Sample records for ozone water vapor

  1. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortz, Sarah E; Prather, Michael J; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extension of the measurement of ozone and water vapour byin-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) ozone climatologies usingcomparison with SHADOZ ozone and MODIS aerosol, J. Geophys.

  2. Ozone decomposition in water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Cecil Grayson

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...

  3. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews3 Water Vapor

  4. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new,Scanning Radar323ARM Water Vapor IOP

  5. Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

  6. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island NauruWater

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  8. Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

  9. 6, 80698095, 2006 Water vapor in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Sciences, Beijing, China 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Received: 23 May 2006 vapor from European Center for Medium-Range Weather20 Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. 1 Introduction Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor (UTWV) is a key greenhouse gas which exerts a major influence on the energy balance

  10. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  11. atmospheric water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greenhouse gas, contributing to approximately two-thirds of the Earth's greenhouse effect Mitchell, 1989; IntergovernmentalA meta-analysis of water vapor...

  12. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  13. Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl temperature of the target if not properly accounted for. The temperature error is defined as the difference between the target leaving apparent temperature and observed apparent temperature. The effects

  14. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determinedVAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K

  15. Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

  16. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  17. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  18. Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies Many of the Earth's important atmospheric recovery, and emulsion stabilization. We are studying the behavior of species at the carbon tetrachloride.2 3100300029002800 pH~ 2 pH~ 4.5 pH ~ 5.5 Wavenumbers / cm-1 SFGAmp/arb.units COOH COOH COOH Emulsion Studies

  19. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  20. Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms that cause plant disease have been isolated in recirculated irrigation water and increase the risks of disease incidence in horticultural operations. Ozone is an effective oxidizer used to disinfect drinking water supplies and treat...

  1. Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Ralph Morgan

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    / / / / I / o. i + B CAP C BBJ V S TPA PZA EHA Fig. 5. Vertical distribution of the average water-vapor flux normal to the perimeter of the Gulf of Nexico during Oct-Kov-Dec 1959. Plus values are inflow in kgm/sec-mb-. m. -o-I Pi C4 I / ~-o, i...BALANCE OF ATMOSPHERIC HATER VAPOR OVER THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis By RALPH MORGAN HUGHES Captain, USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf-'llment of the rec;uirements for the degree of MASTER...

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single ColumngovCampaignsWater Cycle

  4. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio; Levine, Xavier

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change non-monotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circul...

  5. Environmental Air and water pollution, extinction of species, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ecosystem ecology, environmental health, and environmental conservation and sustainability. The curriculumEnvironmental Sciences Air and water pollution, extinction of species, depletion of ozone to examine and understand complex environmental issues, to predict environmental change, and to participate

  6. Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    through enriched environments, or by interfering with water treatment systems such as filtration (MacDonald et al., 1994). Phytophthora, in particular, has been reported as a major contaminant of recirculated nursery irrigation water (MacDonald et al... environment which allows for greater electrochemical ozone formation. The Nafion membrane, as mentioned, is highly resistant to chemical attack by ozone. A final cathode reaction involves reducing oxygen from ambient air and protons (H + ) flowing from...

  7. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  8. enhanced) in water vapor. The distribution of water ice throughout the solar nebula may

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    enhanced) in water vapor. The distribution of water ice throughout the solar nebula may have varied Solar System (Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, 1988), p. 348. The time scale for settling of solids that are a few hundred times greater than that of the canonical solar nebula (14). Turbulent

  9. Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulsh, David Joel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The moisture burst is a tropical synoptic-scale weather event that typically originates along the ITCZ and has been defined previously in window-channel infrared imagery. This research uses 6. 7-micrometer water vapor absorption band imagery to composite 35... moisture burst events during the North Pacific cool season of 1983-1984. Composite maps are constructed at four times, each 24 h apart, during the life cycle of the moisture burst. A comparative baseline is provided by an additional composite of 35 dates...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76)ARM2, 2006Observations ofgovCampaignsARM-FIRE Water Vapor

  11. The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

  12. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirström, E S; Persson, C M; Buckle, J V; Cordiner, M A; Takakuwa, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After more than 30 years of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds, however, there is only one region where cold (~10 K) water vapor has been detected - L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work -- likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 1_10 - 1_01) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  13. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  14. Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho

    We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

  15. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  16. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazmany, Andrew

    2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  17. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Ly, Jennifer (San Jose, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  18. An Analysis of Cloud Cover and Water Vapor for the ALMA Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Chile), Chalviri (Bolivia) and Five Sites in Argentina using Satellite Data and a Verification and water vapor at Chajnantor (Chile), Chalviri (Bolivia) and four sites in Argentina. Since time

  19. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  20. Models of the atmospheric water vapor budget for the Texas HIPLEX area: by Steven Francis Williams.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Steven Francis

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    co:erage cf. convective activ' ty, Thus, the em&unt of convection seems to be more important than the type oz pr"se. . ce of convective activi!y. An increased tran:port of water vapor near ti e surface is -hown to be an important factor... of watc-. z vapor tnrough each later, l boundary shown in Fig. 1 can be comput d by substituting Eqs. (16) ? (19), reaper tively, into Eq. (14) . Th ' net transport of water vapor 'nt the volume through la+eral oouccdaries or t?:e net horizontal tran:;port...

  1. Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated Activated Carbon treated cloths exhibit high adsorption capacities for water (0.5-0.67 m u g of fiber) and 100% desorption upon heating to 100 "C. The untreated and treated ACCBO samples exhibited no degradation upon heating

  2. Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauluis, Olivier M.

    Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS Center in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle. A steam cycle transports water from a warm moist source to a colder dryer sink. It acts as a heat engine

  3. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wai Kit, E-mail: kekyeung@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Schrotter, Jean-Christophe [Water Research Center of Veolia, Anjou Recherche, Chemin de la Digue, BP 76. 78603, Maisons Laffitte, Cedex (France)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  4. Effects of a modular two-step ozone-water and annealing process on silicon carbide graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.webb@cantab.net; Lundstedt, Anna; Grennberg, Helena [Department of Chemistry—BMC, Uppsala University, Box 576, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Polley, Craig; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Dirscherl, Kai [DFM—Danish Fundamental Metrology, Matematiktorvet 307, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Burwell, Gregory; Guy, Owen J. [College of Engineering, Faraday Tower, Singleton Park, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Palmgren, Pĺl [VG Scienta Scientific AB, Box 15120, Vallongatan 1, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining ozone and water, the effect of exposing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide to an aggressive wet-chemical process has been evaluated after high temperature annealing in ultra high vacuum. The decomposition of ozone in water produces a number of oxidizing species, however, despite long exposure times to the aqueous-ozone environment, no graphene oxide was observed after the two-step process. The systems were comprehensively characterized before and after processing using Raman spectroscopy, core level photoemission spectroscopy, and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy together with low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In spite of the chemical potential of the aqueous-ozone reaction environment, the graphene domains were largely unaffected raising the prospect of employing such simple chemical and annealing protocols to clean or prepare epitaxial graphene surfaces.

  5. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks. First quarterly report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  6. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  7. airs water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissertations Summary: ??Soils are complex environments comprising various biological (roots, water, air etc) and physical constituents (minerals, aggregates, etc). Synchrotron...

  8. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  9. FIRST DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN A PRE-STELLAR CORE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caselli, Paola; Douglas, Thomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Calle Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, 657-8501 Kobe (Japan); Pagani, Laurent [LERMA and UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Yildiz, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van der Tak, Floris F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands); Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Codella, Claudio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Nisini, Brunella, E-mail: p.caselli@leeds.ac.uk [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a crucial molecule in molecular astrophysics as it controls much of the gas/grain chemistry, including the formation and evolution of more complex organic molecules in ices. Pre-stellar cores provide the original reservoir of material from which future planetary systems are built, but few observational constraints exist on the formation of water and its partitioning between gas and ice in the densest cores. Thanks to the high sensitivity of the Herschel Space Observatory, we report on the first detection of water vapor at high spectral resolution toward a dense cloud on the verge of star formation, the pre-stellar core L1544. The line shows an inverse P-Cygni profile, characteristic of gravitational contraction. To reproduce the observations, water vapor has to be present in the cold and dense central few thousand AU of L1544, where species heavier than helium are expected to freeze out onto dust grains, and the ortho:para H{sub 2} ratio has to be around 1:1 or larger. The observed amount of water vapor within the core (about 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }) can be maintained by far-UV photons locally produced by the impact of galactic cosmic rays with H{sub 2} molecules. Such FUV photons irradiate the icy mantles, liberating water vapor in the core center. Our Herschel data, combined with radiative transfer and chemical/dynamical models, shed light on the interplay between gas and solids in dense interstellar clouds and provide the first measurement of the water vapor abundance profile across the parent cloud of a future solar-type star and its potential planetary system.

  10. Time domain measurement of the THz refractivity of water vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma State University

    region," Metrologia 18(2), 49­52 (1982). 7. R. J. Hill and R. S. Lawrence, "Refractive index of water

  11. Orbital apocenter is not a sufficient condition for HST/STIS detection of Europa's water vapor aurora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    aurora Lorenz Rotha,b,1 , Kurt D. Retherforda , Joachim Saurc , Darrell F. Strobeld,e , Paul D. Feldmane that the discovery of a water vapor aurora in Decem- ber 2012 by local hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) emissions by our 2014 STIS observations. Europa | Hubble Space Telescope | aurora | water vapor plumes | Jupiter

  12. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Keywords: Water vapor Transition wavenumbers Atmospheric physics Energy levels MARVEL Information systemIUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational­vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H2 17 O and H2 18 O Jonathan Tennyson a,Ă, Peter F. Bernath b

  13. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

  14. Growth, physiology, and [delta] 13C of loblolly and shortleaf pine as affected by ozone and soil water deficit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, Christine Golemboski

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    44 48 CHAPTER Page VI STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE COMPOSITION AND LEAF INTERNAL CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION OF LOBLOLLY AND SHORTLEAF PINE AS AFFECTED BY OZONE AND WATER STRESS Introduction Experimental Methods Results . Discussion Summary..., ) and two water regimes (well-watered and water- stressed) during one growing in season open-top field chambers equipped with fixed raincaps. Conventional methods were used to measure growth, biomass allocation, foliar chlorophyll concentration...

  15. Water vapor on supergiants. The 12 micron TEXES spectra of mu Cephei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ryde; M. J. Richter; G. M. Harper; K. Eriksson; D. L. Lambert

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent papers have argued for warm, semi-detached, molecular layers surrounding red giant and supergiant stars, a concept known as a MOLsphere. Spectroscopic and interferometric analyses have often corroborated this general picture. Here, we present high-resolution spectroscopic data of pure rotational lines of water vapor at 12 microns for the supergiant mu Cephei. This star has often been used to test the concept of molecular layers around supergiants. Given the prediction of an isothermal, optically thick water-vapor layer in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium around the star (MOLsphere), we expected the 12 micron lines to be in emission or at least in absorption but filled in by emission from the molecular layer around the star. Our data, however, show the contrary; we find definite absorption. Thus, our data do not easily fit into the suggested isothermal MOLsphere scenario. The 12 micron lines, therefore, put new, strong constraints on the MOLsphere concept and on the nature of water seen in signatures across the spectra of early M supergiants. We also find that the absorption is even stronger than that calculated from a standard, spherically symmetric model photosphere without any surrounding layers. A cool model photosphere, representing cool outer layers is, however, able to reproduce the lines, but this model does not account for water vapor emission at 6 microns. Thus, a unified model for water vapor on mu Cephei appears to be lacking. It does seem necessary to model the underlying photospheres of these supergiants in their whole complexity. The strong water vapor lines clearly reveal inadequacies of classical model atmospheres.

