensate is modeled within number conserving master equation theory of Bose-Einstein condensation. Initial strong quantum fluctuations occuring during the exponential cycle of condensate growth reduce in a subsequent saturation stage, before the Bose gas finally relaxes towards the Gibbs-Boltzmann equilibrium.

Alexej Schelle

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Possible Bose-condensated Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating in a Collective Excitation in the Chemically and Optically Doped Mott-Hubbard System UO2+x  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pinned charge defects in U4O9, and U3O7 that are the single phase fluoritestructured derivatives of UO2 have been characterized by U L3 EXAFS at 30, 100, and 200 K, xray and neutron pair distribution function analysis, O K edge XAS and non-resonant inelastic xray scattering, and Raman spectroscopy, while mobile charge defects were investigated by femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe laser spectroscopy on single crystal UO2 between 7 and 300 K. The results from all of these measurements show highly complex and anomalous behaviors, which we attribute to a charge-lattice instability in UO2 that most likely originates in the intersection of the ground U(IV) and a proximate uranyl-like excited state in a conic section, causing a breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Furthermore, the photoinduced quasiparticles undergo a gap-opening condensation between 50 and 60 K. Doped UO2 may therefore exhibit novel correlated electron physics that extends beyond that of the cuprate-manganite-pnictide family of compounds.

Conradson, Steven D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; An, Yong Q.; Andersson , David; Bishop, Alan R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Conradson, Leilani L.; Costello, Alison E.; Hess, Nancy J.; Lander, Gerard H.; Llobet, Anna; Martucci, Mary B.; de Leon, Jose M.; Nordlund, Dennis; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Proffen, Thomas E.; Rodriguez, George; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Taylor, Antoinette; Trugman, Stuart A.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Valdez, James A.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Charmonium mass in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass shift of charmonium states in nuclear matter is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. The leading-order effect due to the change of gluon condensate in nuclear matter is evaluated using the leading-order QCD formula, while the higher...

Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Device Research Team Emergent Soft Matter Structure Reserch Team Emergent Functional Polymers Research Information Electronics Division Quantum Functional System Research Group Quantum Optics Research Group Quantum Electronics Research Team Emergent Phenomena Observation Technology Research Team Quantum Nano

Fukai, Tomoki

243

Quantum dynamics in the thermodynamic limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The description of spontaneous symmetry breaking that underlies the connection between classically ordered objects in the thermodynamic limit and their individual quantum-mechanical building blocks is one of the cornerstones of modern condensed-matter theory and has found applications in many different areas of physics. The theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, however, is inherently an equilibrium theory, which does not address the dynamics of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we will use the example of a particular antiferromagnetic model system to show that the presence of a so-called thin spectrum of collective excitations with vanishing energy - one of the well-known characteristic properties shared by all symmetry-breaking objects - can allow these objects to also spontaneously break time-translation symmetry in the thermodynamic limit. As a result, that limit is found to be able, not only to reduce quantum-mechanical equilibrium averages to their classical counterparts, but also to turn individual-state quantum dynamics into classical physics. In the process, we find that the dynamical description of spontaneous symmetry breaking can also be used to shed some light on the possible origins of Born's rule. We conclude by describing an experiment on a condensate of exciton polaritons which could potentially be used to experimentally test the proposed mechanism.

Wezel, Jasper van [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Quark Condensates: Flavour Dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the q-bar q condensate for quark masses from zero up to that of the strange quark within a phenomenologically successful modelling of continuum QCD by solving the quark Schwinger-Dyson equation. The existence of multiple solutions to this equation is the key to an accurate and reliable extraction of this condensate using the operator product expansion. We explain why alternative definitions fail to give the physical condensate.

R. Williams; C. S. Fischer; M. R. Pennington

2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

245

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

Yates, W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Mesoscopic Fractional Quantum in Soft Matter Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Division Box  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matter such as polymers, colloids, emulsions, foams, living organisms, rock layers, sediments, plastics, glass, rubber, oil, soil, DNA, etc, ¬Ķ ranges from 0 to 2 and is from 0 to 1. It is worth pointing out

247

Economical Condensing Turbines?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an engineer decide when to conduct an in depth study of the economics either in the company or outside utilizing professional engineers who are experts in this type of project. Condensing steam turbines may not be economical when the fuel is purchased...Economical Condensing Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown...

Dean, J. E.

248

(2+1)d Thirring model at quantum criticality Lukas Janssen, Holger Gies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Higgs boson? [LHC (CERN)] Condensed-matter physics: high-Tc superconducting transition (cuprates, iron (GSI Darmstadt)] Electroweak phase transition: Higgs boson? [LHC (CERN)] Condensed-matter physics: high

Rossak, Wilhelm R.

249

Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a condenser the thickness of the liquid condensate film covering the cooled surface constitutes a resistance to the heat transfer. By establishing a non uniform electric field in the vicinity of the condensation surface the extraction of liquid...

Wawzyniak, Markus

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

Gravitational dynamics in Bose Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analogue models for gravity intend to provide a framework where matter and gravity, as well as their intertwined dynamics, emerge from degrees of freedom that have a priori nothing to do with what we call gravity or matter. Bose Einstein condensates (BEC) are a natural example of analogue model since one can identify matter propagating on a (pseudo-Riemannian) metric with collective excitations above the condensate of atoms. However, until now, a description of the "analogue gravitational dynamics" for such model was missing. We show here that in a BEC system with massive quasi-particles, the gravitational dynamics can be encoded in a modified (semi-classical) Poisson equation. In particular, gravity is of extreme short range (characterized by the healing length) and the cosmological constant appears from the non-condensed fraction of atoms in the quasi-particle vacuum. While some of these features make the analogue gravitational dynamics of our BEC system quite different from standard Newtonian gravity, we nonetheless show that it can be used to draw some interesting lessons about "emergent gravity" scenarios.

Florian Girelli; Stefano Liberati; Lorenzo Sindoni

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

251

Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states and transition moments in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

J. Carlson; S. Gandolfi; F. Pederiva; Steven C. Pieper; R. Schiavilla; K. E. Schmidt; R. B. Wiringa

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

252

Condensed phase spectroscopy from mixed-order semiclassical molecular dynamics: Absorption, emission, and resonant Raman spectra of I2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed phase spectroscopy from mixed-order semiclassical molecular dynamics: Absorption, as a prototype of spectroscopy in condensed media in general. The method relies on constructing quantum correlations into system and bath are used to provide perspectives about condensed phase spectroscopy

Apkarian, V. Ara

253

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

254

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A dynamic macroscopic quantum oscillator at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a dynamic macroscopic quantum oscillator of a light--matter hybrid state in high-density plasmas created in an optically induced confining potential in a semiconductor microcavity at room temperature. One major advancement is the visualization of quantum oscillator states in a micrometer-scale optical potential at quantized energies up to 4 meV, an order of magnitude higher than that previously observed in spatially confined polariton condensates at cryogenic temperatures. Another advancement is the ability to characterize the time evolution and optical spin polarization of the quantum oscillator states directly from the consequent pulse radiation. The ability to control the macroscopic coherent state of plasma polaritons enables ultrafast multiple pulse lasing in a semiconductor microcavity.

Xie, Wei; Lee, Yi-Shan; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lai, Chih-Wei

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Dark matter lost and found  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-component condensate.They considered the limited access inherent to samples confined in a diamond anvil cell the gas disks of two spiral galaxies merge. As spirals have dark-matter haloes, their elliptical offspring­Einstein condensate within a ring- shaped magnetic trap (Phys. Rev. Lett. (in the press); preprint at http

Loss, Daniel

257

Quantum transport via evanescent waves in undoped graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge carriers in graphene are chiral quasiparticles ("massless Dirac fermions"). Graphene provides therefore an amazing opportunity to study subtle quantum relativistic effects in condensed matter experiment. Here I review a theory of one of these unusual features of graphene, a "pseudodiffusive" transport in the limit of zero charge carrier concentration, which is related to existence of zero-modes of the Dirac operator and to the Zitterbewegung of unltrarelativistic particles. A conformal mapping technique is a powerful mathematical tool to study these phenomena, as demonstrated here, using the Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene rings with Corbino geometry as an example.

M. I. Katsnelson

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

258

Key condenser failure mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight practical lessons highlight many of the factors that can influence condenser tube corrosion at coal-fired utilities and the effects contaminant in-leakage can have on steam generating units. 1 ref., 4 figs.

Buecker, B.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.00 or more. Many see costs of $6.00/$7.00 in the near future. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit....

Yates, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Ghost condensate busting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.

Bilic, Neven [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D, E-mail: bilic@thphys.irb.hr, E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za, E-mail: raoul.viollier@uct.ac.za [Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Steam condensate leakage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Function Research Group Emergent Bioinspired Soft Matter Research Team Emergent Device Research Bioengineering Materials Research Team Materials Characterization Support Unit Quantum Information Electronics Research Group Macroscopic Quantum Coherence Research Team Superconducting Quantum Electronics Research

Fukai, Tomoki

264

Keeping condensers clean  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

Wicker, K.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Color Glass Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Strategies in Optimizing Condensate Return  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimizing condensate return for reuse as boiler feedwater is often a viable means of reducing fuel costs and improving boiler system efficiency. As more condensate is returned, less makeup is required and savings on water and water treatment costs...

Bloom, D.

267

Possibility of s-wave pion condensates in neutron stars revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine possibilities of pion condensation with zero momentum (s-wave condensation) in neutron stars by using the pion-nucleus optical potential U and the relativistic mean field (RMF) models. We use low-density phenomenological optical potentials parameterized to fit deeply bound pionic atoms or pion-nucleus elastic scatterings. Proton fraction (Y_p) and electron chemical potential (mu_e) in neutron star matter are evaluated in RMF models. We find that the s-wave pion condensation hardly takes place in neutron stars and especially has no chance if hyperons appear in neutron star matter and/or b_1 parameter in U has density dependence.

A. Ohnishi; D. Jido; T. Sekihara; K. Tsubakihara

2009-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

268

Natural orbitals and Bose-Einstein condensates in traps: A diffusion Monte Carlo analysis J. L. DuBois and H. R. Glyde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural orbitals and Bose-Einstein condensates in traps: A diffusion Monte Carlo analysis J. L. Du of the atoms in an ideal Bose gas can condense into a single quantum state. London 3,4 postulated in harmonic traps over a wide range of densities. Bose- Einstein condensation is formulated using the one

Glyde, Henry R.

269

Diquark condensation effects on hot quark star configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation. We investigate the effects of a variation of the form factors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter under the condition of beta-equilibrium and charge neutrality. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman- Oppenheimer- Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of Delta M c^2 ~ 10^{53} erg. We discuss the claim that this energy could serve as an engine for explosive phenomena.

Blaschke, David B; Grigorian, H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Creation of macroscopic superposition states from arrays of Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider how macroscopic quantum superpositions may be created from arrays of Bose-Einstein condensates. We study a system of three condensates in Fock states, all with the same number of atoms and show that this has the form of a highly entangled superposition of different quasi-momenta. We then show how, by partially releasing these condensates and detecting an interference pattern where they overlap, it is possible to create a macroscopic superposition of different relative phases for the remaining portions of the condensates. We discuss methods for confirming these superpositions.

J. A. Dunningham; K. Burnett; R. Roth; W. D. Phillips

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Analogue gravitational phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analogue gravity is based on the simple observation that perturbations propagating in several physical systems can be described by a quantum field theory in a curved spacetime. While phenomena like Hawking radiation are hardly detectable in astrophysical black holes, these effects may be experimentally tested in analogue systems. In this Thesis, focusing on Bose-Einstein condensates, we present our recent results about analogue models of gravity from three main perspectives: as laboratory tests of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, for the techniques that they provide to address various issues in general relativity, and as toy models of quantum gravity. The robustness of Hawking-like particle creation is investigated in flows with a single black hole horizon. Furthermore, we find that condensates with two (white and black) horizons develop a dynamical instability known in general relativity as black hole laser effect. Using techniques borrowed from analogue gravity, we also show that warp drives, which...

Finazzi, Stefano

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.

Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; /Wurzburg U.; Hughes, Taylor L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

Observation of topological transitions in interacting quantum circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The discovery of topological phases in condensed matter systems has changed the modern conception of phases of matter. The global nature of topological ordering makes these phases robust and hence promising for applications. However, the non-locality of this ordering makes direct experimental studies an outstanding challenge, even in the simplest model topological systems, and interactions among the constituent particles adds to this challenge. Here we demonstrate a novel dynamical method to explore topological phases in both interacting and non-interacting systems, by employing the exquisite control afforded by state-of-the-art superconducting quantum circuits. We utilize this method to experimentally explore the well-known Haldane model of topological phase transitions by directly measuring the topological invariants of the system. We construct the topological phase diagram of this model and visualize the microscopic evolution of states across the phase transition, tasks whose experimental realizations have remained elusive. Furthermore, we developed a new qubit architecture that allows simultaneous control over every term in a two-qubit Hamiltonian, with which we extend our studies to an interacting Hamiltonian and discover the emergence of an interaction-induced topological phase. Our implementation, involving the measurement of both global and local textures of quantum systems, is close to the original idea of quantum simulation as envisioned by R. Feynman, where a controllable quantum system is used to investigate otherwise inaccessible quantum phenomena. This approach demonstrates the potential of superconducting qubits for quantum simulation and establishes a powerful platform for the study of topological phases in quantum systems.

