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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit Agency/Company /Organization: American Public Transportation Association Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.aptastandards.com/Portals/0/SUDS/SUDSPublished/APTA_Climate_Change This Recommended Practice provides guidance to transit agencies for quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, including both emissions generated by transit and the potential reduction of emissions through efficiency and displacement How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes

2

Recommended Practice for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Public Transportation Association Website: www.apta.comresourceshottopicssustainabilityDocumentsQuantifying- Transport Toolkit Region(s): Australia & North America...

3

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Verification of Emissions Control Compliance Speaker(s): Marc Fischer Date: April 29, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Local to international control of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will require systematic estimation of emissions and independent verification. California, the only state in the US with legislated controls on GHG emissions, is conducting research to enable emissions verification of the mandated emissions reductions (AB-32). The California Energy Commission supports the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project at LBNL. In collaboration with NOAA, CALGEM measures mixing ratios of all significant GHGs at two tall-towers and on aircraft in

4

Quantifying emissions reductions from New England offshore wind energy resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Access to straightforward yet robust tools to quantify the impact of renewable energy resources on air emissions from fossil fuel power plants is important to governments aiming to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse ...

Berlinski, Michael Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Mexico-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Mexico-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Agency/Company /Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http://www.ecofys.com/files/fi Program Start 2009 Country Mexico Central America References G8 Climate Scorecards[1] Overview Ecofys developed emission reduction scenarios for the G5 developing countries including; business as usual, no- regret, and ambitious scenarios. They also evaluated current national climate plans. From the study: "The participation of emerging economies is one of the major items of discussion on a future international climate regime. Action

6

South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Agency/Company /Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http://www.ecofys.com/files/fi Program Start 2009 Country South Africa Southern Africa References G8 Climate Scorecards[1] Overview Ecofys developed emission reduction scenarios for the G5 developing countries including; business as usual, no- regret, and ambitious scenarios. They also evaluated current national climate plans. From the study: "The participation of emerging economies is one of the major items of discussion on a future international climate regime. Action

7

Brazil-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Brazil-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Jump to: navigation, search Name Brazil-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Agency/Company /Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http://www.ecofys.com/files/fi Program Start 2009 Country Brazil South America References G8 Climate Scorecards[1] Overview Ecofys developed emission reduction scenarios for the G5 developing countries including; business as usual, no- regret, and ambitious scenarios. They also evaluated current national climate plans. From the study: "The participation of emerging economies is one of the major items of discussion on a future international climate regime. Action

8

India-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

India-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies India-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies Agency/Company /Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http://www.ecofys.com/files/fi Program Start 2009 Country India Southern Asia References G8 Climate Scorecards[1] Overview Ecofys developed emission reduction scenarios for the G5 developing countries including; business as usual, no- regret, and ambitious scenarios. They also evaluated current national climate plans. From the study: "The participation of emerging economies is one of the major items of discussion on a future international climate regime. Action

9

Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A very important aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970's. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver-mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove Title Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver-mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6319E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Melissa M. Lunden, Daniel Wilson, Cristina Ceballos, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Jonathan L. Slack, and Larry L. Dale Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Air pollution levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia's capital, are among the highest in the world. A primary source of this pollution is emissions from traditional coal-burning space heating stoves used in the Ger (tent) regions around Ulaanbaatar. Significant investment has been made to replace traditional heating stoves with improved low-emission high-efficiency stoves. Testing performed to support selection of replacement stoves or for optimizing performance may not be representative of true field performance of the improved stoves. Field observations and lab measurements indicate that performance is impacted, often adversely, by how stoves are actually being used in the field. The objective of this project is to identify factors that influence stove emissions under typical field operating conditions and to quantify the impact of these factors. A highly-instrumented stove testing facility was constructed to allow for rapid and precise adjustment of factors influencing stove performance. Tests were performed using one of the improved stove models currently available in Ulaanbaatar. Complete burn cycles were conducted with Nailakh coal from the Ulaanbaatar region

11

Combustion Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Combustion Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and...

12

Quantifying Avoided Fuel Use and Emissions from Solar Photovoltaic Generation in the Western United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantifying Avoided Fuel Use and Emissions from Solar Photovoltaic Generation in the Western United States ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, Colorado 80401 ...

Paul Denholm; Robert M. Margolis; James M. Milford

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

13

Spatially Resolved ? Emission from Laser Fusion Targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ?-particle emission from laser-compressed, D-T-filled microshells has been imaged using a zone-plate-coded imaging technique. Nominal image resolution was 10 ?m. Approximately 97% of the recorded ? emission was found to originate within a thermonuclear burn region of diameter roughly 13 that of the original target. The full width at half-maximum of the burn region had a diameter roughly 16 that of the target.

N. M. Ceglio and L. W. Coleman

1977-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

14

China-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Economies AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:...

15

South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Economies AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:...

16

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions.

17

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver-mini  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver-mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove Randy Maddalena, Melissa Lunden, Daniel Wilson, Cristina Ceballos, Thomas Kirchstetter, Jonathan Slack, Larry Dale Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 August 2012 This work was supported by the Millennium Challenge Corporation, USA and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. LBNL-6319E Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither

18

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets Establish Internal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets October 7, 2013 - 10:24am Addthis Question to Answer What are appropriate GHG emission reduction targets for specific agency programs and sites? Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions. As illustrated in the figure below, two sites may have equal potential to reduce GHG emissions. But a site expecting significant mission-related growth prior to the 2020 target year may have a lower reduction target

19

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 sources and sinks of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. In 1992, the United States signed and ratified and make available...national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks

Little, John B.

20

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 In 1992, the United the relative contribution of different emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. 2 Parties

Little, John B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Intensity targets: implications for the economic uncertainties of emissions trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intensity targets that adjust to economic growth are discussed as one option to control greenhouse gas emissions without strongly affecting economic growth and with less uncertain economic cost than absolute t...

Sonja Peterson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our overall goal was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically forced climate warming, and the extent to which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes in the extent of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, over the Arctic. Through a coordinated effort of field measurements, model development, and numerical experimentation with an integrated assessment model framework, we have investigated the following hypothesis: There exists a climate-warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and thus instigates strong and/or sharp increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and wetland expansion). These would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

Schlosser, Courtney Adam [MIT; Walter-Anthony, Katey [University of Alaska; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

23

Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

Zhang, Da

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The impact of traffic emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH: results from QUANTIFY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the boundary layer. The effect of ship emissions does notfor road. Globally the effect of ship emissions on ozone insouthern hemisphere the effect of ship emissions is among

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

Young, I.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

26

Journal of Chromatography A, 1161 (2007) 113120 Quantifying sesquiterpene and oxygenated terpene emissions from live  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This technique can be applied for quantification of biogenic oxygenated terpene and sesquiterpene emissions from@nature.berkeley.edu (N.C. Bouvier-Brown). 1 Present address: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht

Cohen, Ronald C.

27

Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

Szpunar, C.B.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Characterization of nuclear physics targets using Rutherford backscattering and particle induced x-ray emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rutherford backscattering and particle induced x-ray emission have been utilized to precisely characterize targets used in nuclear fission experiments. The method allows for a fast and non destructive determination of target thickness, homogeneity and element composition.

Th. Rubehn; G. J. Wozniak; L. Phair; L. G. Moretto; Kin M. Yu

1996-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

29

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Prioritize Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Not all administrative units within the agency have the same potential to contribute to agency-level targets. This step aims to help agencies establish what each major administrative unit (e.g. program site) should contribute to the agency goal based on its planned growth trajectory and estimates of its cost and potential to reduce GHG emissions.

31

How to quantify uncertainty and variability in life cycle assessment: the case of greenhouse gas emissions of gas power generation in the US  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study quantified the contributions of uncertainty and variability to the range of life-cycle greenhouse gas (LCGHG) emissions associated with conventional gas-fired electricity generation in the US. Whereas uncertainty is defined as lack of knowledge and can potentially be reduced by additional research, variability is an inherent characteristic of supply chains and cannot be reduced without physically modifying the system. The life-cycle included four stages: production, processing, transmission and power generation, and utilized a functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity generated at plant. Technological variability requires analyses of life cycles of individual power plants, e.g. combined cycle plants or boilers. Parameter uncertainty was modeled via Monte Carlo simulation. Our approach reveals that technological differences are the predominant cause for the range of LCGHG emissions associated with gas power, primarily due to variability in plant efficiencies. Uncertainties in model parameters played a minor role for 100 year time horizon. Variability in LCGHG emissions was a factor of 1.4 for combined cycle plants, and a factor of 1.3 for simple cycle plants (95% CI, 100 year horizon). The results can be used to assist decision-makers in assessing factors that contribute to LCGHG emissions despite uncertainties in parameters employed to estimate those emissions.

M Hauck; Z J N Steinmann; I J Laurenzi; R Karuppiah; M A J Huijbregts

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters. M the emission yield of anionic clusters increases much faster with n than expected from simple proportionality. Accordingly, the most intense emission is observed for Au7 - : under Au9 + impact the Au7 - yield per incident

Boyer, Edmond

33

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

Limpouch, Jiri

34

Carbon Emission Targets for Driving Sustainable Mobility with US Light-Duty Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and many independent scientists warn that if global mean temperatures rise 1?5 °C from 1990 levels due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, risks of extreme climate events and widespread regional ecological and economic impacts will significantly increase (11, 12). ... PHEVs can displace on-road gasoline-powered vehicles and help to meet the defined targets if the average carbon intensity of the remaining conventional and PHEV vehicle mix is less than the LDV g/mile target. ... Keoleian, G. A.; Kar, K.; Manion, M.; Bulkley, J. W. Industrial Ecology of the Automobile: A Life Cycle Assessment; Society of Automotive Engineers: Warrendale, PA, 1997. ...

Hilary G. Grimes-Casey; Gregory A. Keoleian; Blair Willcox

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially reduce the energy used in buildings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 KTA@Bath Challenge The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially research and lead the education of highly skilled low carbon designers. These Centres will have strong

Burton, Geoffrey R.

36

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

37

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

39

Target  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lifetime measurements in Lifetime measurements in inverse kinematics Coulex Target e.g. C Stopper e.g. Cu Beam X X * C Si-Det. Yale Plunger 120 Te at 300 MeV Plunger foils Si-Detector Compton-suppressed Clover detectors (8) 50% Coulomb- barrier )] ( exp[ 1 ) ( 0 d d d P - - - = λ Probability of emitting gamma-ray while in-flight: From data: ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( d I d I d P total shifted γ γ = where ) ( ) ( γ γ γ γ θ ε W E N I = Lifetime analysis For example: Valence proton symmetry Data from NNDC, WNSL ( 120 Te), NBI group ( 116 Te), Cologne ( 114 Te) B(E2)up [e 2 b 2 ] N A.A. Pasternak et al., EPJA 13, 435 (2002) O. Möller et al., PRC 71, 064324 (2005) Study deviations from (collective) expectations -> needs a fast and easy way to obtain data -> inverse RDDS well suited! Important in inverse kinematics: Deorientation F I J Large v/c => except for relativistic

40

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the extra emissions that are generated from manufacturing the material used to make CNG tanks); they can amount tc more than 2% of the emissions from 32 the fuel production and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of...

Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Hai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Secondary electron emission and the bifurcation of the heat flux to the targets in fusion plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of secondary electron emission (SEE) from plasma facing components in fusion devices can result in a strong localization of the heat flux from plasma to the wall and subsequent wall erosion. Usually, the impact of the SEE is considered assuming the Maxwellian distribution of the electrons coming to the surface. As a result, the SEE coefficient only depends on the temperature of primary electrons. However, the tail of primary electron distribution function in the scrape off layer (SOL) of fusion devices can be far from Maxwellian due to preferential loss of fast electrons. Consequently, it is shown that the SEE coefficient will depend on the wall potential and multiple solutions can be possible corresponding to different regimes of plasma flow to the wall: with and without SEE effects. This effect can cause two-slope electron temperature profiles in the SOL, which are often seen in experiments.

Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Nuclear reactions of medium and heavy target nuclei with high-energy projectiles III. Emission of24Na and28Mg fragments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emission of24Na and28Mg fragments in the reaction induced by 3·65 A GeV12C-ions and 3·65 GeV protons on Mn, Co, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pb targets has been studied. The experimental ratios of forward-to-backward emis...

P. Kozma

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential Economic Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17% through differentiated targets at the provincial level. Allocating the national target among China’s provinces is ...

Springmann, M.

45

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuels used in the refinery sector were also collected fromof the emissions from the refinery sector are included incommitment of 44% and the refinery and food sectors

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fast neutron emission from a deuterated polystyrene solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast neutrons were generated from a deuterated polystyrene (C8D8) solid-target irradiated by a high-intensity laser. A TOF neutron signal is analyzed in detail. A...

Lee, Sungman; Kwon, Sungok; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Yong-Ho; Yea, Kwon-hae; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Jeong, Young Uk; Rhee, Yong Joo; Cha, Hyungki

47

Fast neutron emission from a deuterated polystyrene solid target irradiated by a high-intensity laser pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast neutrons were generated from a deuterated polystyrene (C8D8) solid-target irradiated by a high-intensity laser. A TOF neutron signal is analyzed in detail....

Lee, Sungman; Kwon, Sungok; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Yong-Ho; Yea, Kwon-hae; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Jeong, Young Uk; Rhee, Yong Joo; Cha, Hyungki

48

Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

Malone, Robert; Celeste, John; Celliers, Peter; Frogget, Brent; Robert Guyton,,; Kaufman, Morris; Lee, Tony; MacGowan, Brian; Ng, Edmend; Reinbachs, Imants; Robinson, Ronald; Tunnell, Thomas; Watts, Phillip

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

An open-access method for targeting revegetation based on potential for emissions reduction, carbon sequestration and opportunity cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We propose a simple heuristic that uses open-access models and government data on agricultural activities to estimate total carbon emissions from agriculture, the gross carbon benefit and the opportunity cost per tonne CO2-e from revegetating to environmental plantings or plantation forestry. We test this across ten areas of mixed land-use that represent diverse Australian agricultural systems along a rainfall transect. The local value of agricultural production was obtained from government statistics and used to estimate the current economic opportunity cost of converting cleared agricultural land to mixed environmental plantings for carbon sequestration. Gross carbon benefit from revegetation was closely related to current agricultural use, as was financial opportunity cost. These were not related simply to site productivity potential or rainfall. The proportion of land cleared for agriculture that would need to be re-vegetated to achieve a localised zero-carbon land-use scenario was calculated by the ratio of current agricultural emissions to gross carbon benefit from revegetation; this ranged from 13% to 66% for groups of agricultural industries across Australian rainfall transects. While the heuristic does not capture the detail of models built specifically for local research questions it does provide a different lens on the questions policy makers and land managers may ask about the costs and benefits of revegetating agricultural land, and provides open-access methods to guide them.

Andrew Longmire; Chris Taylor; Craig J. Pearson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Phase 1 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES): Highlights of Project Finding  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

?Quantify the significant reduction in both regulated and unregulated emissions from four 2007 highway diesel engines

51

Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland’s energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Copenhagen Accord established political consensus on the 2 °C limit (in global temperature increase) and for deep cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels to achieve this goal. The European Union has set ambitious GHG targets for the year 2050 (80–95% below 1990 levels), with each Member State developing strategies to contribute to these targets. This paper focuses on mitigation targets for one Member State, Ireland, an interesting case study due to the growth in GHG emissions (24% increase between 1990 and 2005) and the high share of emissions from agriculture (30% of total GHG emissions). We use the Irish TIMES energy systems modelling tool to build a number of scenarios delivering an 80% emissions reduction target by 2050, including accounting for the limited options for agriculture GHG abatement by increasing the emissions reduction target for the energy system. We then compare the scenario results in terms of changes in energy technology, the role of energy efficiency and renewable energy. We also quantify the economic impacts of the mitigation scenarios in terms of marginal CO2 abatement costs and energy system costs. The paper also sheds light on the impacts of short term targets and policies on long term mitigation pathways.

Alessandro Chiodi; Maurizio Gargiulo; Fionn Rogan; J.P. Deane; Denis Lavigne; Ullash K. Rout; Brian P. Ó Gallachóir

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A Comparison of Amplitude-Based and Phase-Based Positron Emission Tomography Gating Algorithms for Segmentation of Internal Target Volumes of Tumors Subject to Respiratory Motion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To quantitatively compare the accuracy of tumor volume segmentation in amplitude-based and phase-based respiratory gating algorithms in respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and Materials: List-mode fluorodeoxyglucose-PET data was acquired for 10 patients with a total of 12 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumors and 9 lymph nodes. Additionally, a phantom experiment was performed in which 4 plastic butyrate spheres with inner diameters ranging from 1 to 4 cm were imaged as they underwent 1-dimensional motion based on 2 measured patient breathing trajectories. PET list-mode data were gated into 8 bins using 2 amplitude-based (equal amplitude bins [A1] and equal counts per bin [A2]) and 2 temporal phase-based gating algorithms. Gated images were segmented using a commercially available gradient-based technique and a fixed 40% threshold of maximum uptake. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were generated by taking the union of all 8 contours per gated image. Segmented phantom ITVs were compared with their respective ground-truth ITVs, defined as the volume subtended by the tumor model positions covering 99% of breathing amplitude. Superior-inferior distances between sphere centroids in the end-inhale and end-exhale phases were also calculated. Results: Tumor ITVs from amplitude-based methods were significantly larger than those from temporal-based techniques (P=.002). For lymph nodes, A2 resulted in ITVs that were significantly larger than either of the temporal-based techniques (P<.0323). A1 produced the largest and most accurate ITVs for spheres with diameters of ?2 cm (P=.002). No significant difference was shown between algorithms in the 1-cm sphere data set. For phantom spheres, amplitude-based methods recovered an average of 9.5% more motion displacement than temporal-based methods under regular breathing conditions and an average of 45.7% more in the presence of baseline drift (P<.001). Conclusions: Target volumes in images generated from amplitude-based gating are larger and more accurate, at levels that are potentially clinically significant, compared with those from temporal phase-based gating.

Jani, Shyam S., E-mail: sjani@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); White, Benjamin M.; Thomas, David H.; Gaudio, Sergio; Low, Daniel A.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

54

Sandia National Laboratories: Quantifying Offshore Wind Scour...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyComputational Modeling & SimulationQuantifying Offshore Wind Scour with Sandia's Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (SNL---EFDC) Quantifying Offshore Wind Scour with...

55

Integrated powertrain control to meet future CO2 and Euro-6 emissions targets for a diesel hybrid with SCR-deNOx system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new concept is introduced to optimize the performance of the entire powertrain: Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC). In this concept, the synergy between engine, driveline and aftertreatment system is exploited by integrated energy and emission management. ...

Frank Willems; Darren Foster

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

policy at the US state level to decrease GHG emissions?ABU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national levelU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national level

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Quantifying Pollutant Emissions from Office Equipment Phase I Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapure.on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapure.on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapure. Page

Maddalena, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Hodgson, A.T.; McKone, T.E.; Perino, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

NREL: News - NREL Quantifies Significant Value in Concentrating Solar Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

413 413 NREL Quantifies Significant Value in Concentrating Solar Power CSP with thermal energy storage boosts California electric grid April 24, 2013 Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have quantified the significant value that concentrating solar power (CSP) plants can add to an electric grid. The NREL researchers evaluated the operational impacts of CSP systems with thermal energy storage within the California electric grid managed by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). NREL used a commercial production cost model called PLEXOS to help plan system expansion, to evaluate aspects of system reliability, and to estimate fuel cost, emissions, and other operational factors within the CAISO system. The

59

The road from Kyoto: The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in IEA countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Building on earlier analysis of energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in 13 member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the authors quantify energy use and carbon emissions for nearly three dozen activities and economic branches from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. They show how lifestyles, economic structure, and overall economic growth affect the structure and rate of CO{sub 2} emissions. Similarly they show how energy intensities, final fuel mixes, and utility fuel mixes shape emissions. Using Laspeyres indices, they calculate the relative importance of each of these factors in affecting sectoral and total emissions over time. They focus on consumer sectors, homes and personal travel, but extend the analysis to all sectors of the economies studied. The authors find that emissions reductions in all sectors after 1990 have been slower than in the previous fifteen years, a period that saw emissions reductions in spite of economic growth. Manufacturing and households led the reductions in most cases, but progress has slowed markedly. In almost all cases, emissions from the transportation sector showed the least reduction and indeed some increases. Findings do not give an optimistic view of the recently concluded accords at the Third Conference of Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto, Japan. The authors conclude that the current rate of energy saving and fuel switching must be greatly accelerated if the IEA countries studied here are to affect reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions to meet their Kyoto targets.