  16. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  17. Water vapor transport in the vicinity of imbibing saline plumes: Homogeneous and layered unsaturated porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisbrod, Noam

    solutions (brines) were applied as point sources to the surface of homogenous packs of prewetted silica sand vapor transport from the residually saturated sand into the imbibing brine was observed in all sand grades and geometries. Pure water applied to sand prewetted with brine migrated into the surrounding

  18. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    rotational­ vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H2 16 O and p-H2IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational­vibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy

  19. IUPAC Critical Evaluation of the Rotational-Vibrational Spectra of Water Vapor. Part II.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , transition wavenumbers, atmospheric physics, energy levels, MARVEL, information system, database, WIUPAC Critical Evaluation of the Rotational-Vibrational Spectra of Water Vapor. Part II. Energy Kingdom c Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, U.S.A. d Universit

  20. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Atmospheric physics Energy levels MARVEL Information system Database W@DIS Infrared spectra Microwave spectraIUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational­vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part II Energy, York, UK c Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA d

  1. Water vapor variability in the tropics and its links to dynamics and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    dioxide doubling [e.g., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001]. This uncertainty stems P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia Richard P. Allan to understanding feedbacks and processes operating within the climate system. Column-integrated water vapor (CWV

  2. investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric-portable mixing ratio generator and Rayleigh distillation device, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 1607 ratio generator. Incom- ing dry air passes through a molecular sieve and then a stainless steel frit (a

  3. GEOSTAR-II: A PROTOTYPE WATER VAPOR IMAGER/SOUNDER FOR THE PATH Todd Gaier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    GEOSTAR-II: A PROTOTYPE WATER VAPOR IMAGER/SOUNDER FOR THE PATH MISSION Todd Gaier1 , Bjorn the as yet undefined mission requirements. By far the most stringent "requirement" is the recovery. The IF signals are routed to a correlator unit on coaxial cables. The system is not designed to provide full

  4. Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

  5. Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Morshed A.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    .............................................................................................................................. 211 xv LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1. Densities of methane (vapor) and air at different temperatures. .......................... 2 Fig. 2. Temperature and specific gravity of methane, air and methane-air mixture at atmospheric... on methane concentration downwind of the LNG pool ..................................................................................................... 37 Fig. 10. Methane concentrations downwind of the LNG pool, with and without water spray...

  6. Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Alexander B.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

  7. Tropical Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks in Climate Models: A Further Assessment Using Coupled Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dezheng

    ). A small change in these radiative effects of water vapor and clouds can either offset or greatly amplify global warming, we find no significant correlation between the inter-model variations in the cloud albedo feedback during ENSO and the inter-model variations in the cloud albedo feedback during global warming

  8. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  9. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  10. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate contact due to dust particles on the aggregate surface. The rupture may occur because of the construction loads and operating traffic during construction, or could be environmentally induced by freeze-thaw cycling. Once a break in the film... design, environment and traffic, can be defined as progressive degradation of asphalt mixture material due to the presence of water. The occurrence of moisture damage in asphalt material is a rather complex phenomenon, which involves chemical, physical...

  11. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

  12. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  13. Calculation of the Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Heavy Water Saturated Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Bulavin; S. V. Khrapatiy; V. N. Makhlaichuk

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is the most common substance on Earth.The discovery of heavy water and its further study have shown that the change of hydrogen for deuterium leads to the significant differences in their properties.The triple point temperature of heavy water is higher,at the same time the critical temperature is lower.Experimental values of the second virial coefficient of the EOS for the vapor of normal and heavy water differ at all temperatures.This fact can influence the values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor.The equilibrium properties of the dimerization process are described with the methods of chemical thermodynamics.The chemical potentials for monomers (m) and dimers (d)are the functions of their concentrations.The interactions of monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer types are taken into account within the solution of equation for chemical potentials.The obtained expression for the dimerization constant contains the contributions of these types.The averaged potentials are modeled by the Sutherland potential.Theoretical values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor at different temperatures are compared to those for normal water.We see the exceeding of the values for the heavy water at all temperatures.This fact is in good agreement with all experimental data that is available.The excess is related to the differences in the character of the heat excitations of the dimers of normal and heavy water,their rotational constants and energy of their vibrational excitations.Significant role is also played by the monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer interactions.

  14. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  15. Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rye, B.J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Technology Lab.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

  16. Response of water vapor to interannual variations of SST: Results from NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, De-Zheng [National Center For Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper very briefly documents the response of water vapor to interannual changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in two of the most frequently used climate models: the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM2) and the GFDL spectral model (R30). The corresponding results from radiosonde data are also presented for reference. A simple linear regression model is used to quantify the response of water vapor to changes in SST in the two simulations. Except for the negative response of water vapor over Australia, CCM2 simulates the major characteristics in the horizontal structure of the water vapor response shown in the radiosonde data. The negative response of water over Australia is also not well simulated by GFDL R30. In addition, GFDL R30 significantly underestimates the positive response over the Indian Ocean. The horizontal contrasts between the negative response over the western Pacific and the positive response over the central and eastern Pacific in the model simulations are larger than in the radiosonde data. The negative response in the subtropical region in CCM2 is more pronounced than in R30. Averaged over the tropics, CCM2 has a larger water vapor response in both the boundary layer and the upper troposphere than R30. The correlations between variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere and those at the surface level are also stronger in CCM2 than in R30. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes RONALD B. SMITH AND JASON P. EVANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes RONALD B. SMITH (Smith and Barstad 2004) to predict the patterns of orographic pre- Corresponding author address: Ronald B. Smith, Depa

  18. Calculation of the Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Heavy Water Saturated Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulavin, L A; Makhlaichuk, V N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is the most common substance on Earth.The discovery of heavy water and its further study have shown that the change of hydrogen for deuterium leads to the significant differences in their properties.The triple point temperature of heavy water is higher,at the same time the critical temperature is lower.Experimental values of the second virial coefficient of the EOS for the vapor of normal and heavy water differ at all temperatures.This fact can influence the values of the dimerization constant for the heavy water vapor.The equilibrium properties of the dimerization process are described with the methods of chemical thermodynamics.The chemical potentials for monomers (m) and dimers (d)are the functions of their concentrations.The interactions of monomer-dimer and dimer-dimer types are taken into account within the solution of equation for chemical potentials.The obtained expression for the dimerization constant contains the contributions of these types.The averaged potentials are modeled by the Sutherlan...

  19. Effect of calcium nitrate on the vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol + water and 2-propanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polka, H.M.; Gmehling, J. (Univ. of Oldenburg (Germany). Chair of Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of calcium nitrate on the vapor-liquid equilibria of ethanol + water and 2-propanol + water was studied using a Swietoslawski ebulliometer. The measurements were performed for two constant salt molalities (1 and 2 mol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]) under isobaric conditions at 50.66 kPa. Strong salting-out of the alcohol was observed in all cases, leading to a complete elimination of the azeotropic point at relatively low salt concentrations. The results were correlated using an extension of the NRTL equation for mixed solvent electrolyte systems proposed by Mock, Evans, and Chen.

  20. Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

  1. Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

  2. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  3. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  4. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  5. Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

  6. Electrical, optical, and material characterizations of blue InGaN light emitting diodes submitted to reverse-bias stress in water vapor condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hsiang, E-mail: hchen@ncnu.edu.tw; Chu, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Yun-Ti; Chen, Chian-You [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, No. 1, University Road, Puli, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan (China); Shei, Shih-Chang [Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Tainan, No.33, Sec. 2, Shulin St., West Central Dist., Tainan City 70005, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate degradation of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) under reverse-bias operations in water vapor and dry air. To examine failure origins, electrical characterizations including current-voltage, breakdown current profiles, optical measurement, and multiple material analyses were performed. Our findings indicate that the diffusion of indium atoms in water vapor can expedite degradation. Investigation of reverse-bias stress can help provide insight into the effects of water vapor on LEDs.

  7. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  8. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria for acid gas-alkanolamine-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physico-chemical model was developed for representing liquid phase chemical equilibria and vapor-liquid (phase) equilibria of H{sub 2}SCO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water systems. The equilibrium composition of the liquid phase is determined by minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation treating both long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range binary interactions between liquid phase species. Vapor phase fugacity coefficients are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong-Soave Equation of State. Adjustable parameters of the model, binary interaction parameters and carbamate stability constants, were fitted on published binary system alkanolamine-water and ternary system (H{sub 2}S-alkanolamine-water, CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water) VLE data. The Data Regression System of ASPEN PLUS, based upon the Maximum Likelihood Principle, was used to estimate adjustable parameters. Ternary system measurements used in parameter estimation ranged in temperature from 25 to 120{degree}C in alkanolamine concentration from 1 to 5 M, in acid gas loading from 0 to 1.5 moles per mole alkanolamine, and in acid gas partial pressure from 0.1 to 1,000 kPa. Maximum likelihood estimates of ternary system H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} equilibrium partial pressures and liquid phase concentrations were found to be in good agreement with measurements for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) indicating that the model successfully represents ternary system data. The model was extended to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in aqueous mixtures of MDEA with MEA or DEA. The solubility was measured at 40 and 80{degree}C over a wide range of CO{sub 2} partial pressures. These measurements were used to estimate additional binary parameters of the mixed solvent systems.

  9. Moisture effects in low-slope roofs: Drying rates after water addition with various vapor retarders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, C.R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Petrie, T.W. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Childs, P.W.; Wilkes, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests have been conducted in the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS) of the US. Building Envelope Research Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate downward drying rates of various unvented, low-slope roof systems. A secondary objective was to study heat flow patterns so as to understand how to control latent heat effects on impermeable heat flux transducers. Nine test sections were tested simultaneously. The sections had a p deck above fibrous-glass insulation and were examples of cold-deck systems. These five sections had various vapor retarder systems on a gypsum board ceiling below the insulation. The other four sections had a lightweight insulating concrete deck below expanded polystyrene insulation and the same vapor retarder systems, and were examples of warm-deck systems. The cold-deck systems had materials that were relatively permeable to water vapor, while the materials in the warm-deck systems were less permeable. All test sections were topped by an impermeable roofing membrane. The test sections were instrumented with thermocouples between all layers and with small heat flux transducers at the bottom and top of the fibrous-glass insulation and in the middle of the expanded polystyrene insulation. Two different kinds of moisture probes were used to qualitatively monitor the movement of the moisture. The heat flux measurements showed that heat conduction dominates the system using impermeable insulation materials, with only a slight increase due to increased thermal conductivity of wet expanded polystyrene. There was significant transfer of latent heat in the test sections with permeable insulation, causing the peak heat fluxes to increase by as much as a factor of two. With temperatures imposed that are typical of summer days, latent heat transfer associated with condensation and evaporation of moisture in the test sections was measured to be as important as the heat transfer by conduction.

  10. 6, 51375162, 2006 Oceanic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W. Fairall et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean C. W. Fairall1 , D. Helmig2 , L. Fairall (chris.fairall@noaa.gov) 5137 #12;ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  12. A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  13. The Effect of Water Vapor on Cr Depletion in Advanced Recuperator Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable alloy foils are needed for gas turbine recuperators operating at 650--700 C. It has been established that water vapor in the exhaust gas causes more rapid consumption of Cr in austenitic stainless steels leading to a reduction in operating lifetime of these thin-walled components. Laboratory testing at 650--800 C of commercial and model alloys is being used to develop a better understanding of the long-term rate of Cr consumption in these environments. Results are presented for commercial alloys 709, 120 and 625. After 10,000h exposures at 650 C and 700 C in humid air, grain boundary Cr depletion was observed near the surface of all these materials. In the Fe-base alloys, 709 and 120, this depletion led to localized Fe-rich nodule formation. This information then can be used to develop low-cost alternatives to currently available candidate materials.