P. Roushan; C. Neill; Yu Chen; M. Kolodrubetz; C. Quintana; N. Leung; M. Fang; R. Barends; B. Campbell; Z. Chen; B. Chiaro; A. Dunsworth; E. Jeffrey; J. Kelly; A. Megrant; J. Mutus; P. O'Malley; D. Sank; A. Vainsencher; J. Wenner; T. White; A. Polkovnikov; A. N. Cleland; J. M. Martinis

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

274

Black holes as self-sustained quantum states, and Hawking radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We employ the recently proposed formalism of the "horizon wave-function" to investigate the emergence of a horizon in models of black holes as Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitons. We start from the Klein-Gordon equation for a massless scalar (toy graviton) field coupled to a static matter current. The (spherically symmetric) classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, and the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. Assuming an attractive self-interaction that allows for bound states, one finds that (approximately) only one mode is allowed, and the system can be confined in a region of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. This radius is then shown to correspond to a proper horizon, by means of the horizon wave-function of the quantum system, with an uncertainty in size naturally related to the expected typical energy of Hawking modes. In particular, this uncertainty decreases for larger black hole mass (with larger number of light scalar quanta), in agreement with semiclassical expectations, a result which does not hold for a single very massive particle. We finally speculate that a phase transition should occur during the gravitational collapse of a star, ideally represented by a static matter current and Newtonian potential, that leads to a black hole, again ideally represented by the condensate of toy gravitons, and suggest an effective order parameter that could be used to investigate this transition.

Roberto Casadio; Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

275

Options for controlling condensation aerosols to meet opacity standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The opacity of detached plumes formed by condensation of vapors depends upon both the concentration of condensible vapors and the in-stack concentration of fine, submicron, particulate matter. This paper provides an analysis of the condensing aerosol problem and an evaluation of possible control approaches to reduce the downwind detached plume opacity. The opacity of such plumes may be reduced by reducing the concentration of condensible vapors or the in-stack concentration of fine particles or both. The results of the analysis indicate that for low concentrations of condensible vapors the detached plume opacity may be adequately controlled by reducing the in-stack fine particulate concentration alone. For high concentrations of condensible vapors, however, reduction of in-stack fine particulate concentration alone may not be effective, and reduction of vapor concentration may be necessary along with particular removal for adequate reduction of plume opacity. Different combinations of levels of reduction of vapor concentration and particulate phase concentration are possible to achieve a desired result; and thus may be optimized to obtain a cost-effective combination.

Damle, A.S.; Ensor, D.S.; Sparks, L.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a candidate quantum field theory of gravity with dynamical critical exponent equal to z=3 in the UV. (As in condensed-matter systems, z measures the degree of anisotropy between space and time.) This theory, which at short distances describes interacting nonrelativistic gravitons, is power-counting renormalizable in 3+1 dimensions. When restricted to satisfy the condition of detailed balance, this theory is intimately related to topologically massive gravity in three dimensions, and the geometry of the Cotton tensor. At long distances, this theory flows naturally to the relativistic value z=1, and could therefore serve as a possible candidate for a UV completion of Einstein's general relativity or an infrared modification thereof. The effective speed of light, the Newton constant and the cosmological constant all emerge from relevant deformations of the deeply nonrelativistic z=3 theory at short distances.

Horava, Petr [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720-7300 (United States) and Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

Hakio?lu, T. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 48740 TurunÁ, Mu?la (Turkey); ÷zgŁn, Ege; GŁnay, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Confinement Contains Condensates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

279

Condensation and Large Cardinals Sy-David Friedman, Peter Holy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation and Large Cardinals Sy-David Friedman, Peter Holy Abstract We introduce two generalized condensation principles: Local Club Condensation and Stationary Condensation. We show that while Strong Condensation (a generalized Condensation principle intro- duced by Hugh Woodin in [19

280

Quantum optical waveform conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Return Condensate to the Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

An output coupler for Bose condensed atoms The observations of BEC have stimulated interest in atom lasers, coherent sources of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An output coupler for Bose condensed atoms The observations of BEC have stimulated interest in atom lasers, coherent sources of atomic matter waves. The build-up of atoms in the ground state of a magnetic. We demonstrated a scheme for doing this with Bose condensed atoms [1]. A variable fraction of atoms

283

Quantum-noise quenching in quantum tweezers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited and constitute the ultimate noise sources. This quantum noise can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies, and showing that this protocol can be applied for quantum information processing based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

Zippilli, Stefano; Lutz, Eric; Morigi, Giovanna; Schleich, Wolfgang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

statistical effect that also appears in an ideal gas, the physics of Bose­Einstein condensates (BECs, stabilizing a purely dipolar quantum gas. In the case of a homogeneous Bose­Einstein condensate (BECLETTERS Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse T. KOCH, T. LAHAYE, J. METZ

Loss, Daniel

285

Quantum Noise as an Entanglement Meter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Entanglement entropy, which is a measure of quantum correlations between separate parts of a many-body system, has emerged recently as a fundamental quantity in broad areas of theoretical physics, from cosmology and field theory to condensed matter theory and quantum information. The universal appeal of the entanglement entropy concept is related, in part, to the fact that it is defined solely in terms of the many-body density matrix of the system, with no relation to any particular observables. However, for the same reason, it has not been clear how to access this quantity experimentally. Here we derive a universal relation between entanglement entropy and the fluctuations of current flowing through a quantum point contact (QPC) which opens a way to perform a direct measurement of entanglement entropy. In particular, by utilizing space-time duality of 1d systems, we relate electric noise generated by opening and closing the QPC periodically in time with the seminal S = 1/3 log L prediction of conformal field theory.

Israel Klich; Leonid Levitov

2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

286

Electron Liquids in Semiconductor Quantum Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The groups led by Stormer and Pinczuk have focused this project on goals that seek the elucidation of novel many-particle effects that emerge in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) as the result from fundamental quantum interactions. This experimental research is conducted under extreme conditions of temperature and magnetic field. From the materials point of view, the ultra-high mobility systems in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum structures continue to be at the forefront of this research. The newcomer materials are based on graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. The graphene research is attracting enormous attention from many communities involved in condensed matter research. The investigated many-particle phenomena include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, composite fermions, and Dirac fermions, and a diverse group of electron solid and liquid crystal phases. The Stormer group performed magneto-transport experiments and far-infrared spectroscopy, while the Pinczuk group explores manifestations of such phases in optical spectra.

Aron Pinczuk

2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

287

SPECIAL EDITION N AT I O N A L H I G H M AG N E T I C F I E  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from the Director 6 . . . Education, Outreach and Diversity COnDEnsED MattEr PhysICs Graphene, Basic Superconductivity, Other Condensed Matter, Qubits & Quantum Entanglement,...

288

Troubleshooting surface condenser venting systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an ideal situation, the condensing pressure achievable in a steam surface condenser is determined by the exiting cooling water temperature. However, the failure of the venting system to properly remove noncondensible gases from the steam condenser will result in elevated condenser pressures. Information is presented in this paper relative to the most common venting systems available, as well as providing procedures for troubleshooting each type of system. A description is given of the various operating characteristics, along with narrative discussions of field problems and experiences. Simple visual, audible and physical guides to the analysis of venting system problems are discussed. Power plant operating personnel will be able to utilize this information when investigating steam condenser performance problems. A check list is provided which can be used to isolate these performance problems. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lines, J.R.; Athey, R.E.; Frens, L.L. [Graham Manufacturing Company, Batavia, NY (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Vortex Structure in Charged Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study magnetic fields in the charged condensate that we have previously argued should be present in helium-core white dwarf stars. We show that below a certain critical value the magnetic field is entirely expelled from the condensate, while for larger values it penetrates the condensate within flux-tubes that are similar to Abrikosov vortex lines; yet higher fields lead to the disruption of the condensate. We find the solution for the vortex lines in both relativistic and nonrelativistic theories that exhibit the charged condensation. We calculate the energy density of the vortex solution and the values of the critical magnetic fields. The minimum magnetic field required for vortices to penetrate the helium white dwarf cores ranges from roughly 10^7 to 10^9 Gauss. Fields of this strength have been observed in white dwarfs. We also calculate the London magnetic field due to the rotation of a dwarf star and show that its value is rather small.

Gabadadze, Gregory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Vortex Structure in Charged Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study magnetic fields in the charged condensate that we have previously argued should be present in helium-core white dwarf stars. We show that below a certain critical value the magnetic field is entirely expelled from the condensate, while for larger values it penetrates the condensate within flux-tubes that are similar to Abrikosov vortex lines; yet higher fields lead to the disruption of the condensate. We find the solution for the vortex lines in both relativistic and nonrelativistic theories that exhibit the charged condensation. We calculate the energy density of the vortex solution and the values of the critical magnetic fields. The minimum magnetic field required for vortices to penetrate the helium white dwarf cores ranges from roughly 10^7 to 10^9 Gauss. Fields of this strength have been observed in white dwarfs. We also calculate the London magnetic field due to the rotation of a dwarf star and show that its value is rather small.

Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A. Rosen

2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Elliptic Flow from Nonequilibrium Color Glass Condensate Initial Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A current goal of relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$, while a Color Glass Condensate modeling leads to at least a factor of 2 larger $\\eta/s$. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, we point out that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution proper of a Color Glass Condensate reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. Our main result at RHIC energy is that the available data on $v_2$ are in agreement with a $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$ also for Color Glass Condensate initial conditions, opening the possibility to describe self-consistently also higher order flow, otherwise significantly underestimated, and to pursue further the search for signatures of the Color Glass Condensate.

Ruggieri, M; Plumari, S; Greco, V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Diquark condensation effects on hot quark star configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The equation of state for quark matter is derived for a nonlocal, chiral quark model within the mean field approximation.We investigate the effects of a variation of the formfactors of the interaction on the phase diagram of quark matter. Special emphasis is on the occurrence of a diquark condensate which signals a phase transition to color superconductivity and its effects on the equation of state under the condition of beta- equilibrium and charge neutrality. We calculate the quark star configurations by solving the Tolman- Oppenheimer- Volkoff equations and obtain for the transition from a hot, normal quark matter core of a protoneutron star to a cool diquark condensed one a release of binding energy of the order of Delta M c^2 ~ 10^{53} erg. We find that this energy could not serve as an engine for explosive phenomena since the phase transition is not first order. Contrary to naive expectations the mass defect increases when for a given temperature we neglect the possibility of diquark condensation.

D. Blaschke; S. Fredriksson; H. Grigorian; A. M. "Oztas

2004-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

293

Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the ...

Enright, Ryan

294

Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...

Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ghost condensate model of flat rotation curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An effective action of ghost condensate with higher derivatives creates a source of gravity and mimics a dark matter in spiral galaxies. We present a spherically symmetric static solution of Einstein--Hilbert equations with the ghost condensate at large distances, where flat rotation curves are reproduced in leading order over small ratio of two energy scales characterizing constant temporal and spatial derivatives of ghost field: $\\mu_*^2$ and $\\mu_\\star^2$, respectively, with a hierarchy $\\mu_\\star\\ll \\mu_*$. We assume that a mechanism of hierarchy is provided by a global monopole in the center of galaxy. An estimate based on the solution and observed velocities of rotations in the asymptotic region of flatness, gives $\\mu_*\\sim 10^{19}$ GeV and the monopole scale in a GUT range $\\mu_\\star\\sim 10^{16}$ GeV, while a velocity of rotation $v_0$ is determined by the ratio: $ \\sqrt{2} v_0^2= \\mu_\\star^2/\\mu_*^2$. A critical acceleration is introduced and naturally evaluated of the order of Hubble rate, that represents the Milgrom's acceleration.

V. V. Kiselev

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

296

The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present our recent results for the tensor network (TN) approach to lattice gauge theories. TN methods provide an efficient approximation for quantum many-body states. We employ TN for one dimensional systems, Matrix Product States, to investigate the 1-flavour Schwinger model. In this study, we compute the chiral condensate at finite temperature. From the continuum extrapolation, we obtain the chiral condensate in the high temperature region consistent with the analytical calculation by Sachs and Wipf.

Hana Saito; Mari Carmen BaŮuls; Krzysztof Cichy; J. Ignacio Cirac; Karl Jansen

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Excitonic Condensation under Spin-Orbit Coupling and BEC-BCS Crossover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The condensation of electron-hole pairs is studied at zero temperature and in the presence of a weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in coupled quantum wells. Under realistic conditions, a perturbative SOC can have observable effects in the order parameter of the condensate. First, the fermion exchange symmetry is absent. As a result, the condensate spin has no definite parity. Additionally, the excitonic SOC breaks the rotational symmetry yielding a complex order parameter in an unconventional way; i.e., the phase pattern of the order parameter is a function of the condensate density. This is manifested through finite off-diagonal components of the static spin susceptibility, suggesting a new experimental method to confirm an excitonic condensate.

Hakioglu, T. [Department of Physics and National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Selcuk University, Kampus 42075 Konya (Turkey)

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fluxes, Gaugings and Gaugino Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the correspondence between the N = 1 superstring compactifications with fluxes and the N = 4 gauged supergravities, we study effective N = 1 four-dimensional supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates in the framework of orbifold limits of (generalized) Calabi-Yau compactifications. We give examples in heterotic and type II orientifolds in which combined fluxes and condensates lead to vacua with small supersymmetry breaking scale. We clarify the respective roles of fluxes and condensates in supersymmetry breaking, and analyze the scaling properties of the gravitino mass.