Schipper, L.; Unander, F.; Marie, C.; Gorham, R.; Justus, D.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Krackeler, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Life Cycle Boundaries and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Beef Cattle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Beef cattle are estimated to directly contribute 26% of U.S. agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and future climate change policy may target reducing these emissions.… (more)

Dudley, Quentin M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

The regulatory choice of noncompliance in emissions trading programs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses the following question: To achieve a fixed aggregate emissions target cost-effectively, should emissions trading programs be designed and implemented to achieve...

John K. Stranlund

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations ABSTRACT This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types

64

Quantifying the parameters of successful agricultural producers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the parameters of successful agricultural producers. Through the use of the Financial and Risk Management (FARM) Assistance database, this study evaluated economic measures for row-crop producers...

Kaase, Gregory Herman

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

65

Quantifying fit in ice hockey skate boots.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Purpose. This study quantified fit of ice hockey skate boots by measuring the pressure (MP) at the foot/ankle-to-boot interface using three skate sizes. The relationship… (more)

Gheorghiu, Cristian R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Evaluating Energy Policy: Quantifying Air Pollution and Health Co-Benefits Tammy M Thompson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluating Energy Policy: Quantifying Air Pollution and Health Co-Benefits Tammy M Thompson Noelle Energy Policy Scenarios Criteria Pollution Emissions Changes Impacts on Air Quality and Human Health Energy Policy Scenarios Criteria Pollution Impacts on Air Quality one realm can have profound impacts

67

Methodology Behrens, QUANTIFY deliverable D-1-1-2-2 (confidential), 2006; Dentener et al.,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the composition of the often pristine marine boundary layer (MBL) Straight forward attribution of AIEs ("ship to amend the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified) Emissions (aerosols and precursor gases) - EU-IP QUANTIFY for ships (Behrens, 2006) - AeroCom otherwise

Peters, Karsten

68

Methodology Behrens, QUANTIFY deliverable D-1-1-2-2 (confidential), 2006; Dentener et al.,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? -Emissions from ships modify the composition of the often pristine marine boundary layer (MBL) Straight to amend the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified-IP QUANTIFY for ships (Behrens, 2006) - AeroCom otherwise (Dentener et al., 2006) Setup - T63 (1.8oĂ?1.8o), 31

Peters, Karsten

69

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

70

Linking the emissions trading schemes of Europe and China - Combining climate and energy policy instruments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both Europe and China have announced targets for greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable energy development. To achieve their emissions targets, Europe has introduced emissions trading scheme (ETS) since...

Yang Liu; Taoyuan Wei

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Flame Analysis Techniques for Particulate Emissions Development of GDI Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

What is required to achieve engine out emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines at particle number (PN) target...?. ? ...

Dr. Hans-Michael Koegeler; Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Khai Vidmar…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech, though the 2020s is a likely turning point for both emission trajectories. Both emission pathways must meet all announced and planned policies, targets and non-fossil generation targets, or an even wider efficiency gap will exist. The savings potential under Max Tech varies by sector, but the industrial sector appears to hold the largest energy savings and emission reduction potential. The primary source of savings is from electricity rather than fuel, and electricity savings are magnified by power sector decarbonization through increasing renewable generation and coal generation efficiency improvement. In order to achieve the maximum energy savings and emission reduction potential, efficiency improvements and technology switching must be undertaken across demand sectors as well as in the growing power sector. From an economic perspective, the cost of conserved energy analysis indicates that nearly all measures for the iron and steel and cement industry are cost-effective. All 23 efficiency measures analyzed for the cement industry are cost-effective, with combined CO2 emission reduction potential of 448 Mt CO2. All of the electricity savings measures in the iron and steel industry are cost-effective, but the cost-effective savings potential for fuel savings measures is slightly lower than total technical savings potential. The total potential savings from these measures confirm the magnitude of savings in the scenario models, and illustrate the remaining efficiency gap in the cement and iron and steel industries.

Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

None

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

74

International Experience with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

International Experience with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy International Experience with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies Title International Experience with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Williams, Christopher J., Ali Hasanbeigi, Lynn K. Price, and Grace Wu Date Published 11/2012 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords co-benefits, energy efficiency, ghg emissions, quantification Abstract Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts' resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years.

75

Quantifying Combined Heat and Power (CHP) activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In CHP plants without heat rejection facilities power, output is complementary to the recovery of heat, and all activity is cogeneration. CHP plants with heat rejection facilities can operate a mix of cogeneration and condensing activities. Quantifying the energy flows of both activities properly requires knowledge of the design power-to-heat ratios of the CHP processes (steam and gas turbines, combustion engines). The ratios may be multiple, non-linear or extend into the virtual domain of the production possibility sets of the plants. Quantifying cogeneration in CCGT plants reveals a definition conflict but consistent solutions are available.

Aviel Verbruggen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Quantifying the Thermal Fatigue of CPV Modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is presented to quantify thermal fatigue in the CPV die-attach from meteorological data. A comparative; study between cities demonstrates a significant difference in the accumulated damage. These differences are most; sensitive to the number of larger (?T) thermal cycles experienced for a location. High frequency data (<1/min) may; be required to most accurately employ this method.

Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Towards quantifying the completeness of BDI goals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Often, such as in the presence of conflicts, an agent must choose between multiple intentions. The level of completeness of the intentions can be a factor in this deliberation. We sketch a pragmatic but principled mechanism for quantifying the level ... Keywords: goal reasoning, partial completeness, resource summaries

John Thangarajah, James Harland, David N. Morley, Neil Yorke-Smith

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Vaguely Quantified Rough Sets Chris Cornelis1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vaguely Quantified Rough Sets Chris Cornelis1 , Martine De Cock1 , and Anna Maria Radzikowska2 1@mini.pw.edu.pl Abstract. The hybridization of rough sets and fuzzy sets has focused on creating an end product they allow for gradual membership, fuzzy rough sets are still abrupt in a sense that adding or omitting

Gent, Universiteit

79

Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading is a comparatively new policy instrument which ... electricity systems in Europe. The development of emissions trading thus represents an innovation in its own...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Analysis of Climate Policy Targets under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although policymaking in response to the climate change is essentially a challenge of risk management, most studies of the relation of emissions targets to desired climate outcomes are either deterministic or subject to a ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

82

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, China’sthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Quantifying the benefits of hybrid vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency range and obtaining additional power from an electric motor.efficiency, and emissions. The computer controls when the gasoline engine and electric motorelectric motors that use electricity stored in batteries. The purpose of these hybrid designs is to increase efficiency.

Turrentine, Tom; Delucchi, Mark; Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sun, Yongling

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Precise thermal NDE for quantifying structural damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors demonstrated a fast, wide-area, precise thermal NDE imaging system to quantify aircraft corrosion damage, such as percent metal loss, above a threshold of 5% with 3% overall uncertainties. The DBIR precise thermal imaging and detection method has been used successfully to characterize defect types, and their respective depths, in aircraft skins, and multi-layered composite materials used for wing patches, doublers and stiffeners. This precise thermal NDE inspection tool has long-term potential benefits to evaluate the structural integrity of airframes, pipelines and waste containers. They proved the feasibility of the DBIR thermal NDE imaging system to inspect concrete and asphalt-concrete bridge decks. As a logical extension to the successful feasibility study, they plan to inspect a concrete bridge deck from a moving vehicle to quantify the volumetric damage within the deck and the percent of the deck which has subsurface delaminations. Potential near-term benefits are in-service monitoring from a moving vehicle to inspect the structural integrity of the bridge deck. This would help prioritize the repair schedule for a reported 200,000 bridge decks in the US which need substantive repairs. Potential long-term benefits are affordable, and reliable, rehabilitation for bridge decks.

Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

1995-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

85

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve ... The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this ... . There are thr...

Edwin Woerdman

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter covers a series of operations which are essential for the implementation of an efficient emissions trading market on the domestic and international level. An introduction to how a national emissions trading

Dr. Michael See

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

TARGETING TRICLOSAN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TARGETING TRICLOSAN ... FEDERAL REGULATORS are worried about the potential for antibiotic resistance and endocrine disruption from human exposure to triclosan, an antibacterial ingredient found in numerous consumer products, including soaps, body washes, cutting boards, and toys. ... “Existing data raise valid concerns about the effects of repetitive daily human exposure” to triclosan, the Food & Drug Administration wrote in a letter to Rep. Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.), which he released on April 8. ...

BRITT ERICKSON

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings Alison of sound energy policy with respect to lighting controls depends on improved quantification of potential savings. Researchers have been quantifying energy savings from lighting controls in commercial buildings

89

Accelerator target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Prioritize Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prioritize Strategies and Set Internal Reduction Targets for Scope 3 Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 10:22am Addthis The final steps in the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning process for Scope 3 emissions include: Prioritizing strategies across all Scope 3 emission sources Setting internal Scope 3 reduction targets. Prioritizing All Scope 3 Strategies Once the Federal agency understands what Scope 3 reductions are feasible and at what costs, it should prioritize proposed GHG reduction activities across all Scope 3 emission sources. This prioritization will help agencies determine how to get the most out of limited resources for Scope 3 mitigation. It will also assist in developing more informed targets at the

91

Compliance and Emissions Trading under the Kyoto Protocol: Rules for Uncertain Inventories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solution is proposed for proving compliance with emission targets and for emissions trading in the event of uncertainties in reported...? and calculating effective emissions for trading are derived. Based on th...

Zbigniew Nahorski; Joanna Horabik; Matthias Jonas

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Quantifying the air quality-CO2 tradeoff potential for airports  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Aircraft movements on the airport surface are responsible for CO2 emissions that contribute to climate change and other emissions that affect air quality and human health. While the potential for optimizing aircraft surface movements to minimize CO2 emissions has been assessed, the implications of CO2 emissions minimization for air quality have not been quantified. In this paper, we identify conditions in which there is a tradeoff between CO2 emissions and population exposure to O3 and secondary PM2.5 – i.e. where decreasing fuel burn (which is directly proportional to CO2 emissions) results in increased exposure. Fuel burn and emissions are estimated as a function of thrust setting for five common gas turbine engines at 34 US airports. Regional air quality impacts, which are dominated by ozone and secondary PM2.5, are computed as a function of airport location and time using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model. Tradeoffs between CO2 emissions and population exposure to PM2.5 and O3 occur between 2–18% and 5–60% of the year, respectively, depending on airport location, engine type, and thrust setting. The total duration of tradeoff conditions is 5–12 times longer at maximum thrust operations (typical for takeoff) relative to 4% thrust operations (typical for taxiing). Per kilogram of additional fuel burn at constant thrust setting during tradeoff conditions, reductions in population exposure to PM2.5 and O3 are 6–13% and 32–1060% of the annual average (positive) population exposure per kilogram fuel burn, where the ranges encompass the medians over the 34 airports. For fuel burn increases due to thrust increases (i.e. for constant operating time), reductions in both PM2.5 and O3 exposure are 1.5–6.4 times larger in magnitude than those due to increasing fuel burn at constant thrust (i.e. increasing operating time). Airports with relatively high population exposure reduction potentials – which occur due to a combination of high duration and magnitude of tradeoff conditions – are identified. Our results are the first to quantify the extent of the tradeoff between CO2 emissions and air quality impacts at airports. This raises the possibility of reducing the air quality impacts of airports beyond minimizing fuel burn and/or optimizing for minimum net environmental impact.

Akshay Ashok; Irene C. Dedoussi; Steve H.L. Yim; Hamsa Balakrishnan; Steven R.H. Barrett

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

species) control technology criteria pollutant air pollutantControl Cogen Urban Santa Maria Elevated Data sources: Emissions: 1999 National Emissions Inventory for Hazardous Air Pollutants (

Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; Nazaroff, William W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid....

95

Project No.: 003893 (GOCE) Quantifying the Climate Impact of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the effect of transport emissions on the current state of the atmosphere Five base runs will be performed: a) all emissions on b) road transport reduced by 5% c) ship emissions reduced by 5% d) aircraft emissions: airborne measurements of ship- tracks (ITOP-ICARTT campaign July 2004, participation of DLR- Falcon) Tracer

Haak, Hein

96

Quantifier elimination by cylindrical algebraic decomposition based on regular chains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quantifier elimination algorithm by cylindrical algebraic decomposition based on regular chains is presented. The main idea is to refine a complex cylindrical tree until the signs of polynomials appearing in the tree are sufficient to distinguish the ... Keywords: cylindrical algebraic decomposition, quantifier elimination, regular chains, triangular decomposition

Changbo Chen; Marc Moreno Maza

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping Fu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping for quantifying vehicle tailpipe emissions. In this paper we present non-linear regression models that can be used for emission data is examined using field data. The proposed models have adjusted R 2 values ranging from 0

Hellinga, Bruce

98

Quantifying greenhouse-gas emissions from atmospheric measurements: a critical reality check for climate legislation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for GHGs that have natural, anthropogenic, industrial...mole fractions of these gases, but also their isotopic...understanding of the natural cycles of these gases and verifying claims...mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCL) enable...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources Anupama Kowli and George in the electricity industry. In particular, there is a new class of consumers, called demand response resources (DRRs

Gross, George

100

QUANTIFYING THE CONVERGENCE TIME OF DISTRIBUTED DESIGN PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUANTIFYING THE CONVERGENCE TIME OF DISTRIBUTED DESIGN PROCESSES Erich Devendorf Research Engineer design processes. In distributed design, large systems are decomposed into smaller, coupled design individual objectives. The number of iterations required to reach equilibrium solutions in distributed design

Lewis, Kemper E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Representing Policies for Quantified Boolean Formulas Sylvie Coste-Marquis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of its variables, corresponding to quantifier alternations, such as, for instance, {a} {b, d} {c} (a ¬c problem is nothing really new (it has been considered before in (Kleine-B¨uning, Subramani, & Zhao 2003

Lang, JĂ©rĂ´me

102

Radon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-Wendy Barnaby (August 28) writes on the problem of radon emission from the tailings of uranium milling in Sweden. This problem would arise from ... that has to be treated. She describes Professor Robert O. Pohl's report that "radon can escape more easily from the broken ground of a mine than from an undisturbed ...

SVEN-ERIC BRUNNSJO

1975-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

103

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Objectives & Targets Rev. 7/17/13 Objectives & Targets Rev. 7/17/13 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS 2012 PROGRESS REPORT for SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION Activity Legal Requirement Aspect Objective Target** see important note Target Achieved Details Real Estate Management DOE O 436.1 E.O. 13423 & 13514 EPAct 1992 and 2005 EISA 2007 NECPA 1978 Natural resource depletion and GHG emissions from resource intensive facilities Increase sustainability of facility resources, reduce energy and water consumption, reduce impacts to natural resources from facility usage 1) Meter 90% of electricity by September 2012 2) Meter 90% of gas, steam, and water by September 2015 3) 30% energy intensity reduction by 2015 from baseline 2003 4) Reduce water consumption intensity 2%

104

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Quantifying the Total Environmental Impacts of an Industrial Symbiosis - a Comparison of Process-, Hybrid and Input?Output Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we compared process, hybrid and input?output life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches in quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a forest industrial symbiosis, situated in Kymenlaakso, Finland. ... Starch is a product of the grain milling industry, which has embodied pesticide emissions from agriculture. ...

Tuomas J. Mattila; Suvi Pakarinen; Laura Sokka

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

106

The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures.

Sleefe, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peglow, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hamrick, R. [ENSCO Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Price Disclosure, Marginal Abatement Cost Information and Market Power in a Bilateral GHG Emissions Trading Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Against the global warming, the discussion on how to control the total amount of greenhouse gases (GHG’s) has started among countries in the ... which was the first agreement on the quantified GHG emission limita...

Yoichi Hizen; Tatsuyoshi Saijo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

KullbackLeibler Distances for Quantifying Clutter and Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effectiveness on model­based automatic target recognition systems with FLIR sensors. The measure for clutter, pattern theory, performance analysis, infrared, FLIR 1 Introduction Designers of automatic target

Lanterman, Aaron

109

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

Holt, R.J.

1984-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

Holt, Roy J. (Downers Grove, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Ha Emission from the Magellanic Bridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present here a preliminary report and commentary of recently processed observations of Ha emission towards the Magellanic Bridge. These data have been analysed in an attempt to quantify the extent to which the stellar population is capable of reshaping the local ISM. We find that the Ha emission regions are small, weak and sparsely distributed, consistent with a relatively quiescent and inactive ISM where radiative and collisional ionisation is inefficient and sporadic. This suggests that energetic processes at the small scale (i.e. ~tens of pc) do not dominate the energy balance within the ISM of the Bridge, which therefore hosts a pristine turbulent structure, otherwise inaccessible within our own Galaxy. We find Ha emission that is well correlated with detected 12CO(1-0) line emission (a proxy for molecular hydrogen), as well as other easily identified ring-like HI features.

E. Muller; Q. Parker

2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

112

Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A major campaign to quantify the magmatic carbon discharge in cold groundwaters around Mammoth Mountain volcano in eastern California was carried out from 1996 to 1999. The total water flow from all sampled cold springs was >=1.8_107 m3/yr draining an area that receives an estimated

113

Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon policies for China Title Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon policies for China Publication Type Conference Proceedings Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6161E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Zhou, Nan, David Fridley, Michael A. McNeil, Nina Zheng Khanna, Wei Feng, and Jing Ke Conference Name the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 2013 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency Date Published 03/2013 Publisher the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Conference Location Toulon, France Keywords appliance energy efficiency, Buildings Energy Efficiency, china, Clean Energy Policy, CO2 intensity, energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency, low carbon, Low Carbon Eco-City Development

114

Quantifying the Value that Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Provide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying the Value that Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Provide Quantifying the Value that Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Provide as a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Price Speaker(s): Mark Bolinger Date: August 13, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Advocates of renewable energy and energy efficiency have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a utility's generation portfolio. These arguments - made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas and wholesale electricity price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001 - have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that renewables and efficiency provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are

115

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants CO2 Emissions Control RD&D Roadmap Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program: Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program Accomplishments DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Presentations DOE/NETL's Monthly Carbon Sequestration Newsletter Program Goals and Targets Pre-Combustion CO2 Control Post-Combustion CO2 Control Advanced Combustion CO2 Compression Other Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Reference Shelf Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. There are commercially available 1st-Generation CO2

116

Magnetically attached sputter targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from is responsible of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2010 and 2011, Irstea produces a tool called G ESTABoues to quantify GHG emissions emitted during sludge treatment and disposal routes. This paper aims to present how

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

Government Cuts Biofuels Targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Government Cuts Biofuels Targets ... The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed lowering next year’s production targets for biofuels in the U.S. fuel mix—targets initially set in the Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007. ... Although the petroleum industry says the new targets still call for too much ethanol, biofuels advocates say changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard could kill the fledgling advanced biofuels industry. ...

