National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ozone season trading

  1. Potential for savings in compliance costs for reducing ground-level ozone possible by instituting seasonal versus annual nitric oxide emission limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lookman, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ground-level ozone is formed in the atmosphere from its precursor emissions, namely nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), with its rate of formation dependent on atmospheric conditions. Since ozone levels tend to be highest during the summer months, seasonal controls of precursors have been suggested as a means of reducing the costs of decreasing ozone concentrations to acceptable levels. This paper attempts to quantify what the potential savings if seasonal control were instituted for coal-fired power plants, assuming that only commercially available NO{sub x} control technologies are used. Cost savings through seasonal control is measured by calculating the total annualized cost of NO{sub x} removal at a given amount of seasonal control for different target levels of annual control. For this study, it is assumed that trading of NO{sub x} emissions will be allowed, as has been proposed by the Ozone Transportation Commission (OTC). The problem has been posed as a binary integer linear programming problem, with decision variables being which control to use at each power plant. The results indicate that requiring annual limits which are lower than seasonal limits can substantially reduce compliance costs. These savings occur because requiring stringent compliance only on a seasonal basis allows power plants to use control methods for which the variable costs are paid for only part of the year, and through the use of gas-based controls, which are much cheaper to operate in the summer months.

  2. ARM - Ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ozone Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Ozone In the stratosphere, ozone, is not only a greenhouse gas but also shields us from ultraviolet light. There has been a loss of stratospheric ozone, especially in the Antarctic region. During the Antarctic springtime, ozone levels

  3. Ozone transport commission developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    On September 27, 1994, the states of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) signed an important memorandum of understanding (MOU) agreeing to develop a regional strategy for controlling stationary sources of nitrogen oxide emissions. Specifically, the states of the Ozone Transport Region, OTR, agreed to propose regulations for the control of NOx emissions from boilers and other indirect heat exchangers with a maximum gross heat input rate of at least 250 million BTU per hour. The Ozone Transport Region was divided into Inner, Outer and Northern Zones. States in the Outer Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions by 55%. States in the Inner Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions 65%. Facilities in both zones have the option to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million Btu by May 1, 1999. This option provides fairness for the gas-fired plants which already have relatively low NOx emissions. Additionally, States in the Inner and Outer Zones agreed to reduce their NOx emissions by 75% or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.15 pounds per million BTU by May 1, 2003. The Northern Zone States agree to reduce their rate of NOx emissions by 55% from base year levels by May 1, 2003, or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million BTU. As part of this MOU, States also agreed to develop a regionwide trading mechanism to provide a cost-effective mechanism for implementing the reductions.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Ozone Concentration The atmospheric concentration or volume mixing ratio (mole fraction) of Ozone Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is...

  5. ARM - Instrument - ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsozone Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Ozone Monitor (OZONE) Instrument Categories Aerosols An in-situ Ozone Monitor measures atmospheric ozone concentration, typically by ultraviolet photometry in a dual absorption cell. The OZONE is part of the Aerosol Observing System (AOS). Locations Eastern North Atlantic ENA C1 Browse Data Browse Plots Graciosa Island,

  6. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsozone Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Ozone Monitor (OZONE) Instrument...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsOzone ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Ozone measurements are given in Dobson units and are integers with 3 significant figures. A Dobson Unit represents the physical thickness of the ozone layer if it were brought to the Earth's surface. A value of 300 Dobson units equals three millimeters. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered

  8. Update of national ozone study: Where are we now?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It addresses the issue of national ozone research in focusing on the regional task force, Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG). The overall objectives of the OTAG initiatives are reported. These include development of a comprehensive regional emissions inventory, selection of research models and protocols, identification of criteria for selecting emissions control strategies, and development of a framework for a NO{sub x} trading system. Findings from preliminary modeling runs and analyses are presented. 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-10-09

    The roles of ozone and other oxidizing agents are discussed. The major polluting emissions are SO/sub 2/, NO, and volatile organic chemicals. In the usual ambient concentrations, these substances are relatively harmless. However, when SO/sub 2/ and NO are oxidized, they are converted into more acid, more toxic, substances. Oxidants, including OH, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, HO/sub 2/, and organic peroxides, arise out of complex photochemistry that involves the ozone, the nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic chemicals. Were SO/sub 2/ the only pollutant, most of it would escape unchanged to the western Atlantic Ocean where it would be so diluted as to have no effect. At present about 35 percent of the SO/sub 2/ produced in the United States leaves the continent. In contrast, because of higher rates of reaction with oxidants, most of the NO is converted into nitric acid and deposited on land. The nitrogen oxides are involved in the production of ozone, some of which is naturally present. But particularly in urban settings where concentrations of NO/sub x/ are elevated and volatile organic chemicals such as those in gasoline are present, ozone concentrations may rise to levels deleterious to health. The Environmental Protection Agency has set standards for levels not to be exceeded, but nearly half of urban communities are not in compliance. The NO/sub x/ involved in the formation of urban ozone comes mostly from vehicular emissions.

  10. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  11. Tropospheric ozone in east Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadnis, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the observed data for the tropospheric ozone at mid latitudes in east Asia is done. There are three ways by which the tropospheric ozone is calculated, namely: (1) Ozonesonde measurements, (2) Fishman`s method of Residual Ozone and (3) TOMS measurements - an indirect method of calculating tropospheric ozone. In addition the surface ozone values at the network sites in Japan is also considered. The analysis of data is carried out for a period of twelve years from 1979 to 1991. In general it is observed that the tropospheric ozone is more in summer than winter, obviously because of the larger tropopause height in summer. On an average for the period of the analysis, the ozone values are at a high of about 60 DU (dobson units). While in winter the values go down to around 30 DU. Also a time series analysis shows an increasing trend in the values over the years. The ozonesonde values are correlated more to the TOMS tropospheric ozone values. For the stations analyzed in Japan, the TOMS tropospheric ozone values are generally greater than the ozonesonde values. The analysis of the average monthly surface ozone in Japan shows highs in spring and lows in summer. This can be attributed to movement of pollutant laden fronts towards Japan during spring. The highs for surface ozone are about 50 DU while the lows are around 20 DU.

  12. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L.

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  13. Ozone Risk Assessment Utilities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-08-10

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates aremore » based on the EPA''s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.« less

  14. Ozone in the free atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitten, R.C.; Prasad, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    Experts in the field discuss the state of the ozone layer - its elements, distribution, functions, and biological and climatic effects of perturbations.

  15. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serkiz, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  16. Promising Technology: Ozone Laundry System for Multiload Clothes Washers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These laundry systems use ozone as the chemical cleaning agent. The system generates ozone by electrifying oxygen in the air, and then dissolves the ozone in water.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  18. World Trade Organization | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the WTO's agreed rules for trade in goods, trade in services, and trade-related intellectual property rights monitoring and reviewing the trade policies of our members,...

  19. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Column Abundance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Abundance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Column Abundance The vertically integrated amount of ozone (commonly measured in Dobson Unit, 1 DU = 134 mmol/m^2) Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  20. 2015 Open Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Open Season which will run from Monday, November 9, 2015 through Monday, December 14, 2015.  During the annual Open Season period employees can enroll, change, or cancel an existing enrollment in...

  1. International Bioenergy Trade

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    trade model * 17.3.4 Task 4. Support US-China biofuels cooperative missions and ... China's NEA * Expansion into other U.S. and China government, university, and industry. ...

  2. Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This involves a decrease of ozone in the 50 to 65 deg N region and an increase south of 50 deg N. Two or three days after the storm, the ozone amount increases in the 50 to 65 deg ...

  3. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  4. Micro Power Trading Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Power Trading Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Micro Power Trading Co Place: Singapore Product: Silicon ingots manufacturer. References: Micro Power Trading Co1 This...

  5. Emissions trading programs, making sense of the options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahrer, S.

    1996-03-01

    In an attempt to move away from the traditional command-and-control approach to regulation, the US Environmental Protection Agency has begun to develop economic incentive programs. These programs encourage compliance with nationwide pollution-reduction goals, but seek industry action based on market or profit incentives, rather than fear of retribution or penalty. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) require that stringent means be taken to reduce NOx pollution in so-called ozone-nonattainment areas. Under CAAA Title IV, the SO{sub 2} trading program went into effect in 1993 to reduce acid rain. For NO{sub x}, several programs are either already in operation, or are under development. These include the Cap and Trade program, the Open Market trading program and New Source Review Offset Trading program. These 3 programs are described. To obtain a Title V operating permit, issues to consider are operation, job descriptions, certification process, value, estimating future emissions, confidentiality, permits, inter-media coordination, costs, and publicity.

  6. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  7. Four seasons of giving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dec. 2015-Jan. 2016 all issues All Issues submit Four seasons of giving We value a culture of giving and appreciate our employees' on-going volunteerism throughout Northern New...

  8. OPEN SEASON CHECK LIST

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FSAFEDS brochure https:www.fsafeds.comGEMFSAFEDSFormsOPM- FSA-OVTF-10-031.pdf Talk to an FSAFEDS representative Open Season benefits fair Contact your agency HR staff...

  9. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  10. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prize-winning Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) The Science and Policies of the Ozone Layer -- A Historical Perspective, IDEaS - Nobel Laureate Mario J....

  11. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment

  12. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization of ozone dose and contact time for CT calculations was performed in the pilot ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Ozone: Science and Engineering (The Journal of the ...

  13. Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

  14. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium...

  15. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels You are...

  16. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Authors:...

  17. EA-319-A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GP) | Department of Energy -A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) EA-319-A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) Order authorizing Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) to export electric energy to Canada EA-319-A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) (52.17 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-319 Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP Listing

  18. Energy Prices, Power, and Trade

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Prices, Power, and Trade for The Energy Council March 5, 2016 | Washington, D.C. by Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration Energy Markets Update 2 The Energy Council | Energy Prices, Power, and Trade March 5, 2016 $/b Continued robust supply and increasingly weak economic demand continue to pressure crude prices downward Source: EIA, Bloomberg 3 The Energy Council | Energy Prices, Power, and Trade March 5, 2016 $/MMbtu billion cubic feet Resilient production

  19. Career Map: Trade Worker | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trade Worker Career Map: Trade Worker A trade worker inside a large wind component. Trade Worker Position Title Trade Worker Alternate Title(s) Iron Worker, Rigger, Rodbuster, Cement Mason, Crane Operator, Electrician Education & Training Level Bachelor's degree generally not expected. Some training preferred. Electricians require formal training. Education & Training Level Description Trade workers often learn informally on the job. Other positions may learn their trade through a formal

  20. EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Centre Land Trading Limited EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited Order Authorizing Centre Land Trading Limited to export electric energy to Canada EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited ...

  1. C Trade Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trade Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: C Trade Ltd Place: Tuscon, Arizona Zip: 85718 3223 Sector: Carbon, Renewable Energy Product: C Trade is a carbon management company with...

  2. Trading Emissions PLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trading Emissions PLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trading Emissions PLC Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2N 4AW Product: Trading Emissions PLC is an investment fund...

  3. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2003_deer_lawson.pdf (335.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a

  4. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure), Energy Analysis,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and trade of biofuels have increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established...

  5. Eiko Trading Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trading Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eiko Trading Corporation Place: Japan Sector: Solar Product: Eiko develops solar pv projects in Japan and is expected to...

  6. Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Jump to: navigation, search Name: Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Place: Augsburg, Bavaria,...

  7. Solar Trade Corporation STC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trade Corporation STC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Trade Corporation (STC) Place: Lowell, Massachusetts Zip: 01851-4519 Sector: Solar Product: US manufacturer of solar...

  8. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry-climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; et al

    2015-04-16

    We test the current generation of global chemistry-climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1° × 1° grid cells, allowing commensurate model-measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfully matched. The observedmore » summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80% of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The observed linear relationship showing increases in ozone by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes is also matched.« less

  9. Ozone and other air quality related variables affecting visibility in the southeast United States. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brittig, J.S.

    1997-07-11

    An analysis of ozone (03) concentrations and several other air quality related variables was performed to assess their relationship with visibility at five urban and semi-urban locations in the Southeast United States during the summer seasons of 1980 to 1996. The role and impact of ozone on aerosols was investigated to ascertain a relationship with visibility. Regional trend analysis of the 1980s reveals an increase in maximum ozone concentration coupled with a decrease in visibility. However, the 1990s shows a leveling off of both ozone and visibility; in both cases the results were not statistically significant at the 5% level. Site specific trends at Nashville Tennessee followed similar trends. To better ascertain the relationships and forcing mechanisms, the analysis was changed from yearly to daily and hourly averaged values. This increased resolution showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between visibility and ozone. Additionally, by performing back trajectory analysis, it was observed that the visibility degraded both by airmass migration over polluted areas and chemical kinetics.

  10. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  11. Review of atmospheric ozone and current thinking on the Antarctic ozone hole. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A general review of the formation, global distribution and concentration variations on different temporal scales of atmospheric ozone is presented. The nature and extent of the recently discovered Antarctic ozone hole is discussed, and summaries of the various theories that have been advanced to account for this phenomenon are reviewed.