J. -P. Derendinger; C. Kounnas; P. M. Petropoulos

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

299

Decoherence effects in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry. I General Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present paper outlines a basic theoretical treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in interferometry based on single component BEC in double potential wells, where two condensate modes may be involved. Results for both two mode condensates and the simpler single mode condensate case are presented. A hybrid phase space distribution functional method is used where the condensate modes are described via a truncated Wigner representation, and the basically unoccupied non-condensate modes are described via a positive P representation. The Hamiltonian for the system is described in terms of quantum field operators for the condensate and non-condensate modes. The functional Fokker-Planck equation for the double phase space distribution functional is derived. Equivalent Ito stochastic equations for the condensate and non-condensate fields that replace the field operators are obtained, and stochastic averages of products of these fields give the quantum correlation functions used to interpret interferometry experiments. The stochastic field equations are the sum of a deterministic term obtained from the drift vector in the functional Fokker-Planck equation, and a noise field whose stochastic properties are determined from the diffusion matrix in the functional Fokker-Planck equation. The noise field stochastic properties are similar to those for Gaussian-Markov processes in that the stochastic averages of odd numbers of noise fields are zero and those for even numbers of noise field terms are sums of products of stochastic averages associated with pairs of noise fields. However each pair is represented by an element of the diffusion matrix rather than products of the noise fields themselves. The treatment starts from a generalised mean field theory for two condensate mode. The generalized mean field theory solutions are needed for calculations using the Ito stochastic field equations.

B. J. Dalton

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by comparing actual vs. predicted pH at key plant locations. Examine a condensate corrosion inhibitor and its impact on a particular system at different dosages. Optimize dosage of a particular condensate corrosion inhibitor to attain a desired pH range... the existing amine program was not protecting the system and corrosion was occurring. By studying these problem areas in greater detail, types of amines and feed points were recom mended which further reduced corrosion in these areas. Table 2 shows...

Jenkins, B. V.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Experimental studies of Bose-Einstein condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the condensate, and of its coherence properties. ”1998 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (020.0020) Atomic-Einstein Condensation of Lithium: Observation of Limited Condensate Number", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 985 (1997). 4. K. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein condensation of a weakly-interacting gas", in Ultracold Atoms and Bose

Hart, Gus

302

Rotational fluxons of Bose-Einstein condensates in coplanar double-ring traps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rotational analogs to magnetic fluxons in conventional Josephson junctions are predicted to emerge in the ground state of rotating tunnel-coupled annular Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Such topological condensate-phase structures can be manipulated by external potentials. We determine conditions for observing macroscopic quantum tunneling of a fluxon. Rotational fluxons in double-ring BECs can be created, manipulated, and controlled by external potentials in different ways than is possible in the solid-state system, thus rendering them a promising candidate system for studying and utilizing quantum properties of collective many-particle degrees of freedom.

Brand, J. [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University (Albany Campus), Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University (Albany Campus), Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Haigh, T. J. [Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University (Manawatu Campus), Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Zuelicke, U. [Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University (Manawatu Campus), Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University (Albany Campus), Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Instability of condensate lm and capillary blocking in small-diameter-thermosyphon condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instability of condensate ¬ģlm and capillary blocking in small-diameter-thermosyphon condensers H 1998 Abstract Instability of the condensate ¬ģlm in a small-diameter-tube condenser was investigated- namic force or surface tension, the inner surface of the annular condensate ¬ģlm is inherently unstable

Zhao, Tianshou

304

Quantum wave packet ab initio molecular dynamics: An approach to study quantum dynamics in large systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of computational methods in gas-phase1 and condensed phase quantum dynamics.2 In many cases the Born robust by using adaptive grids to achieve optimized sampling. One notable feature of the approach

Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

305

Topological States in Condensed Matter and Cold Atom Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12:065009, 2010. [25] M.Z. Hasan and C.L. Kane. Colloquium:R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan. A tunable topological insulatorHor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan. Observation of a large-gap

Li, Yi

306

Theory of Topological Phenomena in Condensed Matter Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

topological insulators (WTI). However, a more surprisingBurgers vector and three WTI indices[144] is nonzero - whichin the case of the WTI. Thus far, the characterization of

Zhang, Yi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Condensed Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,anchored` redox molecules: Objectives: Microcalorimetry: - ferrocene modified thiols on Au - viologenes Institute of Technology, Germany -microcalorimetry of electrochemical redox reactions -tunneling.00.50.0-0.5 tunnel voltage (V) -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 dI/dU(a.u.) Redox Reactions at Electrode Surfaces sovent

Weick, Guillaume - IPCMS

308

J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 5 (2011) 87101 Research Article  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

motivated us to pursue new models in which the nuclear energy is transferred directly to low energy In the Fleischmann­Pons experiment, energy is produced without commensurate energetic reaction products. To account energy estimated in this way is below 20 keV [12]. The experimental reaction energy per 4He observed

Williams, Brian C.

309

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Soft Condensed Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding Friedel Waves,Theory ofInstituteDesign Core

310

Group History: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science, MPA-CMMS...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel and producing a thermonuclear yield of roughly 10 megatons of TNT. (See Figure 2.) thermonuclear fusion Figure 2. Mike, the first large-scale experiment with thermonuclear...

311

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory - Condensed Matter Publication...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

collaborators. 2015 Publications and Scientific Activities 1 Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J.B.; Tokumoto, T.D.; McGill, S.A.; Singh, D.J. and Siegrist, T., Ba2TeO:...

312

Indirect excitons in GaAs coupled quantum wells : development of optoelectronic logic devices and trapping potentials, and studies of low temperature phenomena in a bosonic condensed matter system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the develop- ment of optoelectronics but also in the studiesof exciton based optoelectronics, that of scalability, willin exciton-based optoelectronics have been made. This

High, Alexander Arthur; High, Alexander Arthur

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron Star Matter Including Delta Isobars Guang-Zhou Liu1,2 , Wei Liu1 and En-Guang Zhao2 1 a new phase structure of neutron star matter including nucleons and delta isobars is presented. Particle fractions populated and pion condensations in neutron star matter are investgated in this model

Xu, Ren-Xin

314

Photochemistry of Matrix-Isolated and Thin Film Acid Chlorides: Quantum Yields and Product Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the differences between gas- and condensed-phase photochemistry strengthens our understanding of many, and well-known gas-phase reaction mechanisms are often modified in the condensed phase or completely the photoreaction of condensed acid chloride samples by comparison of reaction quantum yields for acetyl (CH3COCl

Ellison, Barney

315

Strange Quark Matter and Compact Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrophysicists distinguish between three different types of compact stars. These are white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. The former contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the Universe which, together with the unprecedented progress in observational astronomy, make such stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a broad range of most striking physical phenomena. These range from nuclear processes on the stellar surface to processes in electron degenerate matter at subnuclear densities to boson condensates and the existence of new states of baryonic matter--like color superconducting quark matter--at supernuclear densities. More than that, according to the strange matter hypothesis strange quark matter could be more stable than nuclear matter, in which case neutron stars should be largely composed of pure quark matter possibly enveloped in thin nuclear crusts. Another remarkable implication of the hypothesis is the possible existence of a new class of white dwarfs. This article aims at giving an overview of all these striking physical possibilities, with an emphasis on the astrophysical phenomenology of strange quark matter. Possible observational signatures associated with the theoretically proposed states of matter inside compact stars are discussed as well. They will provide most valuable information about the phase diagram of superdense nuclear matter at high baryon number density but low temperature, which is not accessible to relativistic heavy ion collision experiments.

Fridolin Weber

2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

316

Dark Matters  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.† Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. †I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

Joseph Silk

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

317

A fluid mechanical explanation of dark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Matter in the universe has become ``dark'' or ``missing'' through misconceptions about the fluid mechanics of gravitational structure formation. Gravitational condensation occurs on non-acoustic density nuclei at the largest Schwarz length scale L_{ST}, L_{SV}, L_{SM}, L_{SD} permitted by turbulence, viscous, or magnetic forces, or by the fluid diffusivity. Non-baryonic fluids have diffusivities larger (by factors of trillions or more) than baryonic (ordinary) fluids, and cannot condense to nucleate baryonic galaxy formation as is usually assumed. Baryonic fluids begin to condense in the plasma epoch at about 13,000 years after the big bang to form proto-superclusters, and form proto-galaxies by 300,000 years when the cooling plasma becomes neutral gas. Condensation occurs at small planetary masses to form ``primordial fog particles'' from nearly all of the primordial gas by the new theory, Gibson (1996), supporting the Schild (1996) conclusion from quasar Q0957+651A,B microlensing observations that the mass of the lens galaxy is dominated by ``rogue planets ... likely to be the missing mass''. Non-baryonic dark matter condenses on superclusters at scale L_{SD} to form massive super-halos.

Carl H. Gibson

1999-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

318

Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...

Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. Stripping of Process Condensate A. Introduction B. Flowand High-Temperature Stripping of SRC Condensate Water E.Process Condensate Handling and Storage Results and

Hill, Joel David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Nuclear thermodynamics and the in-medium chiral condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at varying baryon density is investigated using thermal in-medium chiral effective field theory. This framework provides a realistic approach to the thermodynamics of the correlated nuclear many-body system and permits calculating systematically the pion-mass dependence of the free energy per particle. One- and two-pion exchange processes, $\\Delta(1232)$-isobar excitations, Pauli blocking corrections and three-body correlations are treated up to and including three loops in the expansion of the free energy density. It is found that nuclear matter remains in the Nambu-Goldstone phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry in the temperature range $T\\lesssim 100\\,$MeV and at baryon densities at least up to about twice the density of normal nuclear matter, $2\\rho_0 \\simeq 0.3\\, $fm$^{-3}$. Effects of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition on the chiral condensate at low temperatures are also discussed.

Salvatore Fiorilla; Norbert Kaiser; Wolfram Weise

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nuclear Physics A 757 (2005) 127 Quarkgluon plasma and color glass condensate at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Physics A 757 (2005) 1­27 Quark­gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC hadronic and partonic matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC. A particular focus, the so-called quark­gluon plasma (QGP). We also discuss evidence for a possible precursor state

322

Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic hydrogen T. J. Greytak 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a remote chance of obtaining Bose-Einstein condensation. Using a quantum theory of corresponding states cooling of atoms allowed the alkali vapors to be pre-cooled to temperatures low enough that evaporative cooling could be used to take them into the sub-¬ĶK realm. Since 1995, many fruitful experiments have been

323

Forced-convection condensation inside tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...

Traviss, Donald P.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Industrial Boilers" R. E. Thompson - R. J. Goldstick KVB, Inc., 18806 Skypark Blvd., Irvine, California 92714, pg. 12-4. (3) "Condensing Heat Exchangers Using Tenon R Covered Tubes", Ronald Hessen, Condensing Heat Exchanger Corp., Latham, New York...

Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.

Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); SwissScientific, chemin Diodati 10, CH-1223 Cologny (Switzerland)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Landau gauge condensates from global color model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the dimension-2 gluon pair condensate $g^2$ and the dimension-4 mixed quark-gluon condensate $$ in Landau gauge within the framework of global color model. The result for the dynamical gluon mass is within the range given by other independent determinations. The obtained mixed Landau gauge condensate $$ is clearly dependent on the definitions of the condensates. We show that the consistent result may be obtained when the same definitions are used.

Zhao Zhang; Wei-qin Zhao

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

327

Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport by Ananth P. Chikkatur Submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

328

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

329

Condensation and metastability in stochastic particle systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation and metastability in stochastic particle systems Stefan Grosskinsky Warwick) Condensation and metastability in IPS October 26, 2012 2 / 21 #12;The inclusion process Lattice: of size L() S. Grosskinsky (Warwick) Condensation and metastability in IPS October 26, 2012 2 / 21 #12;The

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

330

PREPARATION OF A DRY PRODUCT FROM CONDENSED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREPARATION OF A DRY PRODUCT FROM CONDENSED MENHADEN SOLUBLES Statistical Supplement WOODS HOI CONDENSED MENHADEN SOLUBLES: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DATA (Supplement to the Fish and Wildlife Service. Fish and Wildlife Service Research Report k^, Preparation of a Dry Product from Condensed Menhaden

331

CONDENSATION OF CHONDRULES: CONDITIONS FOR "FIERY RAIN".  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION OF CHONDRULES: CONDITIONS FOR "FIERY RAIN". L. Grossman1,2 and A. V. Fedkin1 . 1 Dept little Na condenses above the solidus, and Na2O contents of most chondrules plot above Na2O was condensed at near-liquidus temperatures. In the context of melting chondrule precursors, we showed that Na

Grossman, Lawrence

332

Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

Lee, Taekoon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Color Glass Condensate in SchwingerĖKeldysh QCD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the SchwingerĖKeldysh representation of many-body QCD, it is shown that the leading quantum corrections to the strong classical color field are ďclassicalĒ in the sense that the fluctuation field still obeys the classical Jacobi-field equation, while the quantum effects solely reside in the fluctuations of the initial field configurations. Within this context, a systematic derivation of the JIMWLK renormalization group equation is presented. A clear identification of the correct form of gauge transformation rules and the correct form of the matter-field Lagrangian in the SchwingerĖKeldysh QCD is also presented. -- Highlights: ēApplication of the SchwingerĖKeldysh formalism to many-body QCD. ēClean separation of classical and quantum degrees of freedom. ēIdentification of the correct coupling between the gluon field and the color source. ēIdentification of the correct gauge transformation rules. ēSources of the classicality and quantum corrections to JIMWLK clarified.

Jeon, Sangyong, E-mail: jeon@physics.mcgill.ca

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Mathematics of the Bose Gas and its Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This book surveys results about the quantum mechanical many-body problem of the Bose gas that have been obtained by the authors over the last seven years. These topics are relevant to current experiments on ultra-cold gases; they are also mathematically rigorous, using many analytic techniques developed over the years to handle such problems. Some of the topics treated are the ground state energy, the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, one-dimensional gases, and rotating gases. The book also provides a pedagogical entry into the field for graduate students and researchers.