  14. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

  15. The influence of midlatitude and tropical overturning circulation on the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    coordinates. In this depiction, poleward transport of air and water vapor is non-diffusive, in a way for an open distillation. Model experiments that simulate a wide range of circulation strengths show to the polar region exceeds the rate at which surface sources replenish the poleward moving air stream. Across

  16. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for water + 2-aminoethanol + dimethyl sulfoxide and its constituent three binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tochigi, Katsumi; Akimoto, Kentarou; Ochi, Kenji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry] [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Liu, Fangyhi; Kawase, Yasuhito [Nippon Refine Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Nippon Refine Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system water + 2-aminoethanol + dimethyl sulfoxide and its three constituent binary mixtures at 363.15 K. The apparatus used was a modified Rogalski-Malanoski equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  17. Nature of the Mesoscale Boundary Layer Height and Water Vapor Variability Observed 14 June 2002 during the IHOP_2002 Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guichard, Francoise

    Nature of the Mesoscale Boundary Layer Height and Water Vapor Variability Observed 14 June 2002, Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript received 4 September 2007, in final form 23 June 2008) ABSTRACT Mesoscale at the mesoscale, with the spatial pattern and the magnitude of the variability changing from day to day. On 14

  18. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

  19. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  20. Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

    results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achiev~ cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194?F (10S0C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired... conditioning and hot water for various uses will be assessed. comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace (option 2). The basis for comparison being: a) the total primary energy usage, b) the cost...

  1. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W., E-mail: srick@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Ĺ away from the surface.

  2. 3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reising, Steven C.

    3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval, remote sensing, water vapor. Manuscript received November 1, 2008; revised May 2, 2009 and August 8, 2009 the latent heat of vaporization is a principal mechanism for the transport of energy from the equatorial

  3. Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

  4. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  6. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the water + 1-propanol system are reported at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The results were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak methods. The system shows a minimum boiling azeotrope, and the azeotropic composition is scarcely shifted with pressure. Results were compared with literature values. The data were correlated with Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC liquid-phase activity coefficient models.

  7. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  8. Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

  9. Structure and Dynamics of the Instantaneous Water/Vapor Interface Revisited by Path-Integral and Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Jan; Spura, Thomas; Karhan, Kristof; Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Hassanali, Ali A; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and dynamics of the water/vapor interface is revisited by means of path-integral and second-generation Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with an instantaneous surface definition [A. P. Willard and D. Chandler, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 1954 (2010)]. In agreement with previous studies, we find that one of the OH bonds of the water molecules in the topmost layer is pointing out of the water into the vapor phase, while the orientation of the underlying layer is reversed. Therebetween, an additional water layer is detected, where the molecules are aligned parallel to the instantaneous water surface.

  10. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation is perhaps the separation process most widely used in the chemical processing industry. The correct design of distillation columns requires the availability of accurate and, if possible, thermodynamically consistent vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. The present work is part of a project studying the effect of pressure on the behavior of the azeotropic point in mixtures in which at least one component is an alcohol. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were obtained for the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent by the methods of Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak. The data were correlated with five liquid phase activity coefficient models (Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC).

  11. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  12. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

  13. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  14. A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the temperature range of the liquid. Results were compared to the SPC, SPC/E, and MSPC/E models, vapor pressures, critical parameters, and the second virial coefficient. It is inferior to the SPC interactions. Models of this type include the Bernal-Fowler1 , ST22 , TIPS23 , TIP4P4 , SPC5 , SPC/E6

  15. Collaborative Research: The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Kerry Emanuel; Michael J. Iacono

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to an accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR climate model. To better understand and eventually better represent these processes, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, intra-seasonal oscillations and the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. The effect of the MIT and AER physics also has been tested in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 (hereinafter STD) and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics (hereinafter MOD) are still unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs). The new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor relative to satellite measurements.

  16. The Hydrated Proton at the Water Liquid/Vapor Interface Matt K. Petersen, Srinivasan S. Iyengar, Tyler J. F. Day, and Gregory A. Voth*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    The Hydrated Proton at the Water Liquid/Vapor Interface Matt K. Petersen, Srinivasan S. Iyengar ReceiVed: July 23, 2004; In Final Form: August 22, 2004 The hydrated proton was studied at the water the migration of the excess proton to and about the interface through the fluctuating bond topology described

  17. The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, Kerry; Iacono, Michael J.

    2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to the accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). To better understand and eventually better represent these processes in this major national climate model, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global climate models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, on intra-seasonal oscillations and on the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. In addition, the MIT and AER physics packages have been incorporated and tested in combination within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model for the purpose of evaluating and improving convective and radiative processes on time scales appropriate to weather simulations. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics are unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of dynamical intra-seasonal oscillations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, it has been shown that the new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor in CAM as established through the comparison of modeled and observed satellite radiances. This suggests that continuing regional discrepancies in water vapor amounts in the climate model may not be solely related to convective or radiative processes. The major results of this project have been described in more detail in a journal article titled â??The Impacts of AER Radiation and MIT Convection on the Water Cycle Simulated by CAM3.5â?ť that will be submitted for publication during Fall 2010.

  18. A Comparative Study of Ozone and Ultraviolet Light/Hydrogen Peroxide for Decolorizing Textile Dyeing Waste Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodri, C. G.; Perkins, W. S.; Walsh, W. K.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decolorizing textile mill spent dyebath effluents with UV radiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (UV/peroxide) and with ozone was investigated. Direct, disperse, and acid dyes with known chemical structures were decolorized. The dyes...

  19. Growth, physiology, and [delta] 13C of loblolly and shortleaf pine as affected by ozone and soil water deficit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, Christine Golemboski

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    not only vitality of humans, animals, and plants, but also has an economic impact on agriculture and forestry. Air pollution has been shown to reduce agricultural crop and forest productivity. Ozone (0, ), a photochemical oxidant produced by a series.... 4 to 90 days. As an air mass containing 0, and its precursors moves, there is continued addition of pollutants I'rom new sources, so that 0, is continuously being produced and consumed during transport (Heck 1984). EFFECTS OF OZONE ON TREE...

  20. Surfactants containing radioactive run-offs: Ozone treatment, influence on nuclear power plants water waste special treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokudina, S.A.; Grachok, M.A. [Belarussian State Economic Univ., Minsk (Belarus)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the problems encountered in the efficiency of radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plants in Kursk. The ozonization of aqueous solutions of surfactants was carried out in the laboratory`s ozonization system. The surfactants which are discharged to the ion exchangers deteriorate resins, clog up the ion exchangers, and decrease filtration velocity. Therefore, this investigation focused on finding a method to increase the efficiency of this treatment process.

  1. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  2. Experimental evidence for interaction of water vapor and platinum crucibles at high temperatures : Implications for volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    The extraction of water from igneous rocks and minerals is classically achieved by induction heating or foils, to extract water from rocks or minerals should be avoided. The interaction high- lighted : Implications for volatiles from igneous rocks and minerals Matthieu Clog , Pierre Cartigny, Cyril Aubaud

  3. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    . Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature systems, simultaneous electronic excitation and exposure to aggressive chemicals can acceler- ate etching-induced neutral particle desorption and surface erosion on single- crystal sodium chloride in the presence of low

  4. Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

  5. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  6. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems composed of water, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol at 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria data were obtained for the 2-propanol + 1-propanol binary system and the water + 1-propanol + 2-propanol ternary system at 100 kPa. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs method for the binary system and according to the McDermott-Ellis method for the ternary one. The binary system is well represented by assuming ideal behavior. The binary interaction parameters obtained from this and previous work are used to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system using the UNIQUAC, NRTL, and Wilson models. The ternary system is well predicted from binary data.

  7. NORIA - a finite element computer program for analyzing water, vapor, air, and energy transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NORIA is a finite element computer program that solves four nonlinear, parabolic, partial differential equations simultaneously. The four equations describe the transport of water, water vapor, air, and energy through partially saturated porous media. The numerical procedure uses the standard Galerkin finite element method to handle spatial discretization of two-dimensional domains with either planar symmetry or axisymmetry. Time integration is performed by a third-order predictor-corrector scheme that uses error estimates to automatically adjust time-step size so as to maintain uniform local time truncation error throughout the calculation. Thus, the user is not required to select time-step size except at the first time step. Nearly all material properties, such as permeability, can either be set to constant values or can be defined as functions of the dependent and independent variables by user-supplied subroutines. The gas phase is taken to be ideal. This report is intended primarily as a user`s manual but also includes discussions of the theory of two-phase transport in porous media and the numerical procedure used in NORIA. 33 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Barvainis; Robert Antonucci

    2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.

  9. Comments on ''Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent publication, Leblanc and McDermid [Appl. Opt., 47, 5592 (2008)]APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.005592 proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios. Scanning of the full telescope aperture with the calibration lamp can circumvent most of these limitations. Based on the work done to date, it seems likely that the use of multiple calibration lamps in different fixed positions in front of the telescope may provide sufficient redundancy for long-term calibration needs. Further full-aperture scanning experiments, performed over an extended period of time, are needed to determine a ''best practice'' for the use of multiple calibration lamps in the hybrid technique.

  10. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances Chemistry and Physics Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs

  11. Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

  12. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in soil vapor in the vicinity of a defense fuel supply point, Hanahan, South Carolina. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.F.; Aelion, C.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the results of a reconnaissance study to identify areas of potential contamination of the water table aquifer by volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) beneath a Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties near Hanahan, S.C. Six areas in and around the DFSP facility were investigated with soil-vapor techniques. The northern boundary area has been studied extensively and was, therefore, not included in the investigation.

  13. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of different scrubber materials. Environmentalrun periodically. Inline ozone scrubbers were used for VOCwith a commercial, KI-filled scrubber (P/N WAT054420; Waters

  14. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global and zonal total ozone variations estimated fromon multidecadal total ozone simulations, J. Geophys. Res. ,and J. A. Logan (2007), Ozone climatolo- gical profiles for

  15. INTERRELAITONS BETWEEN VARIABILITY OF GROUND-LEVEL OZONE AND LAND COVER CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

    to reduce ground-level ozone concentrations, including removal of highway tolls, use of vapor recovery million (ppm) over one-hour period. Air quality reports show that northeast United States has been

  16. Effect of Mo Dispersion Size and Water Vapor on Oxidation of Two-Phase Directionally Solidified NiAl-9Mo In-Situ Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of two-phase NiAl-9Mo eutectics with 3 different growth rates/2nd phase Mo dispersion sizes were investigated at 900 C in air and air with 10% water vapor. Good oxidation resistance via alumina formation was observed in dry air, with Mo volatilization loss minimized by fine submicron Mo dispersions. However, extensive Mo volatilization and in-place internal oxidation of prior Mo phase regions was observed in wet air oxidation. Ramifications of this phenomenon for the development of multi-phase high-temperature alloys are discussed

  17. Measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficients during absorption of water vapor by lithium bromide and (Li,K,Na)NO sub 3 mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.; Linkous, R.L.; Klatt, L.N.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A knowledge of heat and mass transfer coefficients in heat pump fluids, plays an important role in the design of absorption machines. Heat and mass transfer coefficients as well as subcooling are measured for absorption of water vapor in (Li, K, Na)No{sub 3} and Lithium Bromide (LiBr) mixtures.The rate of absorption of water vapor is obtained from the difference in concentration of mixtures between inlet and outlet streams across the absorber. In situ concentrations of aqueous salt mixtures over temperature ranges between 80 to 135 {degrees}C were calculated from density measurements. This technique of measurement is a reliable and convenient but not a very accurate ({plus minus}0.8 wt% salt) method of measuring the in situ salt concentration. Results show that the subcooling at the absorber exit is not only a property of the fluid, but depends strongly on the process conditions. The subcooling in LiBr mixtures without additive is shown to vary between 2.2 and 24.3 {degrees}C and the film heat transfer coefficient between 1365.2 and 801.1 W/m{sup 2}.K respectively, depending upon process conditions. These empirical results will prove to be of value to heat pump manufacturers because they have a strong bearing on costs and performance. Heat and mass transfer coefficients in aqueous salt solutions ate presented as a function of dimensionless numbers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A new (W,Mo)C electrocatalyst synthesized by a carbonyl process: activity enhancement resulting from water vapor treatment in the synthesizing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudo, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Kawamura, G.; Okamoto, H.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been revealed that electrocatalytic activity of tungsten and molybdenum mixed carbides formed on a carbon fiber substrate using a process in which metallic film formed by CVD at 450/sup 0/C from W(CO)/sub 6/ an Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is carburized with CO at 820/sup 0/C is enhanced by exposure to water vapor ( about 20 torr) at its synthesizing stage before the carburization. Activity tests in relation to electro-oxidation of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/OH conducted in 1M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 50/sup 0/C show that the potentiostatic current generated by reactants per real surface area of the catalyst thus obtained is 0.27 A-m/sup -2/ (at 0.2V vs. RHE) and 0.0037 A-m/sup -2/ (at 0.5V), respectively. The activity enhancement resulting from water vapor treatment is discussed in the light of surface analyses using Auger electron spectroscopy.