  12. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call ...

  13. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S.

  14. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California Real-World Studies of ...

  15. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ozone is used commercially for treatment of potable and non-potable water, and as an industrial oxidant. ISU and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a method for using iron in ozone oxidation that significantly improves the speed of oxidation reactions. Description Ozone is recognized as potent and effective oxidizing agent, and has a

  16. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry–climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We test the current generation of global chemistry–climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1° × 1° grid cells, allowing commensurate model–measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfullymore » matched. The observed summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 % of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes. We conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.« less

  17. EA-178-B Edison Mission Marketing & Trading, Inc | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -B Edison Mission Marketing & Trading, Inc EA-178-B Edison Mission Marketing & Trading, Inc Order authorizing Edison Mission Marketing & Trading, Inc to export electric energy to ...

  18. EA-208 Williams Energy Marketing and Trading Company | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Williams Energy Marketing and Trading Company EA-208 Williams Energy Marketing and Trading Company Order authorizing Williams Energy Marketing and Trading Company to export ...

  19. Beijing EEDT Technology Trade Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EEDT Technology Trade Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing EEDT Technology & Trade Co Ltd Place: Beijing, China Sector: Carbon Product: Beijing EEDT Technology & Trade...

  20. EA-191-C Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-191-C Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Canada. EA-191-C ...

  1. EA-176-A Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-176-A Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Mexico. EA-176-A ...

  2. EA-191-B Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-191-B Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Canada. EA-191-B ...

  3. EA-191 Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-191 Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Canada. EA-191 Sempra ...

  4. EA-176 Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-176 Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Mexico. EA-176 Sempra ...

  5. EA-191-D Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-191-D Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Canada. EA-191-D ...

  6. EA-278-B Direct Commodities Trading Inc - Recission | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -B Direct Commodities Trading Inc - Recission EA-278-B Direct Commodities Trading Inc - Recission Order rescinding the authorization of Direct Commodities Trading Inc to export ...

  7. EA-278 Direct Commodities Trading Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Commodities Trading Inc EA-278 Direct Commodities Trading Inc Order authorizing Direct Commodities Trading Inc to export electric energy to Canada. OE-278 Direct ...

  8. EA-191-A Sempra Energy Trading Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Sempra Energy Trading Corporation EA-191-A Sempra Energy Trading Corporation Order authorizing Sempra Energy Trading Corporation to export electric energy to Canada. EA-191-A ...

  9. Genotypic variability in ponderosa pine responses to combined ozone and drought stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    Five-year-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings from 18 half-sib and one full-sib families obtained from the California Tree Improvement Program were harvested after 1, 2, and 3 growing seasons of exposure to three levels of ozone (O{sub 3}) and two levels of available soil water (ASW) in open-top chambers in the California Sierras. Seedlings were evaluated for O{sub 3} injury symptoms, biomass, and radial growth in response to these stresses. Ozone injury responses were highly variable across families, but family rankings for O{sub 3} injury were consistent across years. Family rankings for O{sub 3} injury were highly correlated with those for reductions in biomass and radial growth for trees in the high ASW treatment, but drought-stressed trees showed no consistent relation between foliar 03 injury and reductions in growth. After three seasons of exposure to 88 ppb O{sub 3}, foliar biomass of the three most susceptible families averaged 60% less than trees in the low-O{sub 3} control, while O{sub 3} had no effect on growth of the three most resistant families. Variability across families of growth responses to drought was significantly less than the variability in seedling responses to O{sub 3}.

  10. Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Product: London-based company focused on trading of biodiesel....

  11. Cinergy Capital & Trading, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cinergy Capital & Trading, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cinergy Capital & Trading, Inc Place: Indiana Phone Number: (704) 382-3747 or (513) 287-2226 or (317) 838-1338...

  12. Green Hercules Trading Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hercules Trading Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Hercules Trading Ltd. Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2V 8BB Sector: Carbon Product: London-based...

  13. A simulation approach of ozone season emissions to optimize a fossil utility's options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, M.D.; Masoniello, R.; DeNavas, J.; Fasca, T.; Jones, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes PREACT--an approach to choose a mix of pollution control that optimizes economic and environmental alternatives for NOx compliance. The Predictive Real (Time) Emission and Allowance Compliance Tool (PREACT) is a computer program that allows the user to predict key emission parameters and optimize the maximization of net profits while managing emissions compliance. The program allows simulations of various compliance scenarios for NOx emission reductions in order to maintain both State and Federal NOx allocation of allowances on the fossil fired generating units in the Pepco system. The program uses real time data that is interfaced through a Local Area Network system to update forecasts of emissions. It also provides the user with an understanding of the production energy net profits that results from the simulation. The BTU used and fuel quantities are also outputs of the simulation. This paper describes the principle of the tool, which is to learn from past history and modify emissions forecasts considering up-to-date information on a unit profile. NOx emissions, operating options, fuel changes, technology retrofits, and any other opportunities for reducing emissions; considering feedback from real time information are used to modify the forecast. Other factors such as the market price of energy and the production costs of energy will also allow the user to modify the forecast through simulation. The last activity, which requires redefinition, is how to make decisions in real time considering the many opportunities to minimize the incremental cost to maintain emission compliance. The necessary management processes have been installed to maintain the risk management levels that the company wishes to maintain.

  14. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  15. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  16. International Bioenergy Trade | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Bioenergy Trade International Bioenergy Trade Chris Wright, INL, presentation at the December 5, 2012, Biomass Program-hosted International Webinar on international bioenergy trade. wright_2012_webinar.pdf (529.86 KB) More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Report 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Feedstock Supply and Logistics

  17. Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.

  18. EA-211-A DTE Energy Trading, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A DTE Energy Trading, Inc EA-211-A DTE Energy Trading, Inc Order authorizing DTE Energy Trading, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-211-A DTE Energy Trading, Inc (1.52 MB) ...

  19. EA-211-B DTE Energy Trading, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B DTE Energy Trading, Inc EA-211-B DTE Energy Trading, Inc Order authorizing DTE Energy Trading, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-211-B DTE Energy Trading, Inc (2.98 MB) ...

  20. EA-211 DTE Energy Trading, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DTE Energy Trading, Inc EA-211 DTE Energy Trading, Inc Order authorizing DTE Energy Trading, Inc to export electric energy to Canada. EA-211 DTE Energy Trading, Inc (32.01 KB) ...

  1. EA-373 EDF Trading North America, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EDF Trading North America, LLC EA-373 EDF Trading North America, LLC Order authorizong EDF Trading North America, LLCto exprto electric energy to Mexico. EA-373 EDF Trading North ...

  2. EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 EDF Trading North America, LLC EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC Order authorizing EDF Trading North America, LLC to export electric energy to Canada EA-367 EDF Trading North ...

  3. A Woman of All Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Woman of All Seasons Pittsburgh, Pa. - Lilas Soukup, a 35-year employee at NETL, has been recognized by the Pittsburgh Federal Executive Board (FEB) as the 2013 Woman of the Year....

  4. The season of giving begins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The season of giving begins Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit The season of giving begins Lab employees encouraged to donate to area communities. September 1, 2016 Los Alamos employees organize food for the Holiday Food Drive. Los Alamos employees organize food for the Holiday Food Drive. Contacts Director, Community Partnerships Office Kathy Keith Email Editor Whitney

  5. Four Seasons Windpower, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seasons Windpower, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Four Seasons Windpower, LLC Address: 1697 Wilbur Road Place: Medina, Ohio Zip: 44256 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product:...

  6. Draft framework for watershed-based trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-30

    Effluent trading is an innovative way for water quality agencies and community stakeholders to develop common-sense, cost-effective solutions for water quality problems in their watersheds. Trading can allow communities to grow and prosper while retaining their commitment to water quality. The bulk of this framework discusses effluent trading in watersheds. Remaining sections discuss transactions that, while not technically fulfilling the definition of `effluent` trade, do involve the exchange of valued water quality or other ecological improvements between partners responding to market initiatives. This document therefore includes activities such as trades within a facility (intra-plant trading) and wetland mitigation banking, effluent trading/watersheds/watershed management/water quality protection/water quality management.

  7. Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season May 15, 2013 - 1:16pm Addthis President Barack Obama listens to Acting Energy Secretary Daniel B. Poneman during a meeting with electric utility CEOs and trade association representatives at the Department of Energy in Washington, D.C., May 8, 2013. The group met to discuss lessons learned during the response to Hurricane Sandy, as well as the

  8. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. ... measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. ...

  9. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  10. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  11. Carbon Trade Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trade Ltd Place: Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: ML12 6HW Product: Scotland-based landfill gas project developer. References: Carbon...

  12. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting ...

  13. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    wind marine shallow cumuli This content will become publicly available on November 13, 2016 Prev Next Title: Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind ...

  14. International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development Address: International Environment House 2 Chemin de Balexert 7-9...

  15. Clean Tech Trade Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    30351,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Clean Tech Trade Alliance Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  16. Meeting Summary, Credit Trading Work Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Bryan

    2000-12-07

    OAK-B135 Credit Trading Work Group Meeting Summary. The purpose of the meeting is to: (1) Provide an opportunity for NWCC Work Group Members, NWCC Members, and invited expert participants to hear an overview of the draft NWCC Credit Trading Report and to critically review and discuss the report's recommendations and principles. (2) Hear presentations from several perspectives of other experts on credit trading which provide: (a) a brief summary of credit trading activities they are involved in, and (b) critical responses to the NWCC draft report. (3) Identify how the report can be improved at the big picture level. Attempt to resolve issues or concerns if necessary. (4) Discuss the recommendations and credit trading principles in detail and attempt to reach consensus on these sections for presentation to the NWCC. (5) Discuss if any of the outreach and communication recommendations in the report should be conducted by the NWCC.

  17. EA-319-A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) EA-319-A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) Order authorizing Fortis ...

  18. CIAM Puresky Carbon Trading Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CIAM Puresky Carbon Trading Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: CIAM-Puresky Carbon Trading Ltd Place: Shenzhen, China Product: Shenzhen-based JV providing a trading platform for...

  19. EA-208 Williams Energy Marketing and Trading Company | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Trading Company More Documents & Publications EA-184 Morgan Stanley Capital Group Inc. EA-166 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C EA-167 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P...

  20. EA-211-C DTE Energy Trading, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C DTE Energy Trading, Inc EA-211-C DTE Energy Trading, Inc Order authorizing DTE Energy Trading to export electric energy to Canada. EA-211-C DTE.pdf (871.93 KB) More Documents & ...

  1. DOE and Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry Sign...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE and Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry Sign Memorandum of Cooperation DOE and Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry Sign Memorandum of Cooperation ...

  2. International Ethanol Trade Association IETHA | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trade Association IETHA Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Ethanol Trade Association (IETHA) Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Product: Association of 48 globally...

  3. Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT) Energy and Manufacturing Awards and Topics List Trade Adjustment Assistance Community ...

  4. High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - ...

  5. DayStar Solar LLC formerly International Energy Trading LLC ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC formerly International Energy Trading LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: DayStar Solar LLC (formerly International Energy Trading LLC) Place: Grass Valley, California Zip:...

  6. President Louisiana State Building and Construction Trades Council

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robert "Tiger" Hammond President Louisiana State Building and Construction Trades Council ... unions of North America's Building and Construction Trades Unions, I want to thank ...

  7. EA-223 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trading Company to export electric energy to Canada. EA-223 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company More Documents & Publications EA-232 OGE Energy Resources Inc EA-249...

  8. Federal Energy Management Trade Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Energy Management Trade Show Federal Energy Management Trade Show Addthis 1 of 4 Timothy Unruh, Program Manager for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  9. Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Sector: Solar Product: Solar panel wholesaler and system integrator. References: Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd1...

  10. Sempra Energy Trading Corp (Washington) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sempra Energy Trading Corp (Washington) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sempra Energy Trading Corp Place: Washington Phone Number: (877) SEMPRA1 Website: www.sempra.com Twitter:...

  11. UK Department of Trade and Industry Renewables Group | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trade and Industry Renewables Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: UK Department of Trade and Industry Renewables Group Place: London, United Kingdom Sector: Renewable Energy...

  12. PSEG Energy Resources and Trade | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Resources and Trade Jump to: navigation, search Name: PSEG Energy Resources and Trade Place: New Jersey Phone Number: 1-800-436-7734 Website: pseg.comfamilypower...

  13. Engaging Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations in Energy Efficiency Programs Engaging Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations in Energy Efficiency Programs ...

  14. Hunan Yongzhou Hengli Economy Trade Investment Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yongzhou Hengli Economy Trade Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hunan Yongzhou Hengli Economy&Trade Investment Co.,Ltd Place: Yongzhou, Hunan Province, China Zip:...

  15. Yingjiang County Mingliang Trading Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mingliang Trading Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yingjiang County Mingliang Trading Co., Ltd. Place: Dohong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China Zip:...

  16. DOE Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information DOE Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information March 8,...