Elliott H. Lieb; Robert Seiringer; Jan Philip Solovej; Jakob Yngvason

2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

335

Entangled light from Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a method to generate entangled light with a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a cavity, a system realized in recent experiments. The atoms of the condensate are trapped in a periodic potential generated by a cavity mode. The condensate is continuously pumped by a laser and spontaneously emits a pair of photons of different frequencies in two distinct cavity modes. In this way, the condensate mediates entanglement between two cavity modes which leak out and can be separated and exhibit continuous variable entanglement. The scheme exploits the experimentally demonstrated strong, steady and collective coupling of condensate atoms to a cavity field.

H. T. Ng; S. Bose

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Phase diagram of two-color quark matter at nonzero baryon and isospin density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of cold dense quark matter composed of two colors and two flavors of light quarks. In particular, we perform the first model calculation of the full phase diagram at nonzero baryon and isospin density, thus matching the model-independent predictions of chiral perturbation theory at low density to the conjectured phase structure at high density. We confirm the presence of the Fulde-Ferrell phase in the phase diagram and study its dependence on the tunable parameter in the Lagrangian that simulates the effects of the quantum axial anomaly. As a by-product, we clarify the calculation of the thermodynamic potential in the presence of the Fulde-Ferrell pairing, which was previously based on an ad hoc subtraction of an unphysical cutoff artifact. Furthermore, we argue that close to the diquark (or pion) Bose-Einstein condensation transition, the system behaves as a dilute Bose gas so that our simple fermionic model in the mean-field approximation is not quantitatively adequate. We suggest that including thermal fluctuations of the order parameter for Bose-Einstein condensation is crucial for understanding available lattice data.

Andersen, Jens O. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Hoegskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Brauner, Tomas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Effect of Decoherence on the Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Double-well Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential in the mean-field approximation. Decoherence effects are considered by analyzing the couplings of the condensate to environments. Two kinds of coupling are taken into account. With the first kind of coupling dominated, the decoherence can enhance the self-trapping by increasing the damping of the oscillations in the dynamics, while the decoherence from the second kind of condensate-environment coupling leads to spoiling of the quantum tunneling and self-trapping.

W. Wang; L. B. Fu; X. X. Yi

2007-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.

Kristina Giesel; Hanno Sahlmann

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

339

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms. The condensing mechanisms including: a plurality of finned tubes through which the expanded exhaust steam flows and is condensed; a plurality of bundle from headers at the lower ends of the condensing tubes for receiving exhaust steam from the turbine; a plurality of bundle divided rear headers, one for each tube row in the bundle, at the higher ends of the condensing tubes for receiving non-condensible gases; and means in the rear and last headers to remove non-condensible gasses from the rear headers along their full length.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

340

Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.

Agostino PrŠstaro

2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.

Agostino PrŠstaro

2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.

Agostino PrŠstaro

2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Holographic Superconductors with Various Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extend earlier treatments of holographic superconductors by studying cases where operators of different dimension condense in both 2+1 and 3+1 superconductors. We also compute a correlation length. We find surprising regularities in quantities such as $\\omega_g/T_c$ where $\\omega_g$ is the gap in the frequency dependent conductivity. In special cases, new bound states arise corresponding to vector normal modes of the dual near-extremal black holes.

Gary T. Horowitz; Matthew M. Roberts

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

344

Running condensate in moving superfluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A possibility of the condensation of excitations with non-zero momentum in moving superfluid media is considered in terms of the Ginzburg-Landau model. The results might be applicable to the superfluid $^4$He, ultracold atomic Bose gases, various superconducting and neutral systems with pairing, like ultracold atomic Fermi gases and the neutron component in compact stars. The order parameters, the energy gain, and critical velocities are found.

Kolomeitsev, E E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Newton's cradle analogue with Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a possible experimental realization of a quantum analogue of Newton's cradle using a configuration which starts from a Bose-Einstein condensate. The system consists of atoms with two internal states trapped in a one dimensional tube with a longitudinal optical lattice and maintained in a strong Tonks-Girardeau regime at maximal filling. In each site the wave function is a superposition of the two atomic states and a disturbance of the wave function propagates along the chain in analogy with the propagation of momentum in the classical Newton's cradle. The quantum travelling signal is generally deteriorated by dispersion, which is large for a uniform chain and is known to be zero for a suitably engineered chain, but the latter is hardly realizable in practice. Starting from these opposite situations we show how the coherent behaviour can be enhanced with minimal experimental effort.

Roberto Franzosi; Ruggero Vaia

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

Extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Statistical mechanics of confined quantum particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which may be applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), condensed matter physics etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Further, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.

Vishnu M. Bannur; K. M. Udayanandan

2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

348

Wave turbulence and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a numerical study of turbulence and Bose-Einstein condensation within the two-dimmensional Gross-Pitaevski model with repulsive interaction. In presence of weak forcing localized around some wave number in the Fourier space, we observe three qualitatively different evolution stages. At the initial stage a thermodynamic energy equipartition spectrum forms at both smaller and larger scales with respect to the forcing scale. This agrees with predictions of the the four-wave kinetic equation of the Wave Turbulence (WT) theory. At the second stage, WT breaks down at large scales and the interactions become strongly nonlinear. Here, we observe formation of a gas of quantum vortices whose number decreases due to an annihilation process helped by the acoustic component. This process leads to formation of a coherent-phase Bose-Einstein condensate. After such a coherent-phase condensate forms, evolution enters a third stage characterised by three-wave interactions of acoustic waves that can be described again using the WT theory.

Sergey Nazarenko; Miguel Onorato

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

Demonstrating mesoscopic superpositions in double-well Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The availability of Bose-Einstein condensates as mesoscopic or macroscopic quantum objects has aroused new interest in the possiblity of making and detecting coherent superpositions involving many atoms. In this article we show that it may be possible to generate such a superposition state in a reasonably short time using Feshbach resonances to tune the inter-atomic interactions in a double-well condensate. We also consider the important problem of distinguishing whether a coherent superposition or a statistical mixture is generated by a given experimental procedure. We find that unambiguously distinguishing even a perfect `NOON' state from a statistical mixture using standard detection methods will present experimental difficulties.

T. J. Haigh; A. J. Ferris; M. K. Olsen

2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

350

Control of a Bose-Einstein condensate by dissipation: Nonlinear Zeno effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that controlled dissipation can be used as a tool for exploring fundamental phenomena and managing mesoscopic systems of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. Even the simplest boson-Josephson junction, that is, a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well trap, subjected to removal of atoms from one of the two potential minima allows one to observe such phenomena as the suppression of losses and the nonlinear Zeno effect. In such a system the controlled dissipation can be used to create desired macroscopic states and implement controlled switching among different quantum regimes.

Shchesnovich, V. S. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP 09210-170 (Brazil); Konotop, V. V. [Centro de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, Lisboa P-1649-003, Portugal and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, Piso 6, Lisboa P-1749-016 (Portugal)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Boson topological insulators: A window into highly entangled quantum phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study several aspects of the realization of global symmetries in highly entangled phases of quantum matter. Examples include gapped topological ordered phases, gapless quantum spin liquids, and non-Fermi liquid phases. ...

Wang, Chong

352

Bio-oil fractionation and condensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

353

Permutational Quantum Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In topological quantum computation the geometric details of a particle trajectory are irrelevant; only the topology matters. Taking this one step further, we consider a model of computation that disregards even the topology of the particle trajectory, and computes by permuting particles. Whereas topological quantum computation requires anyons, permutational quantum computation can be performed with ordinary spin-1/2 particles, using a variant of the spin-network scheme of Marzuoli and Rasetti. We do not know whether permutational computation is universal. It may represent a new complexity class within BQP. Nevertheless, permutational quantum computers can in polynomial time approximate matrix elements of certain irreducible representations of the symmetric group and simulate certain processes in the Ponzano-Regge spin foam model of quantum gravity. No polynomial time classical algorithms for these problems are known.

Stephen P. Jordan

2009-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ANNUAL REPORT RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

355

arXiv:0901.4103v6[cond-mat.str-el]23Apr2009 April 23, 2009 14:3 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9.75in x 6.5in sachdevsolvay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rapporteur talk at the 24th Solvay Conference on Physics, Quantum Theory of Condensed Matter, Brussels, Oct

356

Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount ofÖ (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Increased Availability From Improved Condenser Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance parameters and flow characteristics on the shell side of surface condensers are becoming better understood. Contributing to this knowledge base is the recent ability to measure the physical properties as well as the quantity of gases being removed from the condenser by air removal equipment. Reviewed here are the commonality of these data from many operating condensers obtained over the past six years and other known condenser measurements, theory and laboratory experiments. These are combined to formulate global theoretical description of condenser dynamics describing the mechanism responsible for aeration and de-aeration, excess back pressure buildup due to air ingress or generation of other noncondensable gases, and the dissolubility of corrosive gases in condensate. The theoretical description supports a dynamic model useful for deciding condenser configuration design and design improvements. Features of design found in many operating condensers that promote aeration and resulting corrosion are presented. The benefits of the model and engineering design modifications to plant life cycle management, improved condenser performance, outage reduction and reliability improvements, lost load recovery and fuel savings are discussed. (author)

Harpster, Joseph W. [Intek, Inc., 751 Intek Way, Westerville, OH 43082 (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

From Boson Condensation to Quark Deconfinement: The Many Faces of Neutron Star Interiors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity compresses the matter in the cores of neutron stars to densities which are significantly higher than the density of ordinary atomic nuclei, thus providing a high-pressure environment in which numerous particle processes - from the generation of new baryonic particles to quark deconfinement to the formation of Boson condensates and H-matter - may compete with each other. There are theoretical suggestions of even more `exotic' processes inside pulsars, such as the formation of absolutely stable strange quark matter, a configuration of matter even more stable than the most stable atomic nucleus, iron. In the latter event, neutron stars would be largely composed of pure quark matter, eventually enveloped in nuclear crust matter. No matter which physical processes are actually realized inside neutron stars, each one leads to fingerprints, some more pronounced than others though, in the observable stellar quantities. This feature combined with the tremendous recent progress in observational radio and X-ray astronomy, renders neutron stars to nearly ideal probes for a wide range of dense matter studies, complementing the quest of the behavior of superdense matter in terrestrial collider experiments.

Fridolin Weber

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

362

Chiral-Symmetry Breaking in Pseudo Quantum Electrodynamics at Finite Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the Schwinger-Dyson equations in the presence of a thermal bath, in order to study chiral symmetry breaking in a system of massless Dirac fermions interacting through pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED3), in (2+1) dimensions. We show that there is a critical temperature $T_c$, below which chiral symmetry is broken, and a corresponding mass gap is dynamically generated, provided the coupling is above a certain, temperature dependent, critical value $\\alpha_c$. The ratio between the energy gap and the critical temperature for this model is estimated to be $2 \\pi$. These results are confirmed by analytical and numerical investigations of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the electron. In addition, we calculate the first finite-temperature corrections to the static Coulomb interaction. The relevance of this result in the realm of condensed matter systems, like graphene, is briefly discussed.

Leandro O. Nascimento; Van Sťrgio Alves; Francisco PeŮa; C. Morais Smith; E. C. Marino

2015-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

363

The role of the in-medium four-quark condensates revised  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter in the QCD sum rules approach, taking into account the contributions of the four-quark condensates. We analyze the dependence of the results on the model employed for the calculation of the condensates and demonstrate that the relativistic character of the models is important. The condensates are calculated with inclusion of the most important terms beyond the gas approximation. This corresponds to inclusion of the two-body nucleon forces and of the most important three-body forces. The results are consistent with the convergence of the operator product expansion. The density dependence of the nucleon self-energies is obtained. The results are consistent with those obtained by the standard nuclear physics methods, thus inspiring further development of the approach.

E. G. Drukarev; M. G. Ryskin; V. A. Sadovnikova

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.

Masayasu Tsuge

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fermionic first for condensates (March 2004) -Physics World -PhysicsWeb http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/3/3#pwpia1_03-04 1 of 3 6/19/2005 2:24 PM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Lett. 92 040403 Related Stories Fermionic condensate makes its debut A Fermi gas of atoms Quantum gasesFermionic first for condensates (March 2004) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb http ¬ę Previous Next ¬Ľ sample issue Request a sample issue browse the archive 20042004 MarchMarch Contents

366

Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing interference between two Bose condensates [1]. They were created by cooling atoms the condensates expand for 40 milliseconds and overlap (see figure). This demonstrates that Bose condensed atoms

367

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

368

Quark condensate in two-flavor QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the condensate in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions using numerical simulation. The simulations use overlap fermions, and the condensate is extracted by fitting the distribution of low lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in sectors of fixed topological charge to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory.

Thomas DeGrand; Zhaofeng Liu; Stefan Schaefer

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

369

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas...

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Proceedings: 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Condensate polishing aims to control impurities in a nuclear power plant, thus allowing the unit to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2002 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 36 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) units.

None

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Port Reduction in Static Condensation JL Eftang DBP Huynh DJ Knezevic EM R√łnquist a framework for adaptive reduction of the degrees of freedom associated with ports in static condensation (SC reduction for the interior of a component with model order reduction on the ports in order to rapidly

R√łnquist, Einar M.

372

Josephson inplane and tunneling currents in bilayer quantum Hall system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Bose-Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (Ėe). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ? = 1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless in tunneling experiments with various geometries.

Ezawa, Z. F. [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsitsishvili, G. [Georgia Department of Physics, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi 0179 (Georgia); Sawada, A. [Research Center for Low Temperature and Materials Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

373

Quark condensate for various heavy flavors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quark condensate is calculated within the world-line effective-action formalism, by using for the Wilson loop an ansatz provided by the stochastic vacuum model. Starting with the relation between the quark and the gluon condensates in the heavy-quark limit, we diminish the current quark mass down to the value of the inverse vacuum correlation length, finding in this way a 64%-decrease in the absolute value of the quark condensate. In particular, we find that the conventional formula for the heavy-quark condensate cannot be applied to the c-quark, and that the corrections to this formula can reach 23% even in the case of the b-quark. We also demonstrate that, for an exponential parametrization of the two-point correlation function of gluonic field strengths, the quark condensate does not depend on the non-confining non-perturbative interactions of the stochastic background Yang-Mills fields.