  19. A Comparative Study of Ozone and Ultraviolet Light/Hydrogen Peroxide for Decolorizing Textile Dyeing Waste Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodri, C. G.; Perkins, W. S.; Walsh, W. K.

    UVjperoxide batch reactor Description of Dyes Ten dyes representing a broad range of types of structure found in dye molecules were included in the study. Azo and anthraquinone structures were included as were water soluble and water insoluble dyes... Diazo o~-io--03~-o-, ~ '101' Yellow 44 29000 Diazo O~-o.-o?~ Table 2: Description of Acid Dyes CI Acid CINo. Classification Structure Red 1 Blue 25 18050 62055 Monazo Anthraquinone OH HMCOCHJ O-:(O,sor o HoO~ . c05'" o HH-Q Yellow 151...

  20. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    removed from test aquaria, OTN reagent was added and color development was measured spectrophotometrically. Air mixed with ozone gas was injected into test solutions by diffuser (aquarium air stone) under specified conditions of temperature (28 C... of its high reactivity, ozone has been used for treating water to remove dissolved organic and inorganic wastes (Torricelli, 1959; Diaper, 1972) . The effectiveness of ozonation has been discussed by Dickerman et al. (1954), Fetner and Ingols (1959...

  1. The Ozone Hole Some perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    The Ozone Hole · Some perspective · The British Antarctic Survey · The "Ozone Hole" · International of the predicted ozone losses! This was quite a controversy. Ultimately, ozone losses started appearing in the late 1980s (see Figure below), but by then, there was already a credibility issue for ozone scientists. #12

  2. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  3. A study of the effect of ozone and antioxidants on ozone-sensitive loblolly pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, Karen Lashea

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and exposed to LSX ambient ozone for two months. Arrows indicate pestained SDS-PAGE molecular weight standards (kD) and Rubisco large subunit. Lane R = pure spinach Rubisco large subunit. Lanes 1 and 2 = control seedlings in the Ozoban study. Lanes 3 and 4... radicals are produced during normal metabolism when oxygen is reduced to water. Grimes et al. (1983) studied the products that form from ozone in cells and found no detectable superoxide radicals, leading them to propose that either ozone or hydroxyl...

  4. The Effects of Ozone Deposition and Dissolved Organic Matter on Manganese Speciation in the Surface Ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Alison Michelle

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the known reactivity of ozone (O_(3)) in water and ozone’s environmental importance in the atmosphere, there are relatively few studies published examining the chemistry of O_(3) in seawater. This study focused on developing a flow injection...

  5. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment October 2005. [1] Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289­339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique

  6. Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles breaks down before sunlight returns: smaller ozone hole { Formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC #3; Photo-initiation reactions: Cl 2 h#23; ! 2Cl HOCl h#23; ! OH + Cl #3; Rapid destruction of ozone

  7. 6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 7427­7469, 2006 Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  8. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  9. Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walden, Von P.

    in the near-surface snow of East Antarctica. The processes of forced ventilation, pore-space diffusion to forced ventilation for several annual cycles. Postdepositional modification during the Last Glacial. Introduction [2] Stable isotopes of water in polar snow and ice have long been regarded as proxies for local

  10. Molecular Mechanism of the Adsorption Process of an Iodide Anion into Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Water-Methanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Dang, Liem X.

    2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ion adsorption to the interface of mixtures, we systematically carried out a free energy calculations study involving the transport of an iodide anion across the interface of a water-methanol mixture. Many body affects are taken into account to describe the interactions among the species. The surface propensities of I- at interfaces of pure water and methanol are well understood. In contrast, detailed knowledge of the molecular level adsorption process of I- at aqueous mixture interfaces has not been reported. In this paper, we explore how this phenomenon will be affected for mixed solvents with varying compositions of water and methanol. Our potential of mean force study as function of varying compositions indicated that I- adsorption free energies decrease from pure water to pure methanol but not linearly with the concentration of methanol. We analyze the computed density profiles and hydration numbers as a function of concentrations and ion positions with respect to the interface to further explain the observed phenomenon. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  11. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destaillats, Hugo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were preceded by an ozone scrubber (# WAT054420, Waters, MA)Atmospheric Environment of the scrubbers was verified underconditions. A new scrubber was used in each individual test

  12. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

  13. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  14. NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vi NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prepared as a NARSTO initiative, this tropospheric O3 in the accompanying Textbox, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment contains two product components. The first of these is a set aspects of tropospheric ozone pollution. The second component, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment Document

  15. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks; A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson l. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Clay Cooper

    2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts atypical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could for ce flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contract angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tens ion of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of this waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediments. Th e released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

  16. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson L. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Caly Cooper

    2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The basis of this study was the hypothesis that the physical and chemical properties of hypersaline tank waste could lead to wetting from instability and fingered flow following a tank leak. Thus, the goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the impacts of the properties of hypersaline fluids on transport through the unsaturated zone beneath Hanford's Tank Farms. There were three specific objectives (i) to develop an improved conceptualization of hypersaline fluid transport in laboratory (ii) to identify the degree to which field conditions mimic the flow processes observed in the laboratory and (iii) to provide a validation data set to establish the degree to which the conceptual models, embodied in a numerical simulator, could explain the observed field behavior. As hypothesized, high ionic strength solutions entering homogeneous pre-wetted porous media formed unstable wetting fronts a typical of low ionic strength infiltration. In the field, this mechanism could force flow in vertical flow paths, 5-15 cm in width, bypassing much of the media and leading to waste penetration to greater depths than would be predicted by current conceptual models. Preferential flow may lead to highly accelerated transport through large homogeneous units, and must be included in any conservative analysis of tank waste losses through coarse-textured units. However, numerical description of fingered flow using current techniques has been unreliable, thereby precluding tank-scale 3-D simulation of these processes. A new approach based on nonzero, hysteretic contact angles and fluid-dependent liquid entry has been developed for the continuum scale modeling of fingered flow. This approach has been coupled with and adaptive-grid finite-difference solver to permit the prediction of finger formation and persistence form sub centimeter scales to the filed scale using both scalar and vector processors. Although laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated surface tension of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests of showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of the waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediment s. The released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

  17. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  18. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  19. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  20. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  1. acetone vapor sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 7 ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR PROFILES DERIVED FROM REMOTE-SENSING RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS CiteSeer Summary: The feasibility and preliminary testing of a low...

  2. PPPL-3281, Preprint: January 1998, UC-426 Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in industrial processes is increasing. Applications for ozone include treatment of waste water, water to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration

  3. 5, 59575985, 2005 European ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction explain the trends in European ozone levels? J. E. Jonson 1 , D. Simpson 1 , H. Fagerli 1 , and S. Solberg License. 5957 #12;ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract

  4. 6, 56715709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Hemispheric ozone variability indices derived from satellite observations.erbertseder@dlr.de) 5671 #12;ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page

  5. 4, 32853332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa B. Sauvage et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa: regional aspects from the MOZAIC data B Correspondence to: B. Sauvage (saub@aero.obs-mip.fr) 3285 #12;ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over

  6. 5, 38113845, 2005 Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al. Title Page Discussions Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion G. E. Bodeker 1 , H. Shiona 1 , and H. Eskes 2 1 National Commons License. 3811 #12;ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al

  7. Assimilation of Aura ozone data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assimilation of Aura ozone data I. Stajner, H. Hayashi, K. Wargan, L.-P. Chang, and S. Pawson Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) NASA/Goddard AGU Fall meeting December 2004 #12;2 Ozone assimilation at GMAO · Total ozone columns and stratospheric profiles from SBUV/2 instrument are assimilated

  8. 2, 921942, 2002 Global ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone forecasting H. J. Eskes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geophysical Society 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global ozone forecasting based on ERS-2 July 2002 Correspondence to: H. J. Eskes (eskes@knmi.nl) 921 #12;ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone

  9. Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.

  10. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  11. Warm water vapor envelope in the supergiants alf Ori and alf Her and its effects on the apparent size from the near-infrared to the mid-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiichi Ohnaka

    2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a possible interpretation for the increase of the angular diameter of the supergiants alf Ori (M1-2 Ia-Ibe) and alf Her (M5 Ib-II) from the K band to the 11 micron region and the high-resolution 11 micron spectra without any salient spectral features revealed by Weiner et al. (2003). The angular diameters as well as the high-resolution spectra of alf Ori and alf Her obtained in the 11 micron region can be reproduced by a warm water vapor envelope, whose presence in alf Ori was revealed by Tsuji (2000) based on the reanalysis of the near-infrared data obtained with the Stratoscope II. While prominent absorption due to H2O can be expected from such a dense, warm water vapor envelope, the absorption lines can be filled in by emission from the extended part of the envelope. This effect leads to a significant weakening of the H2O lines in the 11 micron region, and makes the observed spectra appear to be rather featureless and continuum-like. However, the emission due to H2O lines from the extended envelope leads to an increase of the apparent size in this spectral region. The observed angular diameter and the high resolution spectra of alf Ori and alf Her in the 11 micron region can be best interpreted by the water vapor envelope extending to 1.4--1.5 Rstar, with a temperature of about 2000 K and a column density of H2O of the order of 10^20 cm^-2.

  12. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  13. N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    as well. Images identified with "ozone" in the title are as follows: C187 Ozone Diagram C879 Lungs of two Toxicity Dr. Hans-Georg Clamann, physiologist C2346 Ozone Toxicity, M. King C2347 Ozone Toxicity, Pvt. D. F. Smith, Jr. Sgt. J. C. Rawdon C2348 Ozone Toxicity, S. Mittler, F. J. Hennigan C2349 Ozone Toxicity Pvt

  14. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  15. 6, 66276694, 2006 linearized ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry.mccormack@nrl.navy.mil) 6627 #12;ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al

  16. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  17. 1-Dimensional Numerical Model of Thermal Conduction and Vapor Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    developed by Samar Khatiwala, 2001 extended to variable thermal properties and irregular grid by Norbert Sch for c. Upper boundary condition: a) Radiation Q + k T z z=0 = T4 z=0 Q is the incoming solar flux of Water Vapor with Phase Transitions developed by Norbert Sch¨orghofer, 2003­2004 3 phases: vapor, free

  18. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product are provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  19. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkiz, Steven M. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  20. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  1. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Multi- model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models V. Eyring1, I. Cionni1, G. E. Bodeker2, A September 2010 ­ Published: 7 October 2010 Abstract. Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite

  2. Original article Effects of tropospheric ozone on white clover plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effects of tropospheric ozone on white clover plants exposed in open-top chambers concentration in a large part of Europe is high enough to cause visible injury to sensitive plants and several site are evaluated using white clover plants. Plants were exposed to the air and sprayed with water

  3. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Remediation, LLC; Osterberg, Paul [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Johnson, Tom [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Frawely, Thomas [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  4. Oceanic alkyl nitrates as a natural source of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Lawler, Michael J; Prather, Michael J; Saltzman, Eric S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001ozonesondes, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer columns,behaviour of tropospheric ozone precursors in a global 3-D

  5. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  6. Intercontinental Impacts of Ozone Pollution on Human Mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relationships for ozone pollution. J. Geophys. Res. 2009,benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emissioninfluence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East

  7. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    media was brought to 3. 0 ppt with "Instant Ocean" salt and pH was adjusted with either sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid. 2. The accumulation of residual ozone was investigated in the tap water-based culture medium alone and with 12 ppm total ammonia..., turbidity and other organic substances was very effective, but no significant reduction in ammonia nitrogen content wss achieved, unless an oyster shell filter was introduced in the media. fea lty f tf 1 * 9 11 9 b*Mt ~btt demonstrated. Ozone...