  17. Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Aid for Trade and Climate Change Financing Mechanisms: Best...

  18. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  19. Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Q2 Q3 Season Nominal Prices (dollars per gallon) WTI Crude Oil (Spot) a 1.38 1.11 1.24 1.08 1.06 1.07 -21.4 -4.5 -13.7 Brent Crude Oil Price (Spot) 1.47 1.20 1.33 1.08 1.08 1.08 -26.1 -10.2 -18.8 U.S. Refiner Average Crude Oil Cost 1.37 1.14 1.25 1.00 1.03 1.02 -26.6 -8.8 -18.5 Wholesale Gasoline Price b 2.01 1.84 1.93 1.58 1.46 1.52 -21.6 -20.6 -21.1 Wholesale Diesel Fuel Price b 1.89 1.61 1.75 1.41 1.43 1.42 -25.4 -11.4 -18.8 Regular Gasoline Retail Price c 2.67 2.60

  20. Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.

  1. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield

  2. Trade My Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search for food they would like to trade for. Example: Alicia grows parsley, Bob is a fisherman. Alicia wants some fish. Bob wants some parsley. They find each other on...

  3. Clean Air Trade Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a company specialising in CER purchase as well as project development and investment in clean energy. References: Clean Air Trade Inc1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  4. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  5. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  6. Process-scale modeling of elevated wintertime ozone in Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Holdridge, D. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-31

    Measurements of meteorological variables and trace gas concentrations, provided by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality for Daniel, Jonah, and Boulder Counties in the state of Wyoming, were analyzed for this project. The data indicate that highest ozone concentrations were observed at temperatures of -10 C to 0 C, at low wind speeds of about 5 mph. The median values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) during these episodes ranged between 10 ppbv and 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during these periods were insufficient for quantitative analysis. The few available VOCs measurements indicated unusually high levels of alkanes and aromatics and low levels of alkenes. In addition, the column ozone concentration during one of the high-ozone episodes was low, on the order of 250 DU (Dobson unit) as compared to a normal column ozone concentration of approximately 300-325 DU during spring for this region. Analysis of this observation was outside the scope of this project. The data analysis reported here was used to establish criteria for making a large number of sensitivity calculations through use of a box photochemical model. Two different VOCs lumping schemes, RACM and SAPRC-98, were used for the calculations. Calculations based on this data analysis indicated that the ozone mixing ratios are sensitive to (a) surface albedo, (b) column ozone, (c) NOx mixing ratios, and (d) available terminal olefins. The RACM model showed a large response to an increase in lumped species containing propane that was not reproduced by the SAPRC scheme, which models propane as a nearly independent species. The rest of the VOCs produced similar changes in ozone in both schemes. In general, if one assumes that measured VOCs are fairly representative of the conditions at these locations, sufficient precursors might be available to produce ozone in the range of 60-80 ppbv under the conditions modeled.

  7. ARM - Lesson Plans: Reason for the Seasons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reason for the Seasons Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Reason for the Seasons Objective The objective of this activity is to understand the reasons for the seasons and to study the motion of the earth. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  8. Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (2.92 MB) More Documents & Publications Hit the Road: Applying Lessons from National Campaigns to a Local Context (201) Strengthening the Front

  9. Microsoft Word - S08364_SeasonalVariation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater Constituents and Seasonal Variation at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site February 2012 LMS/RVT/S08364 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Evaluation of Groundwater Constituents and Seasonal Variation, Riverton, Wyoming February 2012 Doc. No. S08364 Page 1 Evaluation of Groundwater Constituents and Seasonal Variation at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site Executive Summary Historical groundwater monitoring at the Riverton site included collecting

  10. Preparing for Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preparing for Hurricane Season Preparing for Hurricane Season June 1, 2015 - 9:49am Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia A. Hoffman Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Hurricane season in the Atlantic begins today and will last through November 30. As the lead Federal agency responsible for coordinating the response to major energy disruptions, the Department of Energy works closely with other Federal agencies, State, local and tribal governments, and our

  11. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  12. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Seasonal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the seasonal variation of land cover which is dominated by the agricultural land use, primarily winter wheat production. http:gi.ssec.wisc.eduairsknutesonindex.html...

  13. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4-2015 Heating Oil Season Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism (Cents per Gallon, Except Where Noted) Week Residential Heating Oil Price Average Brent Spot Price ...

  14. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2008-08-07

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO{sub 2} emissions will be conservative in the beginning stages. The government will most likely start by distributing most credits for free; these free credits are called allowances. The US may follow the model of the EU ETS, which during the first five-year phase distributed 95% of the credits for free, bringing that level down to 90% for the second five-year phase. As the number of free allowances declines, companies will be forced to purchase an increasing number of credits at government auction, or else obtain them from companies selling surplus credits. In addition to reducing the number of credits allocated for free, with each subsequent trading period the number of overall credits released into the market will decline in an effort to gradually reduce overall emissions. Companies may face financial difficulty as the value of credits continues to rise due to the reduction of the number of credits available in the market each trading period. Governments operating emissions trading systems face the challenge of achieving CO{sub 2} emissions targets without placing such a financial burden on their companies that the country's economy is markedly affected.

  15. Projections of Future Summertime Ozone over the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, G. G.; Walters, Stacy; Lamarque, J. F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barth, Mary; Wong, John; Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy

    2014-05-05

    This study uses a regional fully coupled chemistry-transport model to assess changes in surface ozone over the summertime U.S. between present and a 2050 future time period at high spatial resolution (12 km grid spacing) under the SRES A2 climate and RCP8.5 anthropogenic pre-cursor emission scenario. The impact of predicted changes in climate and global background ozone is estimated to increase surface ozone over most of the U.S; the 5th - 95th percentile range for daily 8-hour maximum surface ozone increases from 31-79 ppbV to 30-87 ppbV between the present and future time periods. The analysis of a set of meteorological drivers suggests that these mostly will add to increasing ozone, but the set of simulations conducted does not allow to separate this effect from that through enhanced global background ozone. Statistically the most robust positive feedbacks are through increased temperature, biogenic emissions and solar radiation. Stringent emission controls can counteract these feedbacks and if considered, we estimate large reductions in surface ozone with the 5th-95th percentile reduced to 27-55 ppbV. A comparison of the high-resolution projections to global model projections shows that even though the global model is biased high in surface ozone compared to the regional model and compared to observations, both the global and the regional model predict similar changes in ozone between the present and future time periods. However, on smaller spatial scales, the regional predictions show more pronounced changes between urban and rural regimes that cannot be resolved at the coarse resolution of global model. In addition, the sign of the changes in overall ozone mixing ratios can be different between the global and the regional predictions in certain regions, such as the Western U.S. This study confirms the key role of emission control strategies in future air quality predictions and demonstrates the need for considering degradation of air quality with future

  16. Morphological basis of tolerance to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.J.; Dekker, N.P.; Cabral-Anderson, L.J.; Shami, S.G.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Type 1 epithelial cells in the ozone (O/sub 3/)-tolerant lung epithelium. Rats were made tolerant by exposure to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 days and allowed to recover in air. Reexposure to a lethal concentration of O/sub 3/ (6 ppm) at 3, 7, and 15 days of recovery revealed that tolerance was present at 3 days but almost absent at 7 and 15 days of recovery. Using Type 2 cell proliferation as a means of quantitating Type 1 cell injury, it was observed that when the preexposed rats were reexposed to 0.5 ppm at 3, 7, and 15 days, very little Type 1 cell injury occurred at 3 days. However, at 7 and 15 days the amount of Type 1 cell injury was the same as that associated with the original exposure. To determine whether there was any change in the alveolar epithelial cell populations between the periods of tolerance (3 days) and its decline (7 and 15 days), the percentage of tritiated thymidine (( /sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells at these times were determined. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells between the third and fifteenth days of recovery as excess cells were sloughed off and the tissue returned to normal. Using electron microscopic morphometry, Type 1 and 2 cells were then studied during the decline of tolerance. No change was found in the morphology of Type 2 cells; however, the morphology of Type 1 cells revealed a 58% decrease in surface area and a 25% increase in the arithmetic mean thickness when tolerance was present at 3 days. As tolerance declined (7 and 15 days), Type 1 cell morphology returned to normal. It was concluded that tolerance exists when the surface area of a cell exposed to a particular concentration of ozone is small enough so that the existing antioxidant mechanism contained within that cell volume can protect it from damage.

  17. Changing Global Petroleum Product Trade Flows

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OECD/IEA 2014 © OECD/IEA 2014 Antoine Halff 2014 EIA Energy Conference Changing Global Petroleum Product Trade Flows Washington, DC July 14, 2014 © OECD/IEA 2014 Crude trade shifts further east  Asia imports increase by 2.6 mb/d to 22.1 mb, or 65% of the international crude market Crude Exports in 2019 and Growth in 2013-19 for Key Trade Routes 1 (million barrels per day) 0.2 0.3 (0) 2.0 (0.2) (-0.6) 4.1 (-0.6) 0.1 (-0.7) 3.1 1.2 (0.3) 1.0 (+0.1) -0.6 2.2 1.8 (+0.8) (-0.6) 1.1 (+0.3) Red

  18. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  19. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  20. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured

  1. Energy futures: Trading opportunities for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains an edited collection of views from practitioners in the rapidly growing area of energy futures and options trading, a major element of risk management. Four chapters are devoted to Trading Theories and Strategies. This section is aimed at the specialist in energy, rather than finance. The complexities of options trading are described in another chapter. The remaining sections of this book present a variety of topics in this field including Natural Gas Trading and Futures, Energy Futures and Options Trading, and Accounting, Taxation and Internal Control. The book is a good introduction and reference to the mechanics and institutions of energy futures contracts and trading.

  2. EA-367-A EDF Trading (CN).pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 EDF Trading North America, LLC EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC Order authorizing EDF Trading North America, LLC to export electric energy to Canada EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC (3.35 MB) More Documents & Publications Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC (EDF) EA-367-A EDF Trading North America,LLC Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-367-A EDF

  3. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone and vacuum annealing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone ...

  4. Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California ...

  5. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California

  6. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  7. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2002_deer_lawson.pdf (393.04 KB) More Documents & Publications The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air Quality

  8. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year`s report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities.

  9. Performing Trade Studies in the CERCLA Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borland, Mark Wilson; Rice, Philip Matthew; Jamison, Ronald Kirt

    2002-07-01

    During almost any project, situations will arise that require project management and/or engineering personnel to make choices regarding project direction or product development. Often these choices are simply a part of the normal engineering development cycle (e.g., refinement or optimization of the product design). Frequently, on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other similar projects, trade studies are initiated to address concerns or issues raised by stakeholders (e.g., EPA, local and state governments, local tribes, public). Where CERCLA projects, by definition, deal with releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment, these trade studies must balance safety, risk and health issues, as well as cost and engineering viability. How these trade studies are carried out and documented/presented to the stakeholders involved can often be the difference between continued project progress and a "stalemate" leaving the project in limbo. This document describes a basic trade study process, which has proved successful in addressing stakeholder concerns while at the same time balancing the desires of the various parties involved.

  10. The role of EPA`s Acid Rain Division in the Ozone Transport Commission`s NOx budget program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schary, C.; Culligan, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Ozone Transport Commission`s (OTC) Nitrogen Oxides (NO{sub x}) Budget Program will implement the emissions reduction goal of the 1994 Memorandum of Understanding between its twelve member states and the District of Columbia. The program will achieve its significant NO{sub x} reductions from electric utilities and industrial boilers using a {open_quotes}cap-and-trade{close_quotes} approach modeled after the US Environmental Protection Agency`s sulfur dioxide emissions trading under the Acid Rain Program. The similarity of the two programs has led to the development of an important partnership between the OTC states and EPA`s Acid Rain Division, Over the past two years, Acid Rain Program staff have shared their technical expertise and assisted extensively in the development of the program`s rules. Leveraging the investment EPA made in the systems used to run the Acid Rain Program, the OTC states have asked the Acid Rain Division to administer the data systems for them, and together are working to expand its existing Emissions Tracking System and to modify a clone of the sulfur dioxide Allowance Tracking System, to fulfill the unique requirements of the NO{sub x} Budget Program. This partnership is an important example of the new type of cooperation and sharing of expertise and resources that should develop between EPA and states as they launch multi-state programs to address regional pollution problems that defy a single-state solution.

  11. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  12. Vis Nova Trading GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nova Trading GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vis Nova Trading GmbH Place: Bremen, Germany Zip: 28217 Product: Germany-based producer and trader of wood pellets....

  13. EA-250 PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-250 PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC (37.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Ea-168-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P EA-196-A Minnesota Power, Sales EA-220-A NRG Power ...

  14. EA-365-A Centre Lane Trading Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Centre Lane Trading Limited EA-365-A Centre Lane Trading Limited Order authorizing CLT to export electric energy to Canada. EA-365-A Centre Lane (CN).pdf (1.06 MB) More ...