Dmitri Antonov; Jose Emilio F. T. Ribeiro

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

374

Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared...

Park, Kyoo-Chul; He, Neil; Aizenberg, Joanna

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...

Akhtar, S. Z.

376

Reply to "Comment on `Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage from an atomic to a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate' "  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to no efficiency improvement compared to our high-density case. In a more careful analysis including radiative-Einstein condensate' " P. D. Drummond and K. V. Kheruntsyan ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics January 2005 In the preceding Comment, the authors suggest that the molecular conversion efficiency

Queensland, University of

377

Possible Bose-condensated Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

uranyl-like excited state in a conic section, causing a breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Furthermore, the photoinduced quasiparticles undergo a gap-opening...

378

Supersolids Bose-Einstein Condensation in Quantum Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and energies Particles with short wavelengths (high energies) behave like marbles. Particles with long fall into the lowest energy state. Laser cooling plus magnetic evaporation. This is the phase

Mullin, William J.

379

Clusters in nuclear matter and Mott points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light clusters (mass number $A \\leq 4$) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach. In addition to self-energy and Pauli-blocking, effects of continuum correlations are taken into account to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. Medium-modified quasiparticle properties are important ingredients to derive a nuclear matter equation of state applicable in the entire region of warm dense matter below saturation density. The influence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction on the quasiparticle shift is discussed.

G. RŲpke

2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

380

Clusters in nuclear matter and Mott points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light clusters (mass number $A \\leq 4$) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach. In addition to self-energy and Pauli-blocking, effects of continuum correlations are taken into account to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. Medium-modified quasiparticle properties are important ingredients to derive a nuclear matter equation of state applicable in the entire region of warm dense matter below saturation density. The influence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction on the quasiparticle shift is discussed.

RŲpke, G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Synthesize Neutron-Drip-Line-Nuclides with Free-Neutron Bose-Einstein Condensates Experimentally  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We first show a possible way to create a new type of matter, free-neutron Bose-Einstein condensate by the ultracold free-neutron-pair Bose-Einstein condensation and then determine the neutron drip line experimentally. The Bose-Einstein condensation of bosonic and fermionic atoms in atomic gases was performed experimentally and predicted theoretically early. Neutrons are similar to fermionic atoms. We found free neutrons could be cooled to ultracold neutrons with very low energy by other colder neutral atoms which are cooled by the laser. These neutrons form neutron pairs with spin zero, and then ultracold neutron-pairs form Bose-Einstein condensate. Our results demonstrate how these condensates can react with accelerated ion beams at different energy to synthesize very neutron-rich nuclides near, on or/and beyond the neutron drip line, to determine the neutron drip line and whether there are long-life nuclide or isomer islands beyond the neutron drip line experimentally. Otherwise, these experimental results will confirm our prediction that is in the whole interacting region or distance of nuclear force in all energy region from zero to infinite, Only repulsive nuclear force exists among identical nucleons and only among different nucleons exists attractive nuclear force.

Bao-Guo Dong

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

382

Effect of the Minimal Length on Bose-Einstein Condensation in the Relativistic Ideal Bose Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the critical temperature and the Helmholtz free energy of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in the relativistic ideal Bose gas are investigated. At the non-relativistic limit and the ultra-relativistic limit, we calculate the analytical form of the shifts of the critical temperature and the Helmholtz free energy caused by weak quantum gravitational effects. The exact numerical results of these shifts are obtained. Quantum gravity effects lift the critical temperature of BEC. By measuring the shift of the critical temperature, we can constrain the deformation parameter $\\beta_0$. Furthermore, at lower densities, omitting quantum gravitational effects may lead to a metastable state while at sufficiently high densities, quantum gravitational effects tend to make BEC unstable. Using the numerical methods, the stable-unstable transition temperature is found.

Xiuming Zhang; Chi Tian

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

383

Quantum Coherence in a Superfluid Josephson Junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a new kind of experiment in which we take an array of nanoscale apertures that form a superfluid {sup 4}He Josephson junction and apply quantum phase gradients directly along the array. We observe collective coherent behaviors from aperture elements, leading to quantum interference. Connections to superconducting and Bose-Einstein condensate Josephson junctions as well as phase coherence among the superfluid aperture array are discussed.

Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki [Rowland Institute at Harvard, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States)

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

384

Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Inhaled Oil Condensates...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Inhaled Oil Condensates Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Inhaled Oil Condensates Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

385

Engineering the Quantum Foam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1990 Alcubierre, within the General Relativity model for space-time, proposed a scenario for `warp drive' faster than light travel, in which objects would achieve such speeds by actually being stationary within a bubble of space which itself was moving through space, the idea being that the speed of the bubble was not itself limited by the speed of light. However that scenario required exotic matter to stabilise the boundary of the bubble. Here that proposal is re-examined within the context of the new modelling of space in which space is a quantum system, viz a quantum foam, with on-going classicalisation. This model has lead to the resolution of a number of longstanding problems, including a dynamical explanation for the so-called `dark matter' effect. It has also given the first evidence of quantum gravity effects, as experimental data has shown that a new dimensionless constant characterising the self-interaction of space is the fine structure constant. The studies here begin the task of examining to what extent the new spatial self-interaction dynamics can play a role in stabilising the boundary without exotic matter, and whether the boundary stabilisation dynamics can be engineered; this would amount to quantum gravity engineering.

Reginald T. Cahill

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

386

Fouling computations for optimized condenser cleaning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Condenser tests are typically performed to evaluate water side fouling levels. Because the water side fouling level is independent of condenser operating conditions, fouling levels determined from a condenser test should also be independent of condenser operating conditions. This study investigates the effect of inlet cooling water temperature on fouling levels computed with an empirical relation presented in the Heat Exchange Institute (HEI) Standard and with the resistance-summation method. These two methods are compared with a simplified mathematical model of a condenser and with actual test data. The comparisons show that the fouling and fouling rate computed by the HEI method are significantly lower than the resistance-summation method for cold condenser circulating water inlet temperatures. The significance of the deviation in fouling rates is then evaluated within the context of an optimized condenser cleaning schedule to determine differences in cleaning schedules and the associated dollar costs of basing cleaning decisions on each of the two methods. 11 refs., 11 figs.

Wolff, P.J.; March, P.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris, TN (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

A disoriented chiral condensate search at the Fermilab Tevatron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MiniMax (Fermilab T-864) was a small test/experiment at the Tevatron designed to search for disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) in the forward direction. Relativistic quantum field theory treats the vacuum as a medium, with bulk properties characterized by long-range order parameters. This has led to suggestions that regions of {open_quotes}disoriented vacuum{close_quotes} might be formed in high-energy collision processes. In particular, the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD could lead to regions of vacuum which have chiral order parameters disoriented to directions which have non-zero isospin, i.e. disoriented chiral condensates. A signature of DCC is the resulting distribution of the fraction of produced pions which are neutral. The MiniMax detector at the C0 collision region of the Tevatron was a telescope of 24 multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC`s) with a lead converter behind the eighth MWPC, allowing the detection of charged particles and photon conversions in an acceptance approximately a circle of radius 0.6 in pseudorapidity-azimuthal-angle space, centered on pseudorapidity {eta} {approx} 4. An electromagnetic calorimeter was located behind the MWPC telescope, and hadronic calorimeters and scintillator were located in the upstream anti-proton direction to tag diffractive events.

Convery, M.E.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Analogue spacetime based on 2-component Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analogue spacetimes are powerful models for probing the fundamental physical aspects of geometry - while one is most typically interested in ultimately reproducing the pseudo-Riemannian geometries of interest in general relativity and cosmology, analogue models can also provide useful physical probes of more general geometries such as pseudo-Finsler spacetimes. In this chapter we shall see how a 2-component Bose-Einstein condensate can be used to model a specific class of pseudo-Finsler geometries, and after suitable tuning of parameters, both bi-metric pseudo-Riemannian geometries and standard single metric pseudo-Riemannian geometries, while independently allowing the quasi-particle excitations to exhibit a "mass". Furthermore, when extrapolated to extremely high energy the quasi-particles eventually leave the phononic regime and begin to act like free bosons. Thus this analogue spacetime exhibits an analogue of the "Lorentz violation" that is now commonly believed to occur at or near the Planck scale defined by the interplay between quantum physics and gravitational physics. In the 2-component Bose-Einstein analogue spacetime we will show that the mass generating mechanism for the quasi-particles is related to the size of the Lorentz violations. This relates the "mass hierarchy" to the so-called "naturalness problem". In short the analogue spacetime based on 2-component Bose-Einstein condensates exhibits a very rich mathematical and physical structure that can be used to investigate many issues of interest to the high-energy physics, cosmology, and general relativity communities.

Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser

2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

389

Polyelectrolyte Condensation Induced by Linear Cations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the role of the condensing agent in the formation of polyelectrolyte bundles, via grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Following recent experiments we use linear, rigid divalent cations of various lengths to induce condensation. Our results clarify and explain the experimental results for short cations. For longer cations we observe novel condensation behavior owing to alignment of the cations. We also study the role of the polyelectrolyte surface charge density, and find a nonmonotonic variation in bundle stability. This nonmonotonicity captures two trends that have been observed in separate experiments.

Camilo GuŠqueta; Erik Luijten

2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

390

Spherical gravitating condensers in general relativity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By a spherical gravitating condenser we mean two concentric charged shells made of perfect fluids restricted by the condition that the electric field is nonvanishing only between the shells. Flat space is assumed inside the inner shell. By using Israel's formalism we first analyze the general system of N shells and then concentrate on the two-shell condensers. Energy conditions are taken into account; physically interesting cases are summarized in two tables, but also more exotic situations in which, for example, the inner shell may occur below the inner horizon of the corresponding Reissner-Nordstroem geometry or the spacetime is curved only inside the condenser are considered. Classical limits are mentioned.

Bicak, J.; Guerlebeck, N. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Praha 8-Holesovice (Czech Republic); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

QCD condensates in ADS/QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate.

Jacopo Bechi

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

392

Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Collecting and Using Condensate on Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Antonio Condensate Collection and Use Manual for Commercial Buildings. Pending publication) ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 How Much Condensate? ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean... Condensate Collection and Use Manual for Commercial Buildings. Pending publication) Measured Gallons 8 gpd per ton 0.3 gph per ton 0.1 gph per ton 0.6 gph per 1000 sq ft 0.5 gph per 1000 sq ft 10 gpd per 1000 sq ft 3 gpd per 1000 sq ft AWE Bryant & Ahmed...

Glawe, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared to superhydrophobic surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and innovative design of bumps can be applied to lead enhanced performance in various phase change applications including water harvesting.

Kyoo-Chul Park; Philseok Kim; Neil He; Joanna Aizenberg

2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Neutrino matter potentials induced by Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An instructive method of deriving the matter potentials felt by neutrinos propagating through matter on Earth is presented. This paper thoroughly guides the reader through the calculations involving the effective weak Hamiltonian for lepton and quark scattering. The matter potentials are well-known results since the late 70's, but a detailed and pedagogical calculation of these quantities is hard to find. We derive potentials due to charged and neutral current scattering on electrons, neutrons and protons. Intended readership is for undergraduates/graduates in the fields of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. In addition to the derivation of the potentials for neutrinos, we explicitely study the origin of the reversed sign for potentials in the case of antineutrino-scattering.

J. Linder

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Accurate condenser performance monitoring guidelines provided by new ASME condenser test code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The condenser has an important influence on plant heat rate. As a result, most utilities with heat rate goals include the condenser in performance monitoring plans. The objective of this paper is to provide utilities with reasonably accurate condenser monitoring techniques that are based on the soon to be published revised ASME Performance Test Code (PTC) 12.2 Condenser Test Code. Pertinent theory and parameters which most specifically represent the performance of the condenser will be presented. Variables for effective performance trending will be listed. Practical instrumentation methods will be outlined. Ways of avoiding methods that yield unresponsive or misrepresentative indications of condenser performance will be discussed. This paper describes how the new ASME PTC 12.2 can be used for cost effective monitoring plans.

Burns, J.M. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States); Almquist, C.W. [Principia Research Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hernandez, E. [Public Service Electric & Gas, Maplewood, NJ (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated electron has been among central topics of contempary condensed matter physics. Ultrfast phase transitions accompanied by switching of conductivity or magnetization in stronly correlated materials are believed to be promising in developing next generation of transistors. Our work on layered ruthenates has remarkably advanced our understanding of how the exotic phenomena of correlated electrons is governed by the complex interplay between charge, spin, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition to studies on ruthenates, we have also expanded our research to the emerging field of Fe-based superconductors, focusing on the iron chalcogenide Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) superconductor system. We first studied the superconductivity of this alloy system following the discovery of superconductivity in FeSe using polycrystalline samples. Later, we successfuly grew high-quality single crystals of these materials. Using these single crystals, we have determined the magnetic structure of the parent compound Fe1+yTe, observed spin resonance of superconducting state in optimally doped samples, and established a phase diagram. Our work has produced an important impact in this burgeoning field. The PI presented an invited talk on this topic at APS March meeting in 2010. We have published 19 papers in these two areas (one in Nature materials, five in Physical Review Letters, and nine in Physical Review B) and submitted two (see the list of publications attached below).