MELODY BOMGARDNER; JEFF JOHNSON

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Project No.: 003893 (GOCE) Quantifying the Climate Impact of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of transport #12;REPORT ON FIRST ORDER ESTIMATE OF CHEM- ICAL PERTURBATION 1 Summary To estimate the effect of emissions from road, aircraft and ship traffic on the chemical composition of the atmosphere six different in the appendix. The major findings can be summarized as follows: · The mean maximum effect of emission reduction

Haak, Hein

120

High Power Cryogenic Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

Gregory Smith

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions University UC specified GHG reduction targets. This requires clear evidence that links from urban spatial structure

California at Davis, University of

122

Quantifying global marine isoprene fluxes using MODIS chlorophyll observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with considerable spatial and temporal variability, resulting in a global annual total of 0.1 Tg C/yr. Air vegetation [Guenther et al., 1995], with the tropics responsible for most of the global annual total ($500 TgQuantifying global marine isoprene fluxes using MODIS chlorophyll observations Paul I. Palmer

Palmer, Paul

123

Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Quantifying temporal change in biodiversity: challenges and opportunities Maria Dornelas1 Solutions Initiative, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA 11 Department of Botany and Biodiversity Mathematics, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7641 CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau, France 13 Marine Spatial Ecology Laboratory

Vellend, Mark

124

Quantifying the Impact of Wind Energy on Market Coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the Impact of Wind Energy on Market Coupling Hélène Le Cadre Mathilde Didier Abstract and of the uncertainty resulting from the introduction of renewable energy on the procurement total cost, on the market- formation on the quantities of renewable energy produced by the other markets, we show that the providers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

RESEARCH Open Access Quantifying and understanding carbon storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Quantifying and understanding carbon storage and sequestration within: The carbon stored in vegetation varies across tropical landscapes due to a complex mix of climatic: We produce a map of carbon storage across the watershed of the Tanzanian Eastern Arc Mountains (33

126

Contributed Paper Using Changes in Agricultural Utility to Quantify  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contributed Paper Using Changes in Agricultural Utility to Quantify Future Climate-Induced Risk to Conservation LYNDON D. ESTES, LYDIE-LINE PAROZ, BETHANY A. BRADLEY,§ JONATHAN M.H. GREEN, DAVID G. HOLE to be mediated through changes in the agricultural utility of land. As farmers adapt their practices to changing

Bradley, Bethany

127

The Need for SPIRIT DEMs to Quantify Antarctic Ice Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

appropriate mask ­ SPIRIT has the data and could produce the necessary DEMs #12;Conclusions · Antarctic iceThe Need for SPIRIT DEMs to Quantify Antarctic Ice Sheet Discharge Robert Bindschadler NASA & UMBC #12;Antarctic Ice Sheet Discharge · 33 largest, most active basins account for 840 Gt/a (Rignot

Berthier, Etienne

128

Dynamically Quantifying and Improving the Reliability of Distributed Storage Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamically Quantifying and Improving the Reliability of Distributed Storage Systems Rekha Bachwani,ricardob}@cs.rutgers.edu {gryz,dubnicki}@nec-labs.com Abstract In this paper, we argue that the reliability of large-scale storage systems can be significantly improved by using bet- ter reliability metrics and more efficient

Bianchini, Ricardo

129

Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines 10.1073/pnas.1111769109...observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the...Gulf coast is 460 GW (2). Offshore wind turbines in these areas will be at...

Stephen Rose; Paulina Jaramillo; Mitchell J. Small; Iris Grossmann; Jay Apt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

Katz, Richard

131

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Landfill gas emission prediction using Voronoi diagrams and importance sampling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are among the nation's largest emitters of methane, a key greenhouse gas, and there is considerable interest in quantifying the surficial methane emissions from landfills. There are limitations in obtaining accurate ... Keywords: Air dispersion modeling, Delaunay tessellation, Kriging, Least squares, MSW landfill, Voronoi diagram

K. R. Mackie; C. D. Cooper

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

134

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Land Use Change from Jatropha Curcas-Based Jet Fuel in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Land Use Change from Jatropha Curcas-Based Jet Fuel in Brazil ... Life cycle GHG emissions of biojet fuel derived from Jatropha curcas is quantified based on empirical data from Brazilian producers accounting for land-use change. ... This is the methodology adopted by the European Community in its current Renewable Energy Directive (40). ...

Robert E. Bailis; Jennifer E. Baka

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

135

REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are International. b DOC = Diesel Oxidation Catalyst; DPF = Diesel Particulate Filter; EGR = Exhaust GasREAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 26-28, 2012 #12;2 Objectives 1. Quantify inter-run variability in exhaust emission rates 2. Assess

Frey, H. Christopher

136

Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 37513764 Modeling the effects of ship emissions on coastal air quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 3751­3764 Modeling the effects of ship emissions on coastal air emissions, they could have important environmental effects on coastal areas near ports with heavy ship-going ships on ozone and particulate matter concentrations is quantified using UCI- CIT model for the South

Dabdub, Donald

137

Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wasted time and fuel caused by congestion...of Collaborative Consumption ( HarperCollins...factor of speed and engine load, which are...vehicle emissions and fuel consumption in urban driving...vehicle speed and engine load on motor vehicle...

Paolo Santi; Giovanni Resta; Michael Szell; Stanislav Sobolevsky; Steven H. Strogatz; Carlo Ratti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas facilities, mainly combined-cycle (CEC, 2002b). However,technology in parens. CC = combined cycle; GT = gas turbine;emission factors for new combined-cycle turbines, the most

Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; Nazaroff, William W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Quantifying Sources of Uncertainty in Projections of Future Climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple statistical model is used to partition uncertainty from different sources, in projections of future climate from multimodel ensembles. Three major sources of uncertainty are considered: the choice of climate model, the choice of emissions ...

Paul J. Northrop; Richard E. Chandler

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Electricity Generation Speaker(s): Garvin Heath Date: November 8, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 This talk will highlight my research investigating differences in potential for human inhalation exposure to air pollutants emitted by distributed electricity generation (DG) technologies and existing central station power plants in California. The most sophisticated research on environmental impacts of DG has focused on evaluating spatially and temporally resolved air pollutant concentrations (e.g., ozone) that result from scenarios of future deployment of DG technologies (Samuelsen at al., 2003 and collaborations amongst Tonse, van Buskirk and Heath, unpublished). I extend this research to consider the relationship between where pollutants are

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Quantifiers for randomness of chaotic pseudo random number generators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We deal with randomness-quantifiers and concentrate on their ability do discern the hallmark of chaos in time-series used in connection with pseudo random number generators (PRNG). Workers in the field are motivated to use chaotic maps for generating PRNGs because of the simplicity of their implementation. Although there exist very efficient general-purpose benchmarks for testing PRNGs, we feel that the analysis provided here sheds additional didactic light on the importance of the main statistical characteristics of a chaotic map, namely, i) its invariant measure and ii) the mixing constant. This is of help in answering two questions that arise in applications, that is, (1) which is the best PRNG among the available ones? and (2) If a given PRNG turns out not to be good enough and a randomization procedure must still be applied to it, which is the best applicable randomization procedure?. Our answer provides a comparative analysis of several quantifiers advanced in the extant literature.

L. De Micco; H. A. Larrondo; A. Plastino; O. A. Rosso

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

142

Target structural reliability in life cycle consideration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of minimising life cycle cost can be rationally applied to determine a target reliability of structures. However, there has been a recent legal requirement to reduce CO2 emissions, therefore, the minimisation of life cycle CO2 emission could be an alternative approach in structural design. This paper explains the general formulae for deciding the optimum reliability by minimising the total life cycle cost and the amount of CO2 emission in the structure's lifetime, and also shows that these formulae can be applied to decision making for the cost-benefit problem related to seismic strengthening of structures. Additionally, the role of the engineer is discussed, reflecting the current situation in Japan.

Jun Kanda; Tsuyoshi Takada; Hang Choi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

144

Constraining future greenhouse gas emissions by a cumulative target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

varies inversely with temper- ature. Ocean warming reduces the ca- pacity of seawater to dissolve CO2, which weakens the solubility pump as the planet warms (3). Carbon feedbacks are particularly uncertain. Add to this land clearing and the associated release of CO2 and loss of natural carbon storage (9

England, Matthew

145

Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases John Seryak Gary Epstein Mark D’Antonio Engineer jseryak@ers-inc.com President gepstein@ers-inc.com Vice President mdantonio@ers-inc.com Energy & Resource Solutions..., Inc. Haverhill, MA ABSTRACT A number of energy efficiency programs seek a reduction in the energy intensity of manufacturing processes. However, promoting energy efficiency through productivity improvements is not a widely accepted...

Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Quantifying forested stands with the pulsed airborne laser profiler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) red H. Smeins (Member) Peter T Sprinz (Member) J ~ (Head aries Lee f Departmen ) May 1986 ABSTRACT Quantifying Forested Stands with the Pulsed Airborne Laser Profiler. (May 1986) Michael Craig Whatley, B. S. , Texas A&M University... Digital Data CONCLUSIONS. 48 51 PALP Capabilities and Opportunities in Basal Area Estimation. 53 REFERENCES' APPENDIX A APPENDIX B. VITA. 54 57 78 90 viii LIST OF TASLES Table Page Prediction equations of predicted ground tree height from...

Whatley, Michael Craig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

147

Targeting the tumor microenvironment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

148

Advanced Target Effects Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temper- ature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme...

149

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hohlraum This artist's rendering shows a NIF target pellet inside a hohlraum capsule with laser beams entering through openings on either end. The beams compress and heat the...

150

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Review - 2011 (so far) Tim Johnson October 4, 2011 DOE DEER Conference, Detroit JohnsonTV@Corning.com 2 Summary * California LD criteria emission regs are tightening....

151

Secondary ion emission from single massive gold cluster impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

secondary ion emission from targets with different structural properties which have the same stoichiometry. In a comparative study, we have measured a significant difference in secondary ion emission and yields from the two systems, graphite and �±-ZrP. Au...

Hager, George Joseph

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

152

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

153

Enforcing Emissions Trading when Emissions Permits are Bankable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose enforcement strategies for emissions trading programs with bankable emissions permits that guarantee...

John K. Stranlund; Christopher Costello…

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Quantifying the Value of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This PowerPoint slide deck was originally presented at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power Program Review by Paul Denholm and Mark Mehos of NREL on April 23, 2013. Entitled "Quantifying the Value of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage," the presenters seek to answer the question, "What is the addition of TES to a CSP plant actually worth?" Ultimately they conclude that CSP with TES can actually complement other variable generation sources including solar PV and act as an enabling technology to achieve higher overall penetration of renewable energy.

155

A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

157

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Because of their high prices medallions and most cabs...drivers per medallion on average. Note that we unfortunately...taxi sharing system. On average, in every two minutes...vehicle emissions and fuel consumption in urban...Kendall, G. R. Effects of vehicle speed and...

Paolo Santi; Giovanni Resta; Michael Szell; Stanislav Sobolevsky; Steven H. Strogatz; Carlo Ratti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Methods for quantifying uncertainty in fast reactor analyses.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors in the form of sodium-cooled fast reactors have been successfully built and tested in the U.S. and throughout the world. However, no fast reactor has operated in the U.S. for nearly fourteen years. More importantly, the U.S. has not constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. In addition to reestablishing the necessary industrial infrastructure, the development, testing, and licensing of a new, advanced fast reactor concept will likely require a significant base technology program that will rely more heavily on modeling and simulation than has been done in the past. The ability to quantify uncertainty in modeling and simulations will be an important part of any experimental program and can provide added confidence that established design limits and safety margins are appropriate. In addition, there is an increasing demand from the nuclear industry for best-estimate analysis methods to provide confidence bounds along with their results. The ability to quantify uncertainty will be an important component of modeling that is used to support design, testing, and experimental programs. Three avenues of UQ investigation are proposed. Two relatively new approaches are described which can be directly coupled to simulation codes currently being developed under the Advanced Simulation and Modeling program within the Reactor Campaign. A third approach, based on robust Monte Carlo methods, can be used in conjunction with existing reactor analysis codes as a means of verification and validation of the more detailed approaches.

Fanning, T. H.; Fischer, P. F.

2008-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Risk-Quantified Decision-Making at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface soils in the 903 Pad Lip Area of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) were contaminated with {sup 239/240}Pu by site operations. To meet remediation goals, accurate definition of areas where {sup 239/240}Pu activity exceeded the threshold level of 50 pCi/g and those below 50- pCi/g needed definition. In addition, the confidence for remedial decisions needed to be quantified and displayed visually. Remedial objectives needed to achieve a 90 percent certainty that unremediated soils had less than a 10 percent chance of {sup 239/240}Pu activity exceeding 50-pCi/g. Removing areas where the chance of exceedance is greater than 10 percent creates a 90 percent confidence in the remedial effort results. To achieve the stipulated goals, the geostatistical approach of probability kriging (Myers 1997) was implemented. Lessons learnt: Geostatistical techniques provided a risk-quantified approach to remedial decision-making and provided visualizations of the excavation area. Error analysis demonstrated compliance and confirmed that more than sufficient soils were removed. Error analysis also illustrated that any soils above the threshold that were not removed would be of nominal activity. These quantitative approaches were useful from a regulatory, engineering, and stakeholder satisfaction perspective.

Myers, Jeffrey C. [Washington Safety Management Solutions, Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Method of producing tungsten-titanium sputter targets and targets produced thereby  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for preparing a tungsten-titanium sputter target having substantially no [beta](Ti,W) phase present and exhibiting improvement in reduction of particulate emission upon sputtering, comprising: (a) providing powders of said tungsten and titanium wherein said titanium powder is present in an amount of about 1-20 wt. % based on the total weight of said tungsten and titanium powders provided; (b) compacting said powders at a pressure of from about 200 to 1,000 MPa; and (c) heating said powders at a temperature from about 600-882 C. A method for preparing a tungsten-titanium sputtering target having substantially no [beta](Ti,W) phase present and exhibiting improvement in reduction of particulate emission upon sputtering.

Wickersham, C.E. Jr.; Mueller, J.J.

1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

162

Macro-coherent two photon and radiative neutrino pair emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a possibility of detecting a coherent photon pair emission and related radiative neutrino pair emission from excited atoms. It is shown that atoms of lambda- and ladder-type three level system placed in a pencil-like cylinder give a back to back emission of two photons of equal energy $\\Delta/2$, sharply peaked with a width $\\propto $ 1/(target size) and well collimated along the cylinder axis. This process has a measurable rate $\\propto$ (target number density) $^2 \\times$ target volume, while a broader spectral feature of one-photon distribution separated by (mass sum of a neutrino pair)$^2/(2\\Delta)$ from the two photon peak may arise from radiative neutrino pair emission, with a much smaller rate.

M. Yoshimura; C. Ohae; A. Fukumi; K. Nakajima; I. Nakano; H. Nanjo; N. Sasao

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

California's Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Reduction in 2050 Title California's Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Reduction in 2050 Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5448E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wei, Max, James H. Nelson, Michael K. Ting, Christopher Yang, J. Greenblatt, James E. McMahon, Daniel M. Kammen, Christopher M. Jones, Ana Mileva, Josiah Johnston, and Ranjit Bharvirkar Date Published 10/2012 Abstract Meeting the State of California's 2050 target of 80% lower greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from a 1990 baseline is a challenging goal that cannot be met without a portfolio of measures and strategies that span both energy demand and energy supply. This study focuses on energy emissions with the target of reducing energy emissions by 80% relative to 1990 energy emissions. Meeting the 2050 target requires both a sustained commitment to aggressively develop existing technologies as well as an aggressive and sustained policy commitment to reshape and ultimately transform the state's energy system. The 2050 GHG target for California appears achievable, but requires significant changes in the way we produce energy, deliver energy services, and utilize energy.

164

Target | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Target Target Jump to: navigation, search Name Target Address 1000 Nicollet Mall Place Minneapolis, MN Zip 55440 Website http://www.target.com Coordinates 44.9739366°, -93.2750493° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.9739366,"lon":-93.2750493,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

165

Photo-Targeted Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photo-Targeted Nanoparticles ... The photo-dependent inhibition could be eliminated by prior addn. of glutathione or bisulfite to the irradiated soln. ... Photo-mediated gene activation using caged RNA/DNA in zebrafish embryos ...

Tal Dvir; Matthew R. Banghart; Brian P. Timko; Robert Langer; Daniel S. Kohane

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

166

Liposomes in Drug Targeting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transport of drugs to target tissues, cells or subcellular organelles by the use of carrier systems is now a recognized useful method of improving drug selectivity. The types of carrier that have been proposed...

G. Gregoriadis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

1994-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

169

A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050 Pascal da mitigation targets for CO2 emissions, which reflect their own specific situations. In this article, scenarios for CO2 emissions up to 2050 are set up for three representative countries: the United States of America

Boyer, Edmond

170

Correction for Rose et al., Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Rose et al., Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines 10.1073/pnas.1211974109 SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE...Correction for “Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines,” by Stephen Rose, Paulina Jaramillo, Mitchell...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Carbon emission trading in India and Sri Lanka  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kyoto Protocol has established three trading mechanisms, namely International Emission Trading (IET), Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which enable industrialised countries to achieve carbon emission reduction targets as economically as possible. Out of these three mechanisms, CDM is the most important mechanism for the developing countries. CDM allows the carbon emission reductions achieved in developing countries from environmentally friendly projects to be transferred to developed countries so that the developed countries could use credits from emission reducing projects undertaken in developing countries towards meeting their emission reduction targets. Several developing countries, including India and Sri Lanka have taken initiatives to develop CDM projects. However, implementation of CDM projects has met various difficulties. This paper examines some of these difficulties and suggests improvements to achieve better results.

G.D. Sardana; S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Quantifier elimination for approximate Beals-Kartashova factorization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The only known constructive factorization algorithm for linear partial differential operators (LPDOs) is Beals-Kartashova (BK) factorization \\cite{bk2005}. One of the most interesting features of BK-factorization: at the beginning all the first-order factors are constructed and afterwards the factorization condition(s) should be checked. This leads to the important application area - namely, numerical simulations which could be simplified substantially if instead of computation with one LPDE of order $n$ we will be able to proceed computations with $n$ LPDEs all of order 1. In numerical simulations it is not necessary to fulfill factorization conditions exactly but with some given accuracy, which we call approximate factorization. The idea of the present paper is to look into the feasibility of solving problems of this kind using quantifier elinination by cylindrical algebraic decomposition.

Elena Kartashova; Scott McCallum

2007-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings Title Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Williams, Alison A., Barbara A. Atkinson, Karina Garbesi, and Francis M. Rubinstein Pagination 14 Date Published May Publisher LBNL-5895E Abstract Lighting has the largest estimated technical potential for energy savings of any U.S. building end-use. A significant fraction of that potential is believed to lie in lighting system controls. While controls are incorporated in national model building codes, their adoption and enforcement are spotty, and controls have been largely ignored in energy efficiency standards, leaving much potential untapped. The development of sound energy policy with respect to lighting controls depends on improved quantification of potential savings. Researchers have been quantifying energy savings from lighting controls in commercial buildings for more than 30 years, but results vary widely. This meta-analysis of energy savings potential used 240 savings estimates from 88 published sources, categorized into daylighting strategies, occupancy-based strategies, personal tuning, and institutional tuning. Beginning with an average of savings estimates based on the entire literature, this research added successive analytical filters to identify potential biases introduced to the estimates by different analytical approaches. We obtained relatively robust final estimates of average savings: 24% for occupancy, 28% for daylighting, 31% for personal tuning, 36% for institutional tuning, and 38% for combined approaches. Using these data and estimates of current and full penetration of controls, we calculated national energy savings potential on the order of 19%.

174

Dependence of projectile fragmentation on target N/Z  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peripheral reactions of 28Si with 112Sn and 124Sn at 30, 40, and 50 MeV/nucleon were used to elucidate the effect of the neutron content of the target on the process of projectile fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the fragments that result from these projectile fragmentation reactions can be divided into those which are the result of statistical emission of the quasiprojectile and those that are part of a direct component. The statistical part is independent of the target whereas the isotopic composition of fragments from the direct component is dependent on the neutron content of the target.

R. Laforest; E. Ramakrishnan; D. J. Rowland; A. Ruangma; E. M. Winchester; E. Martin; S. J. Yennello

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Beyond Tailpipe Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Driving your vehicle can yield both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from your vehicle's tailpipe and GHG emissions related to the production of the fuel used to power your vehicle. For example, activities associated with fuel production such as feedstock extraction, feedstock transport to a processing plant, and conversion of feedstock to motor fuel, as well as distribution of the motor fuel, can all produce GHG emissions. The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a Greenhouse Gas Rating, from 1 (worst) to 10 (best), based on the vehicle's tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only, and this rating does not reflect any GHG emissions associated with fuel production.

