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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Quantifying avoided emissions from renewable generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the reduced emissions due to renewable power integration and providing increasingly accurate emissions analysis has become more important for policy makers in the age of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and ...

Gomez, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Rodriguez)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Quantifying emissions reductions from New England offshore wind energy resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Access to straightforward yet robust tools to quantify the impact of renewable energy resources on air emissions from fossil fuel power plants is important to governments aiming to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse ...

Berlinski, Michael Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A very important aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970's. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:www.ecofys.com...

5

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 sources and sinks of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. In 1992, the United States signed and ratified and make available...national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks

Little, John B.

6

Spectral Control of Emission from Tin Doped Targets for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control of emissions from tin doped targets for extremearray (UTA) emission around 13.5 nm from solid density tinand tin doped foam targets. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our overall goal was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically forced climate warming, and the extent to which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes in the extent of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, over the Arctic. Through a coordinated effort of field measurements, model development, and numerical experimentation with an integrated assessment model framework, we have investigated the following hypothesis: There exists a climate-warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and thus instigates strong and/or sharp increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and wetland expansion). These would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

Schlosser, Courtney Adam [MIT; Walter-Anthony, Katey [University of Alaska; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

8

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Executive Summary of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990­2009 1 n emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic1 In 1992, the United climate change. This inventory adheres to both (1) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodologies

Little, John B.

9

Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the three-year project period, Purdue University has specifically accomplished the following: revised the existing Methane Dynamics Model (MDM) to consider the effects of changes of atmospheric pressure; applied the methane dynamics model (MDM) to Siberian region to demonstrate that ebullition estimates could increase previous estimates of regional terrestrial CH{sub 4} emissions 3- to 7-fold in Siberia; Conducted an analysis of the carbon balance of the Arctic Basin from 1997 to 2006 to show that terrestrial areas of the Arctic were a net source of 41.5 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup â??1} that increased by 0.6 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup â??1} during the decade of analysis, a magnitude that is comparable with an atmospheric inversion of CH{sub 4}; improved the quantification of CH{sub 4} fluxes in the Arctic with inversion methods; evaluated AIRS CH4 retrieval data with a transport and inversion model and surface flux and aircraft data; to better quantify methane emissions from wetlands, we extended the MDM within a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to include a large-scale hydrology model, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model; more recently, we developed a single box atmospheric chemistry model involving atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO) and radical hydroxyl (OH) to analyze atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentrations from 1984 to 2008.

Qianlai Zhuang

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

10

Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

Zhang, Da

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

Young, I.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

Szpunar, C.B.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

become more important as countries agree to emission reduction targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: immediate stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, regulation of air pollution that balances removal

Constable, Steve

16

CORONAL THICK TARGET HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS AND RADIO EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A distinctive class of hard X-ray (HXR) sources located in the corona was recently found, which implies that the collisionally thick target model (CTTM) applies even to the corona. We investigated whether this idea can be independently verified by microwave radiations which have been known as the best companion to HXRs. This study is conducted on the GOES M2.3 class flare which occurred on 2002 September 9 and was observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Owens Valley Solar Array. Interpreting the observed energy-dependent variation of HXR source size under the CTTM, the coronal density should be as high as 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} over a distance of up to 12''. To explain the cutoff feature of the microwave spectrum at 3 GHz, however, we require a density no higher than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Additional constraints must be placed on the temperature and magnetic field of the coronal source in order to reproduce the microwave spectrum as a whole. First, a spectral feature called the Razin suppression requires a magnetic field in a range of 250-350 G along with high viewing angles around 75 Degree-Sign . Second, to avoid excess fluxes at high frequencies due to the free-free emission that was not observed, we need a high temperature {>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K. These two microwave spectral features, Razin suppression and free-free emissions, become more significant at regions of high thermal plasma density and are essential for validating and determining additional parameters of the coronal HXR sources.

Lee, Jeongwoo [Physics Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Lim, Daye; Choe, G. S.; Kim, Kap-Sung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Minhwan [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

17

International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Affairs (DEFRA), 2005. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. http://targets through the UK Emissions Trading Scheme. 6 Table 1is to be adjusted for emissions trading. The reports must be

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Potential for meeting the EU new passenger car CO? emissions targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2009, the European Parliament agreed to limit the CO2 emissions from new passenger cars sold in the European Union to an average of 130g/km by 2015. Further, a probable longer-term CO2 emissions target of 95g/km is ...

Bhatt, Kandarp

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

Imamoglu, Atac

20

Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China's Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011­2015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential & Climate Project TSINGHUA - MIT #12;The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Quantifying the Heating Sources for Mid-infrared Dust Emissions in Galaxies: The Case of M 81  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the newly available SPIRE images at 250 and 500 micron from Herschel Space Observatory, we study quantitative correlations over a sub-kpc scale among three distinct emission components in the interstellar medium of the nearby spiral galaxy M 81 (NGC 3031): (a) $I_{8}$ or $I_{24}$, the surface brightness of the mid-infrared emission observed in the Spitzer IRAC 8 or MIPS 24 micron band, with $I_8$ and $I_{24}$ being dominated by the emissions from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs) of dust, respectively; (b) $I_{500}$, that of the cold dust continuum emission in the Herschel SPIRE 500 micron band, dominated by the emission from large dust grains heated by evolved stars, and (c) $I_{{\\rm H}\\alpha}$, a nominal surface brightness of the H$\\alpha$ line emission, from gas ionized by newly formed massive stars. The results from our correlation study, free from any assumption on or modeling of dust emissivity law or dust temperatures, present solid evidence for significant heati...

Lu, Nanyao; Boselli, A; Baes, M; Wu., H; Madden, S C; De Looze, I; Rémy-Ruyer, A; Boquien, M; Wilson, C D; Galametz, M; Lam, M I; Cooray, A; Spinoglio, L; Zhao, Y

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters. M the emission yield of anionic clusters increases much faster with n than expected from simple proportionality. Accordingly, the most intense emission is observed for Au7 - : under Au9 + impact the Au7 - yield per incident

Boyer, Edmond

23

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

Limpouch, Jiri

24

The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially reduce the energy used in buildings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 KTA@Bath Challenge The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially research and lead the education of highly skilled low carbon designers. These Centres will have strong

Burton, Geoffrey R.

25

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

26

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of...

Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Hai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential Economic Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17% through differentiated targets at the provincial level. Allocating the national target among China’s provinces is ...

Springmann, M.

29

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuels used in the refinery sector were also collected fromof the emissions from the refinery sector are included incommitment of 44% and the refinery and food sectors

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Locked into Copenhagen pledges - Implications of short-term emission targets for the cost and feasibility of long-term climate goals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the AMPERE intermodeling comparison with focus on the implications of near-term policies for the costs and attainability of long-term climate objectives. Ten modeling teams participated in the project to explore the consequences of global emissions following the proposed policy stringency of the national pledges from the Copenhagen Accord and Cancún Agreements to 2030. Specific features compared to earlier assessments are the explicit consideration of near-term 2030 emissions targets as well as the systematic sensitivity analysis for the availability and potential of mitigation technologies. Our estimates show that a 2030 mitigation effort comparable to the pledges would result in a further "lock-in" of the energy system into fossil fuels and thus impede the required energy transformation to reach low greenhouse-gas stabilization levels (450ppm CO2e). Major implications include significant increases in mitigation costs, increased risk that low stabilization targets become unattainable, and reduced chances of staying below the proposed temperature change target of 2C. With respect to technologies, we find that following the pledge pathways to 2030 would narrow policy choices, and increases the risks that some currently optional technologies, such as nuclear or carbon capture and storage (CCS), will become "a must" by 2030.

Riahi, Keywan; Kriegler, Elmar; Johnson, Nils; Bertram, Christoph; den Elzen, Michel; Eom, Jiyong; Schaeffer, Michiel; Edmonds, James A.; Isaac, Morna; Krey, Volker; Longden, Thomas; Luderer, Gunnar; Mejean, Aurelie; McCollum, David; Mima, Silvana; Turton, Hal; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wada, Kenichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Capros, Pantelis; Criqui, Patrick; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kainuma, M.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Project No.: 003893 (GOCE) Quantifying the Climate Impact of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project No.: 003893 (GOCE) QUANTIFY Quantifying the Climate Impact of Global and European Transport Systems INTEGRATED PROJECT SIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME SUB-PRIORITY 1.1.6.3 Global Change and Ecosystems (biofuel and biomass burning). A compilation of the non-transport emissions has been made available

Haak, Hein

32

Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Schleich (2006). EU Emissions Trading: an Early Analysis of2002). Comparing Emission Trading with Absolute and Relativein the European Emissions Trading System: a Commentary.

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted.

Brogaard, L.K., E-mail: lksb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Riber, C. [Ramboll, Consulting Engineers, Hannemanns Allé 53, DK-2300 Copenhagen S (Denmark); Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Comparison of Amplitude-Based and Phase-Based Positron Emission Tomography Gating Algorithms for Segmentation of Internal Target Volumes of Tumors Subject to Respiratory Motion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To quantitatively compare the accuracy of tumor volume segmentation in amplitude-based and phase-based respiratory gating algorithms in respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and Materials: List-mode fluorodeoxyglucose-PET data was acquired for 10 patients with a total of 12 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumors and 9 lymph nodes. Additionally, a phantom experiment was performed in which 4 plastic butyrate spheres with inner diameters ranging from 1 to 4 cm were imaged as they underwent 1-dimensional motion based on 2 measured patient breathing trajectories. PET list-mode data were gated into 8 bins using 2 amplitude-based (equal amplitude bins [A1] and equal counts per bin [A2]) and 2 temporal phase-based gating algorithms. Gated images were segmented using a commercially available gradient-based technique and a fixed 40% threshold of maximum uptake. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were generated by taking the union of all 8 contours per gated image. Segmented phantom ITVs were compared with their respective ground-truth ITVs, defined as the volume subtended by the tumor model positions covering 99% of breathing amplitude. Superior-inferior distances between sphere centroids in the end-inhale and end-exhale phases were also calculated. Results: Tumor ITVs from amplitude-based methods were significantly larger than those from temporal-based techniques (P=.002). For lymph nodes, A2 resulted in ITVs that were significantly larger than either of the temporal-based techniques (P<.0323). A1 produced the largest and most accurate ITVs for spheres with diameters of ?2 cm (P=.002). No significant difference was shown between algorithms in the 1-cm sphere data set. For phantom spheres, amplitude-based methods recovered an average of 9.5% more motion displacement than temporal-based methods under regular breathing conditions and an average of 45.7% more in the presence of baseline drift (P<.001). Conclusions: Target volumes in images generated from amplitude-based gating are larger and more accurate, at levels that are potentially clinically significant, compared with those from temporal phase-based gating.

Jani, Shyam S., E-mail: sjani@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); White, Benjamin M.; Thomas, David H.; Gaudio, Sergio; Low, Daniel A.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

want to reduce their ‘carbon footprint,’ not by law, but todecreases of its carbon footprint could reduce emissions byTo decrease the carbon footprint of transportation, the

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer,...

37

Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

policy at the US state level to decrease GHG emissions?ABU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national levelU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national level

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Quantifying Pollutant Emissions from Office Equipment Phase I Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in naphthalene and acenaphthene levels. The ordinate axisThe one exception was acenaphthene for which the calculatedand to a lesser extent, acenaphthene. The PAHs heavier than

Maddalena, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Hodgson, A.T.; McKone, T.E.; Perino, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Quantifying Pollutant Emissions from Office Equipment Phase I Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapure.on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapure.on Energy-efficient Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapure. Page

Maddalena, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Hodgson, A.T.; McKone, T.E.; Perino, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerTypePonsa,Home Aimeebailey'sSolazymeGTZ

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Brazil-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder, CO) JumpNREL Biofuels and EEREEconomyOpen

42

India-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany:Information IDSDloomis'sTransport inMEER)Open Energy

43

Mexico-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJunoMedanosElectricResources[1]Mexico)

44

Recommended Practice for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transit  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColoradosourceRaus PowerLouisiana:CampbellOpenHome Name Post|

45

China-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in Emerging Economies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuoCatalystPathways Calculator JumpforPFAN)Energyin JumpOpen

46

Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the deformation behavior was found to depend strongly on the character of the nearby microstructure.

Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

48

Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon abatement due to emissions trading are quantified ...

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public Transit Agency Vehicle Fleet Operations ABSTRACT This paper reviews calculation tools available for quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with different types

50

Quantifying fit in ice hockey skate boots.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Purpose. This study quantified fit of ice hockey skate boots by measuring the pressure (MP) at the foot/ankle-to-boot interface using three skate sizes. The relationship… (more)

Gheorghiu, Cristian R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Quantifying the parameters of successful agricultural producers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the parameters of successful agricultural producers. Through the use of the Financial and Risk Management (FARM) Assistance database, this study evaluated economic measures for row-crop producers...

Kaase, Gregory Herman

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

53

Evaluating Energy Policy: Quantifying Air Pollution and Health Co-Benefits Tammy M Thompson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluating Energy Policy: Quantifying Air Pollution and Health Co-Benefits Tammy M Thompson Noelle Energy Policy Scenarios Criteria Pollution Emissions Changes Impacts on Air Quality and Human Health Energy Policy Scenarios Criteria Pollution Impacts on Air Quality one realm can have profound impacts

54

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech, though the 2020s is a likely turning point for both emission trajectories. Both emission pathways must meet all announced and planned policies, targets and non-fossil generation targets, or an even wider efficiency gap will exist. The savings potential under Max Tech varies by sector, but the industrial sector appears to hold the largest energy savings and emission reduction potential. The primary source of savings is from electricity rather than fuel, and electricity savings are magnified by power sector decarbonization through increasing renewable generation and coal generation efficiency improvement. In order to achieve the maximum energy savings and emission reduction potential, efficiency improvements and technology switching must be undertaken across demand sectors as well as in the growing power sector. From an economic perspective, the cost of conserved energy analysis indicates that nearly all measures for the iron and steel and cement industry are cost-effective. All 23 efficiency measures analyzed for the cement industry are cost-effective, with combined CO2 emission reduction potential of 448 Mt CO2. All of the electricity savings measures in the iron and steel industry are cost-effective, but the cost-effective savings potential for fuel savings measures is slightly lower than total technical savings potential. The total potential savings from these measures confirm the magnitude of savings in the scenario models, and illustrate the remaining efficiency gap in the cement and iron and steel industries.

Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress of the ratio of hill/coast precipitation during the 20th century in polluted areas in line with the increasing

Li, Zhanqing

56

Quantifying Energy Savings by Improving Boiler Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dayton, OH ABSTRACT On/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas fired boilers... the accuracy of the methods. INTRODUCTION In our experience, common opportunities for improving boiler efficiency include switching from on/off to modulation control and reducing excess air. The decision about whether to pursue these opportunities...

Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Analysis of Climate Policy Targets under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although policymaking in response to the climate change is essentially a challenge of risk management, most studies of the relation of emissions targets to desired climate outcomes are either deterministic or subject to a ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

58

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, China’sthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Quantifying the benefits of hybrid vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency range and obtaining additional power from an electric motor.efficiency, and emissions. The computer controls when the gasoline engine and electric motorelectric motors that use electricity stored in batteries. The purpose of these hybrid designs is to increase efficiency.

Turrentine, Tom; Delucchi, Mark; Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sun, Yongling

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Analysis of Emissions Calculators for the National Center of Excellence on Displaced Emission Reductions (CEDER): Annual Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In August 2004, the USEPA issued guidance on quantifying the air emission benefits from electric sector energy efficiency and renewable energy. Because there was no clear best strategy, the EPA’s guidance provided a framework and the basic...

Yazdani, Bahman; Culp, Charles; Haberl, Jeff; Baltazar, Juan-Carlos; Do, Sung Lok

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx emissions, heat rate, gross load and capacity factor of 32 units from 9 different power plants were analyzed Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

Frey, H. Christopher

62

Quantifier rank spectrum of L-infinity-omega  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Part A we will study the quantifier rank spectrum of sentences of L!1,!. We will show that there are scattered sentences with models of arbitrarily high but bounded quantifier rank. We will also consider the case of ...

Ackerman, Nathaniel Leedom

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying National Energy Savings Potential of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings Alison of Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings Alison Williams, Barbara Atkinson, Karina Garbesi and Francis savings. Researchers have been quantifying energy savings from lighting controls in commercial buildings

64

Accelerator target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Accelerator target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Quantifying the Performance of Quantum Codes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the properties of error correcting codes for noise models in the presence of asymmetries and/or correlations by means of the entanglement fidelity and the code entropy. First, we consider a dephasing Markovian memory channel and characterize the performance of both a repetition code and an error avoiding code in terms of the entanglement fidelity. We also consider the concatenation of such codes and show that it is especially advantageous in the regime of partial correlations. Finally, we characterize the effectiveness of the codes and their concatenation by means of the code entropy and find, in particular, that the effort required for recovering such codes decreases when the error probability decreases and the memory parameter increases. Second, we consider both symmetric and asymmetric depolarizing noisy quantum memory channels and perform quantum error correction via the five qubit stabilizer code. We characterize this code by means of the entanglement fidelity and the code entropy as function of the asymmetric error probabilities and the degree of memory. Specifically, we uncover that while the asymmetry in the depolarizing errors does not affect the entanglement fidelity of the five qubit code, it becomes a relevant feature when the code entropy is used as a performance quantifier.