  15. Impact of heterogeneous chemistry on model predictions of ozone changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granier, C.; Brasseur, G. )

    1992-11-20

    A two-dimensional chemical/transport model of the middle atmosphere is used to assess the importance of chemical heterogeneous processes in the polar regions (on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs)) and at other latitudes (on sulfate aerosols). When conversion on type I and type II PSCs of N[sub 2]O[sub 5] into HNO[sub 3] and of CIONO[sub 2] into reactive forms of chlorine is taken into account, enhanced CIO concentrations lead to the formation of a springtime ozone hole over the Antarctic continent; no such major reduction in the ozone column is found in the Arctic region. When conversion of nitrogen and chlorine compounds is assumed to occur on sulfate particles in the lower stratosphere, significant perturbations in the chemistry are also found. For background aerosol conditions, the concentration of nitric acid is enhanced and agrees with observed values, while that of nitrogen oxides is reduced and agrees less than if heterogeneous processes are ignored in the calculations. The concentration of the OH radical is significantly increased. Ozone number density appears to become larger between 16 and 30 km but smaller below 16 km, especially at high latitudes. The ozone column is only slightly modified, except at high latitudes where it is substantially reduced if the CIONO[sub 2] conversion into reactive chlorine is considered. After a large volcanic eruption these changes are further exacerbated. The ozone budget in the lower stratrosphere becomes less affected by nitrogen oxides but is largely controlled by the CIO[sub x] and HO[sub x] chemistries. A substantial decrease in the ozone column is predicted as a result of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, mostly in winter at middle and high latitudes. 62 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. North America: Regulation of International Electricity Trade | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy America: Regulation of International Electricity Trade North America: Regulation of International Electricity Trade North America: Regulation of International Electricity Trade prepared by North American Energy Working Group on December 2002. North America: Regulation of International Electricity Trade (68.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity Transmission Facilities Between the United States and Canada

  17. SBIR and Global Trade Summit Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SBIR and Global Trade Summit Presentation SBIR and Global Trade Summit Presentation Presentation from the July 26, 2012 trade summit in Uncasville, Connecticut, presented by the Small Business Innovation Research program. sbir_global_trade_summit_kaarsberg.pdf (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications Hearing Before the Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Research and Technology An Overview of the DOE's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study 1999.07.23 - 1999.08.11 Lead Scientist : Larry Kleinman For data sets, see below. Abstract As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Corridor Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEC-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and

  19. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects

  20. Coordinated NO{sub x} control strategies: Phase II Title IV, ozone transport region and ozone transport assessment group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, W.F.; Dunn, R.M.; Baublis, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    Many electric utilities are faced with future nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) reduction requirements. In some instances, these utilities will be affected by multiple regulatory programs. For example, numerous fossil fired plants must comply with Phase II of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), state NO{sub x} rules as a result of the recommendations of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) and future requirements of the Proposed Rule for Reducing Regional Transport of Ground-Level Ozone (Ozone Transport SIP Rulemaking). This paper provides an overview of NO{sub x} regulatory programs, NO{sub x} compliance planning concepts, and NO{sub x} control technology options that could be components of an optimized compliance strategy.

  1. EA-223 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company EA-223 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company Order authorizing CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company to export electric energy to Canada. EA-223 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company (34.8

  2. EA-373-A EDF Trading North America, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A EDF Trading North America, LLC EA-373-A EDF Trading North America, LLC Order from EDF Trading North America, LLC to export electric energy to Mexico. EA-373-A EDF Trading N.A ...

  3. Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China...

  4. Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover ... Title: Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land ...

  5. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial ...

  6. NOVA Making Stuff Season 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leombruni, Lisa; Paulsen, Christine Andrews

    2014-12-12

    Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were

  7. Emissions trading - time to get serious

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitelli, A.

    2007-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol's five year compliance period begins in 2008. Industrialized nations around the world have pledged to cut carbon emissions, but the job seems to get harder, not easier, as 2008 approaches. Can market mechanisms make the crucial difference? The article discloses recent initiatives and developments worldwide. It concludes that it is clear that the market is maintaining its central role in fighting climate change and that bringing emissions trading to developing countries and to the US can only reinforce that role.

  8. Assessment of allowance mechanism China's carbon trading pilots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Ling; Shen, Bo; Qi, Shaozhou; Price, Lynn

    2015-08-28

    The allowance mechanism is one of the core and sensitive aspects in design of a carbon trading scheme and affects the compliance cost for each company covered under the scheme. By examining China's allowance mechanism from two aspects including allowance allocation and allowance distribution, this paper compares China's carbon trading pilots with the EU Emissions Trading System and California Cap-and-Trade Program, and through the comparison identify issues that affect the efficiency of the pilots. The paper also recommends course of actions to strengthen China's existing pilots and build valuable experiences for the establishment of the national cap-and-trade system in China.

  9. Assessment of Allowance Mechanismin China's Carbon Trading Pilots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Ling; Shen, Bo; Qi, Shaozhou; Price, Lynn

    2015-08-01

    The allowance mechanism is one of the core and sensitive aspects in design of a carbon trading scheme and affects the compliance cost for each company covered under the scheme. By examining China's allowance mechanism from two aspects including allowance allocation and allowance distribution, this paper compares China's carbon trading pilots with the EU Emissions Trading System and California Cap-and-Trade Program, and through the comparison identify issues that affect the efficiency of the pilots. The paper also recommends course of actions to strengthen China's existing pilots and build valuable experiences for the establishment of the national cap-and-trade system in China.

  10. EA-319 Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP EA-319 Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP Order authorizing Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP to export electric energy to Canada EA-319 Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (3.06 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-319-A Fortis Energy Marketing & Trading GP (BNP Paribas Energy Trading GP) EA-223-A CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company EA-178-B Edison Mission Marketing & Trading, Inc

  11. PG&E Trading-Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On February 25, 1998, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) authorized PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P.(PGET-Power) to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer using the international electric transmission facilities of San Diego

  12. Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) Energy Risk Predictions for the 2015 Hurricane Season (June 2015) This presentation is from a DOE-NASEO webinar held June 23, 2015, on forecasting energy infrastructure risk for the 2015 hurricane season. A variety of sources predict a below-normal season, with hurricane intensity lower than the 1981-2010 averages. The presentation includes an overview of hurricane season classification, historic impacts, and

  13. Engaging Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations in Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Programs | Department of Energy Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations in Energy Efficiency Programs Engaging Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations in Energy Efficiency Programs Better Buildings Residential Workforce/ Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Engaging Efficiency First Chapters and Other Trade Associations in Energy Efficiency Programs, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 12, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (856.6

  14. International Electricity Trade - Open Access | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Electricity Trade - Open Access International Electricity Trade - Open Access DOE has consistently expressed its policy that international electricity trade should be subject to the same principles of comparable open access and non-discrimination that apply to transmission in interstate commerce. DOE has stated this policy in export authorizations granted to entities requesting authority to export over international transmission facilities. In those authorizations, DOE indicated it

  15. Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program (TAACCCT) Energy and Manufacturing Awards and Topics List | Department of Energy Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT) Energy and Manufacturing Awards and Topics List Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT) Energy and Manufacturing Awards and Topics List View a list of all current Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program awards

  16. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  17. Multi-Megawatt Power System Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Parks, Benjamin Travis

    2001-11-01

    As part of a larger task, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform a trade study comparing liquid-metal cooled reactors having Rankine power conversion systems with gas-cooled reactors having Brayton power conversion systems. This report summarizes the approach, the methodology, and the results of that trade study. Findings suggest that either approach has the possibility to approach the target specific mass of 3-5 kg/kWe for the power system, though it appears either will require improvements to achieve that. Higher reactor temperatures have the most potential for reducing the specific mass of gas-cooled reactors but do not necessarily have a similar effect for liquid-cooled Rankine systems. Fuels development will be the key to higher reactor operating temperatures. Higher temperature turbines will be important for Brayton systems. Both replacing lithium coolant in the primary circuit with gallium and replacing potassium with sodium in the power loop for liquid systems increase system specific mass. Changing the feed pump turbine to an electric motor in Rankine systems has little effect. Key technologies in reducing specific mass are high reactor and radiator operating temperatures, low radiator areal density, and low turbine/generator system masses. Turbine/generator mass tends to dominate overall power system mass for Rankine systems. Radiator mass was dominant for Brayton systems.

  18. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  19. Modeling the Global Trade and Environmental Impacts of Biofuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Trade and Environmental Impacts of Biofuel Policies AgencyCompany Organization: International Food Policy Research Institute Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass Topics:...

  20. The New Mexico Building and Construction Trades Council and Los...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The New Mexico Building and Construction Trades Council and Los Alamos National Security LLC, have announced the signing of a series of labor agreements to cover construction and ...

  1. The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    1998-01-01

    In January 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades: point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of implementing these types of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas, electric power and coal industries. This paper finds that the potential for effluent trading in these industries is limited because trades would generally need to involve toxic pollutants, which can only be traded under a narrow range of circumstances. However, good potential exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g. wetlands mitigation banking and voluntary environmental projects). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  2. Small Business Award to Sage Energy Trading Download | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small-Business-Award-to-Sage-Energy-Trading.pdf (118.95 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Employee Concerns Program Contact List LANL Natural Resource Damage Assessment ...

  3. Small Business Award to Sage Energy Trading | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Award to Sage Energy Trading Small Business Award to Sage Energy Trading December 17, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis The Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of a Firm-Fixed Unit Rate Task Order to Sage Energy Trading of Jenks, OK. Sage Energy Trading is a Woman Owned Small Business. The Task Order will have a maximum value of $3.5 million over 2 years. Work performed under this Task Order will be performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, OH. The contractor will be

  4. Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) Model | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    standard model. In addition, GTAP-E incorporates carbon emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and provides for a mechanism to trade these emissions internationally. When...

  5. Overview of North American Energy Trade Statistics: Methodologies...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 34 Imports that enter bonded storage are reported ... trade statistics in terms of the Harmonized System; ... service providers and Web search portals, and Internet ...

  6. Fact #674: May 9, 2011 Petroleum Trade Balance | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Note: Trade balance exports minus imports. Includes crude oil, petroleum preparations, liquefied propane and butane, and other mineral fuels. Supporting Information Petroleum ...

  7. Department of Community Trade and Econ Development Energy Policy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Olympia, Washington State Product: Energy Policy division of Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development for the State of Washington Coordinates: 47.039225,...

  8. Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  9. Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    landed in China to lead a presidential trade mission focused on connecting U.S. businesses with opportunities in the green infrastructure and energy efficiency industries. ...

  10. Meeting the New Ozone Standard: Challenges and Opportunities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation by Anna Garcia, executive director of the Ozone Transport Commission, was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  11. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  12. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone and vacuum annealing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling superconductivity in ...

  13. Age-dependent inhibition of pentobarbital sleeping time by ozone in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Leonard, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of age on the metabolism of pentobarbital in mice and rats was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 3.75 hr. Young animals were 2.5 months of age and the mature were 18 months. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly prolonged following the ozone exposure in both the mice and rats when compared with an air control. No ozone effect on sleeping time was found in the young animals. The results indicate that there may be an age-related sensitivity to the occurrence of ozone-related inhibition of pentobarbital metabolism.

  14. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_lawson.pdf (221.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air

  15. Climatology of regional ozone: Meteorologieal effects on ozone exceedences in the southeast United States. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, J.R.

    1996-12-09

    A statistical anlysis of ozone (O3) concentrations and meterorogical parameters was performed to determine the effect of meteorological changes on ambient O3 concentrations in the urban and semi-urban environment on a regional basis in the Southeast United States. The correlation between average daily maximum O3 concentration and various meteorological varibles was analyzed on a monthly basis from April through October 1980-1994. Positive correlation was found between O3 concentration and temperature and dewpoint temperature depression, while negative correlation was found between O3 concentration and relative humidity and the minimum Pasquill Stability Index. The correlations were strongest during the summer months, particularly June, July, and August. High pressure stagnation was found to be positively correlated with O3 concentrations, although not at a statistically significant level. Regional analysis indicates that the location of areas of high pressure stagnation may play an important role in the resultant ambient concentrations of O3 throughout the region. Analysis of long term O3 concentration trends indicates increasing trends during the 1980s and decreasing trends during the 1990s. Trends for meteorological parameters that demonstrate positive (negative) correlation with O3 increase (decrease) during the 1980s, however causal relationship between these trends and those for O3 cannot be determined based on this analysis. A regional model was developed to forecast ozone concentration based on the previous day`s ozone concentration and meteorological parameters.

  16. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Pope, Jenny

    2013-01-15

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  17. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  18. Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-07-01

    Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

  19. Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season ... reduce standby heat losses by 25%-45% and save you around 4%-9% in water heating costs. ...

  20. Smart Grid Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts to Make the Grid More Resilient to Power Outages Smart Grid Week: Hurricane Season and the Department's Efforts to Make the Grid ...

  1. Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season December 5, 2014 - 9:55am Addthis Wrap your gifts with recycled paper to reduce ...