Mao, Zhiqiang

2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

398

Quantum Hall phases and plasma analogy in rotating trapped Bose gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In this regime, the atoms all condense in the same one-particle state and the gas forms a Bose. Our analysis is based on the interpretation of the densities of quantum Hall trial states as Gibbs-Einstein condensate (BEC). Th

399

Condensation heat transfer on nanoengineered surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a series of three related studies with the aim of developing a surface that promotes robust dropwise condensation. Due to their remarkably low droplet adhesion, superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated ...

Paxson, Adam Taylor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Potential Condensed Fuel for the Milky Way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential condensed clouds of gas in the Galactic halo are examined in the context of the recent models of cooling, fragmenting clouds building up the baryonic mass of the Galaxy. 582 high-velocity clouds (HVCs) are defined as the potential infalling, condensed clouds and the sample's spatial and velocity distribution are presented. With the majority of the hydrogen in the clouds ionized (~85%), the clouds at a distribution of distances within 150 kpc, and their individual total masses below 10^7 Msun, the total mass in potentially condensed clouds is 1.1 - 1.4 x 10^9 Msun. If the tighter distance constraint of condensing cloud models, as well as feedback and additional accretion methods, are discussed.

M. E. Putman

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

402

Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

403

Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condenser Design engineers and process engineers need to work closely together if efficient designs are to be made. This paper examines the importance of such interactions and outlines how it can be achieved....

Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

404

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.

Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for condensation applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many existing industrial systems, including thermal desalination plants and air conditioning systems, involve the process of condensation and are heavily dependent on this process for achieving adequate levels of energy ...

Lopez, Ken, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Cold condensation of dust in the ISM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...

Rouillť, GaŽl; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

Miljkovic, Nenad

409

Advanced materials for enhanced condensation heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis investigates the use of three classes advanced materials for promoting dropwise condensation: 1. robust hydrophobic functionalizations 2. superhydrophobic textures 3. lubricant-imbibed textures We first define ...

Paxson, Adam Taylor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Frustrated Magnetism in Low-Dimensional Lattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and C. Baines. Quantum magnetism in the paratacamite family:14] Stephen Blundell. Magnetism in Condensed Matter. OxfordElectrons and Quantum Magnetism. Graduate Texts in Con-

Tovar, Mayra

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Proceedings: 2003 EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator and the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing the units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2003 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.

None

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose- Einstein condensates. The second set

Chikkatur, Ananth P.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

413

Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.

Yong-Yi Huang

2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

414

Magnetic field in holographic superconductor with dark matter sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the analytical technique the effect of the static magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductor with dark matter sector of U(1)-gauge field type coupled to the Maxwell field has been examined. In the probe limit, we obtained the mean value of the condensation operator. The nature of the condensate in an external magnetic field as well as the behaviour of the critical field close to the transition temperature has been revealed. The obtained upturn of the critical field curves as a function of temperature, both in four and five spacetime dimensions, is a fingerprint of the strong coupling approach.

Nakonieczny, L; Wysokinski, K I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Self-guiding of matter waves in optical lattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown numerically that Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices may be localized as self-induced waveguides and that these waveguides may take complex forms, including bends and X junctions. The waveguides are found to support continuous condensate flow, even around multiple right-angle bends. It is demonstrated that pulsed matter-wave transport may also occur along single-site waveguides in the form of solitons and that these solitons may propagate around bends and collide without change of shape or dependence on phase. A scheme based on single-site addressability techniques and the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is proposed for observing these effects.

Alexander, Tristram J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 (Australia) and Nonlinear Physics Centre and ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Gluon Condensate in Pion Superfluid beyond Mean Field Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid, through calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.

Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

417

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

Collins, Gary S.

418

Mechanistic Modelling of Water Vapour Condensation in Presence of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the water vapour condensation from the multicomponent mixture of condensable and noncondensable attention has been paid to the influence of the light gas and induced buoyancy forces on the condensation the multicomponent gas distribution and condensation heat transfer degradation are directly related

Haviland, David

419

Quantum Gravity and Inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some perturbative results obtained in quantum gravity in an accelerating cosmological background. We then describe a class of non-local, purely gravitational models which have the correct structure to reproduce the leading infrared logarithms of quantum gravitational back-reaction during the inflationary regime. These models end inflation in a distinctive phase of oscillations with slight and short violations of the weak energy condition and should, when coupled to matter, lead to rapid reheating. By elaborating this class of models we exhibit one that has the same behaviour during inflation, goes quiescent until the onset of matter domination, and induces a small, positive cosmological constant of about the right size thereafter. We also briefly comment on the primordial density perturbations that this class of models predict.

M. G. Romania; N. C. Tsamis; R. P. Woodard

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

420

Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Optical Tweezers Conventional condensate production techniques severely limit optical and mechanical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Optical Tweezers Conventional condensate production to manipulate and study condensates has been a major restriction to previous experiments. So far, most experiments were carried out within a few millimeters of where the condensate was created. What is highly

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cosmology with a stiff matter era  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a simple analytical solution of the Friedmann equations for a universe made of stiff matter, dust matter, and dark energy. A stiff matter era is present in the cosmological model of Zel'dovich (1972) where the primordial universe is assumed to be made of a cold gas of baryons. It also occurs in certain cosmological models where dark matter is made of relativistic self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). When the energy density of the stiff matter is positive, the primordial universe is singular. It starts from a state with a vanishing scale factor and an infinite density. We consider the possibility that the energy density of the stiff matter is negative (anti-stiff matter). This happens, for example, when the BECs have an attractive self-interaction. In that case, the primordial universe is non-singular. It starts from a state in which the scale factor is finite and the energy density is equal to zero. For the sake of generality, we consider a cosmological constant of arbitrary sign. When the cosmological constant is positive, the universe asymptotically reaches a de Sitter phase where the scale factor increases exponentially rapidly. This can account for the accelerating expansion of the universe that we observe at present. When the cosmological constant is negative (anti-de Sitter), the evolution of the universe is cyclic. Therefore, depending on the sign of the energy density of the stiff matter and of the dark energy, we obtain singular and non-singular expanding or cyclic universes.

Pierre-Henri Chavanis

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

422

Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers and Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTOMATIC TUBE CLEANING SYSTEMS FOR CONDENSERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS Kaveh Someah/V.P. Sales & Mktg. WSA Engineered Systems, Milwaukee, WI (414) 354-6470 ABSTRACT The on-line Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) for condensers and heat... exchangers provide a positive means for automatic cleaning on a continuous basis, while the exchanger or condenser remains "on stream" and at its full operating potential. Condenser tube fouling contributes up to 50% of the total condenser tube heat...

Someah, K.

423

Dynamics of wave fluctuations in the homogeneous Yang-Mills condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work, the Yang-Mills (YM) quantum-wave excitations of the classical homogeneous YM condensate have been studied in quasi-classical approximation. The formalism is initially formulated in the Hamilton gauge and is based upon canonical quantisation in the Heisenberg representation. This canonical framework is then extended and related to YM dynamics in arbitrary gauge and symmetry group containing at least one $SU(2)$ subgroup. Such generic properties of the interacting YM system as excitation of longitudinal wave modes and energy balance between the evolving YM condensate and waves have been established. In order to prove these findings, the canonical quasi-classical YM system "waves + condensate" in the pure simplest $SU(2)$ gauge theory has been thoroughly analysed numerically in the linear and next-to-linear approximations in the limit of small wave amplitudes. The effective gluon mass dynamically generated by wave self-interactions in the gluon plasma has been derived. A complete set of equations of motion for the YM "condensate + waves" system accounting for second- and third-order interactions between the waves has been obtained. In the next-to-linear approximation in waves we have found that due to interactions between the YM waves and the YM condensate, the latter looses its energy leading to the growth of amplitudes of the YM wave modes. A similar effect has been found in the maximally-supersymmetric ${\\cal N}=4$ Yang-Mills theory as well as in two-condensate $SU(4)$ model. Possible implications of these findings to Cosmology and gluon plasma physics have been discussed.

George Prokhorov; Roman Pasechnik; Grigory Vereshkov

2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

424

Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Acoustic white holes in flowing atomic Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study acoustic white holes in a steadily flowing atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. A white hole configuration is obtained when the flow velocity goes from a super-sonic value in the upstream region to a sub-sonic one in the downstream region. The scattering of phonon wavepackets on a white hole horizon is numerically studied in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation of mean-field theory: dynamical stability of the acoustic white hole is found, as well as a signature of a nonlinear back-action of the incident phonon wavepacket onto the horizon. The correlation pattern of density fluctuations is numerically studied by means of the truncated-Wigner method which includes quantum fluctuations. Signatures of the white hole radiation of correlated phonon pairs by the horizon are characterized; analogies and differences with Hawking radiation from acoustic black holes are discussed. In particular, a short wavelength feature is identified in the density correlation function, whose amplitude steadily grows in time since the formation of the horizon. The numerical observations are quantitatively interpreted by means of an analytical Bogoliubov theory of quantum fluctuations for a white hole configuration within the step-like horizon approximation.

Carlos Mayoral; Alessio Recati; Alessandro Fabbri; Renaud Parentani; Roberto Balbinot; Iacopo Carusotto

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

Dark Matter Theory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505)...

427

Dark matter, dark energy and gravitational proprieties of antimatter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We suggest that the eventual gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter may be a key for understanding of the nature of dark matter and dark energy. If there is gravitational repulsion, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the vacuum, may be considered as gravitational dipoles. We use a simple toy model to reveal a first indication that the gravitational polarization of such a vacuum, caused by baryonic matter in a Galaxy, may produce the same effect as supposed existence of dark matter. In addition, we argue that cancellation of gravitational charges in virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, may be a basis for a solution of the cosmological constant problem and identification of dark energy with vacuum energy. Hence, it may be that dark matter and dark energy are not new, unknown forms of matter-energy but an effect of complex interaction between quantum vacuum and known baryonic matter.

Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

428

Color superconductivity and dense quark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The properties of cold and dense quark matter have been the subject of extensive investigation, especially in the last decade. Unfortunately, we still lack of a complete understanding of the properties of matter in these conditions. One possibility is that quark matter is in a color superconducting phase which is characterized by the formation of a diquark condensate. We review some of the basic concepts of color superconductivity and some of the aspects of this phase of matter which are relevant for compact stars. Since quarks have color, flavor as well as spin degrees of freedom many different color superconducting phases can be realized. At asymptotic densities QCD predicts that the color flavor locked phase is favored. At lower densities where the QCD coupling constant is large, perturbative methods cannot be applied and one has to rely on some effective model, eventually trying to constrain such a model with experimental observations. The picture is complicated by the requirement that matter in the interior of compact stars is in weak equilibrium and neutral. These conditions and the (possible) large value of the strange quark mass conspire to separate the Fermi momenta of quarks with different flavors, rendering homogenous superconducting phases unstable. One of the aims of this presentation is to introduce non-experts in the field to some of the basic ideas of color superconductivity and to some of its open problems.

Massimo Mannarelli

2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

429

Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Estimating the conditions for polariton condensation in organic thin-film microcavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the possibility of observing Bose condensation of a confined two-dimensional polariton gas in an organic quantum well. We deduce a suitable parameterization of a model Hamiltonian based upon the cavity geometry, the biexciton binding energy, and similar spectroscopic and structural data. By converting the sum-over-states to a semiclassical integration over $d$-dimensional phase space, we show that while an ideal 2-D Bose gas will not undergo condensation, an interacting gas with the Bogoliubov dispersion $H(p)\\approx s p$ close to $p=0$ will undergo Bose condensation at a given critical density and temperature. We show that $T_c/\\sqrt{\\rho_c}$ is sensitive to both the cavity geometry and to the biexciton binding energy. In particular, for strongly bound biexcitons, the non-linear interaction term appearing in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation becomes negative and the resulting ground state will be a localized soliton state rather than a delocalized Bose condensate.

Eric R. Bittner; Carlos Silva

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

431

Speculations on a Unified Theory of Matter and Mind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics is so successful today in understanding the nature of matter. What can it say about mind ? Is it possible to have a unified theory of matter and mind within the framework of modern science ? Is Consciousness an accident or is it a natural consequence of laws of nature ? Are these laws of nature the same as the laws of physics ? We make an attempt here to unify mind with matter based on an extended formalism borrowed from Quantum theory where information plays a more fundamental role than matter or thought.

Manoj K. Samal

2001-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

432

Color superconductivity with determinant interaction in strange quark matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effect of six fermion determinant interaction on color superconductivity as well as on chiral symmetry breaking. Coupled mass gap equations and the superconducting gap equation are derived through the minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. The effect of nonzero quark -- antiquark condensates on the superconducting gap is derived. This becomes particularly relevant for the case of 2-flavor superconducting matter with unpaired strange quarks in the diquark channel. While the effect of six fermion interaction leads to an enhancement of u-d superconductivity, due to nonvanishing strange quark--antiquark condensates, such an enhancement will be absent at higher densities for u-s or d-s superconductivity due to early (almost) vanishing of light quark-- antiquark condensates.

Amruta Mishra; Hiranmaya Mishra

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

433

Boson stars: Chemical potential and quark condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the properties of a star made of self-gravitating bosons gas in a mean-field approximation. A generalized set of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov(TOV) equations is derived to incorporate the effect of chemical-potential in the general relativistic frame work. The metric-dependence of the chemical-potential gives a new class of solutions for the boson stars. It is demonstrated that the maximum mass and radius of the star change in a significant way when the effect of finite chemical-potential is considered. We also discuss the case of a boson star made of quark-condensates. It is found that when the self-interaction between the condensates is small as compared to their mass, the typical density is too high to form a diquark-boson star. Our results indicate that the star of quark-condensate may be formed in a low-density and high-pressure regime.