  8. Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

  9. Reactive nitrogen, ozone and ozone production in the Arctic troposphere and the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Part I: NO x , PAN and Ozone Relationships, J. Atmos.Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arcticto springtime tropospheric ozone maxima using TOPSE measure-

  10. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  11. Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

  12. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  13. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  14. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Abstract: The generation of calibrated vapor samples of...

  15. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  16. atmospheric water transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stenzel, Oliver J 2009-01-01 2 Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport and the Water Balance of North America: Part I CiteSeer Summary: The atmospheric water vapor flux divergence and...

  17. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Problem 15 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole" The figure below shows typical observations of the total amount of ozone in a layer of air 8 km thick between 12 and 20 km over the South Pole (recall that we like to express the `thickness of ozone

  18. Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

  19. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff or adequacy of the information in this report. #12;Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor Ozone Reductions Using

  20. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  1. 7, 1009710129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 7, 10097­10129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes 1 , R. M Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  2. 5, 243286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone column content during SOLVE II J. M. Livingston et al and Physics Discussions Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during Aerospace Center), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany 243 #12;ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

  3. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  4. 6, 43254340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Long-memory processes in global ozone and temperature variations C #12;ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title

  5. 7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

  6. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  7. 8, 50075060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone trends from g-b FTIR observations C. Vigouroux et al.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 5007 #12;ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

  8. 8, 49114947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss processes B. Vogel et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4911 #12;ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss

  9. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  10. 6, 84578483, 2006 Low ozone over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone over the UK M. Keil et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions The January 2006 low ozone event over the UK M. Keil, D. R. Jackson, and M. C. Hort Met Office 2006 Correspondence to: M. Keil (mike.keil@metoffice.gov.uk) 8457 #12;ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone

  11. 5, 96419668, 2005 The origin of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9641­9668, 2005 The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions-5-9641 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions The origin of ozone V. Grewe The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  12. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  13. 3, 187223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone anomaly X. Liu et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy 2003 Correspondence to: X. Liu (xliu@nsstc.uah.edu) 187 #12;ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

  14. 3, 10811107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 3, 1081­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page-dimensional model study of long-term mid-high latitude lower stratosphere ozone changes M. P. Chipperfield School­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page Abstract Introduction

  15. Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiteboul, Serge

    Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ? Tirthankar Lahiri 1 , Serge Abiteboul 2 language, and we implement our extensions in a system called Ozone. In our approach, structured data may full knowledge of structure. Ozone also enhances both ODMG/OQL and OEM/Lorel by virtue

  16. 4, 21672238, 2004 Ozone loss and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991­2003 S Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone loss and chlorine activation Correspondence to: S. Tilmes (simone.tilmes@t-online.de) 2167 #12;ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine

  17. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  18. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of Alcohols, Water and Petroleum Fuels. 2 Results of regression analysis. 3 Effect of various parameters on vaporization length. 51 4 Predicted tube length for different fuel requirements (Ten stainless steel tubes, 4. 7 mm ID. ). 60 ix LIST... with quality with increasing heat flux as parameter. 18 5 Reynolds Number Factor, F. 6 Suppression Factor, S. 27 27 7 Flow chart of the algorithm for vaporization length. 8 The single tube heat exchanger. 33 36 9 Thermocouple arrangement along...

  19. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  20. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

  1. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  2. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  3. 2, 15091543, 2002 Ozone production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/2/1509/ c European Geosciences Union 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone as a consequence of local catabatic winds. Aver- age mid-day peroxy radical concentrations at Mt. Cimone; Atlas and Ridley, 1996; Fischer et al., 1998; Zanis et al., 2000a, b). Often, free tropospheric

  4. The Exposure-Response Curve for Ozone and Risk of Mortality and the Adequacy of Current Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    The Exposure-Response Curve for Ozone and Risk of Mortality and the Adequacy of Current Ozone for Ozone and Risk of Mortality and the Adequacy of Current Ozone Regulations Michelle L. Bell,1 Roger D.432.3817 E-mail: michelle.bell@yale.edu 1 #12;Running Title: Ozone and mortality: exposure

  5. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  6. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  7. A study of the effect of ozone and antioxidants on ozone-sensitive loblolly pine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, Karen Lashea

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone, a phytotoxic air pollutant, is formed from photochemical reactions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the troposphere. Ozone is taken into the plant through the stomata, and quickly broken down into hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl...

  8. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Shuojun Wang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  9. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Leeuw, Jan; Wang, Shuojun

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  10. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon filters for the control of ozone, sulfur dioxide, andMendell (2008). "Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  11. oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students Log in to ozone.ou.edu. Click the Advising tab. Please lecture schedule CRN ­ Course Reference Number In oZONE the Registration Add Errors will display one

  12. Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 2 Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter spectrometers using convergence behaviour diagnostics Abstract The Ozone Profile Algorithm (OPERA), developed at KNMI, retrieves the vertical ozone distribution from nadir spectral satellite measurements of back scattered sunlight

  13. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particles produced by ozone/limonene reactions in indoor airgas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds underNazaroff, W.W. , 2008. Ozone levels in passenger cabins of

  14. 5, 58415874, 2005 Ozone/tracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et al. Title Page Discussions Impact of mixing and chemical change on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller 1 Commons License. 5841 #12;ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et

  15. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  16. Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

  17. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution and Personal Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ://www.nctcog.org/trans/air/ozone/formation.gif #12;Health Effects · Chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion · Wheezing and difficulty

  18. The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    iii ABSTRACT The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination with other instruments tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) can be derived. In this study, the trajectory

  19. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  20. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California...

  1. atmospheric ozone increases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polar vortex and its changes for GHGs increase and ozone depletion and possible feedback of the stratospheric polar vortex to changes in GHGs and ozone, as simulated by...

  2. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare – Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, Sout Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  3. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Top Innovation. See an example of vapor retarder best practices in action. Find other case studies of Building America projects across the country that utilizes vapor retarder...

  4. Low-Temperature Ozone Exposure Technique to Modulate the Stoichiometry of WO(x) Nanorods and Optimize the Electrochromic Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, F.; Li, C. P.; Chen, G.; Tenent, R. C.; Wolden, C. A.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Dillon, A. C.; Richards, R. M.; Engtrakul, C.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature ozone exposure technique was employed for the post-treatment of WO{sub x} nanorod thin films fabricated from hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) and ultrasonic spray deposition (USD) techniques. The resulting films were characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stoichiometry and surface crystallinity of the WO{sub x} thin films were subsequently modulated upon ozone exposure and thermal annealing without particle growth. The electrochromic performance was studied in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte, and the results suggest that the low-temperature ozone exposure technique is superior to the traditional high-temperature thermal annealing (employed to more fully oxidize the WO{sub x}). The optical modulation at 670 nm was improved from 35% for the as-deposited film to 57% for the film after ozone exposure at 150 C. The coloration efficiency was improved and the switching speed to the darkened state was significantly accelerated from 18.0 s for the as-deposited film to 11.8 s for the film after the ozone exposure. The process opens an avenue for low-temperature and cost-effective manufacturing of electrochromic films, especially on flexible polymer substrates.

  5. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid hydrocarbons and their perdeuterated analogues have been determined by correlation-gas chromatography of cyclohexane-d12 and benzene-d6. Other hydrocarbons studied include the perdeuterated forms of hexane, toluene

  6. Water on Earth Source % of Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    of heat. High Heat Capacity · Water absorbs or releases more heat than many substances for each degree is lowered. · spread salt on streets in winter to prevent ice formation. High Heat Capacity · Water vapor in our environment. · On earth, water is found as a liquid, as a solid (ice) or as a gas (water vapor

  7. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  8. Tropospheric Ozone ATOC/CHEM 5151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    polymers, such as rubber #12;12 Tropospheric ozone distribution · Generally increases with altitude) ( production! #12;18 Ozone production CO + OH CO2 + H loss · Photolysis (1.4 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) · Oxidation of CO (3.5 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) 4. Chemical production

  9. 5, 90039038, 2005 Ozone in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the at- mospheric boundary layer, a low total ozone column and a reduced cloud cover, all favouring ozone 2003. In this paper we5 argue that a number of positive feedback effects between the weather conditions as the increased temperature and solar radiation indicate that biogenic emissions in Europe were increased during

  10. Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 467342 $7D425BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes and summertime ozone over middle and polar latitudes is analyzed using zonally averaged total ozone data. Short

  11. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  12. Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest Jacqueline Costello1, Farren: Tropospheric ozone is difficult to retrieve from satellites because of the abundance of ozone in the stratosphere. Tropospheric ozone has become a significant environmental issue and can be exacerbated by UT

  13. Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques L.M. Strijbosch April 25 to the process of ozone profile retrieval, a method for retrieving a global ozone distribution from satellite Machines are selected to replace the forward model, which is the slowest part of ozone profile retrieval

  14. Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone Wenshou Tian,1,2 Martyn in both the troposphere and stratosphere. The modeled total column ozone agrees well with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer observations. Modeled ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

  15. Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Raymond L.

    Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky Raymond L. Lee, Jr.,1, * Wolfgang Meyer absorption at longer wavelengths by ozone's Chappuis bands. Because stratospheric ozone is greatly depleted correlations between ozone concentration and twilight colors. We also used a spectroradiometer at a midlatitude

  16. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  17. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Forced Dispersion Modeling of LNG Vapor Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byung-Kyu

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety and security of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities has prompted the need for continued study of LNG mitigation systems. Water spray systems are widely recognized as an effective measure for dispersing LNG vapor clouds. Currently...

  18. Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan Hemant

    Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

  19. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  20. Exposure to Particulate Matter and Ozone of Outdoor Origin in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Chen, Ailu; Chang, Victor; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ulate matter (PM) or ozone, at concentration increments of ~SL, Samet JM, Dominici F. Ozone and short-term mortality inthe penetration of ambient ozone into residential buildings.

  1. Modeling Ozone Removal to Indoor Materials, Including the Effects of Porosity, Pore Diameter, and Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of healthy young volunteers to ozone causes cardiovasculareffects of five common ozone-initiated terpene reactiondecay rates, and removal of ozone and their relation to

  2. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008. Learning about ozone depletion. Climatic Change 89(1–and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone. San Diego, CA: AcademicPhotochemical behavior of the ozone layer. Report Number

  3. LARGE MULTICONFIGURATION SELF-CONSISTENT-FIELD WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR THE OZONE MOLECULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer III., Henry F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    theory comparable to that employed here for ozone. HoweverB (cyclopentadiyl) > B (ozone) > B (methylene), based onfor the its state of ozone near geometry. Coefficients of

  4. Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destaillats, Hugo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats,from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillatsfrom Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats

  5. Ozone Climatologies Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/m(a), percentage change in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Ozone Climatologies (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/mł(a), percentage change in ozone for the perturbed runs; tropopause region (b), whole stratosphere (c). Determining the impact of lower stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Hemisphere climate Sarah P.E. Keeley and Nathan

  6. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  7. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  8. Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.W. [Radian Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  10. Ozone determination in different copying centers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chen-Fu

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photocopying machines have been in existence for forty years: however, few people recognize their potential to create a human health hazard by ozone emission. This study was designed to determine the photocopier's emission rate and evaluate tile...

  11. Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almendarez, Maria Elena

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

  12. Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almendarez, Maria Elena

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

  13. Methane production from ozonated pulp mill effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremmon, C.E.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was made of the production of methane from desugared spent sulfite liquor (SSL) reacted with ozone. The ozonated SSL was fed continuously to three anaerobic fermenters for three months as the sole source of carbon and energy. The fermenters were inoculated with anaerobic bacteria obtained from sewage sludge and acclimated for 1 month in ozonated SSL prior to continuous fermentation. Chemical and biological parameters such as COD, BOD, total sulfur content, redox potential, pH, fatty acid composition, and methane bacteria populations were monitored to determine changes in the SSL during fermentation. Methane production from ozone-treated SSL averaged 1.7 liters/ liter or 17 ml of CH/sub 4/ produced/gram of volatile solids fed. Fatty acis analysis of fermenter effluent indicated a net production of 58 mM/ liter of acetate during ozonated SSL fermentation. This acetic acid production shows future potential for further fermentation by protein-producing yeast. Although the rate of conversion of volatile solids to CH/sub 4/ in this process was not competitive with domestic or agricultural waste digesters, this study did indicate the potential benefits of ozonating organic wastes for increased methane fermentation yields.