  2. February most likely month for flu season to peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February most likely month for flu season to peak February most likely month for flu season to peak The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather, presidential elections, and sporting events. December 20, 2015 The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather,

  3. EA-166-A Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C EA-166-A Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C Order authorizing Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C to export electric energy ...

  4. EA-163-A Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C EA-163-A Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C Order authorizing Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C to export electric energy ...

  5. EA-163 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C EA-163 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C Order authorizing Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C to export e;ectric energy to ...

  6. EA-166 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C EA-166 Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C Order authorizing Duke Energy Trading and Marketing, L.L.C to export electric energy to ...

  7. Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations of Total Ozone and Associated Variations of UV-B Solar Radiation for Subarctic Regions Based of Dendrochronologic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.V.; Bondarenko, S.L.

    2005-03-18

    Variations of dendrochronologic parameters, especially annual ring density, significantly reflect the physiological tree response to systematic variations of solar UV-B radiation, taking place on monthly and longer timescales during growing season. Such variations of UV-B radiation are totally governed by variations of total ozone (TO). Thus, in any dendrochronologic signal, especially for coniferous trees, there is also a recorded response to TO variations, characterizing variations of UV-B radiation. Because a monitoring of global TO distribution is regularly performed since 1979 using TOMS satellite instrumentation, there appears a possibility to reconstruct TO behavior in the past practically at any point of dendrochronologic monitoring network. The reconstruction is performed by the method of linear regression, based on significant correlation of annual ring density of coniferous trees and TO for coordinates of denrochronologic signal. The present report considers the Subarctic latitudes, which are characterized by considerable TO variations in the second half of twentieth century.

  8. Classical and alternative macrophage activation in the lung following ozone-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-09-01

    Ozone is a pulmonary irritant known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue injury. Evidence suggests that macrophages play a role in the pathogenic response; however, their contribution depends on the mediators they encounter in the lung which dictate their function. In these studies we analyzed the effects of ozone-induced oxidative stress on the phenotype of alveolar macrophages (AM). Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3 h) resulted in increased expression of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in AM. Whereas 8-OHdG was maximum at 24 h, expression of HO-1 was biphasic increasing after 3 h and 4872 h. Cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, were also induced in AM 24 h post-ozone. This was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating alveolar epithelial injury. Ozone intoxication resulted in biphasic activation of the transcription factor, NF?B. This correlated with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein?1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase?2, markers of proinflammatory macrophages. Increases in arginase-1, Ym1 and galectin-3 positive anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages were also observed in the lung after ozone inhalation, beginning at 24 h (arginase-1, Ym1), and persisting for 72 h (galectin-3). This was associated with increased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C, a marker of Type II cell proliferation and activation, important steps in wound repair. These data suggest that both proinflammatory/cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages are activated early in the response to ozone-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury. -- Highlights: ? Lung macrophages are highly sensitive to ozone induced oxidative stress. ? Ozone induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung macrophages. ? Proinflammatory and wound repair macrophages are activated early after ozone

  9. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  10. Potential for world trade in LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deliveries of LNG in 1978 in international trade amounted to about 24.77 billion cu m; of the actual deliveries, 9% were received by the U.S., 30% by West European countries, and 61% by Japan. For Spain, these deliveries represented 100% of its natural gas supply; for the U.S., they represented only 2% of natural gas demand. By the mid-1980's, the international LNG growth rate will slow to approx. 16%/yr, although projects totaling 130 million cu m/day may be completed. During the late 1980's, another 94.1 million cu m/day of LNG projects could be implemented. The over-all growth rate for the decade would then be approx. 11%/yr in LNG volumes. After 1990, several LNG export projects could be put into operation, possibly in the Middle East, West Africa, and the U.S.S.R. In 1980-2000, energy demand may increase by 2%/yr. Oil should retain its 65-70% of the primary energy supply; whether natural gas can increase its relative share depends on economic and political factors. Pipeline transport of gas costs twice as much as crude oil, and sea transport of LNG costs four to five times as much as crude oil. Wider use of the refrigeration available at LNG import terminals could affect project economics favorably. Tables.

  11. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition and Long-term | Department of Energy Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Presentation on Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory 07_chen_nexant.pdf (506.49 KB) More Documents

  12. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  13. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  14. SPR Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Trading for exchange of 8.7 million barrels of royalty oil produced from the Gulf Coast for crude oil meeting the quality specifications of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). ...

  15. Solar Energy Trading GmbH SET | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH SET Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Trading GmbH (SET) Place: Mnster, Germany Zip: 48157 Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based solar project developer and...

  16. Emissions trading comes of age as a strategic tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pospisil, R.

    1996-03-01

    Trading of emissions credits has quickly evolved from a curiosity to a viable compliance strategy for electric utilities and power-generating industrial firms. A sure sign that emissions trading has matured is the entry of power marketers onto the scene; in bundling pollution allowances with their electricity offerings, they are making their product more attractive - and stealing a page from the coal companies` strategy book to boot. Although most current activity involves credits for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) trading is under way in certain areas as well, although NO{sub x} markets are local and thus slower to develop. However, utilities see economic development potential in this area; some are providing NO{sub x} credits to their industrial customers to help them comply with environmental regulations - and to retain their loyalty when deregulation affords them a choice of electricity suppliers. This paper briefly discusses the issues related to emissions trading.

  17. Allowance trading made easy: The cash-forward settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartels, C.W.

    1993-11-01

    Centralized trading for cash-forward settlement adopts the most useful aspects of traditional commodity trading of spot cash and futures contracts, but eliminates those aspect which are most problematic for the regulated utility industry. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a system of tradeable pollution rights which promises to achieve U.S. acid rain reduction goals at a savings of billions of dollars compared to traditional means of environmental regulation. The ultimate success of this allowance trading program depends in large part on the utility industry's capacity to integrate a new type of transaction into planning, decision-making, and cost recovery mechanism. The breadth and novelty of this challenge, along with the conservative nature of utility planners, executives, and regulators, may be one reason exploitation of allowance trading has been slow to develop.

  18. TradeWind Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    states. It develops large-scale wind energy projects. Enel North America is a strategic partner for TradeWind and has taken an equity stake in the company. References:...

  19. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind marine shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-13

    In this study, marine nonprecipitating cumulus topped boundary layers (CTBLs) observed in a tropical and in a trade wind region are contrasted based on their cloud macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative structures. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observational site previously operating at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and data collected during the deployment of ARM Mobile Facility at the island of Graciosa, in the Azores, were used in this study. The tropical marine CTBLs were deeper, had higher surface fluxes and boundary layer radiative cooling, but lower wind speeds compared to their trade wind counterparts. The radiative velocity scale was 50%-70% of the surface convective velocity scale at both locations, highlighting the prominent role played by radiation in maintaining turbulence in marine CTBLs. Despite greater thicknesses, the chord lengths of tropical cumuli were on average lower than those of trade wind cumuli, and as a result of lower cloud cover, the hourly averaged (cloudy and clear) liquid water paths of tropical cumuli were lower than the trade wind cumuli. At both locations ~70% of the cloudy profiles were updrafts, while the average amount of updrafts near cloud base stronger than 1 m s–1 was ~22% in tropical cumuli and ~12% in the trade wind cumuli. The mean in-cloud radar reflectivity within updrafts and mean updraft velocity was higher in tropical cumuli than the trade wind cumuli. Despite stronger vertical velocities and a higher number of strong updrafts, due to lower cloud fraction, the updraft mass flux was lower in the tropical cumuli compared to the trade wind cumuli. The observations suggest that the tropical and trade wind marine cumulus clouds differ significantly in their macrophysical and dynamical structures

  20. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind marine shallow cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-13

    In this study, marine nonprecipitating cumulus topped boundary layers (CTBLs) observed in a tropical and in a trade wind region are contrasted based on their cloud macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative structures. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observational site previously operating at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and data collected during the deployment of ARM Mobile Facility at the island of Graciosa, in the Azores, were used in this study. The tropical marine CTBLs were deeper, had higher surface fluxes and boundary layer radiative cooling, but lower wind speeds compared to their trade wind counterparts. The radiative velocity scalemore » was 50%-70% of the surface convective velocity scale at both locations, highlighting the prominent role played by radiation in maintaining turbulence in marine CTBLs. Despite greater thicknesses, the chord lengths of tropical cumuli were on average lower than those of trade wind cumuli, and as a result of lower cloud cover, the hourly averaged (cloudy and clear) liquid water paths of tropical cumuli were lower than the trade wind cumuli. At both locations ~70% of the cloudy profiles were updrafts, while the average amount of updrafts near cloud base stronger than 1 m s–1 was ~22% in tropical cumuli and ~12% in the trade wind cumuli. The mean in-cloud radar reflectivity within updrafts and mean updraft velocity was higher in tropical cumuli than the trade wind cumuli. Despite stronger vertical velocities and a higher number of strong updrafts, due to lower cloud fraction, the updraft mass flux was lower in the tropical cumuli compared to the trade wind cumuli. The observations suggest that the tropical and trade wind marine cumulus clouds differ significantly in their macrophysical and dynamical structures« less

  1. Class Deviation- FAR 24.402(b) Trade Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached for you information and use is a Class Deviation executed by the Senior Procurement Executives of NNSA and DOE addressing the Trade Agreements dollar thresholds at FAR 25.402(b). Civilian Agency Acquisition Letter 2012-01 was issued to allow agencies to execute class deviations to authorize use of the updated Trade Agreements dollar thresholds pending the formal amendment of the FAR.

  2. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  3. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  5. Allowance trading: Correcting the past and looking to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, A.Y.; Canter, L.W.

    1995-09-01

    Allowance trading is basic to the Title IV acid rain provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in the United States; the provisions seek to achieve a 10-million-ton reduction in annual sulfur dioxide emissions from the electric power utility industry. Allowance trading, a market-based approach, is conceptually similar to the emissions trading policy of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An allowance is defined as the authorization to emit, during or after a specified calendar year, one ton of sulfur dioxide. This paper provides an overview of the allowance trading program by summarizing some important features, particularly as they are responsive to limitations and concern as related to the precursor emissions trading program in the early to mid-1980s. Such features include a simple definition of baseline emission levels, encouragements for nationwide trading, disincentives for accumulation of excess allowance,s opportunities for leasing other short-term allowance transfer arrangements, enforcement provisions, and benefits of bonus allowances and early emission reductions. Adherence to implementation protocols for the acid rain provisions of Title IV of the CAAA will provide a good opportunity to evaluate this market-based approach for environmental quality management.

  6. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  7. Ozone in sea water. Part 1: Chemistry; Part 2: Corrosion of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    Ozonation of sea water for biofouling control is being utilized in desalination processes, heat exchange systems, as well as in salt water aquariums. The chemistry of ozone in sea water is much more complex than in fresh water due to the high concentration of easily oxidizable, ozone-demanding species and the formation of secondary oxidants. The major secondary oxidant is bromine in the form of hypobromite and hypobromous acid (BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr) which are formed by oxidation of the bromide ion (Br{sup {minus}}), naturally found in sea water in concentrations of 65 mg/L. HOBr can react again with ozone to return Br{sup {minus}}, resulting in accelerated decomposition of ozone, or to form bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) The BrO ion is known to interfere with the measurement of residual ozone in sea water, so it is important that the feed gas conditions, solution pH, and the hypobromous and bromate concentrations be reported to quantify the amount of ozone introduced into a system. In 0.5 N NaCl and sea water solutions, ozone appears to stabilize the passivity of passivating metals, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion appears to increase in the same environments. The effect of BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr on the corrosion of metals in sea water is believed to be similar to chlorine and ozone, in that it acts as a strong oxidizer. However, it is not certain whether BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr and BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} have any damaging effects on protective metal films.

  8. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  9. The role of developing countries in protecting the ozone layer: An ethical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatz, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to reduce the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the nations of the world joined together in a landmark effort to address this most important problem. Unlike many environmental issues which are localized, ozone depletion is an environmental problem which must be addressed on a global scale. In order to successfully halt the depletion of the ozone layer, it is imperative that all countries amend their current practices and reduce their consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This necessity presents an ethical dilemma when assigning responsibility for ozone layer protection among nations. This paper will address the difficulties in dealing with ozone depletion on a global scale and will discuss the ethically correct role which should be assumed by developing countries. After presenting a brief history of the problem of ozone depletion and the measures which have been taken to halt it, this paper will describe an ethical framework in which ozone layer protection policies in developing countries should be evaluated. This framework is based on the concept of balancing morally-correct policies with economically-sound policies. It illustrates, in detail, how the environmental impacts of policies must be considered in conjunction with the impacts of such policies on the lives and well-being of the country`s citizens. The paper presents an ethical analysis of three primary policy options. These options address the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs) and include: the no-phaseout option, the developed country accelerated phaseout schedule, and the delayed phaseout schedule. Each option is examined within the ethical framework presented earlier in the paper. Finally, the paper concludes by addressing the ethical responsibilities of developed countries. It discusses the various ways in which developed countries should provide aid.