Jitesh R. Bhatt; V. Sreekanth

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

434

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Past and present of nuclear matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The subject of nuclear matter is interesting for many fields of physics ranging from condensed matter to lattice QCD. Knowing its properties is important for our understanding of neutron stars, supernovae and cosmology. Experimentally, we have the most precise information on ground state nuclear matter from the mass formula and from the systematics of monopole vibrations. This gives us the ground state density, binding energy and the compression modulus k at ground state density. However, those methods can not be extended towards the regime we are most interested in, the regime of high density and high temperature. Additional information can be obtained from the observation of neutron stars and of supernova explosions. In both cases information is limited by the rare events that nature provides for us. High energy heavy ion collisions, on the other hand, allow us to perform controlled experiments in the laboratory. For a very short period in time we can create a system that lets us study nuclear matter properties. Density and temperature of the system depend on the mass of the colliding nuclei, on their energy and on the impact parameter. The system created in nuclear collisions has at best about 200 constituents not even close to infinite nuclear matter, and it lasts only for collision times of {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}sec, not an ideal condition for establishing any kind of equilibrium. Extended size and thermal and chemical equilibrium, however, axe a priori conditions of nuclear matter. As a consequence we need realistic models that describe the collision dynamics and non-equilibrium effects in order to relate experimental observables to properties of nuclear matter. The study of high energy nuclear collisions started at the Bevalac. I will try to summarize the results from the Bevalac studies, the highlights of the continuing program, and extension to higher energies without claiming to be complete.

Ritter, H.G.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

ANTENNA-COUPLED LIGHT-MATTER INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on antenna-coupled photon emission from single quantum emitters. The properties of optical antennas are tailored to control different photophysical parameters, such as the excited state lifetime, the saturation intensity, and the quantum yield [3]. Using a single molecule coupled to an optical antenna whose position and properties can be controllably adjusted we established a detailed and quantitative understanding of light-matter interactions in nanoscale environments. We have studied various quantum emitters: single molecules [11], quantum dots [7], rareearth ions [2], and NV centers in diamond [19]. We have systematically studied the interaction of these emitters with optical antennas. The overall objective was to establish a high-level of control over the light-matter interaction. In order to eliminate the coupling to the environment, we have taken a step further and explored the possibility of levitating the quantum emitter in high vacuum. What started as a side-project soon became a main activity in our research program and led us to the demonstration of vacuum trapping and cooling of a nanoscale particle [14].

NOVOTNY, LUKAS

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

437

Lattice Refining LQC and the Matter Hamiltonian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the context of loop quantum cosmology, we parametrise the lattice refinement by a parameter, $A$, and the matter Hamiltonian by a parameter, $\\delta$. We then solve the Hamiltonian constraint for both a self-adjoint, and a non-self-adjoint Hamiltonian operator. Demanding that the solutions for the wave-functions obey certain physical restrictions, we impose constraints on the two-dimensional, $(A,\\delta)$, parameter space, thereby restricting the types of matter content that can be supported by a particular lattice refinement model.

William Nelson; Mairi Sakellariadou

2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

Quasiparticle spectrum and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a degenerate Fermi gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quasiparticle excitations and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of atoms at zero temperature is studied. The Fermi gas is assumed to be either in the normal state or to have undergone a phase transition to a superfluid state by forming Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate exhibit a dynamical instability due to a resonant exchange of energy and momentum with quasiparticle excitations of the Fermi gas. The stability regime for the bosons depends on whether the Fermi gas is in the normal state or in the superfluid state. We show that the energy gap in the quasiparticle spectrum for the superfluid state stabilizes the low energy energy excitations of the condensate. In the stable regime, we calculate the boson quasiparticle spectrum, which is modified by the fluctuations in the density of the Fermi gas.

C. P. Search; H. Pu; W. Zhang; P. Meystre

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

Hutton, D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Bose-Einstein condensation: Twenty years after  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this introductory article is two-fold. First, we aim to offer a general introduction to the theme of Bose-Einstein condensates, and briefly discuss the evolution of a number of relevant research directions during the last two decades. Second, we introduce and present the articles that appear in this Special Volume of Romanian Reports in Physics celebrating the conclusion of the second decade since the experimental creation of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms.

Bagnato, V S; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, B A; Mihalache, D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Pumpless Alternative to Condensate Return  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the receiver. Once the condensate I has entered the receiver, it flpws by gravity through the inlet chEck valve and into the pump tank. the pump tank and receiver are the s~me pressure because they are connec~ed by way of the 3-way valve. Once... the condensate has fil ed the pump tank to a predetermi ed high level, the level cont 01 actuates the 3-way valve, shutting off the connection to the recei er and allowing a set higher positive pressure to enter the pump ta k. This higher positive...

Sneary, M. L.; Buchanan, M. G.

444

E-Print Network 3.0 - aniline furfuraldehyde condensate Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such as the transition temperature to Bose... -Einstein condensation, and the condensate fraction. In particular, for the dilute gas Bose condensates, the weak... of...

445

CONDENSED FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 2006 AND 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSED FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEARS ENDED JUNE 30, 2006 AND 2005 (unaudited) #12;CONDENSED CONDENSED FINANCIAL REPORT (unaudited) Introduction The following provides an analysis and discussion

Hemmers, Oliver

446

Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluid is creating a condenser circuit that causes thecold head (attached to the condenser plate). The temperaturemagnet cold mass) and the condenser that is connected to the

Green, Michael A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Explorations of Magnetic Phases in F = 1 87Rb Spinor Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5 Equilibrium Properties of Spinor Condensates 5.1 SpinorThe condensate axes as compared to the geographicalTemporal evolution of condensate fractions for ? = 0 and ? =

Guzman, Jennie Sara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Detecting and imaging single Rydberg electrons in a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum mechanical states of electrons in atoms and molecules are discrete spatial orbitals, which are fundamental for our understanding of atoms, molecules, and solids. They determine a wide range of basic atomic properties, ranging from the coupling to external fields to the whole field of chemistry. Nevertheless, the manifestation of electron orbitals in experiments so far has been rather indirect. In a detailed theoretical model, we analyze the impact of a single Rydberg electron onto a Bose-Einstein condensate and compare the results to experimental data. Based on this validated model we propose a method to optically image the shape of single electron orbitals using electron-phonon coupling in a Bose-Einstein condensate. This scheme requires only established and readily available experimental techniques and allows to directly capture textbook-like spatial images of single electronic orbitals in a single shot experiment.

Tomasz Karpiuk; Miros?aw Brewczyk; Kazimierz Rz??ewski; Jonathan B. Balewski; Alexander T. Krupp; Anita Gaj; Robert LŲw; Sebastian Hofferberth; Tilman Pfau

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

449

Planck Scale Induced Speed of Sound in a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work, we analyze the corrections caused by an anomalous dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon the speed of sound in a weakly interacting Bose--Einstein Condensate, trapped in a potential of the form $V(r)\\sim r^{2}$. We show that the corresponding ground state energy and consequently, the associated speed of sound, present corrections respect to the usual case, which may be used to explore the sensitivity to Planck--scale effects on these relevant properties associated with the condensate. Indeed, we stress that this type of macroscopic bodies may be more sensitive, under certain conditions, to Planck--scale manifestations than its constituents. In addition, we prove that the inclusion of a trapping potential, together with many--body contributions, improves the sensitivity to Planck--scale signals, compared to the homogeneous system.

E. Castellanos; J. I. Rivas; V. DomŪnguez-Rocha

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

450

Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report experimental signals of Bose-Einstein condensation in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4$\\pi$ detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed us to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. Furthermore, by means of quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and mean volumes per particle "as seen by" bosons and fermions separately are correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The obtained results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed (bosons/fermions) systems, where bosons experience a smaller volume as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall similar phenomena observed in the study of boson condensates in atomic traps.

P. Marini; H. Zheng; M. Boisjoli; G. Verde; A. Chbihi; G. Ademard; L. Auger; C. Bhattacharya; B. Borderie; R. Bougault; J. Frankland; E. Galichet; D. Gruyer; S. Kundu; M. La Commara; I. Lombardo; O. Lopez; G. Mukherjee; P. Napolitani; M. Parlog; M. F. Rivet; E. Rosato; R. Roy; G. Spadaccini; M. Vigilante; P. C. Wigg; A. Bonasera

2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report experimental signals of Bose-Einstein condensation in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4$\\pi$ detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed us to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. Furthermore, by means of quantum fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and mean volumes per particle "as seen by" bosons and fermions separately are correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The obtained results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed (bosons/fermions) systems, where bosons experience a smaller volume as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall similar phenomena observed in the study of boson condensates in atomic traps.

Marini, P; Boisjoli, M; Verde, G; Chbihi, A; Ademard, G; Auger, L; Bhattacharya, C; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Frankland, J; Galichet, E; Gruyer, D; Kundu, S; La Commara, M; Lombardo, I; Lopez, O; Mukherjee, G; Napolitani, P; Parlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Wigg, P C; Bonasera, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Dark Matter: Early Considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A review of the study of dark matter is given, starting with earliest studies and finishing with the establishment of the standard Cold Dark Matter paradigm in mid 1980-s. Particular attention is given to the collision of the classical and new paradigms concerning the matter content of the Universe. Also the amount of baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy is discussed using modern estimates.

J. Einasto

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

453

Integrated Quantum Optoelectronics Lab Integrated Quantum Optoelectronics Lab at University of Washington (UW), Seattle is seeking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Quantum Optoelectronics Lab Integrated Quantum Optoelectronics Lab at University-matter interaction to enable scalable, extremely low power opto-electronics. The applications, for which we are developing these opto-electronic devices, include efficient electro-optic modulators, optical computing

Washington at Seattle, University of

454

Enhancing Condensers for Geothermal Systems: the Effect of High Contact Angles on Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.

Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

455

Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

456

Organic matter of anoxic and oxygenated marine waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that a large percentage of the organic matter found in sea water consists of humic-like material (Skopentsev 1972) formed by condensation of simpler compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids by plankton life processes (Kalle 1962). This newly... Major Subject: Chemical Oceanography ORGANIC MATTER OF ANOXIC AND OXYGENATED MARINE WATERS A Thesis by ROBERT MICHAEL GERSHEY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of o tt ) r / ~-' t:u 'fl ~~&"f / 8 ~, g t, i~~ (Head of Department...

Gershey, Robert Michael

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Conformal Inflation Coupled to Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.

P. Brax; A. C. Davis

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

458

Squeezed-state generation via nonlinear atom-atom interaction in the atomic field of a Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with an optical cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we investigate theoretically a system consisting of a one dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside the optical lattice of an optical cavity. In the weak-interaction regime and under the Bogoliubov approximation, the wave function of the Bose-Einstein condensate can be described by a classical field (condensate mode) having some quantum fluctuations (the Bogoliubov mode) about the mean value. Such a system behaves as a so-called atomic parametric amplifier, similar to an optical parametric amplifier, where the condensate and the Bogoliubov modes play respectively, the roles of the pump field and the signal mode in the degenerate parametric amplifier and the s-wave scattering frequency of atom-atom interaction plays the role of the nonlinear gain parameter. We show that using the nonlinear effect of atomic collisions, how one can manipulate and control the state of the Bogoliubov mode and produce squeezed states.

A. Dalafi; M. H. Naderi; M. Soltanolkotabi

2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

459

Condensed Surfaces of Magnetic Neutron Stars, Thermal Surface Emission, and Particle Acceleration Above Pulsar Polar Caps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For sufficiently strong magnetic fields and/or low temperatures, the neutron star surface may be in a condensed state with little gas or plasma above it. Such surface condensation can significantly affect the thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, and may lead to the formation of a charge-depleted acceleration zone ("vacuum gap") in the magnetosphere above the stellar polar cap. Using the latest results on the cohesive property of magnetic condensed matter, we quantitatively determine the conditions for surface condensation and vacuum gap formation in magnetic neutron stars. We find that condensation can occur if the thermal energy kT of the neutron star surface is less than about 8% of its cohesive energy Q_s, and that a vacuum gap can form if the neutron star's rotation axis and magnetic moment point in opposite directions and kT is less than about 4% of Q_s. Thus, vacuum gap accelerators may exist for some neutron stars. Motivated by this result, we also study the physics of pair cascades in the vacuum gap model for photon emission by accelerating electrons and positrons due to both curvature radiation and resonant/nonresonant inverse Compton scattering. Our calculations of the condition of cascade-induced vacuum breakdown and the related pulsar death line/boundary generalize previous works to the superstrong field regime. We find that inverse Compton scatterings do not produce a sufficient number of high energy photons in the gap and thus do not lead to pair cascades for most neutron star parameters. We discuss the implications of our results for the recent observations of neutron star thermal radiation as well as for the detection/non-detection of radio emission from high-B pulsars and magnetars.

Zach Medin; Dong Lai

2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

460

Coil Condensation Detection For Humidity Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an enthalpy economizer. A spreadsheet simulation of enthalpy economizer use showed that the savings available are heavily dependent on the ability to avoid its use on very hot, humid days. A newly-designed condensation sensor was developed for this project...

Kaneb, Charles Peckitt

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

B. G. Sidharth

1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

462

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60¬įF Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

463

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

464

??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices have proven to be a powerful tool for studying a wide variety of physics. In this thesis a series of experiments using optical lattices to manipulate 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates ...

Campbell, Gretchen K. (Gretchen Kathleen)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Buffer-Gas Cooled Bose-Einstein Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate using buffer-gas cooling, the first realization of Bose-Einstein condensation using a broadly general method which relies neither on laser cooling nor unique atom-surface ...