C. Cafaro; S. L'Innocente; C. Lupo; S. Mancini

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

Quantifying the Air Pollution Exposure Consequences of Distributed Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

species) control technology criteria pollutant air pollutantControl Cogen Urban Santa Maria Elevated Data sources: Emissions: 1999 National Emissions Inventory for Hazardous Air Pollutants (

Heath, Garvin A.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; Nazaroff, William W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Consequences of Mixed Pixels on Temperature Emissivity Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report investigates the effect that a mixed pixel can have on temperature/emissivity seperation (i.e. temperature/emissivity estimation using long-wave infra-red data). Almost all temperature/emissivity estimation methods are based on a model that assumes both temperature and emissivity within the imaged pixel is homogeneous. A mixed pixel has heterogeneous temperature/emissivity and therefore does not satisfy the assumption. Needless to say, this heterogeneity causes biases in the estimates and this report quantifies the magnitude of the biases.

Heasler, Patrick G.; Foley, Michael G.; Thompson, Sandra E.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Quantifying Offshore Wind Resources from Satellite Wind Maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Offshore Wind Resources from Satellite Wind Maps: Study Area the North Sea C. B National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark Offshore wind resources are quantified from satellite synthetic site at Horns Rev is given based on satellite SAR observa- tions.The comparison of offshore satellite

Pryor, Sara C.

70

Optical emission in magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was investigated by studying the optical emission from laser-induced plasma plumes expanding across an external transverse magnetic field. KrF excimer laser pulses with a pulse duration of 23 ns and a wavelength of 248 nm were used to produce plasmas from Al, Cu, and Co targets. Various optical emission lines obtained from Al and Cu targets show an obvious enhancement in the intensity of optical emission when a magnetic field of {approx}0.8 T is applied, while the optical emission lines from Co targets show a decrease in the optical emission intensity. The enhancement factors of optical emission lines were measured to be around 2 for the Al and Mn (impurity) lines from Al targets, and 6-8 for Cu lines from Cu targets. Temporal evolution of the optical emission lines from the Al samples shows a maximum enhancement in emission intensity at time delays of 8-20 {mu}s after the incident laser pulse, while from the Cu targets it shows a continuous enhancement at time delays of 3-20 {mu}s after the pulse. The enhancement in the optical emission from the Al and Cu plasmas was presumably due to the increase in the effective plasma density as a result of magnetic confinement. The decrease in the emission intensity from the Co plasmas was suggested to be due to the decrease of effective plasma density as a result of the magnetic force.

Shen, X. K.; Lu, Y. F.; Gebre, T.; Ling, H.; Han, Y. X. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping Fu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYTICAL EMISSION MODELS FOR SIGNALISED ARTERIALS Bruce Hellinga, Mohammad Ali Khan, and Liping for quantifying vehicle tailpipe emissions. In this paper we present non-linear regression models that can be used for emission data is examined using field data. The proposed models have adjusted R 2 values ranging from 0

Hellinga, Bruce

72

Quantifying Stove Emissions Related to Different Use Patterns for the Silvermini  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kirchstetter, Jonathan Slack, Larry Dale Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor apparatus used for measuring gas sampled directly from the stove chimney. We thank the "Building 75c cook Abstract Air pollution levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia's capital, are among the highest in the world

73

Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called â??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,â?ť and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named â??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.â?ť This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: â?˘ Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. â?˘ Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. â?˘ Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. â?˘ Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. â?˘ Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: â?˘ Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. â?˘ Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. â?˘ Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. â?˘ Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: â?˘ Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. â?˘ The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvemen

None

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target Chamber The interior of the NIF target chamber. The service module carrying technicians can be seen on the left. The target...

75

The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper applies the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus on Japan. The analysis demonstrates the implications of the use ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

76

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target Chamber A service system lift allows technicians to access the target chamber interior for inspection and maintenance. Photo Number:...

77

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

QUANTIFYING THE CONVERGENCE TIME OF DISTRIBUTED DESIGN PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUANTIFYING THE CONVERGENCE TIME OF DISTRIBUTED DESIGN PROCESSES Erich Devendorf Research Engineer design processes. In distributed design, large systems are decomposed into smaller, coupled design individual objectives. The number of iterations required to reach equilibrium solutions in distributed design

Lewis, Kemper E.

79

Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources Anupama Kowli and George in the electricity industry. In particular, there is a new class of consumers, called demand response resources (DRRs

Gross, George

80

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Shale Gas and Climate Targets: Can They Be Reconciled?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and Climate Targets: Can They Be Reconciled? Mark Jaccard and Brad Griffin School greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 33% below their 2007 level by 2020. By 2050, it has committed to emissions to promote the exploitation of highly valuable provincial natural gas resources in spite of the challenges

Pedersen, Tom

83

First SNS Target Replacement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First SNS Target Replacement Experience M. Dayton, M. Rennich, Van Graves, J. DeVore Presented by T.S. Department of Energy AHIP Workshop Oct. 2009 Overview · Initial Target Replacement · Target Maintenance-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy AHIP Workshop Oct. 2009 First SNS Target Replacement · Replacement

McDonald, Kirk

84

MECO Production Target Developments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be reoptimized Tungsten target Simulations of design parameters with GEANT3 indicate that both production targetMECO Production Target Developments James L. Popp University of California, Irvine NuFact'03 Columbia, June, 2003 #12;June, 2003J.L.Popp, UCI MECO Production Target 2 MECO Collaboration Institute

McDonald, Kirk

85

Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

86

KullbackLeibler Distances for Quantifying Clutter and Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effectiveness on model­based automatic target recognition systems with FLIR sensors. The measure for clutter, pattern theory, performance analysis, infrared, FLIR 1 Introduction Designers of automatic target

Lanterman, Aaron

87

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

Holt, Roy J. (Downers Grove, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Polarized internal target apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

Holt, R.J.

1984-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

89

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Magnetically attached sputter targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target A NIF target contains a polished capsule about two millimeters in diameter, filled with cryogenic (super-cooled) hydrogen fuel. Photo...

92

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target Chamber This view from the bottom of the chamber shows the target positioner being inserted. Pulses from NIF's high-powered lasers...

93

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Hohlraum A metallic case called a hohlraum holds the fuel capsule for NIF experiments. Target handling systems precisely position the target...

94

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target Chamber Temperatures of 100 million degrees and pressures extreme enough to compress the target to densities up to 100 times the...

95

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to Index Target Chamber Viewing Window A new viewing window recently installed on the NIF Target Chamber will allow members of the NIF team and visitors to see inside the...

96

Project No.: 003893 (GOCE) Quantifying the Climate Impact of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to look at alternative fuels, with special focus on CO2 reduction options. Ozone precursors will still of most proposals for mitigation is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through reducing energy use emission scenarios that are explicitly designed as mitigation scenarios for all the transport sectors

Haak, Hein

97

High Power Cryogenic Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

Gregory Smith

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Shahab D. Mohaghegh, WVU, ISI Quantifying Uncertainties Associated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Shahab D. Mohaghegh, WVU, ISI Quantifying Uncertainties Associated with Reservoir Simulation Solutions, Inc. SPE 102492 #12;2 Shahab D. Mohaghegh, WVU, ISI SPE 102492 Outline Reservoir Simulation Uncertainty, Using Surrogate Reservoir Model #12;3 Shahab D. Mohaghegh, WVU, ISI SPE 102492 Sources

Mohaghegh, Shahab

99

SHORT COMMUNICATION Quantifying the effects of individual and environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SHORT COMMUNICATION Quantifying the effects of individual and environmental variability in fish ABSTRACT The effect of environmental variability on fish recruitment is analysed using simple linear growth in recruited fish, and in the mean observed growth rate of the overall population. These conclu- sions

James, Alex

100

RESEARCH Open Access Quantifying and understanding carbon storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Quantifying and understanding carbon storage and sequestration within: The carbon stored in vegetation varies across tropical landscapes due to a complex mix of climatic: We produce a map of carbon storage across the watershed of the Tanzanian Eastern Arc Mountains (33

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Quantifying the Impact of Daylight Saving Clock Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the Impact of Daylight Saving Clock Changes on Energy Consumption Simon I. Hill of Daylight Saving Clock Changes on Energy Consumption Simon I. Hill, Frédéric Desobry and Yu-Foong Chong May DST Daylight Saving Time EIA Energy Information Administration GDP Gross Domestic Product GMT

Hill, Simon I.

102

QUANTIFYING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND THE HEAT IT GENERATES Dana Longcope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in many aspects of coronal activity including the general process of coronal heating. Magnetic of that structure. Key words: Magnetic reconnection. 1. INTRODUCTION Models for heating the solar coronaQUANTIFYING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND THE HEAT IT GENERATES Dana Longcope Department of Physics

Longcope, Dana

103

Contributed Paper Using Changes in Agricultural Utility to Quantify  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contributed Paper Using Changes in Agricultural Utility to Quantify Future Climate-Induced Risk to Conservation LYNDON D. ESTES, LYDIE-LINE PAROZ, BETHANY A. BRADLEY,§ JONATHAN M.H. GREEN, DAVID G. HOLE to be mediated through changes in the agricultural utility of land. As farmers adapt their practices to changing

Bradley, Bethany

104

Dynamically Quantifying and Improving the Reliability of Distributed Storage Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamically Quantifying and Improving the Reliability of Distributed Storage Systems Rekha Bachwani-scale storage systems can be significantly improved by using bet- ter reliability metrics and more efficient on a distributed storage system based on erasure codes. We find that MinI improves relia- bility significantly

Bianchini, Ricardo

105

The Need for SPIRIT DEMs to Quantify Antarctic Ice Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

appropriate mask ­ SPIRIT has the data and could produce the necessary DEMs #12;Conclusions · Antarctic iceThe Need for SPIRIT DEMs to Quantify Antarctic Ice Sheet Discharge Robert Bindschadler NASA & UMBC #12;Antarctic Ice Sheet Discharge · 33 largest, most active basins account for 840 Gt/a (Rignot

Berthier, Etienne

106

On Computing Belief Change Operations using Quantified Boolean Formulas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Computing Science Simon Fraser University Burnaby, B.C. Canada V5A 1S6 jim@cs.sfu.ca Torsten Schaub Institut an approach to belief revision and belief contraction can be ax- iomatised by means of quantified Boolean revision, contraction, update, and merging. For both the general approach and for specific operators, we

Tompits, Hans

107

Quantifying Security in Hybrid Cellular Markus Jakobsson1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Security in Hybrid Cellular Networks Markus Jakobsson1 and Liu Yang2 1 School and recipients to provide auditing information. Our scheme is an exten- sion of [6], where the authors addressed be expected from the use of this approach. For one thing, the energy consumption of the mobile device can

108

Quantifying global marine isoprene fluxes using MODIS chlorophyll observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with considerable spatial and temporal variability, resulting in a global annual total of 0.1 Tg C/yr. Air vegetation [Guenther et al., 1995], with the tropics responsible for most of the global annual total ($500 TgQuantifying global marine isoprene fluxes using MODIS chlorophyll observations Paul I. Palmer

Palmer, Paul

109

Expressing Default Abduction Problems as Quantified Boolean Formulas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Expressing Default Abduction Problems as Quantified Boolean Formulas Hans Tompits Institut f@kr.tuwien.ac.at Abduction is the process of finding explanations for observed phenomena in accord to known laws about, we deal with a model for abduction in which the domain knowledge is represented in terms of a default

Tompits, Hans

110

Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines Stephen Rosea , Paulina Jaramilloa,1. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind

Jaramillo, Paulina

111

NCSEC'07 Plano, TX Risk-Based Quantifiable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of cost, usage, quality, defect, performance, etc. "80:20" rule or Pareto's principle. Units: component (UBST) Other focused quality assurance · UBST = OP-guided testing Capture user/usage information UsageNCSEC'07 Plano, TX Risk-Based Quantifiable Quality Improvement Jeff Tian (tian

Tian, Jeff

112

STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

Katz, Richard

113

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fates of methane from different lake habitats: Connecting whole-lake budgets and CH4 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fates of methane from different lake habitats: Connecting whole-lake budgets and CH4 emissions September 2007; revised 3 February 2008; accepted 28 February 2008; published 24 May 2008. [1] Methane (CH4 clear. We quantified internal cycling and methane emissions in three lakes during summer stratification

Pace, Michael L.

115

Combustion Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codes andDepartment ofPressure SamplingEnergy

116

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Review - 2011 (so far) Tim Johnson October 4, 2011 DOE DEER Conference, Detroit JohnsonTV@Corning.com 2 Summary * California LD criteria emission regs are tightening....

117

Target Cost Management Strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

Okano, Hiroshi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental reduction target of 40­45% relative to 2005 and a non-fossil primary energy target of 15% by 2020. DuringThe Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu

119

Neutrino Factory Target Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 26 June 2012 Cooling Channel in both walls for draining · Downstream end can be shortened, assuming the window cooling is adequate #12;11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 26 June 2012 Remote Handling

McDonald, Kirk

120

Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman and Annelne Decaux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman the advantages of emissions trading. In this paper, the authors derive MACs from EPPA, the MIT Joint Program the benefits of emissions trading in achieving the emission reduction targets implied by the Kyoto Protocol

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

122

Quantifying the Value of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This PowerPoint slide deck was originally presented at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power Program Review by Paul Denholm and Mark Mehos of NREL on April 23, 2013. Entitled "Quantifying the Value of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage," the presenters seek to answer the question, "What is the addition of TES to a CSP plant actually worth?" Ultimately they conclude that CSP with TES can actually complement other variable generation sources including solar PV and act as an enabling technology to achieve higher overall penetration of renewable energy.

123

Quantifying Uncertainty in Computer Predictions | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvancedJanuaryNETL-2010/????QualityQuality atQuantifying

124

Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

Yi, S. A., E-mail: austinyi@lanl.gov; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Macro-coherent two photon and radiative neutrino pair emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss a possibility of detecting a coherent photon pair emission and related radiative neutrino pair emission from excited atoms. It is shown that atoms of lambda- and ladder-type three level system placed in a pencil-like cylinder give a back to back emission of two photons of equal energy $\\Delta/2$, sharply peaked with a width $\\propto $ 1/(target size) and well collimated along the cylinder axis. This process has a measurable rate $\\propto$ (target number density) $^2 \\times$ target volume, while a broader spectral feature of one-photon distribution separated by (mass sum of a neutrino pair)$^2/(2\\Delta)$ from the two photon peak may arise from radiative neutrino pair emission, with a much smaller rate.

M. Yoshimura; C. Ohae; A. Fukumi; K. Nakajima; I. Nakano; H. Nanjo; N. Sasao

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

Method of producing tungsten-titanium sputter targets and targets produced thereby  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for preparing a tungsten-titanium sputter target having substantially no [beta](Ti,W) phase present and exhibiting improvement in reduction of particulate emission upon sputtering, comprising: (a) providing powders of said tungsten and titanium wherein said titanium powder is present in an amount of about 1-20 wt. % based on the total weight of said tungsten and titanium powders provided; (b) compacting said powders at a pressure of from about 200 to 1,000 MPa; and (c) heating said powders at a temperature from about 600-882 C. A method for preparing a tungsten-titanium sputtering target having substantially no [beta](Ti,W) phase present and exhibiting improvement in reduction of particulate emission upon sputtering.

Wickersham, C.E. Jr.; Mueller, J.J.

1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

127

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management is significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model, scenario and parameter uncertainties contribute. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential procedure for quantifying uncertainty is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of procedure is illustrated by a case-study. - Abstract: Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining the selected methods: (Step 1) a sensitivity analysis evaluating the sensitivities of the results with respect to the input uncertainties, (Step 2) an uncertainty propagation providing appropriate tools for representing uncertainties and calculating the overall uncertainty of the model results, (Step 3) an uncertainty contribution analysis quantifying the contribution of each parameter uncertainty to the final uncertainty and (Step 4) as a new approach, a combined sensitivity analysis providing a visualisation of the shift in the ranking of different options due to variations of selected key parameters. This tiered approach optimises the resources available to LCA practitioners by only propagating the most influential uncertainties.

Clavreul, Julie, E-mail: julc@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Guyonnet, Dominique [BRGM, ENAG BRGM-School, BP 6009, 3 Avenue C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Add a target for Carbon Intensity ES-2 Monitoring,Add a target for Carbon Intensity Given the government’starget for reduction of carbon intensity (CO 2 emissions per

Levine, Mark D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050 Pascal da mitigation targets for CO2 emissions, which reflect their own specific situations. In this article, scenarios for CO2 emissions up to 2050 are set up for three representative countries: the United States of America

Boyer, Edmond

131

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Hohlraum This artist's rendering shows a NIF target pellet inside a hohlraum capsule with laser beams entering through openings on either...

132

In the Target Area  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 22 | Next | Last Back to Index NIF Target Chamber On March 10, 2009, at 3:15 a.m., a 192-beam laser shot delivered 1.1 million joules of ultraviolet light to the center of the...

133

SNS Target Systems Operational  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a failed gas seal on the shaft and leaking oil seals but has operated well since then · The moderator 7.5 k First target replacement · No observed corrosion · Internal Boroscope examination in progress · ~ 50 mm

McDonald, Kirk

134

BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

135

Quantifier elimination for approximate Beals-Kartashova factorization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The only known constructive factorization algorithm for linear partial differential operators (LPDOs) is Beals-Kartashova (BK) factorization \\cite{bk2005}. One of the most interesting features of BK-factorization: at the beginning all the first-order factors are constructed and afterwards the factorization condition(s) should be checked. This leads to the important application area - namely, numerical simulations which could be simplified substantially if instead of computation with one LPDE of order $n$ we will be able to proceed computations with $n$ LPDEs all of order 1. In numerical simulations it is not necessary to fulfill factorization conditions exactly but with some given accuracy, which we call approximate factorization. The idea of the present paper is to look into the feasibility of solving problems of this kind using quantifier elinination by cylindrical algebraic decomposition.