  14. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  15. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  16. Regional terrestrial water storage change and evapotranspiration from terrestrial and atmospheric water balance computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is derived as the residual of precipitation and water vaporThe largest mean water budget residual calculated from theresidual between the two large terms in the combined water

  17. Halogen emissions from a small volcanic eruption: Modeling the peak concentrations, dispersion, and volcanically induced ozone loss in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    , with lesser quantities of H2S, H2 and CO. Volcanic emissions also often include halogen-bearing species, and the greater water vapor content in the lower troposphere at tropical latitudes, which enhance removal

  18. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  19. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  20. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  1. LAB DOCUMENTATION MEASUREMENT OF OZONE EMISSION AND PARTICLE REMOVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PURIFIERS Stephen A. Mang,1 Maggie L. Walser,1 John M. Laux,2 Sergey A. Nizkorodov1* 1. Department............................................................. 12 III. Ozone Emission Rates from More Powerful Ozone Generators

  2. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong-Hoo Park a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong Received in revised form 26 May 2010 Accepted 2 June 2010 Keywords: Ozone fluxes Citrus Tropospheric ozone climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed

  3. What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found in the strato-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found it represents only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, ozone is crucial for life on Earth. Ozone--acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. With- out ozone, the Sun

  4. The impact of interannual variability on multidecadal total ozone simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    to reinforce the chemical ozone depletion caused by the enhanced aerosol loading following the eruption of Mt

  5. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  6. Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wuhu

    Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated three­dimensional model study Chipperfield winter­spring chemical ozone loss from 1991 2003, its observed correlation with low temperatures. CTM throughout studied. The model reproduces large column winters also captures shape of ozone loss profile

  7. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Ozone and Short-term Mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Ozone and Short-term Mortality in 95 US Urban Communities, 1987-2000 MichelleD E XPOSURE TO TROPOSPHERIC OZONE is widespread in the United States,1,2 occurring also outside southernCalifornia,whereozone formation was first recognized.3 Short- term exposure to ozone has been

  8. Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the đJ Ľ 0Ţ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which

  9. Relative importance of radical families The "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    · Relative importance of radical families · The "Ozone Hole" · Introduction to heterogeneous chemistry Tuesday, March 8, 2011 #12;Review of important points so far Stratospheric ozone is only produced with these parameters Sir Sydney Chapman nearly got it right. He could account for the formation of the ozone layer

  10. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  11. The Ozone Layer in the 21st Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    CHAPTER 6 The Ozone Layer in the 21st Century Lead Authors: G.E. Bodeker D.W. Waugh Coauthors: H;#12;CHAPTER 6 THE OZONE LAYER IN THE 21ST CENTURY Contents SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 6.2 A FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING CHANGES IN OZONE ABUNDANCES

  12. Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 ozone depletion has been much studied as a case history in the interaction between environmental science the photochemistry of ozone in order to illustrate how scientific learning has the potential to mislead policy makers

  13. On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 F9BC4B725CE9393BE647 #12;On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies D. I ozone anomalies on monthly to interannual timescales. Such a model is usually characterized by the Hurst

  14. Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua ELINOR M. RAVESI, JOSEPH J. L1CCIARDELLO and LINDA D. RACICOT Introduction The strong oxidizing nature of ozone, known since its discovery in 1840 (1977) cited in a review article numerous reports of the successful use of ozone to I) control microbial

  15. Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 19B34EE3293C climate model simulations of spring Antarctic ozone John Austin,1,2 H. Struthers,3 J. Scinocca,4 D. A) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1b Scenario. The simulations of the Antarctic ozone hole are compared

  16. Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E for their species effectiveness in reducing ozone concentrations in a simulated indoor environment. Continuously supply system were used to simulate an indoor environment in which ozone concentrations could be measured

  17. oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides and the Registration Add Errors They Resolve Departments of the overrides within the registration component of oZONE. We have, however, retained a few instances where some. There is also a link to this document on the Student Training and Instructions page in the oZONE info site

  18. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  19. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  20. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

  1. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  2. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  3. Vapor explosion in the RIA-ST-4 experiment. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concern in assuring the safety of commercial light water reactors (LWRs) is whether core overheating, during which molten fuel is produced, can lead to massive vaporization of the coolant and shock pressurization of the system due to an energetic molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI). The RIA-ST-4 experiment was one of four scoping tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series which is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to define an energy deposition failure threshold and to determine modes and consequences of fuel rod failure during a postulated boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident.

  4. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, B.; Trent, B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in they they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and the bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors and indicates the sensitivity to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Tropospheric column ozone: matching individual profiles from Aura OMI and TES with a chemistry-transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Q.; Prather, M. J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Science Objectives of the Ozone Monitoring In- strument,G. J. , and Logan, J. A. : Ozone climatolog- ical profilestroposphere ex- change ozone flux related to deep

  6. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photosynthetic rate responses to ozone in some foliose andof gaseous nitric acid and ozone on lichens. Dissertations &with nitric acid and ozone. Environmental Pollution, In

  7. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  8. Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

  9. Policy Response to Stratospheric Ozone Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    #12;12 In terms of human impact #12;13 How do we know what to regulate? · Need a metric for assessing on stratospheric ozone ­ Some significant global warming potential (GWP) ­ Concern about breakdown products ­ trifluoroacetyl halides (TFAs) #12;20 Global Warming Potentials Compound Estimated Atmospheric (at time horizons

  10. Information content and reliability of TOVS estimates of precipitable water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Min

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of water vapor in the atmosphere has been accomplished by satellite sensors in both the infrared (IR) and microwave spectral regions. The radiance will be high if either the atmospheric temperature is high or the water vapor content is low. Among... hours apart. On board each satellite are channels of High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS2), Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU). Two infrared channels are essentially sensitive to water vapor. PW derived...

  11. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  12. Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution Anne M activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart surface ozone was over 90 ppbv and column tropospheric ozone exceeded 50 DU. These values are higher than

  13. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  14. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  15. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  16. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  17. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  18. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  19. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  20. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  1. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. C. , Reactivity of ozone on solid potassium iodide.and mechanisms of aqueous ozone reactions with bromide,for Dry Deposition of Ozone to Seawater Surfaces. Journal of

  2. OZONE INDUCED CONDUCTANCE INCREASES ASSAYED WITH LIPID IMPREGNATED FILTER MEMBRANES-EFFECT OF VITAMIN E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheih, P.K

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    29-44. R. L. Heath (1975) Ozone, in Response of Plants toSince it is possible that ozone absorption "is incompleteof the filter. After the ozone treatment was stopped the

  3. Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydogan, Ahmet

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inhibitor line Ozone Generator Oxygen Concentrator CellSequal oxygen concentrator and Pure-O-Tech ozone generator.This oxygen is then supplied into the ozone generator for

  4. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  5. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 3 - 6%.

  6. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  7. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as solids retention time increased. COD concentration decreased after ozonation and its percent removal increased with a lengthening of the solids retention time, Ozone consumption decreased and the ratio of COD reduction to ozone consumed increased..., with and without ozonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Effect of solids retention time on COD removal. Effect of solids retention time on ozone concentration consumed. 27 Effect of solids retention time on the ratio of COD reduction to ozone consumed. 28...

  8. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  9. airborne antarctic ozone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    winter weather conditions: Severe cold and isolated air ow: circumpolar vortex North pole vortex breakdown replenishes ozone layer from outside: mixes air 12; E11;ects...

  10. antarctic ozone recovery: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    winter weather conditions: Severe cold and isolated air ow: circumpolar vortex North pole vortex breakdown replenishes ozone layer from outside: mixes air 12; E11;ects...

  11. antarctic ozone hole: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    winter weather conditions: Severe cold and isolated air ow: circumpolar vortex North pole vortex breakdown replenishes ozone layer from outside: mixes air 12; E11;ects...

  12. antarctic ozone experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    winter weather conditions: Severe cold and isolated air ow: circumpolar vortex North pole vortex breakdown replenishes ozone layer from outside: mixes air 12; E11;ects...

  13. antarctic ozone depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    winter weather conditions: Severe cold and isolated air ow: circumpolar vortex North pole vortex breakdown replenishes ozone layer from outside: mixes air 12; E11;ects...

  14. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the material balance on ozone (equation 4-1). S [O 3 ](equation 5-2, which reflects a steady-state material balance

  15. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient ozone growth Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate and Environment (Climate) Impacts of ozone on trees and crops Summary: and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and...

  17. Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydogan, Ahmet

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of gaseous ozone for MRSA decontamination of hospital side-H. ; Kamiki, T. , “Ozone decontamination of bioclean rooms”,Nelson, P.E. , “Decontamination of bacillus thuringiensis

  18. Experimental investigation of the latent heat of vaporization in aqueous nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Soochan; Phelan, Patrick E., E-mail: phelan@asu.edu; Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Gunawan, Andrey [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106 (United States); Taylor, Robert A. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the latent heat of vaporization (h{sub fg}) in nanofluids. Two different types of nanoparticles, graphite and silver, suspended in deionized water were exposed to a continuous laser beam (130 mW, 532?nm) to generate boiling. The latent heat of vaporization in the nanofluids was determined by the measured vapor mass generation and the heat input. To ensure that the measured h{sub fg} values are independent of heating method, the experiments were repeated with an electrically heated hot wire as a primary heat input. These experiments show considerable variation in the h{sub fg} of nanofluids. That is, graphite nanofluid exhibits an increased h{sub fg} and silver nanofluid shows a decrease in h{sub fg} compared to the value for pure water. As such, these results indicate that relatively low mass fractions of nanoparticles can apparently create large changes in h{sub fg}.

  19. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  20. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

  1. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

  2. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  3. Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

  4. URBAN OZONE CONCENTRATION FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CORSICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Perceptron; Ozone concentration. 1. Introduction Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollution problem, both, Ajaccio, France, e-mail: balu@univ-corse.fr Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants concentration forecasting is an important issue in air quality monitoring. Qualitair Corse, the organization responsible for monitoring air

  5. Validation of satellite ozone profile retrievals using Beijing ozonesonde data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    year time period (September 2002 to July 2005) are used to evaluate the performance of ozone profile, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the NASA Aura satellite. Since the Global Positioning System ozone sensors (GPSO3) used in Beijing

  6. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 31513160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 3151­3160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters P. Zhao, J.A. Siegel�, R May 2006; accepted 14 June 2006 Abstract Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial

  7. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2366 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS P Zhao1,2 , JA Siegel1, Austin, Texas 78758, USA ABSTRACT HVAC filters have a significant influence on indoor air quality% for Filter #2 at a face velocity of 0.81 cm/s. The potential for HVAC filters to affect ozone concentrations

  8. Reactive uptake of ozone at simulated leaf surfaces: implications for "non-stomatal" ozone flux 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cape, J Neil; Hamilton, Richard P; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of ozone (O3) with ?-pinene has been studied as a function of temperature and relative humidity and in the presence of wax surfaces that simulate a leaf surface. The objective was to determine whether the presence of a wax surface...

  9. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  10. Viscosity of the Aqueous Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Region: 2D Electrochemical Measurements with a Piperidine Nitroxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majda, Marcin

    Viscosity of the Aqueous Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Region: 2D Electrochemical Measurements, and that it is coupled to the interfacial water via hydrogen bonding with H2O. In view of this postulate, the viscosity into the dynamic characteristics of aqueous interfaces. Thus, parameters such as the viscosity of water

  11. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  13. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  14. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  16. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  17. An ozone climatology of the Dallas-Fort Worth area and its relationship to meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobis, Timothy Edward

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , no extensive studies on ozone in this area have been published. This study presents a broad overview of the ozone problem in the DFW area. An ozone spatial and temporal climatology was constructed using ozone data at 23 different monitoring sites from 1980...