177

Emissions from Ships  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Turbine and Diesel) Engine Exhaust Emission...of relative fuel consumption. For commercial...Marine Diesel Engine and Gas Turbine...Turbine and Diesel) Engine Exhaust Emission...of relative fuel consumption. For commercial...

James J. Corbett; Paul Fischbeck

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Introduction to Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter constitutes an introduction to emissions trading. First, we detail the latest developments ... Second, we introduce the main characteristics of emissions trading, be it in terms of spatial and...2 al...

Dr. Julien Chevallier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive ...

Thornhill, D. A.

180

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluating a Federal agency's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile means getting a solid understanding of the organization's largest emission categories, largest emission sources, and its potential for improvement.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Foam encapsulated targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and reactivity of supercritical CO{sub 2} in coal-bearing strata is unknown, and potential exists for supercritical conditions to develop below a depth of 2,480 feet following abandonment of the coalbed methane fields. High-pressure adsorption isotherms confirm that coal sorbs approximately twice as much CO{sub 2} as CH{sub 4} and approximately four times as much CO{sub 2} as N{sub 2}. Analysis of isotherm data reveals that the sorption performance of each gas can vary by a factor of two depending on rank and ash content. Gas content data exhibit extreme vertical and lateral variability that is the product of a complex burial history involving an early phase of thermogenic gas generation and an ongoing stage of late biogenic gas generation. Production characteristics of coalbed methane wells are helpful for identifying areas that are candidates for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Many geologic and engineering factors, including well construction, well spacing, and regional structure influence well performance. Close fault spacing limits areas where five-spot patterns may be developed for enhanced gas recovery, but large structural panels lacking normal faults are in several gas fields and can be given priority as areas to demonstrate and commercialize carbon sequestration technology in coalbed methane reservoirs.

Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The world not only continues to build new coal-fired power plants, but built more new coal plants in the past decade than in any previous decade. Worldwide, an average of 89 gigawatts per year (GW yr–1) of new coal generating capacity was added between 2010 and 2012, 23 GW yr–1 more than in the 2000–2009 time period and 56 GW yr–1 more than in the 1990–1999 time period. Natural gas plants show a similar pattern. Assuming these plants operate for 40 years, the fossil-fuel burning plants built in 2012 will emit approximately 19 billion tons of CO2 (Gt CO2) over their lifetimes, versus 14 Gt CO2 actually emitted by all operating fossil fuel power plants in 2012. We find that total committed emissions related to the power sector are growing at a rate of about 4% per year, and reached 307 (with an estimated uncertainty of 192–439) Gt CO2 in 2012. These facts are not well known in the energy policy community, where annual emissions receive far more attention than future emissions related to new capital investments. This paper demonstrates the potential for 'commitment accounting' to inform public policy by quantifying future emissions implied by current investments.

Steven J Davis; Robert H Socolow

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Quantifying the Thermal Behavior of Slags (TRP 9903)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful operation of a continuous caster is based upon control of heat transfer in the mold. The mold slag is a key component in the success of continuous casting; however, the phenomena that occur in the gap between the shell and the mold are largely unknown as until recently there have been no techniques that allowed visualization and quantification of the solidification behavior of liquid slags. This has lead to slag design being an empirical science or art. Recently a new experimental technique, called Double Hot Thermocouple Technique (DHTT), was developed at Carnegie Mellon University that allowed the solidification behavior of a slag to be observed and quantified under conditions that simulate the thermal conditions that occur in steelmaking environments. This technique allows ladle, tundish and mold slags to be characterized under extreme conditions including those found between the mold wall and the growing shell of a continuous caster. Thus, a program is initiated, under this grant, to quantify and describe the phenomena that occur during the solidification of a slag in a steel mill environment. This will allow slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise. The project deliverables were as follows: (1) The further development of a tool that will have broad use in the quantification of slag melting and solidification behavior; and (2) The development of a set of meaningful design criteria for slag application in steel mill environments. The project was broken down into a number of objectives: (a) Develop a systematic understanding of the effect of cooling rate on slag solidification; (b) Develop a systematic understanding on the effect of slag chemistry changes on slag solidification behavior; (c) Develop a method to characterize slag melting; (d) Develop an understanding of the role of the environment on slag solidification and melting; (e) Develop the ability to understand slag solidification under the conditions that occur in a continuous caster; (f) Develop an ability to predict the solidification behavior of slags; and (g) Develop the criteria for optimization of slags in steelmaking environments where they are under thermal gradients.

Alan W. Cramb

2003-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

TRANSFORMED DSM TARGETS GROWTH  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TRANSFORMED DSM TARGETS GROWTH ... DSM CHIEF Executive Officer Feike Sijbesma refers to Charles Darwin when talking about his company’s transformation. ... In the past 10 years, DSM has transformed itself, shifting its portfolio from petrochemicals and specialties to life sciences and materials. ...

PAIGE MARIE MORSE

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

187

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 ? ?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend1 ? ?)? i + ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect toSeries Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation 

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Agency/Company /Organization United States Agency for International Development Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Training materials Website http://www.snvworld.org/en/sec Country Cambodia South-Eastern Asia References LEAF[1] "Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF), supported by USAID/RDMA, aims to strengthen the capacity of target countries to achieve meaningful and sustained reductions in GHG emissions from the forestry-land use sector while assisting them in benefitting from the emerging international REDD+

189

Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Agency/Company /Organization United States Agency for International Development Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Training materials Website http://www.snvworld.org/en/sec Country Vietnam South-Eastern Asia References LEAF[1] "Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF), supported by USAID/RDMA, aims to strengthen the capacity of target countries to achieve meaningful and sustained reductions in GHG emissions from the forestry-land use sector while assisting them in benefitting from the emerging international REDD+ framework.

190

Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Agency/Company /Organization United States Agency for International Development Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Training materials Website http://www.snvworld.org/en/sec Country Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Vietnam South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Melanesia, South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia References LEAF[1] "Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF), supported by USAID/RDMA, aims to strengthen the capacity of target countries to achieve meaningful and sustained reductions in GHG emissions from the forestry-land use sector

191

Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Agency/Company /Organization United States Agency for International Development Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Training materials Website http://www.snvworld.org/en/sec Country Thailand South-Eastern Asia References LEAF[1] "Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF), supported by USAID/RDMA, aims to strengthen the capacity of target countries to achieve meaningful and sustained reductions in GHG emissions from the forestry-land use sector while assisting them in benefitting from the emerging international REDD+

192

Quantifying 3D Reconnection in Fragmented Current Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is growing evidence that when magnetic reconnection occurs in high Lundquist number plasmas such as in the Solar Corona or the Earth's Magnetosphere it does so within a fragmented, rather than a smooth current layer. Within the extent of these fragmented current regions the associated magnetic flux transfer and energy release occurs simultaneously in many different places. This investigation focusses on how best to quantify the rate at which reconnection occurs in such layers. An analytical theory is developed which describes the manner in which new connections form within fragmented current layers in the absence of magnetic nulls. It is shown that the collective rate at which new connections form can be characterized by two measures; a total rate which measures the true rate at which new connections are formed and a net rate which measures the net change of connection associated with the largest value of the integral of $E_{\\|}$ through all of the non-ideal regions. Two simple analytical models are pre...

Wyper, Peter F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quantifying Pemex E and P benefits from foreign strategic associations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent critique by the Heritage Foundation of the management of Mexico's petroleum sector deserves attention by oil industry observers of Mexico as well as government and academic analysts. The foundation argues that sweeping changes are needed-for Mexico's own good-in upstream and downstream policy. The following analysis presents one form of quantifying the upstream argument: the Mexican government stands to gain $5.7 billion/year in taxable revenue from state petroleum company Petroleos Mexicanos by 2000 from strategic associations with international petroleum companies. In addition, there are efficiency advantages that Pemex would gain by strategic associations with international petroleum companies. The ripple effects would include not only oil production and tax revenue increases from Pemex operations but also the advantages of new management skills, new sources of funding and technology, and lower operating and overhead costs in Pemex. It will not be possible, however, for the Mexican government to choose one or more strategic partners by quantitative methods alone. To the contrary, a significant measure of trust will be required.

Baker, G.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

196

Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distinct components: dry ash-free coal, ash, and water.the case of our dry and ash-free coal, ?=5.46, ?=4.49, and ?formula for moisture and ash-free (MAF) coal (ignoring the

Maddalena, Randy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silver mini (Small Turkish) Space Heating Stove  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 (1333-1340) Appendix 1: Results of Coal Analysis 1A.Geochemical Testing, Coal Analysis Report: Nailakh 1B.Geochemical Testing, Coal Analysis Report: Utah

Maddalena, Randy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

New Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Generating Technology to Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION 30 TH BIRTHDAY CONFERENCE April 7, 2008 Linda G. Stuntz Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. 2 The Target * Energy related emissions of CO2 will increase by about 16% in AEO 2008 Reference Case between 2006 and 2030 (5,890 MM metric tons to 6,859 MM metric tons). (#s from Caruso Senate Energy testimony of 3/4/08). * Last year, emissions from electricity generation were 40% of total energy-related GHG emissions. * Based on projected annual electricity demand growth of 1.1%. Stuntz, Davis & Staffier, P.C. 3 The Target Cont'd * 16.4 GW of new nuclear + 2.7 GW Uprates of existing plants less 4.5 GW of retirements. * Coal responsible for 54% of generation in 2030.

200

Apparatus for forming targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

Woerner, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Policies and Measures International and United State Programs - Kyoto Protocol - European Union Emission Trading Scheme - California Global Warming Solutions Act - Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative #0;z Strategies for Expanding Buildings Role Buildings... Emission Targets in 2008-2012 for 37 Annex I Countries Which Have Ratified It ? Relies Primarily on Policies and Measures ? Flexibility Measures Include CDMs and JIs #0;z European Climate Change Program ? Reflects EU’s Leadership in Implementing Kyoto...

Millhone, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

203

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

204

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

205

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

206

emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

emissions emissions Dataset Summary Description The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes an annual Energy Outlook, which presents projections of New Zealand's future energy supply, demand, prices and greenhouse gas emissions. The principle aim of these projections is to inform the national energy debate. Included here are the model results for emissions. The spreadsheet provides an interactive tool for selecting which model results to view, and which scenarios to evaluate; full model results for each scenario are also included. Source New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Date Released Unknown Date Updated December 15th, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords emissions New Zealand projections Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010 New Zealand emissions outlook (xls, 1.2 MiB)

207

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

208

Novel method for quantifying the cell size of marine phytoplankton based on optical measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phytoplankton size is important for the pelagic food web and oceanic ecosystems. However, the size of phytoplankton is difficult to quantify because of methodological constraints. To...

Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Zhou, Wen; Sun, Zhaohua; Xu, Zhantang; Wang, Guifen; Hu, Shuibo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Partnered with NETZSCH, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an Isothermal Battery Calorimeter (IBC) used to quantify heat flow in battery cells and modules.

210

Quantifying Area Changes of Internationally Important Wetlands Due to Water Consumption in LCA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantifying Area Changes of Internationally Important Wetlands Due to Water Consumption in LCA ... This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. ...

Francesca Verones; Stephan Pfister; Stefanie Hellweg

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

211

Quantifying Improvement in NDE Techniques for Inspecting Nickel-base Alloys in an International Cooperative Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we describe an atlas that is being created in an international program for use by participants in quantifying NDE effectiveness for varying crack parameters.

Schuster, George J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality quantified Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Current Research Projects Summary: , to quantify the effect of transboundary pollution on air quality. Ozone trends and interannual variability... Research's Community...

213

E-Print Network 3.0 - africa quantifying residual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: africa quantifying residual Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Satellite observations of the...

214

Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: > Precise and reliable measurements of emissions from landfills are needed. > A tracer technique involving simultaneous release of two tracers was proven successful. > Measurements to be performed at times with low changing trends in barometric pressure. - Abstract: A double tracer technique was used successfully to quantify whole-site methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from Fakse Landfill. Emissions from different sections of the landfill were quantified by using two different tracers. A scaled-down version of the tracer technique measuring close-by to localized sources having limited areal extent was also used to quantify emissions from on-site sources at the landfill facility, including a composting area and a sewage sludge storage pit. Three field campaigns were performed. At all three field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH{sub 4} emissions from the old landfill section were localized to the leachate collection wells and slope areas. The average CH{sub 4} emissions from the old landfill section were quantified to be 32.6 {+-} 7.4 kg CH{sub 4} h{sup -1}, whereas the source at the new section was quantified to be 10.3 {+-} 5.3 kg CH{sub 4} h{sup -1}. The CH{sub 4} emission from the compost area was 0.5 {+-} 0.25 kg CH{sub 4} h{sup -1}, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux was quantified to be in the order of 332 {+-} 166 kg CO{sub 2} h{sup -1} and 0.06 {+-} 0.03 kg N{sub 2}O h{sup -1}, respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material was quantified to have an emission of 2.4 {+-} 0.63 kg h{sup -1} CH{sub 4}, and 0.03 {+-} 0.01 kg h{sup -1} N{sub 2}O.

Scheutz, C., E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, J., E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Fredenslund, A.M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, P., E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Tim Johnson October 16, 2012 2 Environmental Technologies Summary * Regulations - LEVIII finalized, Tier 3? RDE in Europe developing and very...

217

EMSL - emission spectra  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emission-spectra en Structures and Stabilities of (MgO)n Nanoclusters. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsstructures-and-stabilities-mgon-nanoclusters

218

NETL: Emissions Characterization - CMU Emissions Characterization Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source Emissions Characterization Study Source Emissions Characterization Study The emissions characterization study is being performed in conjunction with the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study [PDF-744KB], a larger effort that includes ambient measurements and atmospheric modeling of the Pittsburgh region. The main objectives of this portion of the study are: To achieve advanced characterization of the PM in the Pittsburgh region. Measurements include the PM size, surface, volume, and mass distribution; chemical composition as a function of size and on a single particle basis; temporal and spatial variability. To obtain accurate current fingerprints of the major primary PM sources in the Pittsburgh region using traditional filter-based sampling and state-of-the-art techniques such as dilution sampling and single particle analysis using mass spectroscopy and LIBS.

219

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

220

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

Andersen, J.K., E-mail: jka@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Rotating Target Development for SNS Second Target Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rotating target for the second target station (STS) at SNS has been identified as an option along with a mercury target. Evaluation of the rotating target alternative for STS has started at 1.5 MW which is considered an upper bound for the power. Previous preconceptual design work for a 3 MW rotating target is being modified for the lower power level. Transient thermal analysis for a total loss of active water cooling has been done for a simplified 2D model of the target and shielding monolith which shows that peak temperatures are well below the level at which tungsten vaporization by steam could exceed site boundary dose limits. Design analysis and integration configuration studies have been done for the target-moderator-reflector assembly which maximizes the number of neutron beam lines and provides for replacement of the target and moderators. Target building hot cell arrangement for this option will be described. An option for operation in rough vacuum without a proton beam window using Ferro fluid seals on a vertical shaft is being developed. A full scale prototypic drive module based on the 3 MW preconceptual design has been fabricated and successfully tested with a shaft and mock up target supplied by the ESS-Bilbao team. Overall planning leading to decision between mercury and the rotating target in 2011 will be discussed

McManamy, Thomas J [ORNL; Rennich, Mark J [ORNL; Crawford, Roy K [ORNL; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Janney, Jim G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

224

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

225

Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Developed jointly by Da Vinci Emissions Services Ltd., Cummins Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil (DAFIO™) technology uses a fiber optic probe to obtain real-time measurements of oil in an operating engine to quantify the fuel dissolved in the lubricant oil.

226

Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate the potential synergy between pollution and climate control in the U.S. and China, summarizing the results as emissions cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ...

Nam, Kyung-Min

227

Halving global GHG emissions by 2050 without depending on nuclear and CCS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we assessed the technological feasibility and economic viability of the mid-term (until 2050) GHG emission reduction target required for stabilization of ... efficiency improvement in curbing the c...

Osamu Akashi; Tatsuya Hanaoka; Toshihiko Masui; Mikiko Kainuma

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind S.C. Pryor1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind Speeds S.C. Pryor1,2 , R farm. However, there are a number of biases inherent in satellite retrieval of wind speeds which wind farms speculative. Here we quantify these biases and derive theoretical and empirical estimates

230

Characterization of wound monitoring systems used to quantify and locate plutonium contamination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When an accident involving the possibility of a plutonium contaminated wound occurs, the contamination is often quantified using sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and high purity germanium (HPGe) detection systems. The NaI(Tl) system is used to quantify...

Dimmerling, Paul James

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems with Variable Resources Electric Energy System #12;#12;Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems benefits correspond to a real-world power system, as we use actual data on demand-response and wind

232

Quantifying Technology Infusion and Policy Impact on Low Earth Orbit Communication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Technology Infusion and Policy Impact on Low Earth Orbit Communication Satellite Students #12;2 #12;Quantifying Technology Infusion and Policy Impact on Low Earth Orbit Communication-Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics and Technology and Policy Program Abstract Technology infusion

233

Quantifying Contention and Balancing Memory Load on Hardware DSM Multiprocessors1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Contention and Balancing Memory Load on Hardware DSM Multiprocessors1 Dimitrios S a new methodology for quantifying remote memory access contention on hardware DSM multiprocessors node of the DSM to each page in memory. A trace of the memory accesses of the program obtained

Nikolopoulos, Dimitris

234

Quantifying and Resolving Remote Memory Access Contention on Hardware DSM Multiprocessors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying and Resolving Remote Memory Access Contention on Hardware DSM Multiprocessors Dimitrios contributions: It pro- poses a new methodology for quantifying remote memory access contention on hardware DSM each DSM node to each page in memory. A trace of the memory accesses of the pro- gram obtained

Nikolopoulos, Dimitris

235

Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate Holger Rootzen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate Holger Rootzen1 and Richard W. Katz2 of return levels and return periods have been standard and important tools for engineering design. However, whether local or global. In this paper, we propose a refined concept, Design Life Level, which quantifies

Katz, Richard

236

A Standardized, Cost-Effective, and Repeatable Remote Sensing Methodology to Quantify Forested  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Standardized, Cost-Effective, and Repeatable Remote Sensing Methodology to Quantify Forested A standardized remote sensing methodology was evaluated for its use in quantifying the forested resources.78% was within acceptable remote sensing standards for Landsat data and that forest cover types derived from 2002

Hung, I-Kuai

237

Quantifying Sea Turtle Mortality Yonat Swimmer, Richard Brill and Michael Musyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Sea Turtle Mortality with PSATs Yonat Swimmer, Richard Brill and Michael Musyl Volume 7, Number 2 April­June 2002 CONTENTS Quantifying Sea Turtle Mortality with PSATs 1 New Discoveries in the Olfactory Capability of Sea Turtles 6 MHLC7--Evaluation and Comment 10 Compendium--Fisheries Research

Vogt, Richard G.

238

Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Modeling the effects of atmospheric emissions on groundwater composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite model of atmospheric, unsaturated and groundwater transport is developed to evaluate the processes determining the distribution of atmospherically derived contaminants in groundwater systems and to test the sensitivity of simulated contaminant concentrations to input parameters and model linkages. One application is to screen specific atmospheric emissions for their potential in determining groundwater age. Temporal changes in atmospheric emissions could provide a recognizable pattern in the groundwater system. The model also provides a way for quantifying the significance of uncertainties in the tracer source term and transport parameters on the contaminant distribution in the groundwater system, an essential step in using the distribution of contaminants from local, point source atmospheric emissions to examine conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport.

Brown, T.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Abstract: Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is a versatile...

242

Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

Kumar, Nikhil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Emission Abatement System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Cerenkov emission is induced when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons in everyday radiation therapy of tissue; yet, this phenomenon has never been fully documented. This study quantifies the emissions and also demonstrates that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Methods: In this study, Cerenkov emission induced by radiation from a clinical linear accelerator is investigated. Biological mimicking phantoms were irradiated with x-ray photons, with energies of 6 or 18 MV, or electrons at energies 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 MeV. The Cerenkov emission and the induced molecular fluorescence were detected by a camera or a spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic cable. Results: It is shown that both x-ray photons and electrons, at MeV energies, produce optical Cerenkov photons in tissue mimicking media. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Conclusions: The results here indicate that molecular fluorescence monitoring during external beam radiotherapy is possible.