Elena Kartashova; Scott McCallum

2007-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

The Local Dimension: a method to quantify the Cosmic Web  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is now well accepted that the galaxies are distributed in filaments, sheets and clusters all of which form an interconnected network known as the Cosmic Web. It is a big challenge to quantify the shapes of the interconnected structural elements that form this network. Tools like the Minkowski functionals which use global properties, though well suited for an isolated object like a single sheet or filament, are not suited for an interconnected network of such objects. We consider the Local Dimension $D$, defined through $N(R)=A R^D$, where $N(R)$ is the galaxy number count within a sphere of comoving radius $R$ centered on a particular galaxy, as a tool to locally quantify the shape in the neigbourhood of different galaxies along the Cosmic Web. We expect $D \\sim 1,2$ and 3 for a galaxy located in a filament, sheet and cluster respectively. Using LCDM N-body simulations we find that it is possible to determine $D$ through a power law fit to $N(R)$ across the length-scales 2 to $10 {\\rm Mpc}$ for $\\sim 33 %$ of the galaxies. We have visually identified the filaments and sheets corresponding to many of the galaxies with $D \\sim 1$ and 2 respectively. In several other situations the structure responsible for the $D$ value could not be visually identified, either due to its being tenuous or due to other dominating structures in the vicinity. We also show that the global distribution of the $D$ values can be used to visualize and interpret how the different structural elements are woven into the Cosmic Web.

Prakash Sarkar; Somnath Bharadwaj

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

137

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Excess Emissions (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

139

Emissions Trading and Social Justice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

Farber, Daniel A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Sectoral targets for developing countries: Combining "Common but differentiated responsibilities"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as also is the impact on the electricity price. Keywords Sectoral approach, sectoral target, developing-type absolute commitments, whilst developing countries adopt an emission trading system limited to electricity are auctioned by the government, which distributes its revenues lump-sum to households. In a second scenario

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

142

Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive ...

Thornhill, D. A.

143

Foam encapsulated targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Target | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump to:Taos County, New Mexico: EnergyTarget GmbH Jump to:Target

145

GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and reactivity of supercritical CO{sub 2} in coal-bearing strata is unknown, and potential exists for supercritical conditions to develop below a depth of 2,480 feet following abandonment of the coalbed methane fields. High-pressure adsorption isotherms confirm that coal sorbs approximately twice as much CO{sub 2} as CH{sub 4} and approximately four times as much CO{sub 2} as N{sub 2}. Analysis of isotherm data reveals that the sorption performance of each gas can vary by a factor of two depending on rank and ash content. Gas content data exhibit extreme vertical and lateral variability that is the product of a complex burial history involving an early phase of thermogenic gas generation and an ongoing stage of late biogenic gas generation. Production characteristics of coalbed methane wells are helpful for identifying areas that are candidates for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Many geologic and engineering factors, including well construction, well spacing, and regional structure influence well performance. Close fault spacing limits areas where five-spot patterns may be developed for enhanced gas recovery, but large structural panels lacking normal faults are in several gas fields and can be given priority as areas to demonstrate and commercialize carbon sequestration technology in coalbed methane reservoirs.

Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating surface emissions. Until recently, dedicated research-grade instruments have been required  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG columns · Quantifying local to regional GHG enhancements for emissions inventory verificationAbstract Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating with another Cessna 210 over Central California quantified enhancements in CO2 and CH4 from urban

149

Quantifying the Thermal Behavior of Slags (TRP 9903)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful operation of a continuous caster is based upon control of heat transfer in the mold. The mold slag is a key component in the success of continuous casting; however, the phenomena that occur in the gap between the shell and the mold are largely unknown as until recently there have been no techniques that allowed visualization and quantification of the solidification behavior of liquid slags. This has lead to slag design being an empirical science or art. Recently a new experimental technique, called Double Hot Thermocouple Technique (DHTT), was developed at Carnegie Mellon University that allowed the solidification behavior of a slag to be observed and quantified under conditions that simulate the thermal conditions that occur in steelmaking environments. This technique allows ladle, tundish and mold slags to be characterized under extreme conditions including those found between the mold wall and the growing shell of a continuous caster. Thus, a program is initiated, under this grant, to quantify and describe the phenomena that occur during the solidification of a slag in a steel mill environment. This will allow slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise. The project deliverables were as follows: (1) The further development of a tool that will have broad use in the quantification of slag melting and solidification behavior; and (2) The development of a set of meaningful design criteria for slag application in steel mill environments. The project was broken down into a number of objectives: (a) Develop a systematic understanding of the effect of cooling rate on slag solidification; (b) Develop a systematic understanding on the effect of slag chemistry changes on slag solidification behavior; (c) Develop a method to characterize slag melting; (d) Develop an understanding of the role of the environment on slag solidification and melting; (e) Develop the ability to understand slag solidification under the conditions that occur in a continuous caster; (f) Develop an ability to predict the solidification behavior of slags; and (g) Develop the criteria for optimization of slags in steelmaking environments where they are under thermal gradients.

Alan W. Cramb

2003-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

150

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Future Fixed Target Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

ISAC target vacuum system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF has been in full operation since 1999. The ISAC east and west targets use proton beam from the cyclotron to produce various radioactive isotopes, which are then ionized and extracted. The ions are then passed through the mass separator and selected ions are transferred to the low energy experiments or injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The accompanying radioactive contamination from the production of radioactive ions requires a complex vacuum system. The main target vacuum space consists of two semiseparate (primary and secondary) volumes pumped by turbo-molecular pumps. The primary volume uses four pumps while the secondary volume uses two pumps. Two hermetic rotary vane pumps are used as backing pumps. The nominal vacuum in both volumes is about 1.33x10{sup -4} Pa (1.0x10{sup -6} Torr). The pressure is monitored by two cold cathode and two hot filament ion gauges. The cold cathode gauges are used to interlock the system, which is critical during the bake out of the target and beam production. The exhaust gas from the vacuum pumps can be radioactive. Three gas storage tanks (decay tanks) are used for temporary storage of the radioactive exhaust and its controlled release to the atmosphere. Gas-species insensitive membrane gauges are used for monitoring the pressure in the storage tanks. This article describes the details of the ISAC target vacuum system as well as some procedures related to the handling of the exhaust gas with traces of radioactive contamination produced by the targets.

Yosifov, Dimo; Sekachev, Igor [TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Solid Target Options S. Childress  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite beam power) · High beam power solid targets frequently use higher z materials for increased yield plusSolid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam

McDonald, Kirk

154

Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for quantifying optical properties of the human lens. The present invention includes the application of fiberoptic, OMA-based instrumentation as an in vivo diagnostic tool for the human ocular lens. Rapid, noninvasive and comprehensive assessment of the optical characteristics of a lens using very modest levels of exciting light are described. Typically, the backscatter and fluorescence spectra (from about 300- to 900-nm) elicited by each of several exciting wavelengths (from about 300- to 600-nm) are collected within a few seconds. The resulting optical signature of individual lenses is then used to assess the overall optical quality of the lens by comparing the results with a database of similar measurements obtained from a reference set of normal human lenses having various ages. Several metrics have been identified which gauge the optical quality of a given lens relative to the norm for the subject`s chronological age. These metrics may also serve to document accelerated optical aging and/or as early indicators of cataract or other disease processes. 8 figs.

Loree, T.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Zuclich, J.A.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Strobl, K.

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens. The present invention includes the application of fiberoptic, OMA-based instrumentation as an in vivo diagnostic tool for the human ocular lens. Rapid, noninvasive and comprehensive assessment of the optical characteristics of a lens using very modest levels of exciting light are described. Typically, the backscatter and fluorescence spectra (from about 300- to 900-nm) elicited by each of several exciting wavelengths (from about 300- to 600-nm) are collected within a few seconds. The resulting optical signature of individual lenses is then used to assess the overall optical quality of the lens by comparing the results with a database of similar measurements obtained from a reference set of normal human lenses having various ages. Several metrics have been identified which gauge the optical quality of a given lens relative to the norm for the subject's chronological age. These metrics may also serve to document accelerated optical aging and/or as early indicators of cataract or other disease processes.

Loree, deceased, Thomas R. (late of Albuquerque, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Zuclich, Joseph A. (San Antonio, TX); Shimada, Tsutomu (Los Alamos, NM); Strobl, Karlheinz (Fiskdale, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Quantifying 3D Reconnection in Fragmented Current Layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is growing evidence that when magnetic reconnection occurs in high Lundquist number plasmas such as in the Solar Corona or the Earth's Magnetosphere it does so within a fragmented, rather than a smooth current layer. Within the extent of these fragmented current regions the associated magnetic flux transfer and energy release occurs simultaneously in many different places. This investigation focusses on how best to quantify the rate at which reconnection occurs in such layers. An analytical theory is developed which describes the manner in which new connections form within fragmented current layers in the absence of magnetic nulls. It is shown that the collective rate at which new connections form can be characterized by two measures; a total rate which measures the true rate at which new connections are formed and a net rate which measures the net change of connection associated with the largest value of the integral of $E_{\\|}$ through all of the non-ideal regions. Two simple analytical models are pre...

Wyper, Peter F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Anomalous Microwave Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved knowledge of diffuse Galactic emission is important to maximize the scientific return from scheduled CMB anisotropy missions. Cross-correlation of microwave maps with maps of the far-IR dust continuum show a ubiquitous microwave emission component whose spatial distribution is traced by far-IR dust emission. The spectral index of this emission, beta_{radio} = -2.2 (+0.5 -0.7) is suggestive of free-free emission but does not preclude other candidates. Comparison of H-alpha and microwave results show that both data sets have positive correlations with the far-IR dust emission. Microwave data, however, are consistently brighter than can be explained solely from free-free emission traced by H-alpha. This ``anomalous'' microwave emission can be explained as electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The anomalous component at 53 GHz is 2.5 times as bright as the free-free emission traced by H-alpha, providing an approximate normalization for models with significant spinning dust emission.

A. Kogut

1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

160

Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Policies and Measures International and United State Programs - Kyoto Protocol - European Union Emission Trading Scheme - California Global Warming Solutions Act - Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative #0;z Strategies for Expanding Buildings Role Buildings... Emission Targets in 2008-2012 for 37 Annex I Countries Which Have Ratified It ? Relies Primarily on Policies and Measures ? Flexibility Measures Include CDMs and JIs #0;z European Climate Change Program ? Reflects EU’s Leadership in Implementing Kyoto...

Millhone, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Tim Johnson October 16, 2012 2 Environmental Technologies Summary * Regulations - LEVIII finalized, Tier 3? RDE in Europe developing and very...

163

Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sedimentary basins. 1. Introduction #12;In recent years emissions of carbon dioxide from the UK electricity of these measures for deployment in 2020 depends entirely on final UK carbon emission targets and the abilityScope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment

Haszeldine, Stuart

164

Quantifying Improvement in NDE Techniques for Inspecting Nickel-base Alloys in an International Cooperative Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we describe an atlas that is being created in an international program for use by participants in quantifying NDE effectiveness for varying crack parameters.

Schuster, George J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality quantified Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Current Research Projects Summary: , to quantify the effect of transboundary pollution on air quality. Ozone trends and interannual variability... Research's Community...

166

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Flight Path Target 2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. TheEPSCI HomeTours, Programs and2 This flight2 Target 2

168

Advanced Target Effects Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation PortalScience of SignaturesAdvanced Target

169

Time dependence of delayed neutron emission for fissionable isotope identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The time dependence of delayed neutron emission was examined as a method of fissionable isotope identification. A pulsed bremsstrahlung photon beam was used to induce photofission reactions in {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 239}Pu targets. The resulting delayed neutron emission was recorded between irradiating pulses and is a well-known technique for fissionable material detection. Monitoring the decay of delayed neutron emission between irradiating pulses demonstrates the ability to not only detect the presence of fissionable materials, but also to identify which fissionable isotope is present.

Kinlaw, M.T.; Hunt, A.W. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8263 (United States); Department of Physics, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8106 (United States)

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

170

Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate the potential synergy between pollution and climate control in the U.S. and China, summarizing the results as emissions cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ...

Nam, Kyung-Min

173

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

174

Rotating Target Development for SNS Second Target Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rotating target for the second target station (STS) at SNS has been identified as an option along with a mercury target. Evaluation of the rotating target alternative for STS has started at 1.5 MW which is considered an upper bound for the power. Previous preconceptual design work for a 3 MW rotating target is being modified for the lower power level. Transient thermal analysis for a total loss of active water cooling has been done for a simplified 2D model of the target and shielding monolith which shows that peak temperatures are well below the level at which tungsten vaporization by steam could exceed site boundary dose limits. Design analysis and integration configuration studies have been done for the target-moderator-reflector assembly which maximizes the number of neutron beam lines and provides for replacement of the target and moderators. Target building hot cell arrangement for this option will be described. An option for operation in rough vacuum without a proton beam window using Ferro fluid seals on a vertical shaft is being developed. A full scale prototypic drive module based on the 3 MW preconceptual design has been fabricated and successfully tested with a shaft and mock up target supplied by the ESS-Bilbao team. Overall planning leading to decision between mercury and the rotating target in 2011 will be discussed

McManamy, Thomas J [ORNL; Rennich, Mark J [ORNL; Crawford, Roy K [ORNL; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Janney, Jim G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Quantifying Technology Infusion and Policy Impact on Low Earth Orbit Communication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Technology Infusion and Policy Impact on Low Earth Orbit Communication Satellite Students #12;2 #12;Quantifying Technology Infusion and Policy Impact on Low Earth Orbit Communication-Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics and Technology and Policy Program Abstract Technology infusion

177

Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate Holger Rootzen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate Holger Rootzen1 and Richard W. Katz2 of return levels and return periods have been standard and important tools for engineering design. However, whether local or global. In this paper, we propose a refined concept, Design Life Level, which quantifies

Katz, Richard

178

SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF MINING-RELATED AND NATURAL ACID ROCK DRAINAGE QUANTIFIED USING TRACER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOURCES AND EFFECTS OF MINING-RELATED AND NATURAL ACID ROCK DRAINAGE QUANTIFIED USING TRACER, and Architectural Engineering 2006 #12;ii This thesis entitled: Sources and Effects of Mining-Related and Natural Acid Rock Drainage Quantified Using Tracer Dilution, Coal Creek Watershed, Gunnison County, Colorado

Ryan, Joe

179

A QUANTIFIER ELIMINATION FOR THE THEORY OF P-ADIC NUMBERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A QUANTIFIER ELIMINATION FOR THE THEORY OF P-ADIC NUMBERS Lavinia Egidi Abstract. This paper presents a detailed analysis of a quantifier elimi- nation algorithm for the first order theory of p-adic numbers based on a p-adic analogue of the cylindric algebraic decomposition. It is believed

Egidi, Lavinia

180

Characterization of wound monitoring systems used to quantify and locate plutonium contamination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When an accident involving the possibility of a plutonium contaminated wound occurs, the contamination is often quantified using sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and high purity germanium (HPGe) detection systems. The NaI(Tl) system is used to quantify...

Dimmerling, Paul James

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Quantifying the Equilibrium and Irreversibility Properties of the Nucleotide Substitution Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying the Equilibrium and Irreversibility Properties of the Nucleotide Substitution Process and Irreversibility Properties of the Nucleotide Substitution Process ­ p.1 #12;A Crash Course in Molecular Evolution AGTCCCTTT Quantifying the Equilibrium and Irreversibility Properties of the Nucleotide Substitution Process

Spang, Rainer

182

Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems with Variable Resources Electric Energy System #12;#12;Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems benefits correspond to a real-world power system, as we use actual data on demand-response and wind

183

Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation indicator for quantifying wet scavenging. Specifically, nitric acid (HNO3), produced as a by-product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO

Palmer, Paul

184

Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

Kumar, Nikhil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

PDFs for nuclear targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding nuclear effects in parton distribution functions (PDF) is an essential component needed to determine the strange and anti-strange quark contributions in the proton. In addition Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions (NPDF) are critically important for any collider experiment with nuclei (e.g. RHIC, ALICE). Here two next-to-leading order chi^2-analyses of NPDF are presented. The first uses neutral current charged-lepton Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) and Drell-Yan data for several nuclear targets and the second uses neutrino-nucleon DIS data. We compare the nuclear corrections factors (F_2^Fe/F_2^D) for the charged-lepton data with other results from the literature. In particular, we compare and contrast fits based upon the charged-lepton DIS data with those using neutrino-nucleon DIS data.

Karol Kovarik

2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

186

ORION laser target diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

Watson, Andrew

188

Emission Abatement System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

189

Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Cerenkov emission is induced when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons in everyday radiation therapy of tissue; yet, this phenomenon has never been fully documented. This study quantifies the emissions and also demonstrates that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Methods: In this study, Cerenkov emission induced by radiation from a clinical linear accelerator is investigated. Biological mimicking phantoms were irradiated with x-ray photons, with energies of 6 or 18 MV, or electrons at energies 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 MeV. The Cerenkov emission and the induced molecular fluorescence were detected by a camera or a spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic cable. Results: It is shown that both x-ray photons and electrons, at MeV energies, produce optical Cerenkov photons in tissue mimicking media. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Conclusions: The results here indicate that molecular fluorescence monitoring during external beam radiotherapy is possible.