  10. Nebraska Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    N E B R A S K A Nebraska "Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season" E N E R G Y O F F I C E State Heating Oil and Propane Conference October 8, 2014 Profile of Nebraska Population - 1,868,516 Occupied Housing Units - 733,570 Occupied Housing by Fuel Used for Home Heating in 2012 Natural Gas 63% Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.50% Electricity 26% Propane 8% Wood 1.60% All Other Fuels 0.09% Coal or Coke 0.01% Solar Energy 0.04% No Fuel Used 0.20% http://www.neo.ne.gov/statshtml/75.html History

  11. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corrective Measures Analysis > Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Released: June 4, 2010 Download Full Report (PDF) This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly. Research finds that a significant portion of data collected on EIA’s primary monthly natural gas

  12. Influence of ozone on pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.A.; Menzel, D.B.; Mole, M.L.; Miller, F.J.; Gardner, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    It had been shown that 3- to 5-hr exposures to ambient concentrations of ozone (O/sub 3/) increase pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in female mice, hamsters, and rats without decreasing heptatic cytochrome P-450 levels or selected mixed function oxidases. To elucidate potential mechanisms involved, clearance of pentobarbital from the blood of O/sub 3/-exposed mice was examined. Pentobarbital clearance followed first-order kinetics with a one-compartment model. Mice exposed to 1960 micrograms per cu. m. (1ppm) for 5 hr had a 71% increase in the plasma half-life of pentobarbital. It therefore appears possible that pentobarbital-induced sleeping time is increased due to a decrease in hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital.

  13. Department of Energy Prepares for Hurricane Season | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is taking to prepare for hurricane season in the United States. ... the Gulf of Mexico and refineries along the shore. ... oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve available for ...

  14. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor’s Seasonal Fluctuations, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 7, 2012.

  15. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program ...

  16. BPA revises policy for managing seasonal power oversupply

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    policy-for-managing-seasonal-power-oversupply Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  17. EA-223-A CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company EA-223-A CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company Order authorizing CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company to export electric energy to Canada. EA-223-A CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company (1.51 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-220-B NRG Power Marketing, Inc EA-348-B NextEra Energy Power Marketing, LLC EA-223 CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company

  18. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  19. Improved Potential Energy Surface of Ozone Constructed Using the Fitting by Permutationally Invariant Polynomial Function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ayouz, Mehdi; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    New global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone is constructed at the complete basis set level of the multireference configuration interaction theory. A method of fitting the data points by analytical permutationally invariant polynomial function is adopted. A small set of 500 points is preoptimized using the old surface of ozone. In this procedure the positions of points in the configuration space are chosen such that the RMS deviation of the fit is minimized. New ab initio calculations are carried out at these points and are used to build new surface. Additional points are addedmore » to the vicinity of the minimum energy path in order to improve accuracy of the fit, particularly in the region where the surface of ozone exhibits a shallow van der Waals well. New surface can be used to study formation of ozone at thermal energies and its spectroscopy near the dissociation threshold.« less

  20. Environmental effects of SO{sub 2} trading and banking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtraw, D.; Mansur, E.

    1999-10-15

    The widely acknowledged innovation of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is sulfur dioxide allowance trading, which is designed to encourage the electricity industry to minimize the cost of reducing emissions. Few studies have examined the environmental effects of trading, and none have explored the effects of banking. The authors used an integrated assessment computer model, the Tracking and Analysis Framework, to evaluate changes in emissions of SO{sub 2}, atmospheric concentrations of sulfates and deposition of sulfur, and public health benefits from reduced exposure to SO{sub 2} and particulate matter. They assessed geographic and temporal changes at the state level that result from trading and banking and compared them with estimated cost savings. The findings are not consistent with the feats of the program's critics. In the East and Northeast including New York State, an area of particular concern, the authors found that health benefits increase and sulfur deposition decrease slightly as a result of trading. Nationally, trading results in health-related benefits in addition to significant cost savings. Banking changes the timing of emissions, but the geographic consequence of banking is varied.

  1. A global analysis of the ozone deficit in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Allen, M. )

    1993-01-20

    The global measurements of temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide acquired by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS), supplemented by a precomputed distribution of chlorine monoxide, are used to test the balance between odd oxygen production and loss in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. An efficient photochemical equilibrium model, validated by comparison with the results from a fully time-dependent one-dimensional model at selected latitudes, is used in the calculations. The computed ozone abundances are systematically lower than observations for May 1-7, 1979, which suggests, contrary to the conclusions of other recent studies, a problem in model simulations of stratospheric ozone. The ozone deficit' at 30[degrees]N is smaller than previous analyses of LIMS data have indicated. In the stratosphere, this reduction in the deficit is due to the fact that CIO abundances for the 1979 period utilized in this study are much lower than in earlier work, mainly as a result of lower Cl[sub y] concentrations. In the mesosphere, a correlation of the ozone deficit with the distribution of water vapor is indicated. The ozone deficit in the stratosphere can be eliminated by modifying only one model reaction rate: either by decreasing the rate of odd oxygen loss or by increasing the rate of odd oxygen production Cl[sub y] increasing the photodissociation rate of molecular oxygen primarily in the Herzberg continuum and/or invoking photolysis of vibrationally excited molecular oxygen. With the ozone abundances thus increased, a small residual deficit in the lower mesophere can be eliminated by reducing, within the recommended kinetic uncertainties, the efficiency of odd hydrogen-catalyzed odd oxygen loss. With the adjusted model, the calculated ozone abundances for the week of January 1-7. 1979, outside of winter latitudes, also agree with the LIMS observations to within 10%. 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change in Twentieth Century Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Change in Twentieth Century Zuev, V Institute of Atmospheric Optics Zueva, N. Institute of Atmospheric Optics Bondarenko, S Institute of Atmospheric Optics Category: Atmospheric State and Surface It is shown that during long-term total ozone decrease everywhere at middle and high latitudes there takes place the destruction of balance in global carbon cycle first of all due to reduction of

  3. Improved Model of Isoprene Emissions in Africa using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Observations of Formaldehyde: Implications for Oxidants and Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D.; Guenther, Alex B.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Murphy, J. G.; Reeves, C. E.; Pye, H.

    2014-08-01

    We use a 2005-2009 record of isoprene emissions over Africa derived from OMI satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) to better understand the factors controlling isoprene emission on the scale of the continent and evaluate the impact of isoprene emissions on atmospheric composition in Africa. OMI-derived isoprene emissions show large seasonality over savannas driven by temperature and leaf area index (LAI), and much weaker seasonality over equatorial forests driven by temperature. The commonly used MEGAN (version 2.1) global 31 isoprene emission model reproduces this seasonality but is biased high, particularly for 32 equatorial forests, when compared to OMI and relaxed-eddy accumulation measurements. 33 Isoprene emissions in MEGAN are computed as the product of an emission factor Eo, LAI, and 34 activity factors dependent on environmental variables. We use the OMI-derived emissions to 35 provide improved estimates of Eo that are in good agreement with direct leaf measurements from 36 field campaigns (r = 0.55, bias = -19%). The largest downward corrections to MEGAN Eo values are for equatorial forests and semi-arid environments, and this is consistent with latitudinal transects of isoprene over West Africa from the AMMA aircraft campaign. Total emission of isoprene in Africa is estimated to be 77 Tg C a-1, compared to 104 Tg C a-1 in MEGAN. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem oxidant-aerosol model suggest that isoprene emissions increase mean surface ozone in West Africa by up to 8 ppbv, and particulate matter by up to 1.5 42 μg m-3, due to coupling with anthropogenic influences.

  4. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Rackstraw, John Palmisano

    2001-01-15

    OAK-B135 This paper focuses on credits that are derived from wind energy technology, but the same concepts apply to other renewable energy technologies as well. Credit trading can be applied to a wide variety of policies, programs and private market activities and represents a means of tapping into revenue streams that heretofore have largely excluded wind and other renewables. In addition, credit trading can help to ''create'' new revenue streams for wind and other renewables by helping to grow new markets.

  5. The political economy of trade liberalization and environmental policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredriksson, P.G. Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia )

    1999-01-01

    A pressure group model where environmental and industry lobby groups offer political support in return for favorable pollution tax policies is used to explain and predict the equilibrium pollution tax in sectors protected by tariffs. The political economy effects of trade liberalization are investigated. The pollution tax is shown to decrease if the lobbying effort by the environmental lobby decreases more rapidly than by the industry lobby Ceteris paribus. The level of political conflict falls with trade liberalization. Pollution may increase because of a reduction of the pollution tax, and tax revenues may fall simultaneously as pollution increases.

  6. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

  7. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-367-A EDF Trading

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North America, LLC | Department of Energy 7-A EDF Trading North America, LLC Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-367-A EDF Trading North America, LLC Application from EDF Trading North America to export electric energy to Canada. EA-367-A EDF Trading North America (CN).pdf (570.88 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-367-A EDF Trading North America,LLC Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-367-A EDF Trading North America, LLC: Federal Register Notice,

  8. Emissions credit trading: A new revenue stream for refiners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, J.; Hirshfeld, D.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes several innovations in the fossil fuels and automotive/petroleum industries which have been improved or invented as a result of the necessity to comply with Clean Air Act regulations. Such innovations as boiler modifications, usage of low-sulfur coal, improved combustion, pre-combustion cleaning of coal, reformulated gasolines, and oxygenated fuels have all contributed to reductions in air pollution emissions from fossil fuel-powered plants and automotive emissions. Market alternatives for reducing the impacts of the usage of fossil fuels and automotive emissions on the ozone layer are also described.

  9. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  10. Free trade and freer petchems drive Mexican restructuring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.

    1992-11-25

    When Mexico first opened up its protected markets in 1987 by cutting import tariffs, it thrust the chemical industry into a phase of change. Now, with the advent of the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) and the liberalization of petrochemicals by state oil group Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), restructuring has moved up a gear.

  11. Oil industry development and trade liberalization in the Western Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of oil industry developments in the Western Hemisphere with particular emphasis on Latin America since the inauguration of the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative by George Bush. The author discusses these developments in the context of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (concluded in 1989), and the negotiation in 1992 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This paper is concerned essentially with the oil industry and does not discuss the importance of natural gas for Canadian producers nor the fact that much of Latin American oil production (notably in Mexico) is associated with natural gas. The author examines the shift to trade and investment liberalization and privatization in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially in Latin America--where the most dramatic transformation has occurred. The author suggests that investment patterns in the industry have been only marginally related to trade liberalization, and have derived more from considerations of resource availability, exploration and development costs, market factors, and the general state of the international economy--all of which have contributed in the 1980s to significant restructuring and downsizing among a number of major corporations. The author also notes the important increase in an internal Latin American market, and the role of regional organizations such as ARPEL-the Association of Latin American State Oil Company Producers. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  13. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  14. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  15. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  17. The impact of trade costs on rare earth exports : a stochastic frontier estimation approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyal, Prabuddha; Brady, Patrick Vane; Vugrin, Eric D.

    2013-09-01

    The study develops a novel stochastic frontier modeling approach to the gravity equation for rare earth element (REE) trade between China and its trading partners between 2001 and 2009. The novelty lies in differentiating betweenbehind the border' trade costs by China and theimplicit beyond the border costs' of China's trading partners. Results indicate that the significance level of the independent variables change dramatically over the time period. While geographical distance matters for trade flows in both periods, the effect of income on trade flows is significantly attenuated, possibly capturing the negative effects of financial crises in the developed world. Second, the total export losses due tobehind the border' trade costs almost tripled over the time period. Finally, looking atimplicit beyond the border' trade costs, results show China gaining in some markets, although it is likely that some countries are substituting away from Chinese REE exports.

  18. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. Order authorizing Castleton to export electric energy to Canada. EA-359-B ...

  19. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline ...

  20. Will You Be Trading in Your Clunker for Cash--and a More Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    which provides an incentive to trade in your old vehicle for a new, fuel-efficient model. Will you be trading in your clunker for cash--and a more efficient vehicle? ...

  1. File:03-TX-f - Lease of Land Trade Lands.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TX-f - Lease of Land Trade Lands.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03-TX-f - Lease of Land Trade Lands.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  2. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Energy SWAT Team Prepares for Hurricane Season | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gathered in Washington, D.C. for the last in a series of first-responder training sessions, preparing for the rest of the season and other potential energy-sector emergencies. ...

  4. Energy Resources for Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hurricane Season Energy Resources for Hurricane Season This aerial photo of New Orleans from August 29, 2005, shows a flooded neighborhood with a roadway going down into flood waters. Photo courtesy of FEMA/Jocelyn Augustino This aerial photo of New Orleans from August 29, 2005, shows a flooded neighborhood with a roadway going down into flood waters. Photo courtesy of FEMA/Jocelyn Augustino Find helpful resources for incorporating energy into disaster planning, response, and rebuilding.