Axelsson, Johan; Davis, Scott C.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Comparison of the coherence properties of superradiance and laser emission in semiconductor structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coherence properties of a transient electron - hole state developing during superradiance emission in semiconductor laser structures have been studied experimentally using a Michelson interferometer and Young's classic double-slit configuration. The results demonstrate that, in the lasers studied, the first-order correlation function, which quantifies spatial coherence, approaches unity for superradiant emission and is 0.2 - 0.5 for laser emission. The supercoherence is due to long-range ordering upon the superradiant phase transition. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

Vasil'ev, Petr P; Penty, R V; White, I H

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

EPA Emissions | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EPA Emissions ORNL research informs new EPA emissions standards July 11, 2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a streamlined method for determining vehicle...

247

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

248

Carbon tax based on the emission factor: a bilevel programming approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a bilevel programming approach to design an effective carbon tax scheme based on the production emission factor, used as an intensity measure, for a competitive market with multiple players. At the upper level, the government sets a target ... Keywords: Bilevel programming, Carbon tax, Emission factor, Environment, Social welfare

Hossa Almutairi, Samir Elhedhli

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Engines - Emissions Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are attractive options for increasing vehicle fuel economy and reducing emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. Two automobile manufacturers have already introduced HEVs, and other manufacturers are planning to introduce their own models. One available HEV combines mass reduction (also applicable to conventional vehicles) with idle-stop, regenerative braking, and electric-drive assist to achieve a fuel economy more than 2.5 times the current Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard. The second HEV combines idle-stop, regenerative braking, electric assist acceleration, and continuously variable transmission (CVT) to achieve a fuel economy of more than twice the current CAFÉ standard, qualifying as a super ultra-low emissions vehicle (SULEV).

250

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

Frederick, J. D.

251

Photon enhanced thermionic emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fuel Consumption and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculating fuel consumption and emissions is a typical offline analysis ... simulations or real trajectory data) and the engine speed (as obtained from gear-shift schemes ... as input and is parameterized by veh...

Martin Treiber; Arne Kesting

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Intelligent field emission arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a national level involves substantial investment efforts, though part of these may be regained soon.1 On a global level, the costs of the available options are likely to ...

Catrinus J. Jepma; Che Wah Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Field emission electron source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

Bernauer, J C; Ciullo, G; Henderson, B S; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Lenisa, P; Milner, R; Schmidt, A; Statera, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

J. C. Bernauer; V. Carassiti; G. Ciullo; B. S. Henderson; E. Ihloff; J. Kelsey; P. Lenisa; R. Milner; A. Schmidt; M. Statera

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

258

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

259

Photosensitizer Conjugates For Pathogen Targeting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Conjugate molecules which include photosensitizer compositions conjugated to non-antibody non-affinity pair targeting moieties and methods of making and using such conjugates are described.

Hasan, Tayyaba (Arlington, MA); Hamblin, Michael R. (Revere, MA); Soukos, Nikos (Revere, MA)

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

POLARIZED TARGET EXPERIMENT AT FERMILAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Experiment 61 at Fermilab, which is a large collaborationBernie Sandler, From From Fermilab. Alan Jonckheere andTARGET EXPERIMENT AT FERMILAB Owen Chamberlain January 1977

Chamberlain, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Non-PGM Target Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

etc. * Volumetric activity no longer part of the metrics * No iR correction * No Tafel extrapolation to the reference potential (voltage) * Fuel cell performance targets on...

262

Spectroscopic Measurements of Target Preheating on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The preheating of laser-heated microballoon targets has been measured by time-resolved x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (euv) spectroscopy on the 30 kJ, 351 nm, 60-beam laser-fusion system at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Thin coatings of aluminum overcoated with magnesium served as indicators. both the sequence of the x-ray line emission and the intensity of euv radiation were used to determine a preheating peaking at {approx} 10 ns prior to onset of the main laser pulse, with a power density {approx_equal}1% of the main pulse. The measurements are supported by numerical modeling. Further information is provided by absorption spectra from the aluminum coating, backlighted by continuum from the heated surface. The exact source of the preheating energy remains unknown at present, but most likely arrives from early laser leakage through the system. The present target diagnostic is particularly useful when all beams cannot be monitored directly at all laser wavelengths.

Elton, R.C.; Griem, H.R.; Iglesias, E.J.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Development of Agency Reduction Targets | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Development of Agency Reduction Targets Development of Agency Reduction Targets Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Development of Agency Reduction Targets Phase: "Evaluate Options and Determine Feasibility" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property. User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.fedcenter.gov/Bookmarks/index.cfm?id=14129&pge_prg_id=27752&pge_id The DARTs tool is a template Excel workbook that provides the format for the calculation and submission of Federal agency scope 1 and 2 GHG emission

264

Target Selection for the LBTI Exozodi Key Science Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels ...

Weinberger, Alycia J; Kennedy, Grant M; Roberge, Aki; Defrčre, Denis; Hinz, Philip M; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Rieke, George; Bailey, Vanessa P; Danchi, William C; Haniff, Chris; Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene; Skemer, Andrew J; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Wyatt, Mark C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks using simulated data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks, Joy and Death: Assessing variable contributions in neural networks 2 Abstract Artificial neural elements called artificial neural networks (ANNs). Although ANNs were initially developed to better

Joy, Mike

266

Quantifying the Hygroscopic Growth of Marine Boundary Layer Aerosols by Satellite-base and Buoy Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, collocated satellite and buoy observations as well as satellite observations over an extended region during 2006-2010 were used to quantify the humidity effects on marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosols. Although the near-surface ...

Tao Luo; Renmin Yuan; Zhien Wang; Damao Zhang

267

Quantifying stock-price response to demand fluctuations Vasiliki Plerou,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying stock-price response to demand fluctuations Vasiliki Plerou,1 Parameswaran Gopikrishnan, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 2 Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 Received 2 July 2001; revised manuscript received 13 May 2002

Stanley, H. Eugene

268

Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Managing congestion and emissions in road networks with tolls and rebates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traffic congestion and emissions are two main types of social cost, and their minimization sometimes conflicts with each other. In this paper we seek nonnegative link toll schemes and/or link toll cum rebate schemes for Pareto-efficient control and management of both vehicular congestion and emissions on road networks using a bi-objective optimization approach. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such schemes to decentralize a given target link flow pattern. Then, we investigate the possibility of introducing such schemes to obtain specific Pareto system optimum target link flow patterns with two types of link emission function: increasing functions and non-monotonic functions, respectively.

Linxi Chen; Hai Yang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Quantifying sources of methane using light alkanes in the Los Angeles basin, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Resources Board (CARB) was tasked with compiling and verifying an inventory of GHG emissions of CH4 emissions in the region coming from fugitive losses from natural gas in pipelines and urban recent works have estimated CH4 emissions to the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB; Figure 1a), which

Cohen, Ronald C.

271

A TUTORIAL ON IGNITION AND GAIN FOR SMALL FUSION TARGETS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fusion was discovered experimentally in 1933-34 and other charged particle nuclear reactions were documented shortly thereafter. Work in earnest on the fusion ignition problem began with Edward Teller's group at Los Alamos during the war years. His group quantified all the important basic atomic and nuclear processes and summarized their interactions. A few years later, the success of the early theory developed at Los Alamos led to very successful thermonuclear weapons, but also to decades of unsuccessful attempts to harness fusion as an energy source of the future. The reasons for this history are many, but it seems appropriate to review some of the basics with the objective of identifying what is essential for success and what is not. This tutorial discusses only the conditions required for ignition in small fusion targets and how the target design impacts driver requirements. Generally speaking, the driver must meet the energy, power and power density requirements needed by the fusion target. The most relevant parameters for ignition of the fusion fuel are the minimum temperature and areal density (rhoR), but these parameters set secondary conditions that must be achieved, namely an implosion velocity, target size and pressure, which are interrelated. Despite the apparent simplicity of inertial fusion targets, there is not a single mode of fusion ignition, and the necessary combination of minimum temperature and areal density depends on the mode of ignition. However, by providing a magnetic field of sufficient strength, the conditions needed for fusion ignition can be drastically altered. Magnetized target fusion potentially opens up a vast parameter space between the extremes of magnetic and inertial fusion.

Kirkpatrick, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 087545 (United States)

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

272

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [d] Excludes carbon sequestered in nonfuel fossil products. [e] CO2 emissions from the plastics portion of municipal solid waste (11 MMTCO2) combusted for electricity generation and very small amounts (0.4 MMTCO2) of geothermal-related emissions.

273

GHG emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG emissions GHG emissions Dataset Summary Description These datasets include GHG and CO2 emissions statistics for the European Union (EU). The statistics are available from the European Commission. Source European Commission Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Biofuels CO2 emissions EU GHG emissions Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Total GHG and CO2 Emissions for EU (xls, 853.5 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions by Sector, all member countries (xls, 2 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions from Transport, all member countries (xls, 1.3 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by sector, all member countries (xls, 2.1 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by transport, all member countries (xls, 1.5 MiB)

274

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China Title National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5253E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Zhou, Nan, Lynn K. Price, Nina Zheng, Jing Ke, and Ali Hasanbeigi Date Published 10/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkerley National Laboratory ISBN Number LBNL-5253E Keywords china, china energy, co-control, energy intensity, industrial energy efficiency, iron and steel industry, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, policy studies, sulfur dioxide Abstract Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO2 emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives.Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO2 and SO2 emissions in the cement, iron & steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO2 mitigation scenarios and SO2 control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects.

275

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Model for NOx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Southern Research Institute is developing a validated tool or methodology to accurately and confidently design and optimize biomass-cofiring systems for full-scale utility boilers to produce the lowest NOX emissions and the least unburned carbon. The computer model will be validated through an extensive set of tests at the 6 MMBtu/hr pilot combustor in the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. Full-scale demonstration testing can be compared to the model for further validation. The project is designed to balance the development of a systematic and expansive database detailing the effects of cofiring parameters on NOx formation with the complementary modeling effort that will yield a capability to predict, and therefore optimize, NOx reductions by the selection of those parameters. The database of biomass cofiring results will be developed through an extensive set of pilot-scale tests at the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. The testing in this program will monitor NOx, LOI, and other emissions over a broad domain of biomass composition, coal quality, and cofiring injection configurations to quantify the dependence of NOx formation and LOI on these parameters. This database of cofiring cases will characterize an extensive suite of emissions and combustion properties for each of the fuel and injection configuration combinations tested.

276

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Systems Analysis Systems Analysis DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Innovations for Existing Plants Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. This work includes technology, benefits, and current situation and trends analyses related to CO2 emissions control. Systems analyses and economic modeling of potential new processes are crucial to providing sound guidance to R&D efforts. Since the majority of new CO2 capture technologies are still at a bench scale level of development, a conceptual design is first generated with emphasis on mass and energy balances. Based on available data and/or engineering estimates, these systems are optimized, and "what-if" scenarios are evaluated to identify barriers to deployment and help the process developers establish system performance targets. Reports that have been generated describing systems analyses in support of carbon capture efforts are shown in the table below.

277

Optimal irreversible stimulated emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

Controlled spontaneous emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

279

Neutron measurements from beam-target reactions at the ELISE neutral beam test facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from beam-target reactions performed at the ELISE neutral beam test facility are presented in this paper. The measurements are used to study the penetration of a deuterium beam in a copper dump, based on the observation of the time evolution of the neutron counting rate from beam-target reactions with a liquid scintillation detector. A calculation based on a local mixing model of deuterium deposition in the target up to a concentration of 20% at saturation is used to evaluate the expected neutron yield for comparison with data. The results are of relevance to understand neutron emission associated to beam penetration in a solid target, with applications to diagnostic systems for the SPIDER and MITICA Neutral Beam Injection prototypes.

Xufei, X., E-mail: xiexufei@pku.edu.cn; Fan, T. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Nocente, M.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Universitŕ di Milano-Bicocca, Milano 20216 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Milano 20216 (Italy); Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Padova 35100 (Italy); Istituto Gas Ionizzati, CNR, Padova 35100 (Italy); Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching 84518 (Germany); Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Milano 20216 (Italy); Grünauer, F. [Physics Consulting, Zorneding 85604 (Germany); Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Padova 35100 (Italy)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Michael G. Apte Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 43 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5626-5632 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THUVOC and aldehyde emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehydeconcentrations ranged from 378 µg m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 µg m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 µg m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 µg m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and materialspecific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was theonly one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 µg m-2 h-1 in the morning and 257 to 347 µg m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 µg/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 µg/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (materialsurface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

282

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

284

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

285

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

Application of a Rapid Scanning Plasma Emission Detector and Gas Chromatography for Multi-Element Quantification of Halogenated Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Emission Detector and Gas Chromatography for...element-selective detector for gas chromatography...their insolubility in water, they accumulate...usually quantified by gas chromatographic separation...carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. This element selective...because of the moderate solubility of this compound......

Mantay Zerezghi; K.J. Mulligan; J.A. Caruso

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

Gül?en, Ece

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Countdown to Fixed Target INSIDE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

17, 1996 17, 1996 Number 10 Countdown to Fixed Target INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: The University of Illinois 4 Tollestrup Elected to National Academy 5 Bardeen Receives Sakurai Prize 6 Take Your Daughters and Sons to Work Day "At this moment," Fermilab Director John Peoples told the House Subcommittee on Energy and Environment in testimony deliv- ered in Washington on May 8, "Fermilab is in the midst of the transition from collider opera- tions to fixed-target operations. In June, we will begin extracting a beam of protons from the Tevatron, the highest-energy external beam in the world. By directing this beam onto eight targets we will create eight distinct particle beams that will in turn support 10 unique experiments. Although fixed-target experi- ments cannot explore the high-energy frontier

290

IPNS enriched uranium booster target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since startup in 1981, IPNS has operated on a fully depleted /sup 238/U target. With the booster as in the present system, high energy protons accelerated to 450 MeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron are directed at the target and by mechanisms of spallation and fission of the uranium, produce fast neutrons. The neutrons from the target pass into adjacent moderator where they slow down to energies useful for spectroscopy. The target cooling systems and monitoring systems have operated very reliably and safely during this period. To provide higher neutron intensity, we have developed plans for an enriched uranium (booster) target. HETC-VIM calculations indicate that the target will produce approx.90 kW of heat, with a nominal x5 gain (k/sub eff/ = 0.80). The neutron beam intensity gain will be a factor of approx.3. Thermal-hydraulic and heat transport calculations indicate that approx.1/2 in. thick /sup 235/U discs are subject to about the same temperatures as the present /sup 238/U 1 in. thick discs. The coolant will be light demineralized water (H/sub 2/O) and the coolant flow rate must be doubled. The broadening of the fast neutron pulse width should not seriously affect the neutron scattering experiments. Delayed neutrons will appear at a level about 3% of the total (currently approx.0.5%). This may affect backgrounds in some experiments, so that we are assessing measures to control and correct for this (e.g., beam tube choppers). Safety analyses and neutronic calculations are nearing completion. Construction of the /sup 235/U discs at the ORNL Y-12 facility is scheduled to begin late 1985. The completion of the booster target and operation are scheduled for late 1986. No enriched uranium target assembly operating at the projected power level now exists in the world. This effort thus represents an important technological experiment as well as being a ''flux enhancer''.

Schulke, A.W. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Quantifying Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce a rigorous framework for the quantification of coherence and identify intuitive and easily computable measures of coherence. We achieve this by adopting the viewpoint of coherence as a physical resource. By determining defining conditions for measures of coherence we identify classes of functionals that satisfy these conditions and other, at first glance natural quantities, that do not qualify as coherence measures. We conclude with an outline of the questions that remain to be answered to complete the theory of coherence as a resource.

T. Baumgratz; M. Cramer; M.?B. Plenio

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

292

Quantifying Coherence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a rigorous framework for the quantification of coherence and identify intuitive and easily computable measures of coherence. We achieve this by adopting the viewpoint of coherence as a physical resource. By determining defining conditions for measures of coherence we identify classes of functionals that satisfy these conditions and other, at first glance natural quantities, that do not qualify as coherence measure. We conclude with an outline of the questions that remain to be answered to complete the theory of coherence as a resource.

T. Baumgratz; M. Cramer; M. B. Plenio

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Title Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6541E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Greenblatt, J. Date Published 10/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHGemitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ÎĽm) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

294

Portfolio Manager Technical Reference: Greenhouse Gas Emissions | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

295

Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

296

Spanish energy roadmap to 2020: Socioeconomic implications of renewable targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The European Union has established challenging targets for the share of renewable energies to be achieved by 2020; for Spain, 20% of the final energy consumption must be from renewable sources at such time. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the consequences for the electricity sector (in terms of excess cost of electricity, investment requirements, land occupation, CO2 emissions and overcapacity of conventional power) of several possibilities to comply with the desired targets. Scenarios are created from different hypotheses for energy demand, biofuel share in final energy in transport, contribution of renewables for heating and cooling, renewable electricity generation (generation mix, deployment rate, learning curves, land availability) and conventional power generation (lifetime of current installations, committed deployment, fossil fuel costs and CO2 emissions cost). A key input in the estimations presented is the technical potential and the cost of electricity from renewable sources, which have been estimated in previous, detailed studies by the present authors using a methodology based on a GIS (Geographical Information System) and high resolution meteorological data. Depending on the scenario, the attainment of the targets will lead to an increase in the cost of electricity from 19% to 37% with respect to 2007.

Antonio Gómez; Javier Zubizarreta; César Dopazo; Norberto Fueyo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

298

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

299

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, First quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

302

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

303

180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving 50% NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level 1 long-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Downstream Emissions Trading for Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter addresses the issue of downstream emission trading within the transport sector. It is argued that emission trading may be relevant in this sector, and ... regarding international transport, it is arg...

Charles Raux

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

GHG Emissions GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions EERE Presentation of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsResource Potential gbtlworkshopghgemissions.pdf More Documents & Publications GBTL...

309

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Using Ground-Based Remote Sensors and Models  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Using Ground-Based Remote Sensors and Models G. Feingold National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado D. E. Lane Rutgers University Camden, New Jersey Q.-L. Min Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York Introduction The effect of aerosols on cloud microphysical and radiative properties (the "indirect effect") has the greatest uncertainty of all known climate-forcing mechanisms. Increases in aerosol concentrations result in higher concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increased cloud droplet concentrations, and smaller droplet sizes (Twomey 1974). A possible secondary effect is the suppression of rainfall.

311

Quantifying exchange coupling in f-ion pairs using the diamagnetic substitution method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the challenges in the chemistry of actinide and lanthanide (f-ion) is quantifying exchange coupling between f-ions. While qualitative information about exchange coupling may be readily obtained using the diamagnetic substitution approach, obtaining quantitative information is much more difficult. This article describes how exchange coupling may be quantified using the susceptibility of a magnetically isolated analog, as in the diamagnetic substitution approach, along with the anisotropy of the ground state as determined by EPR spectroscopy. Several examples are used to illustrate and test this approach.

Lukens, Wayne W.; Walter, Marc D.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

CORONAL EMISSION LINES AS THERMOMETERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coronal emission-line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G., E-mail: judge@ucar.ed [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research , P.O. Box 3000, Boulder CO 80307-3000 (United States)

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

314

Coronal emission lines as thermometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

P. Danielewicz

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

316

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

Danielewicz, P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Induced and Spontaneous Emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of induced and spontaneous emission is investigated for an atomic two?level system with incident beams of radiation which are either in a coherent state or in a stationary state (contain a definite number of photons). The treatment is fully quantum?mechanical and is confined to the case where the frequency spectrum of the incident beam is narrow compared to the natural linewidth of the system. It is shown that under such conditions the spontaneous emission for frequencies within the narrow band of the incident radiation is sharply reduced compared to the prediction of the natural lineshape. It is shown that a hole is burned in the natural lineshape within the narrow frequency band thus effectively quenching the spontaneous emission at some frequency within the band. This effect is shown to occur both for the coherent and stationary beams. Quantities proportional to the induced and spontaneous probability amplitudes and the lifetimes are computed for times comparable to and long compared to the free lifetime of the state. An expression is found for the spectrum of the emergent radiation in terms of these quantities. Its physical meaning is briefly discussed. The density operator of the field for all times is given.