Axelsson, Johan; Davis, Scott C.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Trapped Between Two Tails: Trading Off Scientific Uncertainties via Climate Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate change policies must trade off uncertainties about future warming, about the social and ecological impacts of warming, and about the cost of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We show that laxer carbon targets produce broader distributions for climate damages, skewed towards severe outcomes. However, if potential low-carbon technologies fill overlapping niches, then more stringent carbon targets produce broader distributions for the cost of reducing emissions, skewed towards high-cost outcomes. We use the technology- rich GCAM integrated assessment model to assess the robustness of 450 ppm and 500 ppm carbon targets to each uncertain factor. The 500 ppm target provides net benefits across a broad range of futures. The 450 ppm target provides net benefits only when impacts are greater than conventionally assumed, when multiple technological breakthroughs lower the cost of abatement, or when evaluated with a low discount rate. Policy evaluations are more sensitive to uncertainty about abatement technology and impacts than to uncertainty about warming.

Lemoine, Derek M.; McJeon, Haewon C.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

191

A Global Volcano Product for Thermal Emission and Effusion Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for solar reflectance component #12;Hyperion Thermal Product: Basic ­Extract hot pixelsA Global Volcano Product for Thermal Emission and Effusion Rate: Hyperion of these have non-zero thermal signatures Geographical Distribution of Volcano Sensorweb Targets #12

Schaffer, Steven

192

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

193

Intelligent field emission arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Photon enhanced thermionic emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

196

Field emission electron source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

198

The OLYMPUS Internal Hydrogen Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An internal hydrogen target system was developed for the OLYMPUS experiment at DESY, in Hamburg, Germany. The target consisted of a long, thin-walled, tubular cell within an aluminum scattering chamber. Hydrogen entered at the center of the cell and exited through the ends, where it was removed from the beamline by a multistage pumping system. A cryogenic coldhead cooled the target cell to counteract heating from the beam and increase the density of hydrogen in the target. A fixed collimator protected the cell from synchrotron radiation and the beam halo. A series of wakefield suppressors reduced heating from beam wakefields. The target system was installed within the DORIS storage ring and was successfully operated during the course of the OLYMPUS experiment in 2012. Information on the design, fabrication, and performance of the target system is reported.

J. C. Bernauer; V. Carassiti; G. Ciullo; B. S. Henderson; E. Ihloff; J. Kelsey; P. Lenisa; R. Milner; A. Schmidt; M. Statera

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Photosensitizer Conjugates For Pathogen Targeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conjugate molecules which include photosensitizer compositions conjugated to non-antibody non-affinity pair targeting moieties and methods of making and using such conjugates are described.

Hasan, Tayyaba (Arlington, MA); Hamblin, Michael R. (Revere, MA); Soukos, Nikos (Revere, MA)

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

200

POLARIZED TARGET EXPERIMENT AT FERMILAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Experiment 61 at Fermilab, which is a large collaborationBernie Sandler, From From Fermilab. Alan Jonckheere andTARGET EXPERIMENT AT FERMILAB Owen Chamberlain January 1977

Chamberlain, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Target Space Duality III: Potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize previous results on target space duality to the case where there are background fields and the sigma model lagrangian has a potential function.

Orlando Alvarez; Blazej Ruszczycki

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Spectroscopic Measurements of Target Preheating on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The preheating of laser-heated microballoon targets has been measured by time-resolved x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (euv) spectroscopy on the 30 kJ, 351 nm, 60-beam laser-fusion system at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Thin coatings of aluminum overcoated with magnesium served as indicators. both the sequence of the x-ray line emission and the intensity of euv radiation were used to determine a preheating peaking at {approx} 10 ns prior to onset of the main laser pulse, with a power density {approx_equal}1% of the main pulse. The measurements are supported by numerical modeling. Further information is provided by absorption spectra from the aluminum coating, backlighted by continuum from the heated surface. The exact source of the preheating energy remains unknown at present, but most likely arrives from early laser leakage through the system. The present target diagnostic is particularly useful when all beams cannot be monitored directly at all laser wavelengths.

Elton, R.C.; Griem, H.R.; Iglesias, E.J.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

Target Selection for the LBTI Exozodi Key Science Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS) on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer will survey nearby stars for faint emission arising from ~300 K dust (exozodiacal dust), and aims to determine the exozodiacal dust luminosity function. HOSTS results will enable planning for future space telescopes aimed at direct spectroscopy of habitable zone terrestrial planets, as well as greater understanding of the evolution of exozodiacal disks and planetary systems. We lay out here the considerations that lead to the final HOSTS target list. Our target selection strategy maximizes the ability of the survey to constrain the exozodi luminosity function by selecting a combination of stars selected for suitability as targets of future missions and as sensitive exozodi probes. With a survey of approximately 50 stars, we show that HOSTS can enable an understanding of the statistical distribution of warm dust around various types of stars and is robust to the effects of varying levels ...

Weinberger, Alycia J; Kennedy, Grant M; Roberge, Aki; Defrčre, Denis; Hinz, Philip M; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Rieke, George; Bailey, Vanessa P; Danchi, William C; Haniff, Chris; Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene; Skemer, Andrew J; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Wyatt, Mark C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

On the impact of CO{sub 2} emission-trading on power generation emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Europe one of the main policy instruments to meet the Kyoto reduction targets is CO{sub 2} emission-trading (CET), which was implemented as of January 2005. In this system, companies active in specific sectors must be in the possession of CO{sub 2} emission rights to an amount equal to their CO{sub 2} emission. In Europe, electricity generation accounts for one-third of CO{sub 2} emissions. Since the power generation sector has been liberalized, reregulated and privatized in the last decade, around Europe autonomous companies determine the sectors' CO{sub 2} emission. Short-term they adjust their operation, long-term they decide on (dis) investment in power generation facilities and technology selection. An agent-based model is presented to elucidate the effect of CET on the decisions of power companies in an oligopolistic market. Simulations over an extensive scenario-space show that there CET does have an impact. A long-term portfolio shift towards less-CO{sub 2} intensive power generation is observed. However, the effect of CET is relatively small and materializes late. The absolute emissions from power generation rise under most scenarios. This corresponds to the dominant character of current capacity expansion planned in the Netherlands (50%) and in Germany (68%), where companies have announced many new coal based power plants. Coal is the most CO{sub 2} intensive option available and it seems surprising that even after the introduction of CET these capacity expansion plans indicate a preference for coal. Apparently in power generation the economic effect of CO{sub 2} emission-trading is not sufficient to outweigh the economic incentives to choose for coal.

Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Quantifying stock-price response to demand fluctuations Vasiliki Plerou,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying stock-price response to demand fluctuations Vasiliki Plerou,1 Parameswaran Gopikrishnan, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 2 Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 Received 2 July 2001; revised manuscript received 13 May 2002

Stanley, H. Eugene

206

A framework for quantifying complexity and understanding its sources : application to tow large-scale systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The motivation for this work is to quantify the complexity of complex systems and to understand its sources. To study complexity, we develop a theoretical framework where the complex system of interest is embedded in a ...

Martin, Pierre-Alain J. Y

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Deciding Quantifier-Free Presburger Formulas Using Parameterized Solution Sanjit A. Seshia Randal E. Bryant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Randal E. Bryant Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave. Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA Sanjit.Seshia, Randy.Bryantˇ @cs.cmu.edu Abstract Given a formula ˘ in quantifier

Bryant, Randal E.

208

Quantifying and managing the risk of information security breaches participants in a supply chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technical integration between companies can result in an increased risk of information security breaches. This thesis proposes a methodology for quantifying information security risk to a supply chain participant. Given a ...

Bellefeuille, Cynthia Lynn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Quantifying subaqueous slope stability during seismic shaking: Lake Lucerne as model for ocean margins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying subaqueous slope stability during seismic shaking: Lake Lucerne as model for ocean-deltaic lateral slopes in perialpine, fjord-type Lake Lucerne (Central Switzerland); (ii) their control

Gilli, Adrian

210

Quantifying plasticity-independent creep compliance and relaxation of viscoelastoplastic materials under contact loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we quantify the time-dependent mechanical properties of a linear viscoelastoplastic material under contact loading. For contact load relaxation, we showed that the relaxation modulus can be measured independently of ...

Vandamme, Matthieu

211

A New Analytical Method to Quantify Residual Fluid Cleanup in Hydraulic Fractures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydraulic fracturing fluid has always been a major issue, and is believed to drastically undermine the performance of hydraulically fractured wells. Several attempts have been made to quantify the damage associated with residual fluid, with varying level...

Zarrin, Tahira

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

VERTEX CHAMBERS TARGET CELL CALORIMETER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DRIFT VC 1/2 FC 1/2 VERTEX CHAMBERS TARGET CELL DVC MC 1­3 HODOSCOPE H0 MONITOR BC 1/2 BC 3/4 TRD at Threashold Lambda Physics (u ­L spin transfer) Motivation: ­ W L Target cell e beam L p p e ­ Elastic: Peltier elements ( T ~ ­20C ) ­ Custom built electronics + HELIX chips low autgassing (

213

Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also quantified during selected studies. A laboratory was established at WVU to provide for studies which supported and augmented the Translab research, and to provide for development of superior emissions measurement systems. This laboratory research focused on engine control and fuel sulfur issues. In recent years, as engine and aftertreatment technologies advanced, emissions levels were reduced such that they were at or below the Translab detectable limits, and in the same time frame the US Environmental Protection Agency required improved measurement methodologies for engine emissions certification. To remain current and relevant, the researchers designed a new Translab analytic system, housed in a container which can be transported on a semi-trailer. The new system's dilution tunnel flow was designed to use a subsonic venturi with closed loop control of blower speed, and the secondary dilution and particulate matter filter capture were designed to follow new EPA engine certification procedures. A further contribution of the program has been the development of techniques for creating heavy-duty vehicle test schedules, and the creation of schedules to mimic a variety of truck and bus vocations.

David Lyons

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Optimal irreversible stimulated emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Controlled spontaneous emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

216

Neutron measurements from beam-target reactions at the ELISE neutral beam test facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from beam-target reactions performed at the ELISE neutral beam test facility are presented in this paper. The measurements are used to study the penetration of a deuterium beam in a copper dump, based on the observation of the time evolution of the neutron counting rate from beam-target reactions with a liquid scintillation detector. A calculation based on a local mixing model of deuterium deposition in the target up to a concentration of 20% at saturation is used to evaluate the expected neutron yield for comparison with data. The results are of relevance to understand neutron emission associated to beam penetration in a solid target, with applications to diagnostic systems for the SPIDER and MITICA Neutral Beam Injection prototypes.

Xufei, X., E-mail: xiexufei@pku.edu.cn; Fan, T. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Nocente, M.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Universitŕ di Milano-Bicocca, Milano 20216 (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Milano 20216 (Italy); Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Padova 35100 (Italy); Istituto Gas Ionizzati, CNR, Padova 35100 (Italy); Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching 84518 (Germany); Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Milano 20216 (Italy); Grünauer, F. [Physics Consulting, Zorneding 85604 (Germany); Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Padova 35100 (Italy)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fugitive emissions in an emissions trading program, as theexists between an emissions trading program that allows aircreation of other ROC emissions trading programs. JOURNAL OF

Cohen, Nancy J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

219

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

220

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fugitive SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions from a smelter complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions released into the local air shed from industrial facilities typically fall into one of two categories, namely point or fugitive sources. The first refers to emissions released directly through stacks or similar devices designed to direct or control emissions. These emissions are readily measured with the aid of standard stack sampling methods or techniques. The latter refers to emissions released into the atmosphere without control of flow or quantities that cannot be measured directly or easily using standard methods. As part of Falconbridge`s efforts to minimize the environmental impact on the community, a fugitive emission monitoring program was designed and implemented to quantify SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions during routine process operations at the Smelter Plant. The monitoring program consisted of simultaneous and continuous temperature and velocity measurements along with continuous SO{sub 2} monitoring and semi-continuous particulate measurements at 8 locations along the Roof Monitor. These measurements were made over 6 days, 24 hours per day. The emission data were correlated with process information and activities to statistically determine the contribution of each process to the emission inventory.

Ciccone, A. [BOVAR Environmental, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Storbeck, J. [Falconbridge Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

223

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

224

15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading this tool can be used to quantify GHG emissions of sludge land spreading of a 380 000 per captia equivalent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Energy transfer and 1.54 m emission in amorphous silicon nitride films S. O. Kucheyev,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectrometry RBS and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM to quantify the amount of Si, NEnergy transfer and 1.54 m emission in amorphous silicon nitride films S. Yerci,1 R. Li,1 S. O a broad energy spectrum and attributed to disorder-induced localized transitions in amorphous Er

226

`Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants Betting the UK's carbon emissions on promises of future technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-linked UK energy and climate change policies. Current climate change targets include 20% reduction of national green house gas emissions by 2010 and 80% reduction by 2050 from a 1990 baseline. However, only

Haszeldine, Stuart

227

Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

Gül?en, Ece

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

On-line monitoring of incinerator emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of efforts to develop an on-line emissions monitor to detect specific organic compounds for incinerators, the authors tested a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled with a long-path cell (LPC). A mixture of toluene, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene with elemental ratio C:H:Cl = 3:3.1:0.9 was incinerated in a methane/air flame. The effluent was continuously passed through a heated long-path cell. Eleven target compounds were simultaneously analyzed: methane, toluene, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, ethylene, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. During the testing, the incinerator temperature and the excess air ratio were deliberately changed to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions in the incinerator. Test results indicate that the FTIR/LPC system can successfully follow concentration changes in the emissions that are associated with the change in the incinerator operations. In addition to carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and benzene have been found to be major products of incomplete combustion of the mixture. In this paper, the authors also discuss problems related to obtaining representative calibration standards and to developing adequate methods for continuous monitoring of emissions.

Mao, Zhuoxiong; Demirgian, J.C.; Hwang, E.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

230

Infrared laser induced plasma diagnostics of silver target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, the optical emission spectra of silver (Ag) plasma have been recorded and analyzed using the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The emission line intensities and plasma parameters were investigated as a function of lens to sample distance, laser irradiance, and distance from the target surface. The electron number density (n{sub e}) and electron temperature (T{sub e}) were determined using the Stark broadened line profile and Boltzmann plot method, respectively. A gradual increase in the spectral line intensities and the plasma parameters, n{sub e} from 2.89?×?10{sup 17} to 3.92?×?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3} and T{sub e} from 4662 to 8967?K, was observed as the laser irradiance was increased 2.29?×?10{sup 10}–1.06?×?10{sup 11} W cm{sup ?2}. The spatial variations in n{sub e} and T{sub e} were investigated from 0 to 5.25?mm from the target surface, yielding the electron number density from 4.78?×?10{sup 17} to 1.72?×?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3} and electron temperature as 9869–3789?K. In addition, the emission intensities and the plasma parameters of silver were investigated by varying the ambient pressure from 0.36 to 1000 mbars.

Ahmat, L., E-mail: lubnaphysics@yahoo.com; Nadeem, Ali [Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Ahmed, I. [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

IPNS enriched uranium booster target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since startup in 1981, IPNS has operated on a fully depleted /sup 238/U target. With the booster as in the present system, high energy protons accelerated to 450 MeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron are directed at the target and by mechanisms of spallation and fission of the uranium, produce fast neutrons. The neutrons from the target pass into adjacent moderator where they slow down to energies useful for spectroscopy. The target cooling systems and monitoring systems have operated very reliably and safely during this period. To provide higher neutron intensity, we have developed plans for an enriched uranium (booster) target. HETC-VIM calculations indicate that the target will produce approx.90 kW of heat, with a nominal x5 gain (k/sub eff/ = 0.80). The neutron beam intensity gain will be a factor of approx.3. Thermal-hydraulic and heat transport calculations indicate that approx.1/2 in. thick /sup 235/U discs are subject to about the same temperatures as the present /sup 238/U 1 in. thick discs. The coolant will be light demineralized water (H/sub 2/O) and the coolant flow rate must be doubled. The broadening of the fast neutron pulse width should not seriously affect the neutron scattering experiments. Delayed neutrons will appear at a level about 3% of the total (currently approx.0.5%). This may affect backgrounds in some experiments, so that we are assessing measures to control and correct for this (e.g., beam tube choppers). Safety analyses and neutronic calculations are nearing completion. Construction of the /sup 235/U discs at the ORNL Y-12 facility is scheduled to begin late 1985. The completion of the booster target and operation are scheduled for late 1986. No enriched uranium target assembly operating at the projected power level now exists in the world. This effort thus represents an important technological experiment as well as being a ''flux enhancer''.

Schulke, A.W. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Field emission from organic materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

234

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

235

Emission altitude in radio pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a method of estimation of emission altitudes using observational data - precise measurements of pulse profile widths at low intensity level. The analysis of emission altitudes obtained using this method for a large number of pulsars gives constraints that should be useful for theory of coherent pulsar emission. It seems that radio emission originates at altitudes of about few percent of the light cylinder and that they depend on frequency, pulsar period and period derivative.

J. Kijak

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

236

6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DEER Conference Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks Overview Emission Standards - US and Worldwide Technology Options for Meeting Emissions System Integration ...