  5. Energy Resources for Tornado Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tornado Season Energy Resources for Tornado Season The aftermath of a tornado in Greensburg, Kansas. | Photo courtesy of Federal Emergency Mgmt. Agency, NREL 16290 The aftermath of a tornado in Greensburg, Kansas. | Photo courtesy of Federal Emergency Mgmt. Agency, NREL 16290 Find helpful resources for incorporating energy into disaster planning, response, and rebuilding. Sustainable Transportation Alternative Fueling Station Locator U.S. Department of Energy Find alternative fueling stations

  6. DOE Prepares for the 2007 Hurricane Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepares for the 2007 Hurricane Season DOE Prepares for the 2007 Hurricane Season May 30, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today outlined a number of steps that the Department is taking to strengthen its hurricane response system in the United States. Since Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, DOE has made operational and administrative improvements, including coordination between federal, state and local leaders, deployment of trained staff, and

  7. Cloud and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season P. T. May Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia Introduction An interesting, and very relevant question, for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is how cloud characteristics and their seasonal and diurnal variation changes across the tropics. In particular, how does he cloud field around the new SRCS site compare with nearby regions. Thus, the aim of this study is to look at the

  8. EA-167 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P EA-167 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P Order authorizing PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P to export electric energy to Mexico. EA-167 PG&E Energy ...

  9. EA-168-B PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -B PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P EA-168-B PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P Order authorizing PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P to export electric energy to Canada. EA-168-B PG&E Energy ...

  10. EA-167-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P EA-167-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P Order authorizing PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P to export electric energy to Mexico. EA-167-A PG&E Energy ...

  11. EA-168 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-168 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P EA-168 PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P Order authorizing PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P to export electric energy to Canada. EA-168 PG&E Energy ...

  12. EA-367-A EDF Trading North America,LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7-A EDF Trading North America,LLC EA-367-A EDF Trading North America,LLC Order authorizing EDF N.A. to export electric energy to Canada. EA-367-A EDF Trading (CN).pdf (1.13 MB) ...

  13. Observation of stratospheric trace gases related to ozone depletion in the Antarctic spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Zafra, R.L.; Parrish, A.; Solomon, P.; Barrett, J.W.; Connor, B.; Jaramillo, M. )

    1987-01-01

    During the first National Ozone Expedition (NOZE I), which ran from 21 August to early November 1986 at McMurdo Station, the authors made frequent measurements of chlorine monoxide (CIO), ozone (O{sub 3}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and occasional measurements of hydrogen cyanide. Observations were made with a ground-based millimeters wave spectrometer capable of detecting and measuring the pressure broadened rotational emission lines of these molecules in the 260-280 gigahertz frequency range. The spectral bandpass and resolution of the instrument is sufficient to recover altitude distributions over a range of approximately 20-55 kilometers and to detect emission from as low as approximately 13-15 kilometers. Results are given and discussed on the levels of chlorine monoxide, nitrous oxide, and ozone found.

  14. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  15. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  16. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S.F.; Bailey, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NO{sub x} in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NO{sub x} emissions while also reducing SO{sub 2} emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NO{sub x} reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NO{sub x} emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NO{sub x} titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds.

  17. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun; Fisk, William J.

    2011-05-01

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives

  18. RegIntlElecTrade_Eng_final.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North America Regulation of International Electricity Trade prepared by North American Energy Working Group December 2002 2 The North American Energy Working Group The North American Energy Working Group (NAEW G) was established in spring of 2001 by the Canadian Minister of Natural Resources, the Mexican Secretary of Energy and the U.S. Secretary of Energy, to enhance North American energy cooperation. The Group is led by officials from Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of

  19. On emissions trading, toxic debt and the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simshauser, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Implementation of emissions trading will have profound effects on the financial stability of coal generators. While the impact on equity capital is well understood, the potential fallout in the market for project finance is not. During the current global financial crisis, the form and quantum of transitional assistance to coal generators will be crucial to ensure ongoing participation of domestic and foreign project banks in the power markets. (author)

  20. Update on Fabrication of Extrusions for TREAT Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik Paul; Leckie, Rafael M.; Dombrowski, David E.; Papin, Pallas A.

    2014-03-05

    This supplemental report describes fuel fabrication efforts conducted for the Idaho National Laboratory Trade Study for the TREAT Conversion project that is exploring the replacement of the HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) fuel core of the TREAT reactor with LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel. Previous reports have documented fabrication of fuel by the upgrade process developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments supplement an earlier report that describes efforts to increase the graphite content of extruded fuel and minimize cracking.

  1. Energy Production and Trade: An Overview of Some Macroeconomic Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production and Trade: An Overview of Some Macroeconomic Issues Vipin Arora November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES November 2014 Vipin Arora | U.S. Energy Information

  2. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  3. The geography of So{sub 2} emissions trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, B.

    1995-12-01

    Interstate trading of SO{sub 2} emission allowances under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 represents the largest-scale application of market principles to environmental protection. some opponents have hypothesized that high emitting electric power plants in the Midwestern states will buy additional allowances and thereby sustain SO{sub 2} emissions at unacceptable high levels. Much of these emissions would then continue to return downwind as sulfates in the Northeast, damaging critical ecosystems such as lakes and forests in the Adirondacks. A competing hypothesis is that in an increasingly competitive utility industry, a power plant will choose the least-cost compliance option for its SO{sub 2} emission requirements, which for many large and dirty Midwestern plants will be to retrofit with scrubbers. This paper will provide the first comprehensive empirical analysis of the geographic pattern of SO{sub 2} allowance trading for the first three years (early 1992 to early 1995) to determine the validity of the first hypothesis. It will be shown that with the exception of one electric utility in Illinois, the Midwestern states have not used allowance trading to sustain high emission levels. A Congressionally-mandated subsidy for scrubber retrofits at Phase I affected-units, however, has allowed two of these states (Ohio and Indiana) plus three additional Appalachian states (Tennessee, West Virginia and Pennsylvania) to acquire large quantities of bonus allowances. Most of these additional allowances may be banked for future use at other affected units by the acquiring utilities, since the newly scrubbed plants will have much lower SO{sub 2} emissions because of the scrubber retrofits. The good news is that the trading program is projected to save a lot of money, over $2 billion out of a possible $3 billion in annual compliance costs by the time of Phase II.

  4. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings: Evidence from the US Acid Rain Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The US Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate in allowance trading, and whether regulatory activity at the state level would further complicate utilities` decision to trade allowances. This paper finds that public utility commission regulation has encouraged allowance trading activity in states with regulatory rulings, but that allowance trading activity has not been limited to states issuing regulations. Until there is evidence suggesting that significant additional cost savings could have been obtained if additional allowance trading activity had occurred in states without regulations or that utilities in states with regulations are still not taking advantage of all cost saving trading opportunities, this analysis suggests that there is little reason to believe that allowance trading activity is impeded by public utility commission regulations.

  5. Study of air pollution: Effects of ozone on neuropeptide-mediated responses in human subjects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boushey, H.A.

    1991-11-01

    The study examined the hypothesis that ozone inactivates the enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, responsible for limiting the effects of neuropeptides released from afferent nerve endings. Cough response of capsaicin solution delivered from a nebulizer at 2 min. intervals until two or more coughs were produced. Other endpoints measured included irritative symptoms as rated by the subjects on a nonparametric scale, spirometry, of each concentration of ozone were compared to those of filtered air in a single-blind randomized sequence. The results indicate that a 2 h. exposure to 0.4 ppm of ozone with intermittent light exercise alters the sensitivity of airway nerves that mediate the cough response to inhaled materials. This dose of ozone also caused a change in FEV1. A lower level of ozone, 0.02 ppm, caused a change in neither cough threshold nor FEV1, even when the duration of exposure was extended to three hours. The findings are consistent with the author's hypothesis that ozone may sensitize nerve endings in the airways by inactivating neutral endopeptidase, an enzyme that regulates their activity, but they do not demonstrate that directly examining an effect directly mediated by airway nerves allows detection of effects of ozone at doses below those causing effects detected by standard tests of pulmonary function.

  6. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonnemore » methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.« less

  7. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonne methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.

  8. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  9. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  10. The Impact of Emission and Climate Change on Ozone in the United States under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Drake, John B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liu, Yang

    2013-09-27

    Dynamical downscaling was applied in this study to link the global climate-chemistry model Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-Chem) with the regional models: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ). Two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to evaluate the climate impact on ozone concentrations in 2050s. Ozone concentrations in the lower-mid troposphere (surface to ~300 hPa), from mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), show decreasing trends in RCP 4.5 between 2000s and 2050s, with the largest decrease of 4-10 ppbv occurring in the summer and the fall; and increasing trends (2-12 ppbv) in RCP 8.5 resulting from the increased methane emissions. In RCP 8.5, methane emissions increase by ~60% by the end of 2050s, accounting for more than 90% of ozone increases in summer and fall, and 60-80% in spring and winter. Under the RCP 4.5 scenario, in the summer when photochemical reactions are the most active, the large ozone precursor emissions reduction leads to the greatest decrease of downscaled surface ozone concentrations, ranging from 6 to 10 ppbv. However, a few major cities show ozone increases of 3 to 7 ppbv due to weakened NO titration. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario, in winter, downscaled ozone concentrations increase across nearly the entire continental US in winter, ranging from 3 to 10 ppbv due to increased methane emissions and enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). More intense heat waves are projected to occur by the end of 2050s in RCP 8.5, leading to more than 8 ppbv of the maximum daily 8-hour daily average (MDA8) ozone during the heat wave days than other days; this indicates the dramatic impact heat waves exert on high frequency ozone events.

  11. Ryazan power plant feasibility study. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ryazan Power Plant Joint Stock Company to assess the feasibility of rehabilitating the Ryazan Power Plant in Novomichurinsk, Russia. The scope of this study includes reviewing plant equipment and operations as well as making recommendations for upgrade to present day plant standards. The main emphasis of the report is on boiler analysis, but also includes all equipment from coal entering the plant to electrical power leaving the plant. This is the second of two volumes and is divided into the following sections: (C) Technical - Sections 6-18; (D) Commercial; (E) Socioeconomic Considerations; (F) Conclusions.

  12. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  13. The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (/Mcf), and buyers are resisting any price above oil parity. Costs of LNG are high and increase with distance. The netback value is zero or even negative for the longer-distance trades. The value of extracted co-products (natural gas liquids) is 50 cents to $1/Mcf. These credits are the principal source of profit, especially for foreign partners because natural gas liquids are taxed at low {open_quotes}industrial{close_quotes} rates. Returns are even less when the gas supply is nonassociated so that the project must {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} the production costs as well. Some exporting countries profit; but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries as a whole looses because low-revenue LNG energy displaces at the margin fully taxed oil.

  14. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are appliedmore » to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.« less

  15. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  16. Evaluating a heated metal scrubber's effectiveness in preventing ozone monitors' anomalous behavior during hot and humid ambient sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddy, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to verify West Virginia's Wet/Dry test's prediction that Advanced Pollution Instrumentation's (API) ozone monitors, when using a heated metal scrubber in lieu of a standard MnO{sub 2} scrubber, would be made insensitive to sampling conditions which provoke anomalous behavior. Field trials involving two identical API model 400 ozone monitors, a Horiba APOA 360 ozone monitor, MnO{sub 2} scrubbers and API's optional heated metal scrubber would determine this. The heated metal scrubber succeeded in effectively eliminating the anomalous behavior. Evaluation results further verify the accuracy of West Virginia's Wet/Dry test. During the evaluation, a serendipitous event led to observations that confirmed previous observations by The Commonwealth of Virginia's monitoring staff, linking contamination of UV monitors' optics with anomalous behavior. Also, a partial summation of observations concerning ultraviolet ozone monitors' anomalous behavior, drawn from several sources, illustrates its complex nature.

  17. The feasibility of effluent trading in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing wastewater effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to promote additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This paper evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry. The evaluation leads to the conclusion that potential for effluent trading is very low in the exploration and production and distribution and marketing sectors; trading potential is moderate for the refining sector except for intraplant trades, for which the potential is high. Good potential also exists for other types of water-related trades that do not directly involve effluents (e.g., wetlands mitigation banking). The potential for effluent trading in the energy industries and in other sectors would be enhanced if Congress amended the Clean Water Act (CWA) to formally authorize such trading.

  18. EA-359-A Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. EA-359-A Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. Order authorizing Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading to export electric energy to Canada. Name Change from Louis Dreyfus Energy Services L.P. EA-359-A Castleton Commodities (CN) Name Change.pdf (107.56 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. EA-359 Louis Dreyfus Energy Services L.P. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-359

  19. SO{sub 2} and NOx trading markets: providing flexibility and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sam Napolitano; Melanie LaCount; Daniel Chartier

    2007-06-15

    Experience with the Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trading Programs demonstrates that cap-and-trade programs are an effective means of achieving broad improvements in air quality. Results demonstrate that the combination of mandatory emissions caps, a viable allowance trading market, rigorous emissions monitoring and reporting protocols, and automatic enforcement provide accountability and ensure results in a cost-effective manner. The market developments discussed in this article demonstrate a successful environmental partnership. With a government focused on results and a private sector motivated to innovate, cap-and trade systems deliver environmental results as efficiently and effectively as possible. 3 refs., 4 figs,

  20. Natural gas trade in North America: Building up to the NAFTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plourde, A.