Saul M. Bergmann

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A new generator portfolio planning model is described that is capable of quantifying the carbon emissions associated with systems that include very high penetrations of variable renewables. The model combines a deterministic renewable portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the expected least-cost

319

Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

Limpouch, Jiri

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

F Labeling of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore Enables Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Nodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast 18 F Labeling of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore Enables Positron Emission Tomography and Optical- with a near-infrared fluorophore into a single molecule. Attachment to targeting ligands enables localization by positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF). Our first application

Tsien, Roger Y.

322

Target GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Target GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Target GmbH Place: Germany Sector: Efficiency, Solar Product: German company with interests in solar and energy efficiency....

323

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ensemble-Based Observation Targeting for Improving Ozone Prediction in Houston and the Surrounding Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, observation targeting, observational impact factor. 1. Introduction The severity of air pollution situations is deter- mined by a complicated interaction among three factors: the emissions to the atmosphere, chemical high-pollution concentrations form on a given day is dominated principally by meteorological processes

325

Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Business Travel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Developing a Federal agency's business travel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile first involves getting a better understanding of the nature and patterns of travel within the organization. Not all travel can be avoided or effectively substituted with information technology solutions. By understanding where people are traveling by air, the purpose of travel, and what parts of the organization travel most frequently, the agency will be in a better position to develop solutions and program-level targets.

326

Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Papau New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Agency/Company /Organization United States Agency for International Development Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Training materials Website http://www.snvworld.org/en/sec Country Papua New Guinea Melanesia References LEAF[1] "Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF), supported by USAID/RDMA, aims to strengthen the capacity of target countries to achieve meaningful and sustained reductions in GHG emissions from the forestry-land use sector while assisting them in benefitting from the emerging international REDD+

327

Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) Agency/Company /Organization United States Agency for International Development Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type Training materials Website http://www.snvworld.org/en/sec Country Laos South-Eastern Asia References LEAF[1] "Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF), supported by USAID/RDMA, aims to strengthen the capacity of target countries to achieve meaningful and sustained reductions in GHG emissions from the forestry-land use sector while assisting them in benefitting from the emerging international REDD+ framework. LEAF employs a regional approach to promote best practices, build technical

328

EIA - AEO2010 - Emissions projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions Projections Emissions Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Emissions Projections Figure 93. Carbon dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 94. Sulfur dioxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 95. Nitrogen oxide emissions from electricity generation, 2000-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Growth of carbon dioxide emissions slows in the projections Federal and State energy policies recently enacted will stimulate increased use of renewable technologies and efficiency improvements in the future, slowing the growth of energy-related CO2 emissions through 2035. In the Reference case, emissions do not exceed pre-recession 2007 levels until 2025. In 2035, energy-related CO2 emissions total 6,320 million metric tons, about 6 percent higher than in 2007 and 9 percent higher than in 2008 (Figure 93). On average, emissions in the Reference case grow by 0.3 percent per year from 2008 to 2035, compared with 0.7 percent per year from 1980 to 2008.

329

Progress with developing a target for magnetized target fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to fusion where a preheated and magnetized plasma is adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. Successful MTF requires a suitable initial target plasma with an embedded magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field-line topology, a density of roughly 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, a temperature of at least 50 eV, and must be free of impurities which would raise radiation losses. Target plasma generation experiments are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Colt facility; a 0.25 MJ, 2--3 {micro}s rise-time capacitor bank. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate plasma conditions meeting the minimum requirements for a MTF initial target plasma. In the first experiments, a Z-pinch is produced in a 2 cm radius by 2 cm high conducting wall using a static gas-fill of hydrogen or deuterium gas in the range of 0.5 to 2 torr. Thus far, the diagnostics include an array of 12 B-dot probes, framing camera, gated OMA visible spectrometer, time-resolved monochrometer, filtered silicon photodiodes, neutron yield, and plasma-density interferometer. These diagnostics show that a plasma is produced in the containment region that lasts roughly 10 to 20 {micro}s with a maximum plasma density exceeding 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}. The experimental design and data are presented.

Wysocki, F.J.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Whiteson, D.O.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Edinburgh Research Explorer Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams with Bio-PEPA'. in Proceedings of COMPMOD 2009. ETPCS to publication record in Edinburgh Research Explorer Published In: Proceedings of COMPMOD 2009 General rights

Millar, Andrew J.

331

The impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical weathering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the physical and chemical processes of soil production and erosion and revisit three granitic study areas on the hillslope-scale physical and chemical soil production and erosion processes. To explain why understandingThe impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical

Heimsath, Arjun M.

332

A simplified approach to quantifying predictive and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural network hydrologic models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

considerable interest in developing methods for uncertainty analysis of artificial neural network (ANN) models and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural network hydrologic models, Water Resour. Res., 43, W10407, doi:10A simplified approach to quantifying predictive and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural

Chaubey, Indrajeet

333

SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY Thomas E create major problems that will require major mitigation efforts. #12;SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally industry believe it could constrain the penetration of gridconnected PV. The U.S. Department of Energy

Perez, Richard R.

334

RAPID COMMUNICATION Quantifying the quality of femtosecond laser ablation of graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RAPID COMMUNICATION Quantifying the quality of femtosecond laser ablation of graphene Ramazan Sahin abla- tion quality and ablation size is experimentally studied on graphene-coated silicon Introduction Graphene micro- and nano-structures are considered potential building blocks for future opto

Simsek, Ergun

335

Quantifying Pressure Drop and Effects of Standard Chemotherapeutic Drugs Inside of a Microfluidic Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Pressure Drop and Effects of Standard Chemotherapeutic Drugs Inside of a Microfluidic of microfluidic chambers and channels. Tumor spheroids are introduced, or "packed", into the chambers via the microfluidic channels, and will slowly grow inside of the device. Future uses for this chip will hopefully

Mountziaris, T. J.

336

Quantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in On-Demand Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Massachusetts Amherst San Jose, CA {abhishek,shenoy}@cs.umass.edu goyalp@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT On-demand dataQuantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in On-Demand Data Centers Abhishek Chandra centers host multiple applications on server farms by dynamically provisioning resources in response

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

337

Quantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in OnDemand Data Centers #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Massachusetts Amherst San Jose, CA {abhishek,shenoy}@cs.umass.edu goyalp@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT On­demand dataQuantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in On­Demand Data Centers # Abhishek Chandra centers host multiple applications on server farms by dynamically provisioning resources in response

Chandra, Abhishek

338

Quantifying the impact of future land-use changes against increases in GHG concentrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the impact of future land-use changes against increases in GHG concentrations A changes relative to the increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations is assessed in time-slice simula of vegetation change to GHG concentration increase is of the order of 10% for a B2 scenario, and can reach 30

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

8. Discussion This thesis has quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of the Nhambita  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

destructive to woody biomass: aboveground carbon stocks can only be330 maintained under high intensity fires200 8. Discussion This thesis has quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of the Nhambita area findings of this thesis and discuss some of the implications for 1) modelling the carbon cycle of miombo

340

Quantifying kinetic fractionation in Bunker Cave speleothems using D47 Tobias Kluge*, Hagit P. Affek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying kinetic fractionation in Bunker Cave speleothems using D47 Tobias Kluge*, Hagit P. Holocene and modern speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany) as well as modern material from the adjacent in the kinetic isotope fractionation in Bunker Cave are associated with changing drip water super saturation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Power of Friction: Quantifying the ``Goodness'' of Frictional Grasps \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Power of Friction: Quantifying the ``Goodness'' of Frictional Grasps \\Lambda Marek Teichmann of fingers, coefficient of friction and the the goodness of a grasp. In particular, we give a general framework for defining a grasp metric that takes friction into account. Our approach rectifies a flaw

Mishra, Bud

342

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete statistical description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete fluctuations measured near Chernobyl after the 1986 disaster and find three new results: #i# the histogram patterns. PACS number#s#: 89.60.#x, 02.50.Fz, 05.45.Tp, 87.66.Na I. INTRODUCTION Chernobyl's No. 4 reactor

Shlyakhter, Ilya

343

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete statistical description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete Chernobyl after the 1986 disaster and find three new results: i the histogram of fluctuations is well.60. x, 02.50.Fz, 05.45.Tp, 87.66.Na I. INTRODUCTION Chernobyl's No. 4 reactor was completely destroyed

Stanley, H. Eugene

344

Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu a policy that encourages healthy behaviors (such as covering your cough and using hand sanitizers) at four coughs, minimizing contact with potential fomites) at major tourist locations. We use a synthetic

Swarup, Samarth

345

QUANTIFYING ACCELERATED SOIL EROSION THROUGH ECOLOGICAL SITE-BASED ASSESSMENTS OF WIND AND WATER EROSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUANTIFYING ACCELERATED SOIL EROSION THROUGH ECOLOGICAL SITE- BASED ASSESSMENTS OF WIND AND WATER change and intensification have resulted in accelerated rates of soil erosion in many areas of the world quantification of accelerated soil erosion. Ecological site soil erosion Variation in the simulated erosion rates

346

Quantifying the User Experience: Practical Statistics for User Research, 1st edition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

You're being asked to quantify usability improvements with statistics. But even with a background in statistics, you are hesitant to statistically analyze the data, as you may be unsure about which statistical tests to use and have trouble defending ...

Jeff Sauro; James R. Lewis

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece21 *Co-first authors. ABSTRACT Aims To perform wastewater population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants

Wehrli, Bernhard

348

FORMAL PROOFS IN REAL ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: FROM ORDERED FIELDS TO QUANTIFIER ELIMINATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but is imposed by our choice to base this work on an abstract structure. Then we formalized a proof of quantifier Microsoft Research Joint Centre, e-mail address: Assia.Mahboubi@inria.fr Abstract. This paper describes a formalization of discrete real closed fields in the Coq proof assistant. This abstract structure captures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas isotopes by groundwater (or oil) degassing. Other natural gas fields may have been produced in-situ or migrated as a free expert academics from across the CDT and also experienced oil and gas industry professionals

Henderson, Gideon

350

Exploring and quantifying the `co-variability' of the extremes corresponding to different climate components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploring and quantifying the `co-variability' of the extremes corresponding to different climate to the fact that there might be moisture-temperature feedback that has further implications on the extremes. Having said, we aim to study how extreme precipitation and temperature co-vary and are determined

Miami, University of

351

Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

Cai, Hong (Los Alamos, NM); Goodwin, Peter M (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nolan, Rhiannon L. (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

352

Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................ 18 Calculation of Biomass, Biogas or Landfill Net Emissions ..................................... 19

353

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

California at Davis, University of

354

Influence of target structure on film stress in WTi sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, the effect of sputtering target microstructure on the deposited film stress was investigated. By controlling the metallurgical process, two types of W-10wt%Ti target constituents, namely single-phase and multiple-phase WTi, were prepared. The former one was composed of W-rich ({beta}Ti,W) phase only, the latter one was with W, W-rich ({beta}Ti,W) and Ti-rich ({beta}Ti,W) phases. The stress of the films deposited on 12.7 cm diameter silicon oxide wafers from the single-phase target tends to be more compressive than that from the multiple-phase target. By increasing wafer temperature, the compressive stress was linearly decreased. In addition, the level of film stress was also affected by the film thickness and other sputtering parameters. To understand the causes for the differences in film stress between the multiple-phase and single-phase derived films, an evaluation of the film structure using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and mechanical testing using a nano-indentation instrument were performed. Finer domains with denser laminar structure were observed on the films deposited from the single-phase target. However, no significant difference in mechanical properties was found between these two from the nano-indentation measurements. It is envisioned that the more uniform solid solution between the W and Ti in the films obtained by sputtering the single-phase targets generates a higher compressive stress when deposited on the silicon oxide wafers resulting in a higher compressive stress.

Lo, C.F.; Wang, H.; Gilman, P. [Materials Research Corp., Orangeburg, NY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

356

Targets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

wall must be eliminated. Meeting this standard requires assembly in a Class 100 cleanroom. The capsule is fitted inside a hohlraum cylinder measuring 9 millimeters high by 5...

357

Improve emissions monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marathon`s Texas City refinery was subject to five separate EPA regulations in addition to a state program for monitoring and repairing fugitive leaks. In this case history, the refinery sought an organizational solution that reduced monitoring costs and kept the facility fully compliant with current state and federal regulations. Equally important, the new monitoring program incorporated flexibility for future emission-reduction requirements. The paper describes the solution, regulatory background, the previous system, leak-threshold consolidation, operator ownership, and projects benefits.

Vining, S.K. [Marathon Oil Co., Texas City, TX (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Emission control technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

Welch, M. J.

1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

360

Targeting Ras in Myeloid Leukemias  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...which are activated as a downstream consequence of ligand binding to growth factor receptors...case of mutant Ras due to structural consequences of substations at codons 12, 13, and...as a therapeutic target in cancer. In truth, these drugs do not significantly inhibit...

Benjamin S. Braun and Kevin Shannon

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Targeting ion transport in cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tumor hypoxia, survival pathway and therapy target. Cell Cycle 3, 164-167. ( doi:10.4161/cc.3.2.618 ) 73 Rademakers, SE , Lok, J, van der Kogel, AJ, Bussink, J, Kaanders, JH. 2011 Metabolic markers in relation to hypoxia; staining...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

363

A high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for biomass burning in Southeast Asia during 2001–2010  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass burning (BB) emissions from forest fires, agricultural waste burning, and peatland combustion contain large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and observation data, and spatiotemporal variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for BB in Southeast Asia (SEA) during 2001–2010. The 1-km grid was effective for quantifying emissions from small-sized fires that were frequently misinterpreted by coarse grid data due to their large smoothed pixels. The average annual BB emissions in SEA during 2001–2010 were 277 Gg SO2, 1125 Gg NOx, 55,388 Gg CO, 3831 Gg NMVOC, 553 Gg NH3, 324 Gg BC, 2406 Gg OC, 3832 Gg CH4, 817,809 Gg CO2, and 99 Gg N2O. Emissions were high in western Myanmar, Northern Thailand, eastern Cambodia, northern Laos, and South Sumatra and South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Emissions from forest burning were the dominant contributor to the total emissions among all land types. The spatial pattern of BB emissions was consistent with that of the burned areas. In addition, BB emissions exhibited similar temporal trends from 2001 to 2010, with strong interannual and intraannual variability. Interannual and intraannual emission peaks were seen during 2004, 2007, 2010, and January–March and August–October, respectively.

Yusheng Shi; Yasushi Yamaguchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a small increase of 7 MMTCO2e (0.9 percent) in methane (CH4) emissions, and an increase of 8 MMTCO2e (4.9 percent), based on partial data, in emissions of man-made gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases). (Draft estimates for emissions of HFC and PFC

365

Quantifying murine bone marrow and blood radiation dose response following 18F-FDG PET with DNA damage biomarkers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantify the poorly understood radiation doses to murine bone marrow and blood from whole-body fluorine 18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), by using specific biomarkers and comparing with whole body external low dose exposures. Groups of 3–5 mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups, each receiving either a different activity of 18F-FDG: 0–37 MBq or whole body irradiated with corresponding doses of 0–300 mGy X-rays. Blood samples were collected at 24 h and at 43 h for reticulocyte micronucleus assays and QPCR analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Blood and bone marrow dose estimates were calculated from injected activities of 18F-FDG and were based on a recommended ICRP model. Doses to the bone marrow corresponding to 33.43 mGy and above for internal 18F-FDG exposure and to 25 mGy and above for external X-ray exposure, showed significant increases in radiation-induced MN-RET formation relative to controls (P dose–responses at 24 h for Bbc3 and Cdkn1 were similar for 18F-FDG and X-ray exposures, with significant modifications occurring for doses over 300 mGy for Bbc3 and at the lower dose of 150 mGy for Cdkn1a. Both leucocyte gene expression and quantification of MN-RET are highly sensitive biomarkers for reliable estimation of the low doses delivered in vivo to, respectively, blood and bone marrow, following 18F-FDG PET.

Grainne Manning; Kristina Taylor; Paul Finnon; Jennifer A. Lemon; Douglas R. Boreham; Christophe Badie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The HERMES Polarized Hydrogen Internal Gas Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

internal gas targets. The HERMES hydrogen target is an internal polarized gas target using the storage cell frame on the right. atomic hydrogen beam and focuses it into a storage cell. The storage cellThe HERMES Polarized Hydrogen Internal Gas Target J. Stewart for The HERMES Collaboration

367

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Elastic emission polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by adding the following additional energy efficiency initiatives: ? Requires 5,880 MW of generating capacity from renewable energy technologies by 2015; ? Includes 500 MW from non-wind renewables; ? Requires the PUCT to establish a target of 10... emissions reduction credits from energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; ? Requires the Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) to contract with the Laboratory to develop and annually calculate creditable emissions reduction from wind...

Haberl, Jeff; Culp, Charles; Yazdani, Bahman; Gilman, Don; Fitzpatrick, Tom; Muns, Shirley; Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Mukhopadhyay, Jaya; Degelman, Larry; Claridge, David

370

Just the Basics: Vehicle Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Are Exhaust Are Exhaust Emissions? In most heavily settled areas of the U.S., the personal automobile is the single greatest producer of harmful vehicle exhaust emissions. Exhaust emissions are generated by the fuel-air mixture burning in internal combus- tion engines, both gasoline-powered and diesel-powered. Emissions are also produced by fuel evaporation within the vehicle when it is stopped, and again during fueling. The constituents of car (gasoline and diesel) and truck (diesel) emissions vary depending on fuel type and indi- vidual vehicle operating characteris- tics. The bulk of vehicular emissions are composed of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen (in unconsumed air). There are other pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel, and

371

Quantifying sources and sinks of trace gases using space-borne measurements: current and future science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...transport of atmospheric pollution but short enough that pollution plumes can be distinguished...the Measurement of Air Pollution from Space (MAPS...reach the optimal solution, but I use the...research. (a) Fossil fuel emissions A number...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Multiple metrics for quantifying the intensity of water consumption of energy production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) emissions on global climate. At the regional scale, however, water resource ...

Spang, E S

373

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

374

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

375

Emissions trading under market imperfections.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the… (more)

Lappi, Pauli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

field emission electron microprobe | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field emission electron microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

377

EMSL - field emission electron microprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field-emission-electron-microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

378

Acoustic emission during polymer crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... .G.; part support to L.K.) Acoustic Emission, Special Technical Publication 505, ASTM, Philadelphia, 1971; Grabec, I. & Peterlin, A. J. Polymer Sci. ...

A. Galeski; L. Koenczoel; E. Piorkowska; E. Baer

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiocarbon Measurements of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds:? Quantifying the Biogenic Contribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to obtain quality (interpretable) [14C]VOC measurements however relies on additional factors:? (1) transferring individual VOCs to the measurement system in a manner that preserves their original relative concentrations in the atmosphere (recovery), (2) quantifying limitations in the VOC isolation process (bias), and 3) quantifying chemical and isotopic contamination (blanks). ... The fM results for the VOC fractions from calibration mixtures and ambient samples are corrected for CO2 contamination using eq 2, where ?BLK in this case is defined as in which mCO2 is the carbon mass of residual atmospheric CO2 following LiOH treatment plus the carbon mass of CO2 contamination from the O2 used for VOC oxidation, and mREC is the total recovered carbon (Table 3). ... During pressurized sampling of humid air, water will be condensed in the canisters. ...

George A. Klouda; Charles W. Lewis; Reinhold A. Rasmussen; George C. Rhoderick; Robert L. Sams; Robert K. Stevens; Lloyd A. Currie; Douglas J. Donahue; A. J. Timothy Jull; Robert L. Seila

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

383

Marine engine builders tackle the emissions problem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine diesel engine builders all over the world are working hard to meet the emission regulations proposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). These are expected to take effect from 1998 and will govern primarily NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. For international waters, IMO is recommending NO{sub x} limits ranging from 17 to 9.8 g/kWh depending on the engine speed, with a further target to reduce NO{sub x} 30% by the year 2000. To meet the proposed regulation, the main thrust of engine builders has been into primary solutions, to reduce NO{sub x} to acceptable levels without paying too much of a penalty in terms of fuel consumption and efficiency. External methods - selective catalytic reduction (SCR), for instance - is possible and is indeed being used in some cases. SCR, however, is not always the best solution in marine applications. It can be bulky and expensive, in both capital and running costs, and there is a problem of storing the raw materials. So most engine manufacturers are concentrating on in-cylinder solutions. To achieve further levels of NO{sub x} reduction, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a possibility. Water injection is also another rapidly developing technique for reducing NO{sub x} by as much as 60% without an appreciable fuel consumption penalty. This paper describes the various approaches being taken at the leading manufacturers.