238

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

243

Efficient Scheme of Experimental Quantifying non-Markovianity in High-Dimension Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-Markovianity is a prominent concept of the dynamics of the open quantum systems, which is of fundamental importance in quantum mechanics and quantum information. Despite of lots of efforts, the experimentally measuring of non-Markovianity of an open system is still limited to very small systems. Presently, it is still impossible to experimentally quantify the non-Markovianity of high dimension systems with the widely used Breuer-Laine-Piilo (BLP) trace distance measure. In this paper, we propose a method, combining experimental measurements and numerical calculations, that allow quantifying the non-Markovianity of a $N$ dimension system only scaled as $N^2$, successfully avoid the exponential scaling with the dimension of the open system in the current method. After the benchmark with a two-dimension open system, we demonstrate the method in quantifying the non-Markovanity of a high dimension open quantum random walk system.

S. -J. Dong; B. -H. Liu; Y. -N. Sun; Y. -J. Han; G. -C. Guo; Lixin He

2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

Boyer, Edmond

245

5, 94059445, 2005 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title and Physics Discussions Sensitivity analysis of methane emissions derived from SCIAMACHY observations through, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

5, 243270, 2008 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract and temperature on the emission of methane from plant biomass and structural components I. Vigano 1 , H. van.roeckmann@phys.uu.nl) 243 #12;BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses E. Sanhueza;ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

248

Coronal emission lines as thermometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

Frederick, J. D.

250

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

P. Danielewicz

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

251

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

Danielewicz, P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quantifying exchange coupling in f-ion pairs using the diamagnetic substitution method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the challenges in the chemistry of actinide and lanthanide (f-ion) is quantifying exchange coupling between f-ions. While qualitative information about exchange coupling may be readily obtained using the diamagnetic substitution approach, obtaining quantitative information is much more difficult. This article describes how exchange coupling may be quantified using the susceptibility of a magnetically isolated analog, as in the diamagnetic substitution approach, along with the anisotropy of the ground state as determined by EPR spectroscopy. Several examples are used to illustrate and test this approach.

Lukens, Wayne W.; Walter, Marc D.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Research of a boundary condition quantifiable correction method in the assembly homogenization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methods and codes currently used in assembly homogenization calculation mostly adopt the reflection boundary conditions. The influences of real boundary conditions on the assembly homogenized parameters were analyzed. They were summarized into four quantifiable effects, and then the mathematical expressions could be got by linearization hypothesis. Through the calculation of a test model, it had been found that the result was close to transport calculation result when considering four boundary quantifiable effects. This method would greatly improve the precision of a core design code which using the assembly homogenization methods, but without much increase of the computing time. (authors)

Peng, L. H.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhao, J. [Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, 100084 (China); Li, W. H. [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Inst., Shenzhen, 518026 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting and monitoring progress on the targets, and methodology improvements, are included.

Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

257

Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

Limpouch, Jiri

259

F Labeling of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore Enables Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Nodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast 18 F Labeling of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore Enables Positron Emission Tomography and Optical- with a near-infrared fluorophore into a single molecule. Attachment to targeting ligands enables localization by positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF). Our first application

Tsien, Roger Y.

260

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

Maddalena, Randy

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

262

Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

California at Davis, University of

264

Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................ 18 Calculation of Biomass, Biogas or Landfill Net Emissions ..................................... 19

265

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Professor David B. Kittelson Department Meeting Ultra Fine Particles in the Atmosphere 15 March 2000 Engine Exhaust Particle Emissions: Some Perkins Engine Company #12;Emissions of Ultrafine and Nanoparticles from Engines · Current emission

Minnesota, University of

266

Ensemble-Based Observation Targeting for Improving Ozone Prediction in Houston and the Surrounding Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, observation targeting, observational impact factor. 1. Introduction The severity of air pollution situations is deter- mined by a complicated interaction among three factors: the emissions to the atmosphere, chemical high-pollution concentrations form on a given day is dominated principally by meteorological processes

267

Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Argonne National Laboratory...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Targeted Review, Argonne National Laboratory - November 2014 Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Argonne National Laboratory - November 2014 November 2014 Review of the...

268

A Prospective Target for Advanced Biofuel Production  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Prospective Target for Advanced Biofuel Production A Prospective Target for Advanced Biofuel Production Print Thursday, 02 February 2012 13:34 The sesquiterpene bisabolene was...

269

Progress with developing a target for magnetized target fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to fusion where a preheated and magnetized plasma is adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. Successful MTF requires a suitable initial target plasma with an embedded magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field-line topology, a density of roughly 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, a temperature of at least 50 eV, and must be free of impurities which would raise radiation losses. Target plasma generation experiments are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Colt facility; a 0.25 MJ, 2--3 {micro}s rise-time capacitor bank. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate plasma conditions meeting the minimum requirements for a MTF initial target plasma. In the first experiments, a Z-pinch is produced in a 2 cm radius by 2 cm high conducting wall using a static gas-fill of hydrogen or deuterium gas in the range of 0.5 to 2 torr. Thus far, the diagnostics include an array of 12 B-dot probes, framing camera, gated OMA visible spectrometer, time-resolved monochrometer, filtered silicon photodiodes, neutron yield, and plasma-density interferometer. These diagnostics show that a plasma is produced in the containment region that lasts roughly 10 to 20 {micro}s with a maximum plasma density exceeding 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}. The experimental design and data are presented.

Wysocki, F.J.; Chrien, R.E.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Whiteson, D.O.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

271

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies 2011 DOE...

272

Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

Cai, Hong (Los Alamos, NM); Goodwin, Peter M (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nolan, Rhiannon L. (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

273

SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY Thomas E create major problems that will require major mitigation efforts. #12;SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally industry believe it could constrain the penetration of gridconnected PV. The U.S. Department of Energy

Perez, Richard R.

274

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete statistical description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete Chernobyl after the 1986 disaster and find three new results: i the histogram of fluctuations is well.60. x, 02.50.Fz, 05.45.Tp, 87.66.Na I. INTRODUCTION Chernobyl's No. 4 reactor was completely destroyed

Stanley, H. Eugene

275

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete statistical description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete fluctuations measured near Chernobyl after the 1986 disaster and find three new results: #i# the histogram patterns. PACS number#s#: 89.60.#x, 02.50.Fz, 05.45.Tp, 87.66.Na I. INTRODUCTION Chernobyl's No. 4 reactor

Shlyakhter, Ilya

276

Quantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in On-Demand Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Massachusetts Amherst San Jose, CA {abhishek,shenoy}@cs.umass.edu goyalp@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT On-demand dataQuantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in On-Demand Data Centers Abhishek Chandra centers host multiple applications on server farms by dynamically provisioning resources in response

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

277

Quantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in OnDemand Data Centers #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Massachusetts Amherst San Jose, CA {abhishek,shenoy}@cs.umass.edu goyalp@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT On­demand dataQuantifying the Benefits of Resource Multiplexing in On­Demand Data Centers # Abhishek Chandra centers host multiple applications on server farms by dynamically provisioning resources in response

Chandra, Abhishek

278

8. Discussion This thesis has quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of the Nhambita  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

destructive to woody biomass: aboveground carbon stocks can only be330 maintained under high intensity fires200 8. Discussion This thesis has quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of the Nhambita area findings of this thesis and discuss some of the implications for 1) modelling the carbon cycle of miombo

279

Quantifying Performance Benefits of Overlap using MPI-2 in a Seismic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work ICS '10 #12;AWM-ODC - Seismic Modeling · The 3D volume representing the ground area is decomposed into 3D rectangular sub-grids · Each processor performs stress and velocity calculations, each elementQuantifying Performance Benefits of Overlap using MPI-2 in a Seismic Modeling Application Sreeram

Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

280

Quantifying Performance Benefits of Overlap using MPI-2 in a Seismic Modeling Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

motion simulation code based on a parallel finite difference solution of the 3-D velocity- stress waveQuantifying Performance Benefits of Overlap using MPI-2 in a Seismic Modeling Application Sreeram and Engineering 2 Ohio Supercomputer Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA 43212 Columbus, OH, USA

Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO QUANTIFYING EFFECTS OF CONTINGENCIES ON LOCATIONAL MARGINAL PRICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on varia- tions of Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) in restruc- tured power markets. The process: Locational marginal prices (LMPs), Un- certainty, Power system security, Optimization meth- ods, StochasticA STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO QUANTIFYING EFFECTS OF CONTINGENCIES ON LOCATIONAL MARGINAL

Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

282

RAPID COMMUNICATION Quantifying the quality of femtosecond laser ablation of graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RAPID COMMUNICATION Quantifying the quality of femtosecond laser ablation of graphene Ramazan Sahin abla- tion quality and ablation size is experimentally studied on graphene-coated silicon Introduction Graphene micro- and nano-structures are considered potential building blocks for future opto

Simsek, Ergun

283

The Power of Friction: Quantifying the ``Goodness'' of Frictional Grasps \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Power of Friction: Quantifying the ``Goodness'' of Frictional Grasps \\Lambda Marek Teichmann of fingers, coefficient of friction and the the goodness of a grasp. In particular, we give a general framework for defining a grasp metric that takes friction into account. Our approach rectifies a flaw

Mishra, Bud

284

A total of 377 peat age-depth relationships were used to quantify Holocene subsidence rates.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A total of 377 peat age-depth relationships were used to quantify Holocene subsidence rates. Subsidence rates were calculated using peat ages calibrated to the sidereal time scale and burial depths a polynomial that relates the peat age to the position of sea-level at that time in the past. The "sea

Kulp, Mark

285

Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG-up inventories - measure changes in stocks or flows of carbon, extrapolate to all ecosystems. ~Bottom-up TBMs to Bedrich Benes, Jason Lambert, Yuyu Zhou #12;INFLUX Background CO2, CH4 WindWind Urban CO2, CH4 Thanks

286

QUANTIFYING ACCELERATED SOIL EROSION THROUGH ECOLOGICAL SITE-BASED ASSESSMENTS OF WIND AND WATER EROSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUANTIFYING ACCELERATED SOIL EROSION THROUGH ECOLOGICAL SITE- BASED ASSESSMENTS OF WIND AND WATER change and intensification have resulted in accelerated rates of soil erosion in many areas of the world quantification of accelerated soil erosion. Ecological site soil erosion Variation in the simulated erosion rates

287

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece21 *Co-first authors. ABSTRACT Aims To perform wastewater population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants

Wehrli, Bernhard

288

FORMAL PROOFS IN REAL ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY: FROM ORDERED FIELDS TO QUANTIFIER ELIMINATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but is imposed by our choice to base this work on an abstract structure. Then we formalized a proof of quantifier Microsoft Research Joint Centre, e-mail address: Assia.Mahboubi@inria.fr Abstract. This paper describes a formalization of discrete real closed fields in the Coq proof assistant. This abstract structure captures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Advanced Unbounded CTL Model Checking Based on AIGs, BDD Sweeping, And Quantifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gates and inverters Simple data structure Every Boolean function can be represented by an AIG 5 Florian Networks of 2-input and gates and inverters Simple data structure Every Boolean function can be representedAdvanced Unbounded CTL Model Checking Based on AIGs, BDD Sweeping, And Quantifier Scheduling

Manolios, Panagiotis "Pete"

290

Using the Wild Bootstrap to Quantify Uncertainty in DTI Brandon Whitcher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the Wild Bootstrap to Quantify Uncertainty in DTI Brandon Whitcher David S. Tuch Jonathan J; confidence interval; fiber orientation; fractional anisotropy Running head. The wild bootstrap in DTI 1 #12. In contrast to the regular bootstrap, the wild bootstrap method can be applied to such protocols in which

Whitcher, Brandon

291

Generating Determiners and Quantifiers in Hebrew Yael Dahan Netzer and Michael Elhadad  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Multi­lingual generation now appears as the ``next frontier'' in generation research: it is often easierGenerating Determiners and Quantifiers in Hebrew Yael Dahan Netzer and Michael Elhadad Ben Gurion---elhadad)@cs.bgu.ac.il Abstract This paper presents the part of HUGG, a generation grammar for Hebrew, that deals with determiners

Elhadad, Michael

292

Generating Determiners and Quantifiers in Hebrew Yael Dahan Netzer and Michael Elhadad  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], [9]. Multi-lingual generation now appears as the "next frontier" in generation re* *search Generating Determiners and Quantifiers in Hebrew Yael Dahan|elhadad)@cs.bgu.ac.il Abstract This paper presents a specific part of HUGG, a generation grammar for He* *brew

Elhadad, Michael

293

Edinburgh Research Explorer Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams with Bio-PEPA'. in Proceedings of COMPMOD 2009. ETPCS to publication record in Edinburgh Research Explorer Published In: Proceedings of COMPMOD 2009 General rights

Millar, Andrew J.

294

The impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical weathering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the physical and chemical processes of soil production and erosion and revisit three granitic study areas on the hillslope-scale physical and chemical soil production and erosion processes. To explain why understandingThe impact of local geochemical variability on quantifying hillslope soil production and chemical

Heimsath, Arjun M.

295

Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu a policy that encourages healthy behaviors (such as covering your cough and using hand sanitizers) at four coughs, minimizing contact with potential fomites) at major tourist locations. We use a synthetic

Swarup, Samarth

296

Identifying and quantifying nonconservative energy production/destruction terms in hydrostatic Boussinesq primitive equation models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying and quantifying nonconservative energy production/destruction terms in hydrostatic Boussinesq primitive equation models R´emi Tailleux Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley/destruction terms in the local total energy balance equation in numerical ocean general circulation models (OGCMs

Tailleux, Remi

297

Quantifying the differential contributions of deep groundwater to streamflow in nested basins, using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-solute, deep groundwater and a low-solute, soil-water. The mixing model indicated 69% ± 10% deep groundwater-member mixing, hydrological pathway, interbasin groundwater flow INTRODUCTION Knowledge of hydrological pathwaysQuantifying the differential contributions of deep groundwater to streamflow in nested basins

Chappell, Nick A

298

Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind S.C. Pryor1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Quantifying Errors Associated with Satellite Sampling of Offshore Wind Speeds S.C. Pryor1,2 , R, Bloomington, IN47405, USA. Tel: 1-812-855-5155. Fax: 1-812-855-1661 Email: spryor@indiana.edu 2 Dept. of Wind an attractive proposition for measuring wind speeds over the oceans because in principle they also offer

299

Risk Analysis DOI: 10.1111/risa.12085 Quantifying the Hurricane Catastrophe Risk to Offshore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the URisk Analysis DOI: 10.1111/risa.12085 Quantifying the Hurricane Catastrophe Risk to Offshore Wind of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States

Jaramillo, Paulina

300

Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas isotopes by groundwater (or oil) degassing. Other natural gas fields may have been produced in-situ or migrated as a free expert academics from across the CDT and also experienced oil and gas industry professionals

Henderson, Gideon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Exploring and quantifying the `co-variability' of the extremes corresponding to different climate components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploring and quantifying the `co-variability' of the extremes corresponding to different climate to the fact that there might be moisture-temperature feedback that has further implications on the extremes. Having said, we aim to study how extreme precipitation and temperature co-vary and are determined

Miami, University of

302

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

Welch, M. J.

1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

303

Emission control technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Influence of target structure on film stress in WTi sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, the effect of sputtering target microstructure on the deposited film stress was investigated. By controlling the metallurgical process, two types of W-10wt%Ti target constituents, namely single-phase and multiple-phase WTi, were prepared. The former one was composed of W-rich ({beta}Ti,W) phase only, the latter one was with W, W-rich ({beta}Ti,W) and Ti-rich ({beta}Ti,W) phases. The stress of the films deposited on 12.7 cm diameter silicon oxide wafers from the single-phase target tends to be more compressive than that from the multiple-phase target. By increasing wafer temperature, the compressive stress was linearly decreased. In addition, the level of film stress was also affected by the film thickness and other sputtering parameters. To understand the causes for the differences in film stress between the multiple-phase and single-phase derived films, an evaluation of the film structure using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and mechanical testing using a nano-indentation instrument were performed. Finer domains with denser laminar structure were observed on the films deposited from the single-phase target. However, no significant difference in mechanical properties was found between these two from the nano-indentation measurements. It is envisioned that the more uniform solid solution between the W and Ti in the films obtained by sputtering the single-phase targets generates a higher compressive stress when deposited on the silicon oxide wafers resulting in a higher compressive stress.

Lo, C.F.; Wang, H.; Gilman, P. [Materials Research Corp., Orangeburg, NY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Target  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR8, 2013 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY7,TankLifetime

306

Targets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManus Site-Inactive TWPCarbonTakeRVTape Mounts

307

Non-PGM Target Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at 0.80 V set for a measured activity target of 11 Acm 3 at 0.90 V, iR-corrected. (Equivalent to 300 Acm 3 at 0.80 V assuming 70 mVdec Tafel slope.) Consistent criteria...

308

Elastic emission polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Draft Language for targeted ad "Interface between infrastructure and ecosystems" The challenges in the area of infrastructure and ecosystems are to design, develop, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for targeted ad "Biodiesel efficiency for reduced air pollution" The University of Florida's College and publications in one or more of the following areas: biodiesel combustion mechanisms, fate/transport of the biodiesel emissions in the atmosphere, and/or the characterization of particulate and gaseous emissions

Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

311

The HERMES Polarized Hydrogen Internal Gas Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

internal gas targets. The HERMES hydrogen target is an internal polarized gas target using the storage cell frame on the right. atomic hydrogen beam and focuses it into a storage cell. The storage cellThe HERMES Polarized Hydrogen Internal Gas Target J. Stewart for The HERMES Collaboration

312

field emission electron microprobe | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field emission electron microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

313

EMSL - field emission electron microprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field-emission-electron-microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

314

Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

316

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding electric generation....