Ketterle, Wolfgang

466

Quantum Machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss quantum information processing machines. We start with single purpose machines that either redistribute quantum information or identify quantum states. We then move on to machines that can perform a number of functions, with the function they perform being determined by a program, which is itself a quantum state. Examples of both deterministic and probabilistic programmable machines are given, and we conclude with a discussion of the utility of quantum programs.

Mark Hillery; Vladimir Buzek

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

467

Colliding and moving Bose-Einstein condensates : studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...

Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Dimension two vacuum condensates in gauge-invariant theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gauge dependence of the dimension two condensate in Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory is investigated.

D. V. Bykov; A. A. Slavnov

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

469

Gibbons-Hawking Effect in the Sonic de Sitter Space-Time of an Expanding Bose-Einstein-Condensed Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose an experimental scheme to observe the Gibbons-Hawking effect in the acoustic analog of a 1+1-dimensional de Sitter universe, produced in an expanding, cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate. It is shown that a two-level system created at the center of the trap, an atomic quantum dot interacting with phonons, observes a thermal Bose distribution at the de Sitter temperature.

Petr O. Fedichev; Uwe R. Fischer

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

Creation and Detection of Skyrmions in a Bose-Einstein Condensate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first experimental realization and characterization of two-dimensional Skyrmions and half-Skyrmions in a spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. The continuous rotation of the local spin of the Skyrmion through an angle of pi (and half-Skyrmion through an angle of pi/2) across the cloud is confirmed by the spatial distribution of the three spin states as parametrized by the bending angle of the l vector. The winding number w=(0,1,2) of the internal spin states comprising the Skyrmions is confirmed through matter-wave interference.

Leslie, L. S.; Deutsch, B. M. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Hansen, A.; Wright, K. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Bigelow, N. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Institute of Optics and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

471

Condensed Phase and Interfacial Molecular Science | U.S. DOE Office of  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticlesHumanJune 2008 BasicCharlesCondensed Matter and

472

Condensation of classical nonlinear waves Colm Connaughton1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation of classical nonlinear waves Colm Connaughton1 , Christophe Josserand2 , Antonio of a large-scale coherent structure (a condensate) in classical wave equa- tions by considering description of the condensation process by using a wave turbulence the- ory with ultraviolet cut-off. In 3

473

POSITIVITY CASES, ESTIMATES AND ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSIONS FOR CONDENSER CAPACITIES.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POSITIVITY CASES, ESTIMATES AND ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSIONS FOR CONDENSER CAPACITIES. ALAIN BONNAF¬īE Abstract. We study positivity cases, estimates and asymptotic expansions of condenser p the internal part of the condenser has a non-empty interior. The study of the point and its approximation

Boyer, Edmond

474

Condensed representations for data mining Jean-Franois Boulicaut  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed representations for data mining Jean-François Boulicaut INSA de Lyon LIRIS CNRS FRE 2672.), Idea Group Reference, 2005, pp. 207-211. #12;Condensed Representations for Data Mining Jean-François Boulicaut, INSA de Lyon, France INTRODUCTION Condensed representations have been proposed in (Mannila

Boulicaut, Jean-François

475

BoseEinstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen Dale G. Fried  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose­Einstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen by Dale G. Fried B.S. Physics Washington State by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thomas J. Greytak Chairman, Department of Physics Graduate Committee #12; #12; Bose­Einstein Condensation the observation and study of Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnetically trapped atomic hydrogen. The sample

476

Cloud Condensation Nuclei Retrievals at Cloud Base in North Dakota  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Condensation Nuclei Retrievals at Cloud Base in North Dakota · Mariusz Starzec #12;Motivation Compare University of Wyoming (UWyo) and Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) cloud condensation nuclei condensation nuclei concentration (CCNC) at any supersaturation (SS) #12;Background Aerosols act as nuclei

Delene, David J.

477

CONDENSING COMPUTABLE SCENES USING VISUAL COMPLEXITY AND FILM SYNTAX ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSING COMPUTABLE SCENES USING VISUAL COMPLEXITY AND FILM SYNTAX ANALYSIS Hari Sundaram Shih, sfchang}@ctr.columbia.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to condense computable, lighting and sound. We attempt to condense such scenes in two ways. First, we define visual complexity

Chang, Shih-Fu

478

Condensed Representation of Sequential Patterns According to Frequency-Based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensed Representation of Sequential Patterns According to Frequency-Based Measures Marc Nacre, 14032 Caen Cedex, France Abstract. Condensed representations of patterns are at the core of many, we tackle sequential data and we define an exact condensed representation for sequential patterns ac

Boyer, Edmond

479

CFD analysis uncovers ways to lower condenser pressure drop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the use of computer simulation to evaluate condenser performance and evaluate proposed modifications to the condenser. The topics of the article include the basic principles of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), surface condenser design, performance evaluation, pressure drop reduction, application to a United Kingdom utility.

Rhodes, N.; Bell, R.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Technical Note Theoretical analysis of film condensation heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transfer coefficient of steam condensing inside an equilateral triangular channel is found. They divided the condensation area on the micro-fin surface into the flooded and the unflooded areasTechnical Note Theoretical analysis of film condensation heat transfer inside vertical mini

Zhao, Tianshou

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantum condensed matter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates S. UTSUNOMIYA1 predicted the occurrence of Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC) in an ideal gas of non-interacting bosonic Bose condensed system was developed by Bogoliubov in 1947, which predicted the phonon-like excitation

Loss, Daniel

482

Microtraps and Waveguides for Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microtraps and Waveguides for Bose-Einstein Condensates by Aaron E. Leanhardt Submitted and Waveguides for Bose-Einstein Condensates by Aaron E. Leanhardt Submitted to the Department of Physics Abstract Gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates containing up to 3 √? 106 23 Na atoms were loaded into magnetic

483

Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates Benjamin Schlein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates Benjamin Schlein Department of Mathematics, University the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates, ob- tained in a series of joint papers [5, 6] with L. Erdos and H Schr¨odinger equation known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the time evolution of the condensate

484

GROUND STATES AND DYNAMICS OF MULTICOMPONENT BOSEEINSTEIN CONDENSATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GROUND STATES AND DYNAMICS OF MULTICOMPONENT BOSE­EINSTEIN CONDENSATES WEIZHU BAO MULTISCALE MODEL a multicomponent Bose­Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero or a very low temperature. In preparation for the numerics of multicomponent BEC. Key words. multicomponent, Bose­Einstein condensate, vector Gross­Pitaevskii equations

Bao, Weizhu

485

Manipulating Bose-Einstein condensates with laser light Shin Inouye  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manipulating Bose-Einstein condensates with laser light by Shin Inouye Submitted to the Department-Einstein condensates with laser light by Shin Inouye Submitted to the Department of Physics on June 7, 2001, in partial-Einstein condensate was probed and manipulated by off-resonant laser beams. Spontaneous and stimulated off

486

DISORDERED BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATES WITH INTERACTION IN ONE DIMENSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISORDERED BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATES WITH INTERACTION IN ONE DIMENSION ROBERT SEIRINGER, JAKOB- Pitaevskii regime. We prove that Bose Einstein condensation survives even a strong random potential with a high density of scatterers. The character of the wave func- tion of the condensate, however, depends

Boyer, Edmond

487

A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, SPE-~~~ SPE 21428 A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance A of depletion performance of gas condensate reservoirs report the existence of a A variable cell model for simulating gas relatively high, near-constant, oil saturation in condensate reeervoir performance has been

Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

488

Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, for example, a Bose­Einstein condensate or a degenerate Fermi gas, the phase space accessible to low of coherent spin-changing collisions in a gas of spin-1 bosons. Starting with condensates occupying two spin of the gas, although it does not change the nature of the coherence of the condensate--indeed it has been

Loss, Daniel

489

Design of programmable matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Programmable matter is a proposed digital material having computation, sensing, actuation, and display as continuous properties active over its whole extent. Programmable matter would have many exciting applications, like ...

Knaian, Ara N. (Ara Nerses), 1977-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Compact heat exchangers for condensation applications: Yesterday, today and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compact heat exchangers are being increasingly considered for condensation applications in the process, cryogenic, aerospace, power and refrigeration industries. In this paper, different configurations available for condensation applications are analyzed and the current state-of-the-knowledge for the design of compact condensers is evaluated. The key technical issues for the design and development of compact heat exchangers for condensation applications are analyzed and major advantages are identified. The experimental data and performance prediction methods reported in the literature are analyzed to evaluate the present design capabilities for different compact heat-exchanger configurations. The design flexibility is evaluated for the development of new condensation applications, including integration with other process equipment.

Panchal, C.B.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Gaugino Condensates and Fluxes in N = 1 Effective Superpotentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of orbifold compactifications of heterotic and type II orientifolds, we study effective N = 1 supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates. These string solutions display a broad phenomenology which we analyze using the method of N = 4 supergravity gaugings. We give examples in type II and heterotic compactifications of combined fluxes and condensates leading to vacua with naturally small supersymmetry breaking scale controlled by the condensate, cases where the supersymmetry breaking scale is specified by the fluxes even in the presence of a condensate and also examples where fluxes and condensates conspire to preserve supersymmetry.

Jean-Pierre Derendinger; Costas Kounnas; P. Marios Petropoulos

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

492

Quantum-noise quenching in atomic tweezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited. The noise due to these excitations can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies. These results show that this protocol can be applied to initializing a quantum register based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

Zippilli, Stefano [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Fachbereich Physik and Research Center OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mohring, Bernd; Schleich, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Lutz, Eric [Department of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Quantum-noise quenching in atomic tweezers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited. The noise due to these excitations can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies. These results show that this protocol can be applied for initializing a quantum register based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

Stefano Zippilli; Bernd Mohring; Eric Lutz; Giovanna Morigi; Wolfgang Schleich

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Kaon Production from Hot and Dense Matter Formed in Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are then extended to determine kaon production in hot, dense nuclear matter by taking into account the decreasing hadron masses as a result of the restoration of chiral symmetry and the condensation of kaons. We find that the cross sections for kaon production from...

Brown, G. E.; Ko, Che Ming; Wu, Z. G.; Xia, L. H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Anderson Localization of Matter Waves in 3D Anisotropic Disordered Potentials Marie Piraud,1, 2, 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anderson Localization of Matter Waves in 3D Anisotropic Disordered Potentials Marie Piraud,1, 2, 3 (Dated: August 26, 2014) We develop a cut-off-free theory of Anderson localization in anisotropic. This phenomenon, known as Anderson localization (AL), is a widely studied problem at the fron- tier of condensed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

496

A Kinetic Theory Approach to Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a kinetic theory approach to quantum gravity -- by which we mean a theory of the microscopic structure of spacetime, not a theory obtained by quantizing general relativity. A figurative conception of this program is like building a ladder with two knotted poles: quantum matter field on the right and spacetime on the left. Each rung connecting the corresponding knots represent a distinct level of structure. The lowest rung is hydrodynamics and general relativity; the next rung is semiclassical gravity, with the expectation value of quantum fields acting as source in the semiclassical Einstein equation. We recall how ideas from the statistical mechanics of interacting quantum fields helped us identify the existence of noise in the matter field and its effect on metric fluctuations, leading to the establishment of the third rung: stochastic gravity, described by the Einstein-Langevin equation. Our pathway from stochastic to quantum gravity is via the correlation hierarchy of noise and induced metric fluctuations. Three essential tasks beckon: 1) Deduce the correlations of metric fluctuations from correlation noise in the matter field; 2) Reconstituting quantum coherence -- this is the reverse of decoherence -- from these correlation functions 3) Use the Boltzmann-Langevin equations to identify distinct collective variables depicting recognizable metastable structures in the kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes of quantum matter fields and how they demand of their corresponding spacetime counterparts. This will give us a hierarchy of generalized stochastic equations -- call them the Boltzmann-Einstein hierarchy of quantum gravity -- for each level of spacetime structure, from the macroscopic (general relativity) through the mesoscopic (stochastic gravity) to the microscopic (quantum gravity).

B. L. Hu

2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

497

Condensation temperature trends among stars with planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results from detailed spectroscopic analyses of stars hosting massive planets are employed to search for trends between abundances and condensation temperatures. The elements C, S, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn are included in the analysis of 64 stars with planets and 33 comparison stars. No significant trends are evident in the data. This null result suggests that accretion of rocky material onto the photospheres of stars with planets is not the primary explanation for their high metallicities. However, the differences between the solar photospheric and meteoritic abundances do display a weak but significant trend with condensation temperature. This suggests that the metallicity of the sun's envelope has been enriched relative to its interior by about 0.07 dex.

Guillermo Gonzalez

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

498

Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Relativistic Bose-Einstein condensation with disorder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the thermodynamics of a self-interacting relativistic charged scalar field in the presence of weak disorder. We consider quenched disorder which couples linearly to the mass of the scalar field. After performing noise averages over the free energy of the system, we find that disorder increases the mean-field critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation at finite density. The effect of disorder on the temperature dependence of the chemical potential for a fixed charge density is investigated. Significant differences from the mean-field temperature dependence of the chemical potential are observed as the strength of the noise intensity increases. Finally, the temperature dependence of the chemical potential with fixed total charge and entropy is investigated. It is found that there is no Bose-Einstein condensation for a fixed charge to entropy ratio in the presence of weak disorder. The possible relevance of the findings in the present paper in different areas is discussed.

E. Arias; G. Krein; G. Menezes; N. F. Svaiter

2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

500

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years of research data and cause thousands of dollars of damage to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years. To help prevent this common accident, wire or clamp all hose connections, secure the condenser outlet tubes into the inlet and outlet of the condenser. After fitting the tubes into the condenser (a

Brody, James P.