Mullins, P.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Multishell inertial confinement fusion target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Multishell inertial confinement fusion target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electronic Supplemental Information (ESI) Quantifying mRNA Levels Across a Histological Section  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic Supplemental Information (ESI) for Quantifying mRNA Levels Across a Histological Section washes were performed using 20 µL of wash #13 and 12.5 µL of wash #14 buffers. AgPath-ID one-step RT was inverted, incubated, centrifuged, and washed as described. AgPath-ID one-step RT-PCR mix was prepared

Shapiro, Benjamin

387

BETTI NUMBERS OF SEMIALGEBRAIC SETS DEFINED BY QUANTIFIER-FREE FORMULAE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BETTI NUMBERS OF SEMIALGEBRAIC SETS DEFINED BY QUANTIFIER-FREE FORMULAE ANDREI GABRIELOV, NICOLAI that the sum of Betti numbers of X is less than O(k2d)n. Let an algebraic set X Rn be defined by polynomial [12] provide the upper bound b(X) d(2d - 1)n-1 for the sum of Betti numbers b(X) of X (with respect

Gabrielov, Andrei

388

Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Source Emissions and Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electron micrograph image, Lara Gundel with instrumentation electron micrograph image, Lara Gundel with instrumentation Source Emissions and Transport Investigators conduct research here to characterize and better understand the sources of airborne volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic pollutants in the indoor environment. This research includes studies of the physical and chemical processes that govern indoor air pollutant concentrations and exposures. The motivation is to contribute to the reduction of potential human health effects. Contacts Randy Maddalena RLMaddalena@lbl.gov (510) 486-4924 Mark Mendell MJMendell@lbl.gov (510) 486-5762 Links Pollutant Sources, Dynamics and Chemistry Group Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Electricity Grid Energy Analysis Energy Technologies Environmental Impacts

390

A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Quantifying the thermodynamic interactions of polyhedral boranes in solution to guide nanocomposite fabrication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of boron containing nanoparticles in a variety of solvents is quantified using static light scattering in conjunction with refractometry. Four polyhedral boranes were tested in this work, using refractometry to obtain dn/dc, while static light scattering quantifies A2. A2 obtained from these measurements was then used to calculate v, the solute solvent interaction parameter, and the ildebrand solubility parameter, d, which provides a quantifiable method to identify good solvents. Of the nanoparticles studied, 1,3-di-o-carboranylpropane is thermodynamically stable in toluene, with a v less than 0.5, a solubility limit of 2.47 mg/mL, and all solutions remaining clear with no visible particle settling. For all of the particles tested, there was good correlation between the physical observations of the solutions, v, and d. For instance, lower values of v correspond to a smaller radius of gyration (Rg). A list of suitable solvents based on d is also presented.

Mutz, M [The University of Tennessee; Eastwood, Eric Allen [ORNL; LeeJr, Mark E [University of Missouri; BowenIII, Daniel E [Honeywell, Inc.; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe12xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe12xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation B to manipulate coherent phonon excitation and quantify the strength of electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1Ă?xSex nanocrystals (NCs). Raman active CdSe and CdTe longitudinal optical phonon (LO) modes are excited and probed

Xu, Xianfan

393

National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying Savings From Improved Boiler Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas firedNational Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify

Kissock, Kelly

394

Quantifying oxygen diffusion in ZnO nanobelt Jin Liu, Puxian Gao, Wenjie Mai, Changshi Lao, and Zhong L. Wanga  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying oxygen diffusion in ZnO nanobelt Jin Liu, Puxian Gao, Wenjie Mai, Changshi Lao A method is presented for quantifying oxygen diffusion behavior in a nanodevice fabricated using individual for several days, oxygen in air diffused into the nanobelt and significantly changed the conductivity

Wang, Zhong L.

395

Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The call for the use of biofuels which is being made by most governments following international energy policies is presently finding some resistance from car and components manufacturing companies, private users and local administrations. This opposition makes it more difficult to reach the targets of increased shares of use of biofuels in internal combustion engines. One of the reasons for this resistance is a certain lack of knowledge about the effect of biofuels on engine emissions. This paper collects and analyzes the body of work written mainly in scientific journals about diesel engine emissions when using biodiesel fuels as opposed to conventional diesel fuels. Since the basis for comparison is to maintain engine performance, the first section is dedicated to the effect of biodiesel fuel on engine power, fuel consumption and thermal efficiency. The highest consensus lies in an increase in fuel consumption in approximate proportion to the loss of heating value. In the subsequent sections, the engine emissions from biodiesel and diesel fuels are compared, paying special attention to the most concerning emissions: nitric oxides and particulate matter, the latter not only in mass and composition but also in size distributions. In this case the highest consensus was found in the sharp reduction in particulate emissions.

Magín Lapuerta; Octavio Armas; José Rodríguez-Fernández

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

source_target+_rev11.PDF  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-1 - April 15 4-1 - April 15 th , 2000 4. Target System and Support Facility 4.1 Overview The target facility extends from the pre-target primary beam focusing to the end of the decay channel. Technical components include the target, beam absorber, and solenoid magnetic field focusing system. While the ultimate goal is to target approximately 4 MW of proton beam in the target area, smaller values and different target materials (low Z etc.) are considered for the first phase of operation. Chosen initially is a carbon target with incident primary beam power of 1.5 MW. The target is embedded in a high field solenoid magnet of 20 Tesla, and followed by a matching section channel, where the field tapers down to 1.25 T. An iterative design process has been carried out in optimizing Monte

397

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 1:35pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 3 To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different. General Services Administration Resources to Support GHG Mitigation Planning TravelTrax provides agencies with several tools that can help plan for reductions in business travel. This includes a tool to help estimate the impact of videoconferencing and a tool that can help conference and event planners to identify event locations that consider where attendees are coming from in order to reduce air travel GHGs. These tools are embedded in the GSA Travel MIS database, thus enabling agencies to link their actual travel to different planning scenarios and evaluate options.

398

Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Sandia National Laboratories -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Targeted Review, Sandia National Laboratories Targeted Review, Sandia National Laboratories - November 2013 Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Sandia National Laboratories - November 2013 December 2013 Targeted Review of Activity-Level Implementation of Radiological Controls at Sandia National Laboratories This report documents the results of an independent oversight targeted review of radiological protection program activity-level implementation for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Technical Area V facilities. SNL is managed by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) and is overseen by the National Nuclear Security Administration and its Sandia Field Office. This targeted review was performed at SNL September 23-27,

399

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

Cohen, David

400

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Twenty-First-Century Compatible CO2 Emissions and Airborne Fraction Simulated by CMIP5 Earth System Models under Four Representative Concentration Pathways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon cycle is a crucial Earth system component affecting climate and atmospheric composition. The response of natural carbon uptake to CO2 and climate change will determine anthropogenic emissions compatible with a target CO2 pathway. For ...

Chris Jones; Eddy Robertson; Vivek Arora; Pierre Friedlingstein; Elena Shevliakova; Laurent Bopp; Victor Brovkin; Tomohiro Hajima; Etsushi Kato; Michio Kawamiya; Spencer Liddicoat; Keith Lindsay; Christian H. Reick; Caroline Roelandt; Joachim Segschneider; Jerry Tjiputra

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Requirements Recognizing the impact of carbon-emitting fuels on climate change and to

403

Update on CO2 emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

Friedingstein, P. [University of Exeter, Devon, England; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hackler, J. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Raupach, Mike [GCP, Canberra, Australia; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Le Quere, Corrine [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Aviation emission inventory development and analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An up to date and accurate aviation emission inventory is a prerequisite for any detailed analysis of aviation emission impact on greenhouse gases and local air quality around airports. In this paper we present an aviation emission inventory using real ... Keywords: Air traffic, Aviation emission, Emission inventory, Environmental modelling

Viet Van Pham; Jiangjun Tang; Sameer Alam; Chris Lokan; Hussein A. Abbass

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Neutron production using a pyroelectric driven target coupled with a gated field ionization source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A palm sized, portable neutron source would be useful for widespread implementation of detection systems for shielded, special nuclear material. We present progress towards the development of the components for an ultracompact neutron generator using a pulsed, meso-scale field ionization source, a deuterated (or tritiated) titanium target driven by a negative high voltage lithium tantalate crystal. Neutron production from integrated tests using an ion source with a single, biased tungsten tip and a 3 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm, vacuum insulated crystal with a plastic deuterated target are presented. Component testing of the ion source with a single tip produces up to 3 nA of current. Dielectric insulation of the lithium tantalate crystals appears to reduce flashover, which should improve the robustness. The field emission losses from a 3 cm diameter crystal with a plastic target and 6 cm diameter crystal with a metal target are compared.

Ellsworth, J. L.; Tang, V.; Falabella, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Naranjo, B.; Putterman, S. [University of California Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: US EPA GHG inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghginventorycapacitybuilding/swtoo Country: Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Belize Cost: Free Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America

407

Generalized local emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Review of the Renewable Energy Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review of the Renewable Energy Target Response to Expert Panel's Call for Submissions Paper #12;NSW Government Submission to the Review of the Renewable Energy Target, May 2014 2/20 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 3 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN NSW

Peters, Richard

409

Nanoparticles for targeting the infarcted heart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a nanoparticulate system capable of targeting the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting is based on overexpression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the infarcted heart. Liposomes 142 nm in ...

Dvir, Tal

410

Dose-shaping using targeted sparse optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Dose volume histograms (DVHs) are common tools in radiation therapy treatment planning to characterize plan quality. As statistical metrics, DVHs provide a compact summary of the underlying plan at the cost of losing spatial information: the same or similar dose-volume histograms can arise from substantially different spatial dose maps. This is exactly the reason why physicians and physicists scrutinize dose maps even after they satisfy all DVH endpoints numerically. However, up to this point, little has been done to control spatial phenomena, such as the spatial distribution of hot spots, which has significant clinical implications. To this end, the authors propose a novel objective function that enables a more direct tradeoff between target coverage, organ-sparing, and planning target volume (PTV) homogeneity, and presents our findings from four prostate cases, a pancreas case, and a head-and-neck case to illustrate the advantages and general applicability of our method.Methods: In designing the energy minimization objective (E{sub tot}{sup sparse}), the authors utilized the following robust cost functions: (1) an asymmetric linear well function to allow differential penalties for underdose, relaxation of prescription dose, and overdose in the PTV; (2) a two-piece linear function to heavily penalize high dose and mildly penalize low and intermediate dose in organs-at risk (OARs); and (3) a total variation energy, i.e., the L{sub 1} norm applied to the first-order approximation of the dose gradient in the PTV. By minimizing a weighted sum of these robust costs, general conformity to dose prescription and dose-gradient prescription is achieved while encouraging prescription violations to follow a Laplace distribution. In contrast, conventional quadratic objectives are associated with a Gaussian distribution of violations, which is less forgiving to large violations of prescription than the Laplace distribution. As a result, the proposed objective E{sub tot}{sup sparse} improves tradeoff between planning goals by 'sacrificing' voxels that have already been violated to improve PTV coverage, PTV homogeneity, and/or OAR-sparing. In doing so, overall plan quality is increased since these large violations only arise if a net reduction in E{sub tot}{sup sparse} occurs as a result. For example, large violations to dose prescription in the PTV in E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-optimized plans will naturally localize to voxels in and around PTV-OAR overlaps where OAR-sparing may be increased without compromising target coverage. The authors compared the results of our method and the corresponding clinical plans using analyses of DVH plots, dose maps, and two quantitative metrics that quantify PTV homogeneity and overdose. These metrics do not penalize underdose since E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-optimized plans were planned such that their target coverage was similar or better than that of the clinical plans. Finally, plan deliverability was assessed with the 2D modulation index.Results: The proposed method was implemented using IBM's CPLEX optimization package (ILOG CPLEX, Sunnyvale, CA) and required 1-4 min to solve with a 12-core Intel i7 processor. In the testing procedure, the authors optimized for several points on the Pareto surface of four 7-field 6MV prostate cases that were optimized for different levels of PTV homogeneity and OAR-sparing. The generated results were compared against each other and the clinical plan by analyzing their DVH plots and dose maps. After developing intuition by planning the four prostate cases, which had relatively few tradeoffs, the authors applied our method to a 7-field 6 MV pancreas case and a 9-field 6MV head-and-neck case to test the potential impact of our method on more challenging cases. The authors found that our formulation: (1) provided excellent flexibility for balancing OAR-sparing with PTV homogeneity; and (2) permitted the dose planner more control over the evolution of the PTV's spatial dose distribution than conventional objective functions. In particular, E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-op

Sayre, George A.; Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California - Los Angeles School of Medicine, 200 Medical Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Table II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Technical targets for fuel cell membranes in automotive applications defined by the High Temperature Working Group (February 2003).

412

Table IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"Technical targets for fuel cell membranes in stationary applications defined by the High Temperature Working Group (February 2003). "

413

Emission Characteristics of the Projectile Fragments at Relativistic Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A projectile (84^Kr_36) having kinetic energy around 1 A GeV was used to expose NIKFI BR-2 emulsion target. A total of 700 inelastic events are used in the present studies on projectile fragments. The emission angle of the projectile fragments are strongly affected by charge of the other projectile fragments emitted at same time with different emission angle is observed. The angular distribution studies show symmetrical nature for lighter charge projectile fragments. The symmetrical nature decreased with the charge of projectile fragments. At ~4o of emission angle for double charge projectile fragments, the momentum transfer during interaction is similar for various target species of emulsion were observed. We also observed a small but significant amplitude peaks on both side of the big peak for almost all light charge projectile fragments having different delta angle values. It reflects that there are few percent of projectile fragments that are coming from the decay of heavy projectile fragments or any other process.

M. K. Singh; A. K. Soma; Ramji Pathak; V. Singh

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

415

Development of granular target for CADS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subcritical core/blanket #12;· Solid target options, which consist of a solid material in the form of rods 5L/s Width of Lacuna 7cm #12;CW-316LSS The free surface in windowless target Water loop test-Parallel CFD (GPU) for Beam-Target-Coupled 15360 cores Test by the electron beam coupled with water Annular

McDonald, Kirk

416

Reading for Thursday Emissions scenario summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, for year 2000 #12;USA ­ CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion (2005) US EPA #12 of global rise in sea level red: reconstructed blue: tide gauges black: satellite #12;Other changes GHG emissions #12;

Schweik, Charles M.

417

NETL: Emissions Characterization - Adv. Low-NOx Burner Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization Advanced Low-NOx Burner Emissions Characterization The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive, high-quality database characterizing PM2.5 emissions from utility plants firing high sulfur coals. The specific objectives are to: 1) develop and test an ultra low-NOx pulverized coal burner for plug-in retrofit applications without boiler wall tube modifications, 2) assess the impact of low-NOx PC burner operation on NOx and PM2.5 emissions, and 3) provide high-quality data to ensure that future PM2.5 regulations are based on good scientific information. The work will be performed in the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF), a 100 million Btu/hr near-full-scale facility located at the Alliance Research Center. Related Papers and Publications:

418

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

419

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

420

Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Final Reports on the Top Runner Target Product Standards (Japan) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Final Reports on the Top Runner Target Product Standards (Japan) Final Reports on the Top Runner Target Product Standards (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Final Reports on the Top Runner Target Product Standards (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/index.html Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/final-reports-top-runner-target-produ Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Industry Codes & Standards Regulations: "Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling,Building Codes" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

422

Validating the role of AFVs in voluntary mobile source emission reduction programs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Late in 1997, EPA announced new allowances for voluntary emission control programs. As a result, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities and other metro areas that have made an ongoing commitment to increasing participation by alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in local fleets have the opportunity to estimate the magnitude and obtain emission reduction credit for following through on that commitment. Unexpectedly large reductions in key ozone precursor emissions in key locations and times of the day can be achieved per vehicle-mile by selecting specific light duty AFV offerings from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in lieu of their gasoline-fueled counterparts. Additional benefit accrues from the fact that evaporative emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (generated in the case of CNG, LNG, and LPG by closed fuel-system AFV technology) can be essentially negligible. Upstream emissions from fuel storage and distribution with the airshed of interest are also reduced. This paper provides a justification and outlines a method for including AFVs in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality, and for quantifying emission reduction credits. At the time of submission of this paper, the method was still under review by the US EPA Office of Mobile Sources, pending mutually satisfactory resolution of several of its key points. Some of these issues are discussed in the paper.

Santini, D. J.; Saricks, C. L.

1999-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are deter- mined by ``Business as Usual'' projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income, and use only national income distributions and economy-wide carbon intensities. National responsibilities a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of ``common but differentiated

424

Single and double proton emissions from the O-14+He-4 interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We observed single and double proton emissions in the O-14+He-4 interaction by the thick target inverse kinematic (TTIK) method at initial energy for O-14 at 32.7 MeV. We found that the protons mainly originate from the resonance excitation...

Fu, Changbo; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Chubarian, G. G.; Rogachev, G. V.; Skorodumov, B.; McCleskey, M.; Zhai, Y.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The energy and CO2 emissions impact of renewable energy development in China*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide a solid foundation for the public and private decisions needed to mitigate and adapt targets and subsidies make renewable electricity economically viable in the short term. Cumulative CO2 electricity leads to increases in other sectors, offsetting emissions reductions. The expansion of renewables

426

Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Emissions Annual Reports for DOE Sites,” memo tooffices providing guidance for report preparation (March 22,470E-2012 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by

Wahl, Linnea

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

428

Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment Diesel Engine Emission Reduction (DEER) Experiment Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the...

429

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL EMSL produced this video for the annual congressional science expo organized by the National User...

430

Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowEmissionsAsianDevel...

431

School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

School Bus Emissions Study School Bus Emissions Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: international Truck and Engine Corporation deer2003slodowske.pdf More Documents &...

432

Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

433

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

434

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters deer11johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Diesel Emission...

435

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

436

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Efficiency and Emissions |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

437

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced...

438

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

439

Corporate response to emissions trading in Lithuania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article highlights the preconditions for emissions trading in Lithuania, identifies the factors that influence ... competitive advantage via participation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ET...

R?ta Bubnien?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion, and Emission Modeling Using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Sibendu Som, Douglas E. Longman Engine and Emissions Group (Energy Systems Division)...

442

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Quantifying the ecosystem-scale emission and deposition fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) and their oxidation products above plant canopies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

covariance plots of vertical wind speed and m/z 127.073 (C 7correlation of vertical wind speed (w) and volume mixingcorrections between vertical wind speed and volume mixing

Park, Jeong-Hoo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Field evaluation of cofiring gas with coal for quantifying operational benefits and emissions trim in a utility boiler. Volume 2. Topical report, 1989-1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The volume consists of 14 appendixes to accompany volume 1 of the report, and covers the following test data: analysis of coal, fylash, and bottom ash samples; cleanliness factors; slagging observation record sheets; stack opacity measurements; stack sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides measurements; total coal flow; fuel gas flow; furnace exit gas temperature; percent oxygen at economizer outlet; percent excess air; bulk steam temperatures at secondary superheater and reheater outlets; secondary superheater and reheater tube outlet leg temperatures; unit heat rate; and models used for data interpretation.

Clark, K.J.; Torbov, T.S.; Impey, R.J.; Hara, K.G.; Burnett, T.D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

The Role of Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography for Quantifying Boron-10 in Vivo Using the Fructose Complex of Fluorine-18 Labeled Boronophenylalanine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major difficulties facing successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is the paucity of in vivo pharmacokinetic data.1 Analytical techniques such as prompt gamma analysis, secondary ion mass spectr...