317

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ohio's 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions to customers. Electric utilities and...

318

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maryland’s 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires all electric companies and electricity suppliers to provide customers with details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of...

319

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

320

Emissions trading under market imperfections.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the… (more)

Lappi, Pauli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Emissions trading and technological change.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Emissions trading programmes have grown in number and scope over the last forty years, and in the last decade they have become a centrepiece of… (more)

Calel, Raphael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus networks.

COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

324

Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lifecycle analysis is a tool widely used to evaluate the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the production and use of biofuels. In this paper we employ an augmented lifecycle framework that includes ...

Caiazzo, Fabio

325

Multiple metrics for quantifying the intensity of water consumption of energy production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discussion of the environmental implications of worldwide energy demand is currently dominated by the effects of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) emissions on global climate. At the regional scale, however, water resource ...

Spang, E S

326

Silicate emission in Orion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present mid-infrared spectro-imagery and high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion bar and of a region in the Orion nebula. These observations have been obtained in the Guaranteed Time with the Circular Variable Filters of the ISO camera (CAM-CVF) and with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Our data shows emission from amorphous silicate grains from the entire HII region and around the isolated O9.5V star Theta2 Ori A. The observed spectra can be reproduced by a mixture of interstellar silicate and carbon grains heated by the radiation of the hot stars present in the region. Crystalline silicates are also observed in the Orion nebula and suspected around Theta2 Ori A. They are probably of interstellar origin. The ionization structure and the distribution of the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) are briefly discussed on the basis of the ISO observations.

D. Cesarsky; A. P. Jones; J. Lequeux; L. Verstraete

2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

327

Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

329

30-month report, September 2007 QUANTIFY 1 of 16 2. Status of Deliverables and Milestones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inventories for 2000 (gridded) for avia- tion 32 O RE MMU D1.1.3.5 Global transport volumes for past years inventories of road, rail and inland waterways' transport emissions 30 30 O RE CATS D1.1.6.1 Reviewed inventories of road and rail transport emissions 30 31 O RE CIRT D1.2.1.3 Report on transport scenario

Haak, Hein

330

Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

Goldschein, Perry S.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Light meson emission in (anti)proton induced reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactions induced by high energy antiprotons on proton on nuclei are accompanied with large probability by the emission of a few mesons. Interesting phenomena can be observed and QCD tests can be performed, through the detection of one or more mesons. The collinear emission from high energy (anti)proton beams of a hard pion or vector meson, can be calculated similarly to the emission of a hard photon from an electron \\cite{Kuraev:2013izz}. This is a well known process in QED, and it is called the "Quasi-Real Electron method", where the incident particle is an electron and a hard photon is emitted leaving an 'almost on shell' electron impinging on the target \\cite{Baier:1973ms}. Such process is well known as Initial State Emission (ISR) method of scanning over incident energy, and can be used, in the hadron case, to produce different kind of particles in similar kinematical conditions. In case of emission of a charged light meson, $\\pi$ or $\\rho$-meson, in proton-proton(anti-proton) collisions, the meson can b...

Kuraev, E A; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Electronic Supplemental Information (ESI) Quantifying mRNA Levels Across a Histological Section  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic Supplemental Information (ESI) for Quantifying mRNA Levels Across a Histological Section washes were performed using 20 µL of wash #13 and 12.5 µL of wash #14 buffers. AgPath-ID one-step RT was inverted, incubated, centrifuged, and washed as described. AgPath-ID one-step RT-PCR mix was prepared

Shapiro, Benjamin

333

Quantifying the Effect of Intraocular Pressure on the Anterior/Posterior Cornea via FD-OCT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the requirements for the designation as HONORS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW An Honors Fellows Thesis by OSCAR CARRASCO-ZEVALLOS QUANTIFIYING THE EFFECT OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE ON THE ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR CORNEA VIA FD-OCT Approved by... for the designation as HONORS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOW An Honors Fellows Thesis by OSCAR CARRASCO-ZEVALLOS iii ABSTRACT Quantifying the Effect of Intraocular Pressure on the Anterior/Posterior Cornea via FD- OCT. (April 2011) Oscar Carrasco...

Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

334

Quantifying breakage parameters of fragile archaeological components to determine the feasibility of site burial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1968) ~ The Cahokia site, located in the broad alluvial plain, east of St. Louis, within the Mississippi River Valley known as the American Bottom, is without a doubt 35 the largest prehistoric site in North America north of central Mexico (Fowler...QUANTIFYING BREAKAGE PARAMETERS OF FRAGILE ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPONENTS TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF SITE BURIAL A Thesis by Forest Paul Rushmore III Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment...

Rushmore, Forest Paul

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago Jun Yang a,c,*, Qian Yu b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago Jun Yang a,c,*, Qian Yu b , Peng Gong c t The level of air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago was quantified using a dry deposition model. The result showed that a total of 1675 kg of air pollutants was removed by 19.8 ha of green roofs in one year

Yu, Qian

336

Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe12xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe12xSex nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation B to manipulate coherent phonon excitation and quantify the strength of electron-phonon coupling in CdTe1Ă?xSex nanocrystals (NCs). Raman active CdSe and CdTe longitudinal optical phonon (LO) modes are excited and probed

Xu, Xianfan

337

1948 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 4, NO. 4, JULY 2005 Quantifying the Power Loss When Transmit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the ideal case, we quantify the power loss due to the finite-rate constraint across the entire SNR range. Index Terms--Finite-rate feedback, multi-antenna systems, power loss, transmit beamforming. I1948 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 4, NO. 4, JULY 2005 Quantifying the Power

Giannakis, Georgios

338

National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying Savings From Improved Boiler Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas firedNational Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify

Kissock, Kelly

339

Quantifying oxygen diffusion in ZnO nanobelt Jin Liu, Puxian Gao, Wenjie Mai, Changshi Lao, and Zhong L. Wanga  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying oxygen diffusion in ZnO nanobelt Jin Liu, Puxian Gao, Wenjie Mai, Changshi Lao A method is presented for quantifying oxygen diffusion behavior in a nanodevice fabricated using individual for several days, oxygen in air diffused into the nanobelt and significantly changed the conductivity

Wang, Zhong L.

340

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

Cohen, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

342

LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Measurement of emission diameter as a function of time on foam z- pinch plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a streaked imaging capability to make time-resolved measurements of the emission size for low density foam z-pinches. By lens coupling visible emission from the z-pinch target to an array of fiber optics we obtained the emission profile in the visible as a function of time with radial resolution of 300 {mu}m. To measure the emission at temperatures greater than {approx}40 eV the source was slit-imaged or pin-hole imaged onto an x-ray filtered scintillator. Non-uniformities in both visible and x-ray emission were observed. We describe the diagnostics, the image unfold process, and results from the instrument for both visible and x-ray measurements.

Lazier, S.E.; Barber, T.L. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derzon, M.S.; Kellogg, J.W.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

344

Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

345

Neutron production using a pyroelectric driven target coupled with a gated field ionization source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A palm sized, portable neutron source would be useful for widespread implementation of detection systems for shielded, special nuclear material. We present progress towards the development of the components for an ultracompact neutron generator using a pulsed, meso-scale field ionization source, a deuterated (or tritiated) titanium target driven by a negative high voltage lithium tantalate crystal. Neutron production from integrated tests using an ion source with a single, biased tungsten tip and a 3 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm, vacuum insulated crystal with a plastic deuterated target are presented. Component testing of the ion source with a single tip produces up to 3 nA of current. Dielectric insulation of the lithium tantalate crystals appears to reduce flashover, which should improve the robustness. The field emission losses from a 3 cm diameter crystal with a plastic target and 6 cm diameter crystal with a metal target are compared.

Ellsworth, J. L.; Tang, V.; Falabella, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Naranjo, B.; Putterman, S. [University of California Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

346

Emission Inventories and Projections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

347

Generalized local emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASAT’s manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

350

Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Emission Characteristics of the Projectile Fragments at Relativistic Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A projectile (84^Kr_36) having kinetic energy around 1 A GeV was used to expose NIKFI BR-2 emulsion target. A total of 700 inelastic events are used in the present studies on projectile fragments. The emission angle of the projectile fragments are strongly affected by charge of the other projectile fragments emitted at same time with different emission angle is observed. The angular distribution studies show symmetrical nature for lighter charge projectile fragments. The symmetrical nature decreased with the charge of projectile fragments. At ~4o of emission angle for double charge projectile fragments, the momentum transfer during interaction is similar for various target species of emulsion were observed. We also observed a small but significant amplitude peaks on both side of the big peak for almost all light charge projectile fragments having different delta angle values. It reflects that there are few percent of projectile fragments that are coming from the decay of heavy projectile fragments or any other process.

M. K. Singh; A. K. Soma; Ramji Pathak; V. Singh

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18.

J. Michael Doster

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Targets and processes for fabricating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides targets including a metal layer and defining a hollow inner surface. The hollow inner surface has an internal apex. The distance between at least two opposing points of the internal apex is less than about 15 .mu.m. In particular examples, the distance is less than about 1 .mu.m. Particular implementations of the targets are free standing. The targets have a number of disclosed shaped, including cones, pyramids, hemispheres, and capped structures. The present disclosure also provides arrays of such targets. Also provided are methods of forming targets, such as the disclosed targets, using lithographic techniques, such as photolithographic techniques. In particular examples, a target mold is formed from a silicon wafer and then one or more sides of the mold are coated with a target material, such as one or more metals.

Cowan, Thomas (Dresden, DE); Malekos, Steven (Reno, NV); Korgan, Grant (Reno, NV); Adams, Jesse (Reno, NV); Sentoku, Yasuhiko (Reno, NV); Le Galloudec, Nathalie (Reno, NV); Fuchs, Julien (Paris, FR)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

354

Review of the Renewable Energy Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review of the Renewable Energy Target Response to Expert Panel's Call for Submissions Paper #12;NSW Government Submission to the Review of the Renewable Energy Target, May 2014 2/20 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................... 3 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN NSW

Peters, Richard

355

Qualified Target Industry Tax Refund (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Qualified Target Industry Tax Refund incentive is available for companies that create high wage jobs in targeted high value-added industries. The incentive refunds up to $3,000 per new full...

356

Nanoparticles for targeting the infarcted heart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a nanoparticulate system capable of targeting the heart after myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting is based on overexpression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the infarcted heart. Liposomes 142 nm in ...

Dvir, Tal

357

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimated to produce CO2 emission reductions ranging frombetween low CO2 emissions and the reductions in the auto usea 16 percent reduction in CO2 traffic emissions within the

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cementfor Fuel Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron andElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

363

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

364

Validating the role of AFVs in voluntary mobile source emission reduction programs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Late in 1997, EPA announced new allowances for voluntary emission control programs. As a result, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities and other metro areas that have made an ongoing commitment to increasing participation by alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in local fleets have the opportunity to estimate the magnitude and obtain emission reduction credit for following through on that commitment. Unexpectedly large reductions in key ozone precursor emissions in key locations and times of the day can be achieved per vehicle-mile by selecting specific light duty AFV offerings from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in lieu of their gasoline-fueled counterparts. Additional benefit accrues from the fact that evaporative emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (generated in the case of CNG, LNG, and LPG by closed fuel-system AFV technology) can be essentially negligible. Upstream emissions from fuel storage and distribution with the airshed of interest are also reduced. This paper provides a justification and outlines a method for including AFVs in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality, and for quantifying emission reduction credits. At the time of submission of this paper, the method was still under review by the US EPA Office of Mobile Sources, pending mutually satisfactory resolution of several of its key points. Some of these issues are discussed in the paper.

Santini, D. J.; Saricks, C. L.

1999-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

365

Development of granular target for CADS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subcritical core/blanket #12;· Solid target options, which consist of a solid material in the form of rods 5L/s Width of Lacuna 7cm #12;CW-316LSS The free surface in windowless target Water loop test-Parallel CFD (GPU) for Beam-Target-Coupled 15360 cores Test by the electron beam coupled with water Annular

McDonald, Kirk

366

QUANTIFYING HYDROMETEOR ADVECTION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FRACTION OVER THE SGP CART SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single column model (SCM) is, in essence, an isolated grid column of a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, SCMs have rather demanding input data requirements, but do not suffer from problems associated with balance of a GCM. Among the initial conditions that must be used to describe the initial state of the SCM column are the vertical profile of the horizontal wind components and the vertical profiles of cloud water and ice. In addition, the large-scale divergence and advective tendencies of cloud water and ice must be supplied as external parameters. Finally, the liquid and ice cloud amount as a function of height within the SCM column are required for model evaluation. The scale of the SCM column over which the initial conditions, external parameters, and model evaluation fields must apply is relatively large ({approximately}300 km). To quantify atmospheric structure on this scale, the ARM SGP CART site is located within the NOAA wind profiler network and has boundary and extended measurement facilities in an area compatible with the scale requirements of SCMs. Over an area this size, however, there is often rich mesoscale structure. This mesoscale variability creates a sampling problem that can thwart even the most sophisticated attempts to quantify the initial conditions and external parameters, and to evaluate model performance. There are two approaches that can be used to quantify the time varying quantities required for SCMs: objective analysis and data assimilation. The latter relies on products produced for operational forecasting, while the former involves methods that can be used to combine measurements from various sources to produce synoptic descriptions of the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic fields. Since data assimilation from operational models introduces the uncertainty of the parameterizations used in the models, most of the focus in the SCM effort has been on developing objective analysis techniques.

MILLER,M.; VERLINDE,J.

1998-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

367

The energy and CO2 emissions impact of renewable energy development in China*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide a solid foundation for the public and private decisions needed to mitigate and adapt targets and subsidies make renewable electricity economically viable in the short term. Cumulative CO2 electricity leads to increases in other sectors, offsetting emissions reductions. The expansion of renewables

368

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are deter- mined by ``Business as Usual'' projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income, and use only national income distributions and economy-wide carbon intensities. National responsibilities a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of ``common but differentiated

369

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL EMSL produced this video for the annual congressional science expo organized by the National User...

370

Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

371

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

372

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a variety of photoexcitation sources including synchrotron emission, femtosecond laser pulses and conventional UV lamp emission. Each source has advantages, for example, fs...

376

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

377

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

378

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

379

International Emissions Trading: Design and Political Acceptability.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at… (more)

Boom, Jan Tjeerd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Quantifying the Cosmic Web in the New Era of Redshift Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two main strategies have been implemented in mapping the local universe: whole-sky 'shallow' surveys and 'deep' surveys over limited parts of the sky. The two approaches complement each other in studying cosmography and statistical properties of the Universe. We summarise some results on the power spectrum of fluctuations and Wiener reconstruction of the density field from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) of 230,000 redshifts. We then discuss future challenges in quantifying the web of cosmic structure in the on-going redshift surveys.

Ofer Lahav

2004-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

384

Anomalous Emission from HII regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

C. Dickinson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In September 2002, the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) issued an order requiring the state's regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers details on the fuel mix and emissions...

386

Mobile fiber optic emission spectrograph  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technical Assistance Request HLW/DWPF-TAR-970064 asked SRTC to evaluate the use of a fiber optic coupled emission spectrometer. The spectrometer would provide additional ICP analyses in the DWPF laboratory.

Spencer, W.A.; Coleman, C.J.; McCarty, J.E.; Beck, R.S.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Trading quasi-emission permits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I study the design of environmental policies for a regulator that has incomplete information on firms' emissions and costs of production and abatement (e.g., air pollution in cities with numerous small polluting sources). ...

Montero, Juan-Pablo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Iowa adopted regulations in 2003 that generally require rate-regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers the fuel mix and estimated emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh), of...

389

The Value of Emissions Trading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here-to-fore neglected component: its value as a hedge against uncertainty. Much analysis has been done of the Kyoto Protocol and ...

Webster, Mort David.

390

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Michigan's Customer Choice and Electric Reliability Act of 2000 (P.A. 141) requires electric suppliers to disclose to customers details related to the fuel mix and emissions, in pounds per megawatt...

391

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2001, Nevada enacted legislation requiring the state’s electric utilities to provide details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation to their customers. Utilities must...

392

High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Field evaluation of cofiring gas with coal for quantifying operational benefits and emissions trim in a utility boiler. Volume 2. Topical report, 1989-1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The volume consists of 14 appendixes to accompany volume 1 of the report, and covers the following test data: analysis of coal, fylash, and bottom ash samples; cleanliness factors; slagging observation record sheets; stack opacity measurements; stack sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides measurements; total coal flow; fuel gas flow; furnace exit gas temperature; percent oxygen at economizer outlet; percent excess air; bulk steam temperatures at secondary superheater and reheater outlets; secondary superheater and reheater tube outlet leg temperatures; unit heat rate; and models used for data interpretation.

Clark, K.J.; Torbov, T.S.; Impey, R.J.; Hara, K.G.; Burnett, T.D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Quantifying the ecosystem-scale emission and deposition fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) and their oxidation products above plant canopies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

covariance plots of vertical wind speed and m/z 127.073 (C 7correlation of vertical wind speed (w) and volume mixingcorrections between vertical wind speed and volume mixing

Park, Jeong-Hoo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Quantifying sources of methane using light alkanes in the Los Angeles basin, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Resources Board (CARB) was tasked with compiling and verifying an inventory of GHG emissions of the statewide 2006 CARB GHG inventory and from a bottom-up accounting of CH4 sources, respectively. [3] Several are larger than expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories, consistent with previously

Cohen, Ronald C.