  18. Modeling Transport E ects on Ground-Level Ozone Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Su-Yun

    Modeling Transport E ects on Ground-Level Ozone Using a Non-Stationary Space-Time Model Hsin on Ground-Level Ozone 1 #12;Summary This article presents a novel autoregressive space-time model for ground-level ozone data, which models not only spatio-temporal dynamics of hourly ozone con- centrations, but also

  19. Simulations of Ozone Distributions in an Aircraft Cabin Using Computational Fluid1 Aakash C. Rai1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Simulations of Ozone Distributions in an Aircraft Cabin Using Computational Fluid1 Dynamics2 3 10 Ozone is a major pollutant of indoor air. Many studies have demonstrated the adverse health effect of11 ozone and the byproducts generated as a result of ozone-initiated reactive chemistry

  20. Improving total column ozone retrievals by using cloud pressures derived from Raman scattering in the UV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joiner, Joanna

    Improving total column ozone retrievals by using cloud pressures derived from Raman scattering resolution, coverage, and sampling of the Aura satellite ozone monitoring instrument (OMI), as compared with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) should allow for improved ozone retrievals. By default, the TOMS

  1. An intramolecular theory of the mass-independent isotope effect for ozone. I.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathorn, Bryan C.

    An intramolecular theory of the mass-independent isotope effect for ozone. I. B. C. Hathorn and R-independent isotope effect for ozone formation and dissociation is described. The experiments include the enrichment and asymmetric ozone isotopomers, the enrichment of ozone formed from heavily enriched oxygen isotopes

  2. Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change Seok-Woo Son,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change Seok-Woo Son,1 Neil F. Tandon,2 Lorenzo M cooling resulting from ozone depletion has only recently been examined and a comprehensive picture on the stratospheric ozone forcing used, we here show that stratospheric ozone affects the entire atmospheric

  3. Water Formation in the Early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bialy, Shmuel; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that high abundances of water vapor could have existed in extremely low metallicity ($10^{-3}$ solar) partially shielded gas, during the epoch of first metal enrichment of the interstellar medium of galaxies at high redshifts.

  4. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and transport properties of carbon dioxide for molecularinterfacial properties of binary carbon dioxide – waterCarbon dioxide’s liquid—vapor coexistence curve and critical properties

  5. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  6. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  7. Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

  8. EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Used to prove stable flow in C.O. Data Comparison and Analysis Linear Fit Within 3% error #12 and Analysis Plot VCSEL M.R. against Standard Calibrate According to Linear Fit Use Beers Lawł and Ideal Gas Designing Components for the Circuit Insert into steel, airtight container Record Spectra Data Comparison

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76)ARM2,govCampaignsAircraft Integration

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8LigovCampaignsCLEX-5govCampaignsFall 1997 Cloud IOP

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Single Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- Polarization DiversityPolarization

  12. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps toValidatingCloud PropertiesObservations

  13. Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and BiofuelsOversight Board TheOverview of the ARM/FIRE

  14. Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects on photosynthesis to a complex canopy architecture§ M.J. Martina, *, G.E. Hosta; accepted 17 July 2001 ``Capsule'': A process model is described that predicts the relative effects of ozone

  15. Global Health and Economic Impacts of Future Ozone Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort D.

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis-Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the ...

  16. air pollutants ozone: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E ndoor air pollution is ranked as one of the world's greatest public health risks (Wolverton,...

  17. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  18. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  19. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  20. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  1. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  2. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  3. Process-scale modeling of elevated wintertime ozone in Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Holdridge, D. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of meteorological variables and trace gas concentrations, provided by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality for Daniel, Jonah, and Boulder Counties in the state of Wyoming, were analyzed for this project. The data indicate that highest ozone concentrations were observed at temperatures of -10 C to 0 C, at low wind speeds of about 5 mph. The median values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) during these episodes ranged between 10 ppbv and 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during these periods were insufficient for quantitative analysis. The few available VOCs measurements indicated unusually high levels of alkanes and aromatics and low levels of alkenes. In addition, the column ozone concentration during one of the high-ozone episodes was low, on the order of 250 DU (Dobson unit) as compared to a normal column ozone concentration of approximately 300-325 DU during spring for this region. Analysis of this observation was outside the scope of this project. The data analysis reported here was used to establish criteria for making a large number of sensitivity calculations through use of a box photochemical model. Two different VOCs lumping schemes, RACM and SAPRC-98, were used for the calculations. Calculations based on this data analysis indicated that the ozone mixing ratios are sensitive to (a) surface albedo, (b) column ozone, (c) NOx mixing ratios, and (d) available terminal olefins. The RACM model showed a large response to an increase in lumped species containing propane that was not reproduced by the SAPRC scheme, which models propane as a nearly independent species. The rest of the VOCs produced similar changes in ozone in both schemes. In general, if one assumes that measured VOCs are fairly representative of the conditions at these locations, sufficient precursors might be available to produce ozone in the range of 60-80 ppbv under the conditions modeled.

  4. Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been performed

  5. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other NewsSpin andInterim DataCooling -INTEGRATINGIntegration

  6. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place...

  7. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  8. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  10. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  11. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  12. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  14. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures.

  15. Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, V.L.

    1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

  16. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  17. Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment WeiWei--Hsiang ChenHsiang Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    ­ ozonation use, ()- Under construction SOURCE: CALFED (2005) and MWDSC (http://www.mwdh2o.com/index.htm ) #1211 Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment CostsCosts · Treatments for Delta water quality conditions to minimize cost within technology limits. · Results using

  18. The interaction of flow, heat transfer, and free interfaces in an electron-beam vaporization system for metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerberg, K.W. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Finlayson, B.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical analysis is made of the liquid flow and energy transport in a system to vaporize metals. The energy from an electron beam heats metal confined in a water-cooled crucible. Metal vaporizes from a hot pool of circulating liquid which is surrounded by a shell of its own solid. Flow in the pool is strongly driven by temperature-induced buoyancy and capillary forces and is located in the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. At high vaporization rates, the thrust of the departing vapor forms a trench at the beam impact site. A modified finite element method is used to calculate the flow and temperature fields coupled with the interface locations. The mesh is structured with spines that stretch and pivot as the interfaces move. The discretized equations are arranged in an {open_quotes}arrow{close_quotes} matrix and solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The electron-beam power and width are varied for cases involving the high-rate vaporization of aluminum. Attention is focused on the interaction of vaporization, liquid flow, and heat transport in the trench area.

  19. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.; Bodeker, G. E.; Hubert, D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Steinbrecht, W.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boone, C. D.; Bourassa, A.; Davis, S. M.; Degenstein, D.; Delcloo, A.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Jones, N.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Leblanc, S. T.; Lambert, J.-C.; Liley, B.; Mahieu, E.; Maycock, A.; de Mazičre, M.; Parrish, A.; Querel, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Roth, C.; Sioris, C.; Staehelin, J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Stübi, R.; Tamminen, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Walker, K.; Wang, H. J.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC...

  20. A delayed effect of ozone fumigation on photosynthesis of Norway spruce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A delayed effect of ozone fumigation on photosynthesis of Norway spruce D. Eamus1 A.W. Davis J into the long-lastincl effects of ozone fumiga- tion upon photosynthesis of Norway spruce. Measurements were

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid regulates ozone-induced Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ozone-induced Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acid regulates ozone-induced Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Plant Molecular Biology 51:...

  2. Comparison of three vertically resolved ozone data sets: climatology, trends and radiative forcings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassler, B.

    Climate models that do not simulate changes in stratospheric ozone concentrations require the prescription of ozone fields to accurately calculate UV fluxes and stratospheric heating rates. In this study, three different ...

  3. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  4. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  5. Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.

    with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective... allows for firing temperatures much higher than possible with liquid/vapor systems. The high energy density per unit mass and the independence of the vapor pressure from the refrigerant concentration (p = f (T), p "# f( x)) over a wide range leads...

  6. Gille-ESYS 10 1 Is I had a billion dollars to save the ozone layer ....

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    Gille-ESYS 10 1 Is I had a billion dollars to save the ozone layer .... The scene: A backyard-destroying metered dose inhalers? If I had a billion dollars to save the ozone layer, I'd spend it all to get rid to save the ozone layer, I'd worry more about methyl bromide, which is not only an ozone destroyer

  7. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  8. Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

  9. Meteorological simulations of ozone episode case days during the 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13, 1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were performed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1, 2, 4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11--13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawinsonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. The authors found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

  10. Development of an ozone climatology for Harris County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balentine, H.W.; Carter, J.C. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); Preston, J. (Tenneco Polymers, Houston, TX (US))

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM) has performed continuous ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring in the Ship Channel area of east Harris County since August 1981. The HRM monitoring network is one of the largest Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) monitoring network in the United States operated by an industrial group. As an adjunct to its monitoring. HRM has funded extensive meteorological and statistical analyses of ozone monitoring data in Harris County. One of the goals of these studies was to determine those meteorological conditions responsible for the formation of elevated ozone concentrations in Harris County. The analyses performed included the use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis. These analysis techniques have individually been applied to ozone and air quality research problems. The combined use of these techniques in this analysis, however, is a unique application of these statistical tools to an ozone air quality analysis. As a result of these analyses, a climatology of those episodes conducive to elevated ozone formation in Harris County was developed.

  11. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  12. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  13. Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubis, Mirna R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO...

  14. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane is the effects of aviation emissions on ozone and atmospheric chemistry. In this study the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone for 2006 and two projections for 2050 are compared among seven models

  15. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    : Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov and Dmitri Babikov Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184304 (2012 for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented. © 2012 American Institute

  16. Tropical ozone as an indicator of deep convection Ian Folkins and Christopher Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Tropical ozone as an indicator of deep convection Ian Folkins and Christopher Braun Department] The climatological ozone profile in the tropics is shaped like an ``S,'' with a minimum at the surface, a maximum. These features can be reproduced by a very simple model whose only free parameter is the mean ozone mixing ratio

  17. Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing 1234567 Attribution 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations 2011 Abstract. A continuous tropospheric and stratospheric ver- tically resolved ozone time series

  18. A review of statistical methods for the meteorological adjustment of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    A review of statistical methods for the meteorological adjustment of tropospheric ozone Mary Lou adjustment of tropospheric ozone Mary Lou Thompson1 Joel Reynolds1 Lawrence H. Cox2 Peter Guttorp1 Paul D.larry@epamail.epa.gov ABSTRACT: A variety of statistical methods for meteorological adjustment of ozone have been proposed

  19. Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere Piers M. Forster lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and elucidate the key role of ozone changes in driving of tropical ozone decreases at 70 hPa and lower pressures can lead to significant cooling not only

  20. THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING BAYESIAN MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING University. The authors thank Alex Guenther for supplying the high frequency ozone concentration measurements a multiscale Bayesian model for separating ozone (O 3 ) concentration turbulent fluctuations from such inherent

  1. Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone Vivien Mallet1 21 September 2006. [1] The potential of ensemble techniques to improve ozone forecasts ozone-monitoring networks. We found that several linear combinations of models have the potential

  2. Conditional quantiles when the covariates are curves : an application to Ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bercu, Bernard

    Conditional quantiles when the covariates are curves : an application to Ozone pollution forecasting Summary This work deals with the study of pollution data with the aim of forecas- ting the Ozone of the maximum of Ozone one day kno- wing one or several of these functional variables the day before. To do this

  3. Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a) Brian K for an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation is given in terms of the energy transfer mechanism, where the metastable states of ozone are formed first, and then stabilized by collisions with other atoms. Unusual

  4. Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air Purifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air ozone (O3) during operation, either in- tentionally or as a byproduct of air ionization standards. Sev- eral types of air purifiers were tested for their ability to produce ozone in various indoor

  5. Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone (structure code: MFI) following a previously published procedure. The films were illuminated using an ozone. Results presented here indicate that the UV/ozone treatment under nominally room temperature conditions

  6. EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE CONCENTRATIONS ON FORESTED SLOPES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKendry, Ian

    EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE CONCENTRATIONS ON FORESTED SLOPES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH, hourly average ozone concentrations were mea- sured at three sites of differing elevation (188, 588. Sites experienced ozone concentrations ranging from 0 to 88 ppb in 2001, and 0 to 96 ppb in 2002. Daily