G. W. Kabalka; G. T. Smith; T. L. Nichols…

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

Johannes Bollen; Corjan Brink

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

USING DISPLAY ENERGY CERTIFICATES TO QUANTIFY PUBLIC SECTOR OFFICE ENERGY CONSUMPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kingdom”. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/publications/ecuk/ecu k.aspx DEFRA. (2012), 2012 Guidelines to Defra / DECC’s GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission...

Armitage, Peter; Godoy-Shimizu, Daniel; Steemers, Koen; Chenvidyakarn, Torwong

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

449

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

450

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2001, Nevada enacted legislation requiring the state’s electric utilities to provide details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation to their customers. Utilities must...

451

Exoelectron Emission from Synthetic Corundums  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Exoelectron Emission from Synthetic Corundums M. Yousif Charif R. Gout J. Barthe M. Petel Corundums (Alpha Al2O3) have been synthesised by the thermal dehydration of hydrargilite (Al2O3, H2O......

M. Yousif Charif; R. Gout; J. Barthe; M. Petel

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Anomalous Emission from HII regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

C. Dickinson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

453

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Iowa adopted regulations in 2003 that generally require rate-regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers the fuel mix and estimated emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh), of...

454

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

1770 emissions trading system [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

envir. pol. (As permitted by the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, the sale of unused quotas of carbon dioxide [CO2] emissions to other countries, which can then use them as credits for their own accounts. The...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

457

Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

458

JGI - 2009 Genome Sequencing Targets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

July 2, 2008 July 2, 2008 Pine Tree, Boat-Boring Bivalve "Bugs", Duck Weed, Oil-Producing Microalgae, Stinkbird Gut, 40 Others Top DOE Joint Genome Institute 2009 Genome Sequencing Targets WALNUT CREEK, CA-In the continuing effort to tap the vast, unexplored reaches of the earth's microbial and plant domains for bioenergy and environmental applications, the DOE Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) has announced its latest portfolio of DNA sequencing projects that it will undertake in the coming year. The 44 projects, culled from nearly 150 proposals received through the Community Sequencing Program (CSP), represent over 60 billion nucleotides of data to be generated through this biodiversity sampling campaign-roughly the equivalent of 20 human genomes. "The scientific and technological advances enabled by the information

459

Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

Rathore, Dharmendar (Blacksburg, VA); Jani, Dewal (Blacksburg, VA); Nagarkatti, Rana (Blacksburg, VA)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

460

Terahertz-based target typing.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to create a THz component set and understanding to aid in the rapid analysis of transient events. This includes the development of fast, tunable, THz detectors, along with filter components for use with standard detectors and accompanying models to simulate detonation signatures. The signature effort was crucial in order to know the spectral range to target for detection. Our approach for frequency agile detection was to utilize plasmons in the channel of a specially designed field-effect transistor called the grating-gate detector. Grating-gate detectors exhibit narrow-linewidth, broad spectral tunability through application of a gate bias, and no angular dependence in their photoresponse. As such, if suitable sensitivity can be attained, they are viable candidates for Terahertz multi-spectral focal plane arrays.

Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Wanke, Michael Clement; Reno, John Louis; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Grine, Albert D.; Barrick, Todd A.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Meeting Biofuels Targets: Implications for Land Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Nitrogen Use in Illinois  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article develops a dynamic micro-economic land use model to identify the cost-effective allocation of cropland for traditional row ... model and together with county level data on costs of production for Ill...

Madhu Khanna; Hayri Önal; Xiaoguang Chen…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Using Decline Curve Analysis, Volumetric Analysis, and Bayesian Methodology to Quantify Uncertainty in Shale Gas Reserve Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probabilistic decline curve analysis (PDCA) methods have been developed to quantify uncertainty in production forecasts and reserves estimates. However, the application of PDCA in shale gas reservoirs is relatively new. Limited work has been done...

Gonzalez Jimenez, Raul 1988-

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

463

Quantifying the health impacts of air pollution under a changing climate—a review of approaches and methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Climate change has been predicted to affect future air quality, with inevitable consequences for health. Quantifying the health effects of air pollution under a changing climate is crucial to ... take into accoun...

Sarunya Sujaritpong; Keith Dear; Martin Cope…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Quantifying threats in a Mediterranean wetland: are there any changes in their evaluation during a training course?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

“Threats analysis” is a conservation discipline directed to ... , quantify, rank, map the human-induced threats occurring in a specific study area, assessing ... of central Italy, where 15 human-induced threats w...

Corrado Battisti; Luca Luiselli; Corrado Teofili

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Experimental Target Injection and Tracking System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant with an accuracy of and plusmn; 5 mm at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 each second. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-}200{mu}m for indirect drive and {+-}20{mu}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been designed and is being constructed at General Atomics to investigate injection and tracking of both direct drive and indirect drive targets. The design is modular to allow testing of alternate target acceleration and tracking methods. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feed back to the target designers. This 30 m long system will be the centerpiece of a Facility for developing IFE target fabrication and injection technologies. A high-speed high-flow gas valve (designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will provide helium propellant gas to the targets. To avoid target damage from excessive acceleration, an 8 m gun barrel is being built to achieve 400 m/s target speed while not exceeding 10,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Gas expansion chambers and orifices, keep propellant gas out of the target-tracking region. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line scan cameras. High-speed computations will calculate target position in less than 2 ms based on the output from the line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time to a plane in the reaction chamber center will be predicted in real-time based on early target position measurements. The system design, construction progress, and early testing results will be presented.

Petzoldt, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Alexander, N.B. [General Atomics (United States); Drake, T.J. [General Atomics (United States); Goodin, D.T. [General Atomics (United States); Stemke, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Jonestrask, K

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Credits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Credits Any state mobile emissions reduction credits program must allow credits for emissions reductions achieved by converting a vehicle to operate on an

467

CO{sub 2} emission calculations and trends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evidence that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is believed to result from CO{sub 2} releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO{sub 2} concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention`s stated objectives was the ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. `` Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO{sub 2} emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented.

Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

468

Transmission Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements of 238U in Thick Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmission nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements were made on targets consisting of Pb and depleted U with total areal densities near 86 g/cm2. The 238U content n the targets varied from 0 to 8.5percent (atom fraction). The experiment demonstrates the capability of using transmission measurements as a non-destructive technique to identify and quantify the presence of an isotope in samples with thicknesses comparable to he average thickness of a nuclear fuel assembly. The experimental data also appear to demonstrate the process of notch refilling with a predictable intensity. Comparison of measured spectra to previous backscatter 238U measurements indicates general agreement in observed excited states. Two new 238U excited states and possibly a third state have also been observed.

Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Wilson, Cody; Korbly, Steve

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

469

Electricity-generation mix considering energy security and carbon emission mitigation: Case of Korea and Mongolia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To compare electricity-generation fuel mixes in two countries with multiple energy policy goals and unique circumstances, we look at three scenarios reflecting the carbon emissions mitigation targets, differences in energy security levels, and electricity-generating costs of each nation. Korea and Mongolia show clear differences in electricity-generation structure related to import dependency, the potential of renewable energy, and threats to energy security. These variations lead to different decisions on the power-generation fuel mix plan. Use of fossil fuel resources in Korea results in carbon dioxide emissions and energy insecurity, while in Mongolia carbon emissions, also from fossil fuels, and energy insecurity are separate concerns as Mongolia domestically operates coal-fired power plants and imports electricity. Policies targeting two objectives, carbon emissions mitigation and energy security improvement, show complementarity in Korea as fossil fuels are replaced by renewables or nuclear power, but represent trade-offs in Mongolia as emissions mitigation and improved energy security cannot be achieved with one strategy. In conclusion, national plans to achieve two goals differ by country: In Korea, the appropriate portion of nuclear energy is the determining policy factor. In Mongolia, carbon capture and storage is the clear alternative for mitigating carbon emissions despite large renewables potential.

Hanee Ryu; Shonkhor Dorjragchaa; Yeonbae Kim; Kyunam Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Measuring gas emissions from livestock buildings: A review on uncertainty analysis and error sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measuring gaseous and particulate emissions from livestock houses has been the subject of intensive research over the past two decades. Currently, there is general agreement regarding appropriate methods to measure emissions from mechanically ventilated buildings. However, measuring emissions from naturally ventilated buildings remains an elusive target primarily because there is no reference method for measuring building ventilation rate. Ventilation rates and thus building emissions estimates for naturally ventilated buildings are likely to contain greater errors compared with those from mechanically ventilated buildings. This work reviews the origin and magnitude of errors associated with emissions from naturally ventilated buildings as compared to those typically found in mechanical ventilation. Firstly, some general concepts of error analysis are detailed. Then, typical errors found in the literature for each measurement technique are reviewed, and potential sources of relevant systematic and random errors are identified. The emission standard uncertainty in mechanical ventilation is at best 10% or more of the measured value, whereas in natural ventilation it may be considerably higher and there may also be significant unquantifiable biases. A reference method is necessary to obtain accurate emissions estimates, and for naturally ventilated structures this suggests the need for a new means of ventilation measurement. The results obtained from the analysis of information in this review will be helpful to establish research priorities, and to optimize research efforts in terms of quality of emission measurements.

Salvador Calvet; Richard S. Gates; GuoQiang Zhang; Fernando Estellés; Nico W.M. Ogink; Sřren Pedersen; Daniel Berckmans

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Targeted Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - April 2014 Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - April 2014 April 2014 Targeted Review of...

472

NIF Target Chamber Dedicated | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dedicated NIF Target Chamber Dedicated June 11, 1999 NIF Target Chamber Dedicated Livermore, CA Secretary Richardson dedicates the National Ignition Facility target chamber at...

473

Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Targeted alpha therapy for cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1–1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human patients are effective in regressing melanomas, with no concomitant complications. These results point to the application of local and systemic TAT in the management of secondary cancer. Results of the phase 1 clinical trial of TAT of subcutaneous, secondary melanoma indicate proof of the principle that TAT can make tumours in patients regress.

Barry J Allen; Chand Raja; Syed Rizvi; Yong Li; Wendy Tsui; David Zhang; Emma Song; Chang Fa Qu; John Kearsley; Peter Graham; John Thompson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Possible Effects of Pair Echoes on Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is widely expected but had been sparsely observed until recently when the Fermi satellite was launched. If >TeV gamma rays are produced in GRBs and can escape from the emission region, they are attenuated by the cosmic infrared background photons, leading to regeneration of GeV-TeV secondary photons via inverse-Compton scattering. This secondary emission can last for a longer time than the duration of GRBs, and it is called a pair echo. We investigate how this pair echo emission affects spectra and light curves of high energy afterglows, considering not only prompt emission but also afterglow as the primary emission. Detection of pair echoes is possible as long as the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in voids is weak. We find (1) that the pair echo from the primary afterglow emission can affect the observed high-energy emission in the afterglow phase after the jet break, and (2) that the pair echo from the primary prompt emission can also be relevant, but only when significant energy is emitted in the TeV range, typically E_{gamma, >0.1 TeV} > (Y/(1+Y)) epsilon_e E_k. Even non-detections of the pair echoes could place interesting constraints on the strength of IGMF. The more favorable targets to detect pair echoes may be the "naked" GRBs without conventional afterglow emission, although energetic naked GRBs would be rare. If the IGMF is weak enough, it is predicted that the GeV emission extends to >30-300 s.

Kohta Murase; Bing Zhang; Keitaro Takahashi; Shigehiro Nagataki

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

476

Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission at E[sub lab]/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with [sup 28]Si beams interacting on [sup 208]Pb). [sup 120]Sn. [sup 64]C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z[sub T] and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si [yields] p+[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si [yields] n+[sup 27]Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in [sup 28]Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],p])[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],n])[sup 27]Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in [sup 28]Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.

Sonnadara, U.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic {sup 28}Si by nucleon emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 28}Si by nucleon emission at E{sub lab}/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with {sup 28}Si beams interacting on {sup 208}Pb). {sup 120}Sn. {sup 64}C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z{sub T} and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 28}Si {yields} p+{sup 27}Al and {sup 28}Si {yields} n+{sup 27}Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in {sup 28}Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear {sup 28}Si({sub {gamma},p}){sup 27}Al and {sup 28}Si({sub {gamma},n}){sup 27}Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in {sup 28}Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.

Sonnadara, U.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Coordination of engine and powertrain supervisory control strategies to minimize cold start emissions

479

7, 68436902, 2007 An Asian emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

480

Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compilationof Regional to Global Inventoriesof Anthropogenic Emissions CarmenM. Benkovitz, Hajime inventories of emissions of the trace species included in the study at the appropriate sectoral, spatial on emissions is also required at high resolution for the design of policies aimed at reducing emissions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Midway toward the 2 degree target: Adequacy and fairness of the Cancún pledges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Many countries pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 during the 2009 Copenhagen Accord and the 2010 Cancún Agreement. This paper evaluates the Cancún pledges from two aspects, namely, temperature increase and carbon Gini coefficient. The Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change is used to calculate the temperature increase, and the carbon Gini coefficient is used to measure the equivalence of emission–reduction allocations. We first downscale regional business as usual (BAU) scenarios from integrated assessment models to the national level. Then, we combine the downscaled BAU with Cancún pledges to generate the emission trajectory of the pledges. We use emissions with and without pledges as input to assess the adequacy and fairness of the pledges by using temperature increase and carbon Gini coefficient, respectively. Based on the results, we show that the Cancún pledges would reduce the temperature increase to a great extent, but not enough to meet the 2 degree target. Due to the insufficient contribution from developed countries, the Cancún pledges will sacrifice equity among countries, especially between developed and developing countries. The common understanding of equity will be essential to bridge the mitigation gap toward meeting the 2 degree target.

Yuejiao Ha; Fei Teng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Tensor Target Polarization at TRIUMF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first measurements of tensor observables in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ scattering experiments were performed in the mid-80's at TRIUMF, and later at SIN/PSI. The full suite of tensor observables accessible in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ elastic scattering were measured: $T_{20}$, $T_{21}$, and $T_{22}$. The vector analyzing power $iT_{11}$ was also measured. These results led to a better understanding of the three-body theory used to describe this reaction. %Some measurements were also made in the absorption and breakup channels. A direct measurement of the target tensor polarization was also made independent of the usual NMR techniques by exploiting the (nearly) model-independent result for the tensor analyzing power at 90$^\\circ _{cm}$ in the $\\pi \\vec{d} \\rightarrow 2p$ reaction. This method was also used to check efforts to enhance the tensor polarization by RF burning of the NMR spectrum. A brief description of the methods developed to measure and analyze these experiments is provided.

Smith, G

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Quantifying non-Markovianity of continuous-variable Gaussian dynamical maps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a non-Markovianity measure for continuous-variable open quantum systems based on the idea put forward in H.-P. Breuer et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009);], that is, by quantifying the flow of information from the environment back to the open system. Instead of the trace distance we use here the fidelity to assess distinguishability of quantum states. We employ our measure to evaluate non-Markovianity of two paradigmatic Gaussian channels: the purely damping channel and the quantum Brownian motion channel with Ohmic environment. We consider different classes of Gaussian states and look for pairs of states maximizing the backflow of information. For coherent states we find simple analytical solutions, whereas for squeezed states we provide both exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions in the weak coupling limit.

Vasile, Ruggero; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); SUPA, EPS/Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH144AS (United Kingdom) and Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy) and CNISM, UdR Milano Statale, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

Quantifying fatigue generated in high strain rate cyclic loading of Norway spruce  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Papermaking especially mechanical pulping consumes much energy. To reduce this energy consumption one has to understand and exploit the phenomena present during the pulping. An important phenomenon to understand is wood fatigue. We quantitatively measure the fatigue generated during high strain rate cyclic loading of spruce wood performed under conditions resembling those present during mechanical pulping. We impacted the samples with 5% strain pulses at 500 Hz. The radial direction stiffness drop in the samples was quantified by 500 kHz ultrasonic through-transmission postimpacting. The depth profile of the generated fatigue was also determined. A dependency of the amount of fatigue generated during cyclic straining on the moisture content was detected. A hypothesis about the temporal and spatial evolution of the fatigue during the process is presented. The results supporting the hypothesis provide insight into wood behavior under mechanical pulping conditions.

Ari Salmi; Lauri Salminen; Edward Hćggström

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Vehicle Ethanol Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Ethanol Vehicle Emissions When blended with gasoline for use as a vehicle fuel, ethanol can offer some emissions benefits over gasoline, depending on vehicle type, engine

486

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emissions Control Emissions Control Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Control Requirement Heavy-duty diesel vehicles used to perform federally funded state public works contracts must be powered by engines with Level 3 emissions control

487

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Vehicle Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Emissions Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions When used as a vehicle fuel, biodiesel offers some tailpipe and considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits over conventional

488

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

489

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

490

Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, S.K.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

492

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

S. K. Zohner

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Road Emissions Estimates of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons for School and Transit Buses Report No. FHWY/NC/97Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Mobile Source Emissions 2 1.2 Emission Regulations 2 1.3 Emissions Contributions of "Non

Frey, H. Christopher

494

DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test November 12, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners has begun injecting 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate the carbon storage potential and test the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of the Mississippian-aged Clore Formation in Posey County, Ind. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is seen as a key technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate climate change. The injection, which is expected to last 6-8 months, is an integral step in DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) is conducting the field test to

495

New Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal Gasification Facilities New Projects Set to Target Efficiency, Environmental Gains at Advanced Coal Gasification Facilities July 27, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- Four projects that will demonstrate an innovative technology that could eventually enhance hydrogen fuel production, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve efficiencies and lower consumer electricity costs from advanced coal gasification power systems have been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The projects will test membrane technology to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal or coal/biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas), such as from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems.

496

Student research with 400keV beams: {sup 13}N radioisotope production target development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The AN400 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Minnesota State University, Mankato, Applied Nuclear Science Lab has demonstrated utility as an accessible and versatile platform for student research. Despite the limits of low energy, the research team successfully developed projects with applications to the wider radioisotope production community. A target system has been developed for producing and extracting {sup 13}N by the {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N reaction below 400keV. The system is both reusable and robust, with future applications to higher energy machines producing this important radioisotope for physiological imaging studies with Positron Emission Tomography. Up to 36({+-}1)% of the {sup 13}N was extracted from the graphite matrix when 35 A current was externally applied to the graphite target while simultaneously flushing the target chamber with CO{sub 2} gas.

Fru, L. Che; Clymer, J.; Compton, N.; Cotter, J.; Dam, H.; Lesko, Z.; Pautzke, J.; Prokop, C.; Swanson, L.; Roberts, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Minnesota State University, Trafton Science Center N141, Mankato MN 56001 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

497

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: US EPA GHG inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghginventorycapacitybuilding/swtoo Country: Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Belize Cost: Free Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America Coordinates: 13.7040888°, -89.1814075°

498

Thermodynamics of Radiative Emission Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A basic assumption implicit in the application of thermodynamics to the electromagnetic field is that the laws of thermodynamics are locally valid for radiative emission and absorption processes. This means that a certain minimum amount of entropy must be created by the radiative process itself. It is shown, by considering the extreme case in which the spontaneous emission of a natural spectral line is the only process taking place, that this assumption is correct, and that its validity is essentially a consequence of the uncertainty principle as expressed by the reciprocal relationship between natural line breadth and lifetime.

M. A. Weinstein

1960-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Explanations of FreedomCAR/DOE Hydrogen Storage Technical Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Summary of FreedomCAR Targets and Basis for Targets prepared for the Grand Challenge Hydrogen Storage Solicitation.

500

Chemometric analysis of infrared emission spectra for quantitative analysis of BPSG films on silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared emission spectra of 21 borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) thin films on silicon wafers were collected with the samples held at constant temperature between 125--400{degree}C using a heating stage designed for precise temperature control ({plus_minus}{degree}C). Partial test squares calibrations applied to the BPSG infrared emittance spectra allowed four BPSG thin-film properties to be simultaneously quantified with precisions of 0.1 wt. % for boron and phosphorus, 35 {Angstrom} for film thickness, and 1.2{degree}C for temperature.

Franke, J.E.; Chen, Chuenyuan S.; Zhang, Songbaio; Niemczyk, T.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Haaland, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z