396

Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

Rathore, Dharmendar (Blacksburg, VA); Jani, Dewal (Blacksburg, VA); Nagarkatti, Rana (Blacksburg, VA)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fabrication of boron sputter targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

CO{sub 2} emission calculations and trends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evidence that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is believed to result from CO{sub 2} releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO{sub 2} concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention`s stated objectives was the ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. `` Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO{sub 2} emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented.

Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Ignition of deuterium-trtium fuel targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom.

Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI); Mruzek, Michael T. (Britton, MI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Experimental Target Injection and Tracking System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant with an accuracy of and plusmn; 5 mm at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 each second. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-}200{mu}m for indirect drive and {+-}20{mu}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been designed and is being constructed at General Atomics to investigate injection and tracking of both direct drive and indirect drive targets. The design is modular to allow testing of alternate target acceleration and tracking methods. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feed back to the target designers. This 30 m long system will be the centerpiece of a Facility for developing IFE target fabrication and injection technologies. A high-speed high-flow gas valve (designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will provide helium propellant gas to the targets. To avoid target damage from excessive acceleration, an 8 m gun barrel is being built to achieve 400 m/s target speed while not exceeding 10,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Gas expansion chambers and orifices, keep propellant gas out of the target-tracking region. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line scan cameras. High-speed computations will calculate target position in less than 2 ms based on the output from the line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time to a plane in the reaction chamber center will be predicted in real-time based on early target position measurements. The system design, construction progress, and early testing results will be presented.

Petzoldt, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Alexander, N.B. [General Atomics (United States); Drake, T.J. [General Atomics (United States); Goodin, D.T. [General Atomics (United States); Stemke, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Jonestrask, K

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission of complex fragments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex fragment emission (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and cross sections. The experimental emission velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and cross sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The emission velocities, angular distributions, and absolute cross sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and cross sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical emission. 143 refs., 67 figs.

Bowman, D.R.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Possible Effects of Pair Echoes on Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is widely expected but had been sparsely observed until recently when the Fermi satellite was launched. If >TeV gamma rays are produced in GRBs and can escape from the emission region, they are attenuated by the cosmic infrared background photons, leading to regeneration of GeV-TeV secondary photons via inverse-Compton scattering. This secondary emission can last for a longer time than the duration of GRBs, and it is called a pair echo. We investigate how this pair echo emission affects spectra and light curves of high energy afterglows, considering not only prompt emission but also afterglow as the primary emission. Detection of pair echoes is possible as long as the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in voids is weak. We find (1) that the pair echo from the primary afterglow emission can affect the observed high-energy emission in the afterglow phase after the jet break, and (2) that the pair echo from the primary prompt emission can also be relevant, but only when significant energy is emitted in the TeV range, typically E_{gamma, >0.1 TeV} > (Y/(1+Y)) epsilon_e E_k. Even non-detections of the pair echoes could place interesting constraints on the strength of IGMF. The more favorable targets to detect pair echoes may be the "naked" GRBs without conventional afterglow emission, although energetic naked GRBs would be rare. If the IGMF is weak enough, it is predicted that the GeV emission extends to >30-300 s.

Kohta Murase; Bing Zhang; Keitaro Takahashi; Shigehiro Nagataki

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

7, 68436902, 2007 An Asian emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources 7, 6843­6902, 2007 An Asian emission inventory for the period 1980­2020 T. Ohara et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Atmospheric Mercury: Emissions, Transport/Fate,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, global...) Is "emissions trading" workable and ethical? Is the recently promulgated Clean Air Mercury

406

Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Trading: A Feasible Analysis for UBC Vivian Hoffman, J Chisholm I. Introduction The GVRD environmental objectives are achieved. Emissions reduction credit trading (or emissions trading) is an example Valley (LFV). Section III describes the market-based instruments of emissions trading and facility

407

Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Explanations of FreedomCAR/DOE Hydrogen Storage Technical Targets...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Explanations of FreedomCARDOE Hydrogen Storage Technical Targets Explanations of FreedomCARDOE Hydrogen Storage Technical Targets Summary of FreedomCAR Targets and Basis for...

409

The study of downstream targets and other characteristics of NTT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAN DIEGO The Study of Downstream Targets and OtherOF THE THESIS The Study of Downstream Targets and Othera number of putative downstream targets of NTT, including

Fung, Michelle W.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Y-12 National Security...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Targeted Review, Y-12 National Security Complex - February 2012 Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Y-12 National Security Complex - February 2012 February 2012 Targeted Review...

411

Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Targeted Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - April 2014 Independent Oversight Targeted Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - April 2014 April 2014 Targeted Review of...

412

Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020 ; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission at E[sub lab]/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with [sup 28]Si beams interacting on [sup 208]Pb). [sup 120]Sn. [sup 64]C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z[sub T] and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si [yields] p+[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si [yields] n+[sup 27]Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in [sup 28]Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],p])[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],n])[sup 27]Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in [sup 28]Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.

Sonnadara, U.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic {sup 28}Si by nucleon emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 28}Si by nucleon emission at E{sub lab}/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with {sup 28}Si beams interacting on {sup 208}Pb). {sup 120}Sn. {sup 64}C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z{sub T} and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 28}Si {yields} p+{sup 27}Al and {sup 28}Si {yields} n+{sup 27}Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in {sup 28}Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear {sup 28}Si({sub {gamma},p}){sup 27}Al and {sup 28}Si({sub {gamma},n}){sup 27}Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in {sup 28}Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.

Sonnadara, U.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

416

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

418

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

M. J. Holmes

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

419

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Tensor Target Polarization at TRIUMF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first measurements of tensor observables in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ scattering experiments were performed in the mid-80's at TRIUMF, and later at SIN/PSI. The full suite of tensor observables accessible in $\\pi \\vec{d}$ elastic scattering were measured: $T_{20}$, $T_{21}$, and $T_{22}$. The vector analyzing power $iT_{11}$ was also measured. These results led to a better understanding of the three-body theory used to describe this reaction. %Some measurements were also made in the absorption and breakup channels. A direct measurement of the target tensor polarization was also made independent of the usual NMR techniques by exploiting the (nearly) model-independent result for the tensor analyzing power at 90$^\\circ _{cm}$ in the $\\pi \\vec{d} \\rightarrow 2p$ reaction. This method was also used to check efforts to enhance the tensor polarization by RF burning of the NMR spectrum. A brief description of the methods developed to measure and analyze these experiments is provided.

Smith, G

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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421

Quantifying non-Markovianity of continuous-variable Gaussian dynamical maps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a non-Markovianity measure for continuous-variable open quantum systems based on the idea put forward in H.-P. Breuer et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009);], that is, by quantifying the flow of information from the environment back to the open system. Instead of the trace distance we use here the fidelity to assess distinguishability of quantum states. We employ our measure to evaluate non-Markovianity of two paradigmatic Gaussian channels: the purely damping channel and the quantum Brownian motion channel with Ohmic environment. We consider different classes of Gaussian states and look for pairs of states maximizing the backflow of information. For coherent states we find simple analytical solutions, whereas for squeezed states we provide both exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions in the weak coupling limit.

Vasile, Ruggero; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); SUPA, EPS/Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH144AS (United Kingdom) and Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy) and CNISM, UdR Milano Statale, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

A New Approach to Quantify Level 2 SPAR Models in SAPHIRE 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (USNRC) Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Level 2 models for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants has historically used a partitioning approach for plant damage state (PDS) binning and model quantification since late 1990s [1]. While this approach has the advantage to be able to identify the details of the severe accident sequences with one or more individual PDS vector characters, the Level 2 model quantification process is tedious and error-prone with multiple steps involved. A new approach to quantify Level 2 SPAR models was recently developed and implemented in the latest SAPHIRE Version 8 [2]. The new approach removes the partition rules and greatly simplifies the quantification process.

Zhegang Ma; John Schroeder; Curtis Smith; Ted Wood; Martin Sattison

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Quantifying microbubble clustering in turbulent flow from single-point measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-point hot-wire measurements in the bulk of a turbulent channel have been performed in order to detect and quantify the phenomenon of preferential bubble accumulation. We show that statistical analysis of the bubble-probe colliding-times series can give a robust method for investigation of clustering in the bulk regions of a turbulent flow where, due to the opacity of the flow, no imaging technique can be employed. We demonstrate that micro-bubbles (radius R_0 ~ 0.1 mm) in a developed turbulent flow, where the Kolmogorov length-scale is, eta ~ R_0, display preferential concentration in small scale structures with a typical statistical signature ranging from the dissipative range, O(eta), up to the low inertial range, O(100 eta). A comparison with Eulerian-Lagrangian numeri- cal simulations is also presented to further support our proposed way to characterize clustering from temporal time series at a fixed position.

Enrico Calzavarini; Thomas H. van den Berg; Federico Toschi; Detlef Lohse

2008-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, S.K.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

S. K. Zohner

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at large spatial scales as to generalize the directionality of hydrologic responses.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Moller Polarimetry with Atomic Hydrogen Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposal to use polarized atomic hydrogen gas as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on the Moller scattering is described. Such a gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, would provide a target of practically 100\\% polarized electrons. It is conceivable to reach a $\\sim$0.3\\% systematic accuracy of the beam polarimetry with such a target. Feasibility studies for the CEBAF electron beam have been performed.

Chudakov, Eugene [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Luppov, V. [University of Michigan Spin Physics Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

DOE Program/Targets and Workshop Objectives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nancy Garland DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Operation at Sub- Freezing Temperatures DOE ProgramTargets and Workshop Objectives Sub-Freezing Temperature Effects on Fuel Cells...

430

Enterprise Assessments, Lessons Learned from Targeted Reviews...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

purpose of these targeted assessments was to evaluate the flowdown of occupational radiation protection program requirements into work planning, control, and execution...

431

Locomotive emission study. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work for the report involved the estimation of the air pollution emissions arising from the operation of railroad locomotives in six non-attainment air management basins within California. The six air basins are the Bay Area, the Central Coast (which includes the North Central Coast and the South Central Coast basins), the South Coast, San Diego, San Joaquin, and the Sacramento Valley basins. In addition, the effort involved the development of information about the efficacy and cost of feasible control strategies for locomotive-generated air pollution emissions, for both long and short term implementation.

NONE

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Study on the effect of target on plasma parameters of magnetron sputtering discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of magnetron target on different plasma parameters of Argon/Hydrogen (Ar - H{sub 2}) direct current (DC) magnetron discharge is examined. Here, Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) are used as magnetron targets. The value of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (kT{sub e}), electron density (N{sub e}), ion density (N{sub i}), degree of ionization of Ar, and degree of dissociation of H{sub 2} for both the target are studied as a function of input power and hydrogen content in the discharge. The plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. The obtained results show that electron and ion density decline with gradual addition of Hydrogen in the discharge and increase with rising input power. It brings significant changes on the degree of ionization of Ar and dissociation of H{sub 2}. The enhanced value of electron density (N{sub e}), ion density (N{sub i}), degree of Ionization of Ar, and degree of dissociation of H{sub 2} for Cr compared to Cu target is explained on the basis of it's higher Ion Induced Secondary Electron Emission Coefficient (ISEE) value.

Saikia, P.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Cylindrical target Li-beam-driven hohlraum experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors performed a series of experiments on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) in May, 1994, and obtained a brightness temperature of 61 {+-} 2 eV for an ion-beam heated hohlraum. The hohlraum was a 4-mm-diameter, right-circular cylinder with a 1.5-mm-thick gold wall, a low-density CH foam fill, and a 1.5- or 3-mm-diameter diagnostic aperture in the top. The nominal parameters of the radially-incident PBFA II Li ion beam were 9 MeV peak energy ({approximately}10 MeV at the gas cell) at the target at a peak power of 2.5 {+-} 0.3 TW/cm{sup 2} and a 15 ns pulse width. Azimuthal variations in intensity of a factor of 3, with respect to the mean, were observed. Nonuniformities in thermal x-ray emission across the area of the diagnostic hole were also observed. Time-dependent hole-closure velocities were measured: the time-averaged velocity of {approximately}2 cm/{micro}s is in good agreement with sound speed estimates. Unfolded x-ray spectra and brightness temperatures as a function of time are reported and compared to simulations. Hole closure corrections are discussed with comparisons between XRD and bolometer measurements. Temperature scaling with power on target is also presented.

Derzon, M.S.; Aubert, J.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Student research with 400keV beams: {sup 13}N radioisotope production target development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The AN400 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Minnesota State University, Mankato, Applied Nuclear Science Lab has demonstrated utility as an accessible and versatile platform for student research. Despite the limits of low energy, the research team successfully developed projects with applications to the wider radioisotope production community. A target system has been developed for producing and extracting {sup 13}N by the {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N reaction below 400keV. The system is both reusable and robust, with future applications to higher energy machines producing this important radioisotope for physiological imaging studies with Positron Emission Tomography. Up to 36({+-}1)% of the {sup 13}N was extracted from the graphite matrix when 35 A current was externally applied to the graphite target while simultaneously flushing the target chamber with CO{sub 2} gas.

Fru, L. Che; Clymer, J.; Compton, N.; Cotter, J.; Dam, H.; Lesko, Z.; Pautzke, J.; Prokop, C.; Swanson, L.; Roberts, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Minnesota State University, Trafton Science Center N141, Mankato MN 56001 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

435

Chemometric analysis of infrared emission spectra for quantitative analysis of BPSG films on silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared emission spectra of 21 borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) thin films on silicon wafers were collected with the samples held at constant temperature between 125--400{degree}C using a heating stage designed for precise temperature control ({plus_minus}{degree}C). Partial test squares calibrations applied to the BPSG infrared emittance spectra allowed four BPSG thin-film properties to be simultaneously quantified with precisions of 0.1 wt. % for boron and phosphorus, 35 {Angstrom} for film thickness, and 1.2{degree}C for temperature.

Franke, J.E.; Chen, Chuenyuan S.; Zhang, Songbaio; Niemczyk, T.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Haaland, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Kinetics of ion and prompt electron emission from laser-produced plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated ion emission dynamics of laser-produced plasma from several elements, comprised of metals and non-metals (C, Al, Si, Cu, Mo, Ta, W), under vacuum conditions using a Faraday cup. The estimated ion flux for various targets studied showed a decreasing tendency with increasing atomic mass. For metals, the ion flux is found to be a function of sublimation energy. A comparison of temporal ion profiles of various materials showed only high-Z elements exhibited multiple structures in the ion time of flight profile indicated by the observation of higher peak kinetic energies, which were absent for low-Z element targets. The slower ions were seen regardless of the atomic number of target material propagated with a kinetic energy of 1–5 keV, while the fast ions observed in high-Z materials possessed significantly higher energies. A systematic study of plasma properties employing fast photography, time, and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and electron analysis showed that there existed different mechanisms for generating ions in laser ablation plumes. The origin of high kinetic energy ions is related to prompt electron emission from high-Z targets.

Farid, N. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Ding, H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Continuum Radio Emission and Diagnostics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and inversely proportional to the square of frequency and to temperature to the power 1.5. It is therefore discusses incoher­ ent emission from thermal plasma in the non­flaring so­ lar atmosphere; other relevant. The opacity of this mecha­ nism is proportional to the product of the electron and ion charge densities

White, Stephen

442

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atomic absorption is the capability for simultaneous multielement analysis. It can be used colleges had acquired atomic absorption instruments by the year 1990.[2] In contrast, atomic emission with the acetylene-air flame source taken from an existing atomic absorption instrument. Two spectrometer units

Nazarenko, Alexander

443

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DATA A. LĂłpez (a) , R. Molina (b) (a limited due to several factors. These factors include the need of greater computational time than to the projection data to obtain two-dimensional slices or cross sections (images) of activity distribution. #12

Granada, Universidad de

444

TARGET STATION INFRASTRUCTURE THE CNGS EXPERIENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Aluminum Water cooled Current: 150kA (horn) ­ 180 kA (reflector) Pulse duration 7ms #12;Key elements Remote handling Remote station for radiation survey in the target chamber #12;CNGS Target Area I per cooling circuit 2007 run radiation effects on ventilation system electronics broken flexible stripline

McDonald, Kirk

445

THE ROTATING TARGET FLOW TEST FACILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@idom.com) Fernando Sordo, ESS Bilbao Tom McManamy, ORNL/SNS #12;Status of the RTFT 4th HPTW of a RotaAng Target for ESS · In 2009 ESS Bilbao worked out a preliminary design for a rotaZng target for ESS. · Disc formed by un-clad tungsten bricks cooled

McDonald, Kirk

446

Target Options for a Neutrino Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shield WC 6. Target station engineering Target integration Remote maintenance Shielding 7. Beam dump 7a possible/preferable? · Can the beam size be increased (from 1.2 mm (rms) baseline)? #12;Heat loads ­ Heating and material damage Issues ­ Heat load from 4 MW pulsed proton beam · Total Heat load

McDonald, Kirk

447

Possible Target Options Michael A. Green  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from low Z material. The target material should be ductile, with high thermal conductivity and should. These materials are strong and non- corrosive. The problem with niobium-titanium is its poor thermal conductivity, a desirable target material should have a medium to high Z. For low energy drivers the targe should be made

McDonald, Kirk

448

Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

Stefano Panebianco; Pavel Bokov; Diane Dore; Xavier Ledoux; Alain Letourneau; Aurelien Prevost; Danas Ridikas

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

449

Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

Panebianco, Stefano; Dore, Diane; Ledoux, Xavier; Letourneau, Alain; Prevost, Aurelien; Ridikas, Danas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Using Dispersivity Values to Quantify the Effects of Pore-Scale Flow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II Field Emission SEMUsedUser ServicesUsersCray MPI:Focusing

452

Cooperative target convergence using multiple agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work considers the problem of causing multiple (100`s) autonomous mobile robots to converge to a target and provides a follow-the-leader approach to the problem. Each robot has only a limited-range sensor for sending the target and also larger but also limited-range robot-to-robot communication capability. Because of the small amount of information available to the robots, a practical approach to improve convergence to the target is to have a robot follow the robot with the best quality of information. Specifically, each robot emits a signal that informs in-range robots what its status is. A robot has a status value of 0 if it is itself in range of the target. A robot has a status of 1 if it is not in range of the target but is in communication range of a robot that is in range of the target. A robot has a status of 2 if it is not in range of the target but is within range of another robot that has status 1, and so on. Of all the mobile robots that any given robot is in range of, it follows the one with the best status. The emergent behavior is the ant-like trails of robots following each other toward the target. If the robot is not in range of another robot that is either in range of the target or following another robot, the robot will assign-1 to its quality-of-information, and will execute an exhaustive search. The exhaustive search will continue until it encounters either the target or another robot with a nonnegative quality-of-information. The quality of information approach was extended to the case where each robot only has two-bit signals informing it of distance to in-range robots.

Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Innovative use of adhesive interface characteristics to nondestructively quantify the strength of bonded joints.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in structural adhesives have permitted engineers to contemplate the use of bonded joints in areas that have long been dominated by mechanical fasteners and welds. Although strength, modulus, and toughness have been improved in modern adhesives, the typical concerns with using these polymers still exist. These include concerns over long-term durability and an inability to quantify bond strength (i.e., identify weak bonds) in adhesive joints. Bond deterioration in aging structures and bond strength in original construction are now critical issues that require more than simple flaw detection. Whether the structure involves metallic or composite materials, it is necessary to extend inspections beyond the detection of disbond flaws to include an assessment of the strength of the bond. Use of advanced nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods to measure the mechanical properties of a bonded joint and associated correlations with post-inspection failure tests have provided some clues regarding the key parameters involved in assessing bond strength. Recent advances in ultrasonic- and thermographic-based inspection methods have shown promise for measuring such properties. Specialized noise reduction and signal enhancement schemes have allowed thermographic interrogations to image the subtle differences between bond lines of various strengths. Similarly, specialized ultrasonic (UT) inspection techniques, including laser UT, guided waves, UT spectroscopy, and resonance methods, can be coupled with unique signal analysis algorithms to accurately characterize the properties of weak interfacial bonds. The generation of sufficient energy input levels to derive bond strength variations, the production of sufficient technique sensitivity to measure such minor response variations, and the difficulty in manufacturing repeatable weak bond specimens are all issues that exacerbate these investigations. The key to evaluating the bond strength lies in the ability to exploit the critical characteristics of weak bonds such as nonlinear responses, poor transmission of shear waves, and changes in response to stiffness-based interrogations. This paper will present several ongoing efforts that have identified promising methods for quantifying bond strength and discuss some completed studies that provide a foundation for further evolution in weak bond assessments.

Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.; Rackow, Kirk A.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Final report on LDRD Project: Quantum confinement and light emission in silicon nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemically formed porous silicon (PS) was reported in 1991 to exhibit visible photoluminescence. This discovery could lead to the use of integrated silicon-based optoelectronic devices. This LDRD addressed two general goals for optical emission from Si: (1) investigate the mechanisms responsible for light emission, and (2) tailor the microstructure and composition of the Si to obtain photoemission suitable for working devices. PS formation, composition, morphology, and microstructure have been under investigation at Sandia for the past ten years for applications in silicon-on-insulator microelectronics, micromachining, and chemical sensors. The authors used this expertise to form luminescent PS at a variety of wavelengths and have used analytical techniques such as in situ Raman and X-ray reflectivity to investigate the luminescence mechanism and quantify the properties of the porous silicon layer. Further, their experience with ion implantation in Si lead to an investigation into alternate methods of producing Si nanostructures that visibly luminesce.

Guilinger, T.R.; Kelly, M.J.; Follstaedt, D.M. [and others

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Incoherent transient radio emission from stellar-mass compact objects in the SKA era  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The universal link between the processes of accretion and ejection leads to the formation of jets and outflows around accreting compact objects. Incoherent synchrotron emission from these outflows can be observed from a wide range of accreting binaries, including black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. Monitoring the evolution of the radio emission during their sporadic outbursts provides important insights into the launching of jets, and, when coupled with the behaviour of the source at shorter wavelengths, probes the underlying connection with the accretion process. Radio observations can also probe the impact of jets/outflows (including other explosive events such as magnetar giant flares) on the ambient medium, quantifying their kinetic feedback. The high sensitivity of the SKA will open up new parameter space, enabling the monitoring of accreting stellar-mass compact objects from their bright, Eddington-limited outburst states down to the lowest-luminosity quiescent levels, whose intrinsic faintnes...

Corbel, S; Fender, R P; Gallo, E; Maccarone, T J; O'Brien, T J; Paragi, Z; Rupen, M P; Rushton, A P; Sabatini, S; Sivakoff, G R; Strader, J; Woud, P A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examine air pollution (and other pollutant) control policypolicies to control non-GHG air pollutants. These studiesair pollutant emission reduction and ancillary carbon benefits of SO 2 control

Williams, Christopher

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Delayed neutron emission probabilities of Li-F nuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Delayed neutron emission probabilities (P{sub n}) have been measured for 18 nuclides ranging from {sup 9}Li to {sup 25}F. Neutron-rich nuclides were produced by reaction of 800 MeV p on a {sup 232}Th target at the LAMPF accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Recoil nuclides were individually identified as to their mass, nuclear charged, and ionic charge by use of the Time-of-Flight Isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer. The distribution of time intervals between the arrival of a specific ion and the subsequent detection of a neutron was determined. The P{sub n} was calculated from the total number of ions observed, the initial neutron count rate, the neutron counting efficiency, and the half-life. The technique is shown to be valid for half-lives ranging from 10 ms ({sup 15}B) to 4 s ({sup 17}N) and for P{sub n} values as low as 0.3% ({sup 13}B). Delayed neutron emission has been measured for {sup 12}Be, {sup 14}B, {sup 17}C, {sup 18}N, {sup 21}N, and {sup 25}F for the first time. A small branch for beta-delayed two-neutron emission was observed in {sup 15}B (P{sub 2n} = 0.4 {plus minus} 0.2%). 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Hensley, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Intense terahertz emission from relativistic circularly polarized laser pulses interaction with overdense plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the interaction of a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse with an overdense plasma target, the longitudinal motion of bunches of electrons under the action of light pressure and electrostatic restore force can emit intense terahertz (THz) pulses. This mechanism allows high pump laser intensity and large electron number participating in the emission. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to investigate the THz emission. The results suggest that such a source can produce remarkably intense THz pulses with energy of several mJ/sr and power of tens of gigawatts, which could find applications in nonlinear studies and relativistic laser-plasma interaction diagnostics.

Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yu, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb) were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air), relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

Hashemi, M. M. [Physics Department, Doctorate Technical Center of PNU, P.O. Box 19536-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, P., E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Moosakhani, A. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A. [Physics Department, Imam Khomeini International University, P.O. Box 34149-16818, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majdabadi, A. [Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 11155-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abachi, S. [Physics Department, University of California, Irvin, CA 92697 (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global construction. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed an integrated LCA model to capture the energy and emissions implications of all aspects of new buildings from material mining through construction, operations, and decommissioning. Over the following four sections, this report describes related existing research, the LBNL building LCA model structure and results, policy linkages of this lifecycle assessment, and conclusions and recommendations for follow-on work. The LBNL model is a first-order approach to gathering local data and applying lifecycle assessment to buildings in the Beijing area--it represents one effort among a range of established, predominantly American and European, LCA models. This report identifies the benefits, limitations, and policy applications of lifecycle assessment modeling for quantifying the energy and emissions impacts of specific residential and commercial buildings.

Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Empirical and physics based mathematical models of uranium hydride decomposition kinetics with quantified uncertainties.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal particle beds have recently become a major technique for hydrogen storage. In order to extract hydrogen from such beds, it is crucial to understand the decomposition kinetics of the metal hydride. We are interested in obtaining a a better understanding of the uranium hydride (UH3) decomposition kinetics. We first developed an empirical model by fitting data compiled from different experimental studies in the literature and quantified the uncertainty resulting from the scattered data. We found that the decomposition time range predicted by the obtained kinetics was in a good agreement with published experimental results. Secondly, we developed a physics based mathematical model to simulate the rate of hydrogen diffusion in a hydride particle during the decomposition. We used this model to simulate the decomposition of the particles for temperatures ranging from 300K to 1000K while propagating parametric uncertainty and evaluated the kinetics from the results. We compared the kinetics parameters derived from the empirical and physics based models and found that the uncertainty in the kinetics predicted by the physics based model covers the scattered experimental data. Finally, we used the physics-based kinetics parameters to simulate the effects of boundary resistances and powder morphological changes during decomposition in a continuum level model. We found that the species change within the bed occurring during the decomposition accelerates the hydrogen flow by increasing the bed permeability, while the pressure buildup and the thermal barrier forming at the wall significantly impede the hydrogen extraction.

Salloum, Maher N.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Quantifying the Effect of the Principal-Agent Problem on USResidential Energy Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) initiated andcoordinated this project to investigate the effects of market failures inthe end-use of energy that may isolate some markets or portions thereoffrom energy price signals in five member countries. Quantifying theamount of energy associated with market failures helps to demonstrate thesignificance of energy efficiency policies beyond price signals. In thisreport we investigate the magnitude of the principal-agent (PA) problemaffecting four of the major energy end uses in the U.S. residentialsector: refrigeration, water heating, space heating, and lighting. Usingdata from the American Housing Survey, we develop a novel approach toclassifying households into a PA matrix for each end use. End use energyvalues differentiated by housing unit type from the Residential EnergyConsumption Survey were used to estimate the final and primary energy useassociated with the PA problem. We find that the 2003 associated siteenergy use from these four end uses totaled over 3,400 trillion Btu,equal to 35 percent of the site energy consumed by the residentialsector.

Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant

2006-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

465

Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

Menzie, D.E.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of the molecular changes responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerization process. Here, in-situ total scattering measurements in the form of X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction of metakaolin/slag alkali-activated geopolymer binders, including the effects of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerization reaction. Restricting quantification of the kinetics to the initial ten hours of reaction does not enable elucidation of the true extent of the reaction, but using X-ray PDF data obtained after 128 days of reaction enables more accurate determination of the initial extent of reaction. The synergies between the in-situ X-ray PDF data and simulations conducted by multiscale density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo analysis are outlined, particularly with regard to the potential for the X-ray data to provide a time scale for kinetic analysis of the extent of reaction obtained from the multiscale simulation methodology.

White, Claire [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bloomer, Breaunnah E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Provis, John L. [The University of Melbourne; Henson, Neil J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Page, Katharine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

467

Quantify uncertain emergency search techniques (QUEST) -- Theory and user`s guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to the national security. Sandia National laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Bechtel Nevada, Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response for various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables, including source type, search location and structure geometry (including shielding), search dynamics (path and speed), and detector type and size. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used as a tool to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training.

Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Porter, T.L.; West, T.H.; Wilcox, W.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Studies Dept.; Hensley, W.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Nuclear Chemistry Section

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

QUEST: A model to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques, theory and application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to our national security. Sandia National Laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response fro various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training.

Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Wilcox, W.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hensley, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: > The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. > Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. > Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. > Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. > Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

Nahman, Anton, E-mail: anahman@csir.co.za [Environmental and Resource Economics Group, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599 (South Africa)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

471

Photon emission within the linear sigma model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft-photon emission rates are calculated within the linear sigma model. The investigation is aimed at answering the question to which extent the emissivities map out the phase structure of this particular effective model of strongly interacting matter.

F. Wunderlich; B. Kampfer

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

472

Dust Emission from the Perseus Molecular Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using far-infrared emission maps taken by IRAS and Spitzer and a near-infrared extinction map derived from 2MASS data, we have made dust temperature and column density maps of the Perseus molecular cloud. We show that the emission from transiently heated very small grains and the big grain dust emissivity vary as a function of extinction and dust temperature, with higher dust emissivities for colder grains. This variable emissivity can not be explained by temperature gradients along the line of sight or by noise in the emission maps, but is consistent with grain growth in the higher density and lower temperature regions. By accounting for the variations in the dust emissivity and VSG emission, we are able to map the temperature and column density of a nearby molecular cloud with better accuracy than has previously been possible.

S. Schnee; J. Li; A. A. Goodman; A. I. Sargent

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

473

ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even though the Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies (CC & ST) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated carbon emission research in late 1990s (CSI, 2013), carbon emissions has only become a hot topic in the last decade...

Kwok, George

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Global Mortality Attributable to Aircraft Cruise Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft ...

Britter, Rex E.

475

Smoke and Visible Emissions (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule establishes controls on smoke and visible emissions from certain sources.  This rule is not intended to preempt any more stringent controls on smoke and visible emissions provided in any...

476

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium

477

Uncertainty in emissions projections for climate models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Future global climate projections are subject to large uncertainties. Major sources of this uncertainty are projections of anthropogenic emissions. We evaluate the uncertainty in future anthropogenic emissions using a ...

Webster, Mort David.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Mayer, Monika.; Reilly, John M.; Harnisch, Jochen.; Hyman, Robert C.; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Wang, Chien.

478

Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

479

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

480

Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "quantifiable emissions targets" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

What does the 2°C Target Imply for a Global Climate Agreement in 2020? The LIMITS Study on Durban Action Platform Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a novel and comprehensive model?based assessment of possible outcomes of the Durban Platform negotiations with a focus on emissions reduction requirements, the consistency with the 2°C target and global economic impacts. The Durban Action scenarios investigated in the LIMITS study—all assuming the implementation of comprehensive global emission reductions after 2020, but assuming different 2020 emission reduction levels and different long?term stabilization targets—show that the probability of exceeding the 2°C limit increases with stabilization target from below one third for 450?470 ppm to 40?60% for 490?510 ppm in 2100. Global time?averaged economic costs of the Durban Action scenarios are limited across models, and are largely unaffected by the stringency of 2020 pledges. By contrast, the economic impact of delaying action beyond 2030 is much stronger on transitional costs. The main significance of short term action in the period 2010?2030 lies in preparing the ground for steep emissions reductions thereafter by inducing global emissions to peak and decline. The institutional challenges of all scenarios with fragmented near?term climate policy can be expected to be high as reflected in a steep rise of carbon prices and decarbonization rates until 2040. We conclude that an agreement on comprehensive emissions reductions to be implemented from 2020 onwards has particular significance for meeting long term climate policy objectives.

Kriegler, Elmar; Tavoni, Massimo; Aboumahboub, Tino; Luderer, Gunnar; Calvin, Katherine V.; DeMaere, Gauthier; Krey, Volker; Riahi, Keywan; Rosler, Hilke; Schaeffer, Michiel; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

The high energy emission from black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The origin of the high energy emission (X-rays and gamma-rays) from black holes is still a matter of debate. We present new evidence that hard X-ray emission in the low/hard state may not be dominated by thermal Comptonization. We present an alternative scenario for the origin of the high energy emission that is well suited to explain the high energy emission from GRO J1655-40.

M. D. Caballero-Garcia; J. M. Miller; E. Kuulkers

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

483

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on...

484

Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

McCormick, R.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

TEMPORAL VARIATION OF LFG EMISSION FROM DIFFERENT TYPES OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). This reduction of the landfill gas (LFG) emissions requires the ability to measure low methane emissions methane emissions were observed only near the landfill gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

487

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

488

Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond Thermal Efficiency Improvement While Meeting Emissions of 2007, 2010 and Beyond 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

489

Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

490

Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

491

Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling Comparing Emissions Benefits from Regulating Heavy Vehicle Idling 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

492

The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Moving Forward with Assessing the Emissions and Health Effects of New Diesel Technology The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Moving Forward with Assessing the Emissions and...

493

Design of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Center Design of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Center Both simulated and actual diesel emissions...

494

An Automobile/Transit Emissions Evaluation of Southern California's Metrolink  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

percentile) Finn| Report: An Automobile~Transit EmissionsAn Automobile/Transit Emissions Evaluation of Southernregulation. or An Automobile/Transit Emissions Evaluation of

Barth, Matthew J.; Tadi, Ramakrishna R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, and Investment in Pollution Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foss, B . "Carbon Emissions Trading is New Weapon to BattleBehavior and the Emission Trading Market, Resources andof Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading." The Journal of

Fowlie, Meredith

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission...

497

Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

498

Impact of Real-World Driving Characteristics on Vehicular Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. and Mohan, M. , Emission Estimates and Trends (1990-Evo]ving Motor Nehicle Emission Modeling, Tlransportation P]Testing Automotive Exhaust Emission, Society of Automobile

NESAMANI, K.S.; SUBRAMANIAN, K.P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in trade (EET) and therefore equals emissions embodied inexports (EEE) less emissions embodied in imports (EEI).re?ects the net export of emissions and a negative value

Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reciprocation internal combustion engines - Exhaust emissionReciprocating internal combustion engines - Exhaust emissionOn the emissions from internal-combustion engines: A review.

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z