  7. Seasonal persistence of northern low-and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases #12;Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases 10 July 2008; accepted 23 July 2008; published 11 November 2008. [1] Analysis of observed ozone

  8. Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend W. J. Collins, R of circulation changes in a changed climate on the exchange of ozone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. We have identified an increase in the net transport of ozone into the troposphere in the future

  9. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 1?? , Analysis of 19701995 Trends in Tropospheric Ozone at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    in Tropospheric Ozone at Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes with the GEOS­CHEM Model Andrew C. Fusco Department. The causes of trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere mid­ latitudes from 1970 to 1995 to investigate the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone with respect to (1) changes in the anthropogenic emission

  10. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  11. The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation Luke D impact on tropospheric circulation causes significant changes to the distribution of ozone. Here we derive the lower tropospheric to lower stratospheric ozone response to ENSO from observations

  12. Semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations of ultrafast photodissociation dynamics associated with the Chappuis band of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    with the Chappuis band of ozone Victor S. Batista and William H. Millera) Department of Chemistry, University A ) of ozone following photoexcitation of the molecule in the gas phase with visible light. Our algorithm and recurrence events, as well as an interpretation of experimental studies of the Chappuis band of ozone

  13. Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4BE647 #12;Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery J. F. Scinocca,1. [1] We investigate the sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere polar ozone recovery to a scenario in which

  14. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Influence of UV irradiation and ozone. Kelly*1 The corrosion of Ag in an atmosphere of ozone and humidity with or without irradiation corrosion product to chloride in the reduction solution. The presence of both ozone and UV radiation

  15. How Bromate and Ozone Concentrations can be Modelled at Full Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 How Bromate and Ozone Concentrations can be Modelled at Full Scale based on Lab-Scale Experiments ­ A Case Study Running head title How to model bromate & ozone at full scale based on lab tests Pierre-scale modelling study of an industrial ozonation unit for practical application. The modelling framework combines

  16. A global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    A global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72 ozone anomalies S. Tegtmeier,1,2 V. E. Fioletov,1 and T. G. Shepherd3 Received 13 August 2009; revised in vertical profiles of stratospheric ozone, in both equatorial and extratropical regions, have been shown

  17. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  18. Analytica Chimica Acta 573574 (2006) 913 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytica Chimica Acta 573­574 (2006) 9­13 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone. Their structural, electrical and ozone sensing properties were analyzed. Structural investigations carried out with ultraviolet light and subsequent oxidation in ozone atmosphere at room temperature. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone Elliott T. Gall presents a Monte Carlo simulation to assess passive removal materials (PRMs) that remove ozone of homes in Houston, Texas, were taken from the literature and combined with back- ground ozone removal

  20. Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States United States. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW­GTR­155. Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus

  1. Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation Evgeny Vetoshkin represent the metastable O3 * species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation.1063/1.2778432 I. INTRODUCTION Ozone O3 is formed in the stratosphere as a product of the following recombination

  2. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications October 2008. Courtesy of Dr Mhairi Coyle, CEH Edinburgh. #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends Limited #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century I October 2008 I iiiThe Royal Society Ground

  3. Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 F9BC4B725CE9393BE647 #12;Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone Dmitry I; accepted 28 March 2007; published 24 July 2007. [1] Total ozone trends are typically studied using linear

  4. Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY G; revised 4 May 2005; accepted 13 May 2005; published 20 August 2005. [1] We use atmospheric ozone density profiles between 35 and 65 km altitude derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements to quantify the ozone

  5. The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest also acts as an antioxidant within a plant, reacting and neutralizing ozone and peroxides, though , and reacts photochemically in the presence of NOx to produce tropospheric ozone. The Model of Emissions

  6. Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated) to investigate the sludge reduction potential of partially ozonating sludge return activated sludge (RAS

  7. Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth and crown architecture of two aspen genotypes exposed to interacting ozone and carbon To study the impact of ozone (O3) and O3 plus CO2 on aspen growth, we planted two trembling aspen clones growth and modified crown architecture of both aspen clones. Ozone exposure decreased leaf, stem, branch

  8. 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herve Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crambes, Christophe

    Contents 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1;1 Ozone pollution forecasting using conditional mean and conditional quantiles with functional covariates Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1.1 Introduction Prediction of Ozone pollution

  9. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  10. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract... Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in refrigeration cycles as an economically viable alternative to CFC refrigerants. Complex compound refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present refrigeration...

  11. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  12. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  13. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  14. THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, C.

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a fuse wire. A gas combination is considered flammable when a pressure rise of 7% of the initial absolute pressure is observed. The specified testing methodology is consistent with guidelines established in ASTM E-918-83 (2005) 'Standard Practices for Determining Limits of Flammability of Chemicals at Elevated Temperature and Pressure'.

  15. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

  16. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great by symptoms of foliar ozone injury. Abstract The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts

  17. Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a,*, Daniel J. Jacob a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a Accepted 23 May 2011 Keywords: Air quality Ozone Kalman filter Assimilation Remote sensing a b s t r a c satellite measurements of ozone in different spectral regions to constrain surface ozone concentrations

  18. Simulation of natural corrosion by vapor hydration test: seven-year results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, J.S.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the alteration behavior of synthetic basalt and SRL 165 borosilicate waste glasses that had been reacted in water vapor at 70 {degrees}C for time periods up to seven years. The nature and extent of corrosion of glasses have been determined by characterizing the reacted glass surface with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Alteration in 70 {degrees}C laboratory tests was compared to that which occurs at 150-200 {degrees}C and also with Hawaiian basaltic glasses of 480 to 750 year old subaerially altered in nature. Synthetic basalt and waste glasses, both containing about 50 percent wt SiO{sub 2} were found to react with water vapor to form an amorphous hydrated gel that contained small amounts of clay, nearly identical to palagonite layers formed on naturally altered basaltic glass. This result implies that the corrosion reaction in nature can be simulated with a vapor hydration test. These tests also provide a means for measuring the corrosion kinetics, which are difficult to determine by studying natural samples because alteration layers have often spelled off the samples and we have only limited knowledge of the conditions under which alteration occurred.

  19. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  20. Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Thomas; Forget, François; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

  1. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed... for lowering energy consumption in the distillation process through various heat recovery techniques. (3-8) One such technique utilizes mechanical vapor recompression. (9-12) The principle of this ap proach involves the use of a compressor to recycle...

  2. Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krenek, Gregory Joel

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

  3. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    ADVANCED CHEMICAL HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured... in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam...

  5. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  6. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  8. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  9. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment of Energy Photo of a vapor retarder

  10. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual ModelLists forMercury Vapor page? For detailed

  11. EARTH OBSERVATION 400M Indians Endangered By Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    has been linked to increases in skin cancer rates. All rights reserved. © 2004 United Press using satellite and limited ground observations, the Press Trust of India reported Tuesday. The rate the reasons for the depletion, th e report states. Ozone is an important atmospheric trace gas that blocks

  12. Sea Breeze characteristics during a high ozone event over Houston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naumann, Stephanie Alaine

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During August 29 through September 2, 2000, high surface ozone levels were observed over Houston, Texas. Observational and MM5 model data were used to evaluate the land/sea breeze event that occurred each day. The model did well in accurately...

  13. Comment on "Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    to stratospheric ozone recovery, it is necessary to run coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models with stratospheric-of-the-art chemistry-climate model cou- pled to a three-dimensional ocean model. In contrast to Hu et al., we find is uncertain due to the large compensation between the short- wave warming due to increased penetration

  14. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than previous ``nuclear winter/UV spring'' calculations, which did not adequately represent depletion. black carbon geoengineering nuclear winter stratospheric ozone atmospheric chemistry In the early that came to be known as ``nuclear winter'' (1­4)] prompted intense public debate about previous assumptions

  15. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air...

  16. alkali vapor species: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in...

  17. alkali atom vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low power requirements, these "chip-scale" atomic Popovic, Zoya 3 Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis Physics...

  18. assisted chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline...

  19. A new vapor pressure equation originating at the critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuckols, James William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tence curve has been developed from critical scaling theory. The agreement between published vapor pressures and vapor pressures predicted by this equation is very good, especially in the critical region where many other vapor pressure equations fail... vapor pressure data f' or Ar, N2, 02H6, and H20, w1th the parameters ai to a being determined by an unweighted least squares curve 5 fit. The method of least squares has been described adequately elsewhere, e. g. Wylie (1966), and the theory w111...

  20. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons William Hanshaw, Marjorie Nutt, and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and liquid vapor pressures from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 510 K of a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been protocols are also made, and agreement generally is quite good. Introduction Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  1. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which will cause erosion and wear in turbine blades. It is impractical to design a compressor that handles two vapor expands isentropically in turbine and produces work. 4-1: Const P heat rejection High quality

  2. Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

  3. The control of confined vapor phase explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

  4. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  5. Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubis, Mirna R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water...

  6. Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor Eunsung Kan,a,b Seongyup Kim,a and Marc A.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ep.10205 Oxidation of dilute TCE vapors in a foam reactor using Fenton's reagent composition of Fenton's reagents, the foam reactor configuration provided a higher rate absorption and greater

  7. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  8. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, E.M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a summary of the nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) source apportionments performed at Desert Research Institute as part of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Version 8 of the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to a total of 2232 hourly automated gas chromatography (auto-GC) and 225 two-hour canister samples. The auto-GC system was operated by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission at one site in central El Paso. Two-hour canister samples were collected five times per day at 0500--0700, 0700--0900, 0900--1100, 1100--1300, and 1500--1700 MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. Gasoline vehicle exhaust accounts for one-half to two-thirds of NMHC in Juarez and El Paso with highest contributions during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust and propane buses are both 2 to 5% of NMHC in Juarez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increases during the day in Juarez from 2% at 0600 to about 8% at 1600. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust. These patterns suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution is associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from either vehicle or industrial sources. Additionally, the contributions of liquid gasoline are strongly correlated with vehicle exhaust with respect to wind direction. The sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60 to 70%t of NMHC.

  9. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  10. Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliaga, Cesar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and (b) after 2 hours of UV/ozone treatment. (a) 50nm (b)a) before and (b) after UV/ozone treatment for 270 minutes.from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment Cesar Aliaga, †

  12. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  13. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  15. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  16. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  17. alkali-metal vapor density: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor...

  18. FORMATION OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN AND OZONE ON AMORPHOUS SILICATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Dapeng; He Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Brucato, John Robert; Tozzetti, Lorenzo [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, I-50125 Florence (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50125 Florence (Italy)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen in the interstellar medium is seen in the gas phase, in ices (incorporated in H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}), and in grains such as (Mg{sub x} Fe{sub 1-x} )SiO{sub 3} or (Mg{sub x} Fe{sub 1-x} ){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, 0 < x < 1. In this investigation, we study the diffusion of oxygen atoms and the formation of oxygen molecules and ozone on the surface of an amorphous silicate film. We find that ozone is formed at low temperature (<30 K), and molecular oxygen forms when the diffusion of oxygen atoms becomes significant, at around 60 K. This experiment, besides being the first determination of the diffusion energy barrier (1785 {+-} 35 K) for oxygen atoms on a silicate surface, suggests bare silicates as a possible storage place for oxygen atoms in low-A{sub v} environments.

  19. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  20. CF[sub 3] chemistry: Potential implications for stratospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, M.K.W.; Sze, N.D.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Weistenstein, D.K.; Heisey, C.W. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wayne, R.P.; Biggs, P.; Canosa-Mas, C.E. (Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J. (Univ. College, Dublin (Ireland))

    1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors address questions about the chemistry of CF[sub 3] bearing compounds in the atmosphere, and the impact that the existence of and reaction rate constants for such species may have on stratospheric ozone. Species considered include CF[sub 3], CF[sub 3]O, CF[sub 3]O[sub 2], CF[sub 3]OH, CF[sub 3]OOH, CF[sub 3]ONO[sub 2], CF[sub 3]O[sub 2]NO[sub 2], and CF[sub 3]OOCl. Based on their calculational results, the authors suggest a number of experimental measurements which should substantially decrease uncertainties associated with the role of CF[sub 3] species in atmospheric chemistry related to ozone.