    1993-12-31

    This paper traces the evolution of natural gas trade among Canada, Mexico, and the United States in the 1967-1992 period. In addition, the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that relate to natural gas trade are examined in the light of the corresponding aspects of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). One of the main conclusions to emerge is that exports from Canada to the United States would likely continue to dominate North American natural gas trade patterns under the NAFTA. Past experience suggests that regulatory policies play a crucial role in determining trade patterns. In the case of Canada and the United States, the policies of deregulation implemented by the two countries prior to 1989 have proven to be much more important than has the FTA in encouraging cross-border trade in natural gas. Since the NAFTA allows Mexico to maintain a highly interventionist approach to energy policy, an internally-driven process of policy change will be required to liberalize natural gas trade between Mexico and the other parties to the Agreement. A few specific developments relating to natural gas trade among the NAFTA parties are also examined in the light of the Agreement. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. SO{sub 2} trading program as a metaphor for a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    This very brief presentation focuses on the competitive market impacts of sulfur dioxide SO{sub 2} emissions trading. Key points of the presentation are highlighted in four tables. The main principles and results of the emissions trading program are outlined, and the implications of SO{sub 2} trading for the electric industry are listed. Parallels between SO{sub 2} trading and electric utility restructing identified include no market distortion by avoiding serious disadvantages to competitors, and avoidance of stranded costs through compliance flexibility. 4 tabs.

  2. Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Businesses and the Global Environment | Department of Energy Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for American Businesses and the Global Environment Energy-Focused Trade Mission Will Yield Positive Effects for American Businesses and the Global Environment April 13, 2015 - 2:35pm Addthis The joint trade mission will make stops in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. | Map by <a href="/node/712881">Daniel Wood</a>, Department of Energy. The joint trade

  3. The role of the trading arm of a major marketing company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coorsh, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses trading from a marketing company and within the natural gas industry. The implications for information systems are described.

  4. Regulation of ozone-induced lung inflammation and injury by the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Francis, Mary; Vayas, Kinal N.; Cervelli, Jessica A.; Choi, Hyejeong; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2015-04-15

    Macrophages play a dual role in ozone toxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a lectin known to regulate macrophage activity. Herein, we analyzed the role of Gal-3 in the response of lung macrophages to ozone. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 24–72 h after exposure (3 h) of WT and Gal-3{sup -/-} mice to air or 0.8 ppm ozone. In WT mice, ozone inhalation resulted in increased numbers of proinflammatory (Gal-3{sup +}, iNOS{sup +}) and anti-inflammatory (MR-1{sup +}) macrophages in the lungs. While accumulation of iNOS{sup +} macrophages was attenuated in Gal-3{sup -/-} mice, increased numbers of enlarged MR-1{sup +} macrophages were noted. This correlated with increased numbers of macrophages in BAL. Flow cytometric analysis showed that these cells were CD11b{sup +} and consisted mainly (> 97%) of mature (F4/80{sup +}CD11c{sup +}) proinflammatory (Ly6GLy6C{sup hi}) and anti-inflammatory (Ly6GLy6C{sup lo}) macrophages. Increases in both macrophage subpopulations were observed following ozone inhalation. Loss of Gal-3 resulted in a decrease in Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages, with no effect on Ly6C{sup lo} macrophages. CD11b{sup +}Ly6G{sup +}Ly6C{sup +} granulocytic (G) and monocytic (M) myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were also identified in the lung after ozone. In Gal-3{sup -/-} mice, the response of G-MDSC to ozone was attenuated, while the response of M-MDSC was heightened. Changes in inflammatory cell populations in the lung of ozone treated Gal-3{sup -/-} mice were correlated with reduced tissue injury as measured by cytochrome b5 expression. These data demonstrate that Gal-3 plays a role in promoting proinflammatory macrophage accumulation and toxicity in the lung following ozone exposure. - Highlights: • Multiple monocytic-macrophage subpopulations accumulate in the lung after ozone inhalation. • Galectin-3 plays a proinflammatory role in ozone-induced lung injury. • In the

  5. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  6. Wastewater treatment: Ozonation processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for wastewater disinfection. The citations cover system descriptions and evaluations, comparisons with the chlorination disinfection process, reaction kinetics, and the combination of ozonation with other wastewater treatment methods. The treatment of organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater and municipal water supplies is also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Wastewater treatment: Ozonation processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for wastewater disinfection. The citations cover system descriptions and evaluations, comparisons with the chlorination disinfection process, reaction kinetics, and the combination of ozonation with other wastewater treatment methods. The treatment of organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater and municipal water supplies is also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wai Kit; Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-15

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  9. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; et al

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative tomore » background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a “wild” annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address “domesticated” plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal succession that was consistent and repeatable

  10. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-08-04

    It is well known that rhizosphere microbiomes differ from those of surrounding soil, and yet we know little about how these root-associated microbial communities change through the growing season and between seasons. We analyzed the response of soil bacteria to roots of the common annual grass Avena fatua over two growing seasons using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over the two periods of growth, the rhizosphere bacterial communities followed consistent successional patterns as plants grew, although the starting communities were distinct. Succession in the rhizosphere was characterized by a significant decrease in both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity relative to background soil communities, driven by reductions in both richness and evenness of the bacterial communities. Plant roots selectively stimulated the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes but reduced the abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxa that increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere soil displayed phylogenetic clustering, suggesting some conservation and an evolutionary basis for the response of complex soil bacterial communities to the presence of plant roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence. We document the successional patterns of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with a “wild” annual grass, Avena fatua, which is commonly a dominant plant in Mediterranean-type annual grasslands around the world; the plant was grown in its grassland soil. Most studies documenting rhizosphere microbiomes address “domesticated” plants growing in soils to which they are introduced. Rhizosphere bacterial communities exhibited a pattern of temporal

  11. Water vapor and ozone profiles with a CO{sub 2} DIAL system in south Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellecci, C.; Caputi, G.; De Donato, F.; Gaudio, P.; Valentini, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors present the work carried out at the University of Calabria regarding a prototype of a DIAL system. This has been realized for remote pollution monitoring. Most of the efforts have been done to perform several measurements on an horizontal path in order to scan the wide surrounding area. The concentrations of ozone and water vapor have been carried out using two different methods both related with the DIAL technique. With the integrated technique, average concentrations have been evaluated up to 5 km using topographical targets. In the range resolution technique, profiles of ozone and water vapor have been performed up to 700 m with a spatial resolution of about 30 m. Although the system needs a revision in several subsystems of its set-up, the experimentation has pointed out the performance available and the necessary improvements.

  12. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  13. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L. ); Koss, T.C. . Office of Environmental Guidance)

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  14. A new feature in the internal heavy isotope distribution in ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S. K. Liang, Mao-Chang; Savarino, Joel; Michalski, G.

    2014-10-07

    Ozone produced by discharge or photolysis of oxygen has unusually heavy isotopic composition ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O ratio) which does not follow normal mass fractionation rule: δ{sup 17}O ∼ 0.52{sup *}δ{sup 18}O, expressed as an anomaly Δ{sup 17}O = δ{sup 17}O − 0.52{sup *}δ{sup 18}O. Ozone molecule being an open isosceles triangle can have the heavy isotope located either in its apex or symmetric (s) position or the base or asymmetric (as) position. Correspondingly, one can define positional isotopic enrichment, written as δ{sup 18}O (s) or δ{sup 18}O (as) (and similarly for δ{sup 17}O) as well as position dependent isotope anomaly Δ{sup 17}O (s) and Δ{sup 17}O (as). Marcus and co-workers have proposed a semi-empirical model based in principle on the RRKM model of uni-molecular dissociation but with slight modification (departure from statistical randomness assumption for symmetrical molecules) which explains many features of ozone isotopic enrichment. This model predicts that the bulk isotope anomaly is contained wholly in the asymmetric position and the Δ{sup 17}O (s) is zero. Consequently, Δ{sup 17}O (as) = 1.5 {sup *} Δ{sup 17}O (bulk) (named here simply as the “1.5 rule”) which has been experimentally confirmed over a range of isotopic enrichment. We now show that a critical re-analysis of the earlier experimental data demonstrates a small but significant departure from this 1.5 rule at the highest and lowest levels of enrichments. This departure provides the first experimental proof that the dynamics of ozone formation differs from a statistical model constrained only by restriction of symmetry. We speculate over some possible causes for the departure.

  15. Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal and F. J. Murcray Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiometric Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) has been in regular operation at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program site, conditions permitting, since the mid-1990s. We present here the analysis of several spectra

  16. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  17. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Executive summary. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. The volume contains the Executive Summary.

  18. Ryazan power plant feasibility study. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ryazan Power Plant Joint Stock Company to assess the feasibility of rehabilitating the Ryazan Power Plant in Novomichurinsk, Russia. The scope of this study includes reviewing plant equipment and operations as well as making recommendations for upgrade to present day plant standards. The main emphasis of the report is on boiler analysis, but also includes all equipment from coal entering the plant to electrical power leaving the plant. This is the first of two volumes and is divided into the following sections: (A) Abstract; (B) Evaluation of Alternative Technologies; (C) Technical: Section 1- Coal Handling, Section 2- Feeders and Pulverizers, Section 3- Boiler, Section 4- Ash Handling, Section 5- Electrostatic Precipitator.

  19. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  20. New season of colloquia begins at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New season of colloquia begins at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory By Raphael Rosen September 15, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The new colloquium committee. From left to right: Mike Mardenfeld, David Mikkelsen, Committee Administrator Carol Ann Austin, Brent Stratton (Photo by Elle Starkman) The new colloquium committee. From left to right: Mike Mardenfeld, David Mikkelsen, Committee Administrator Carol Ann Austin, Brent Stratton Just as

  1. Effects of ozone on the respiratory health, allergic sensitization, and cellular immune system in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwick, H.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Reiser, K.; Schmoeger, J.B.; Boeck, A.H.; Herkner, K.; Radunsky, K. )

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the lasting effects of high ozone concentrations under environmental conditions, we examined the respiratory health, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, allergic sensitization, and lymphocyte subpopulations of 10- to 14-yr-old children. A total of 218 children recruited from an area with high ozone concentrations (Group A) were tested against 281 children coming from an area with low ozone concentrations (Group B). As to subjective complaints, categorized as 'usually cough with or without phlegm,' 'breathlessness,' and 'susceptibility to chest colds,' there was no difference between the two groups. The lung function parameters were similar, but in Group A subjects' bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurred more frequently and was found to be more severe than in Group B (29.4 versus 19.9%, p less than 0.02; PD20 2,100 {plus minus} 87 versus 2,350 {plus minus} 58 micrograms, p less than 0.05). In both groups the number of children who had been suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to aeroallergens, found by means of the skin test, was the same. Comparison of the total IgE levels showed no difference at all between the two groups. As far as the white blood cells are concerned, the total and differential cell count was the same, whereas lymphocyte subpopulations showed readily recognizable changes.

  2. CO{sub 2} Cap-and-Trade: should industry speak up or sign on?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, Tobey

    2008-05-15

    Should the energy community support cap-and-trade and work for a common sense method of regulation? If cap-and-trade can be expected to be a major policy blunder, would the wiser course be to support a carbon tax rather than become enablers to a failure that later may be laid at the door of the energy community? (author)

  3. South Carolina Community Lights Up the Season with Energy-Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Lights Up the Season with Energy-Efficient Holiday Lights South Carolina Community Lights Up the Season with Energy-Efficient Holiday Lights December 20, 2011 - 1:12pm ...

  4. Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production An above-normal 2013 hurricane season is expected to cause a median production loss of ...

  5. Hurricane Season: Restoring Power after a Big Storm | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Season: Restoring Power after a Big Storm Hurricane Season: Restoring Power after a Big Storm June 5, 2012 - 4:01pm Addthis Hurricane Irene made landfall on the coast of North Carolina as a Category 1 hurricane during the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the ninth named storm, first hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2011 hurricane season. | Photo courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Hurricane Irene made landfall on the coast of North Carolina as a

  6. Impact of the 2008 Hurricane Season on the Natural Gas Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season and its impacts on the natural gas industry

  7. Nafta due to end most barriers to trade among U. S. , Mexico, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This paper reports that energy companies in the U.S. will benefit --- but not as much as they had hoped --- from the recently drafted North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta) among the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Nafta would remove most of the trade barriers between Mexico and the other two countries and supplement the U.S. - Canada Free Trade Agreement to create an open market in North America totaling $6 trillion/year in products and serving more than 360 million persons. Nafta was negotiated under a law that allows Congress to consider the pact for only 90 days, then vote on it without amendments. The pact marks the first time the U.S. has covered environmental concerns in a trade treaty, mainly pollution along the U.S.-Mexico border. The pact also is consistent with the international General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

  8. Point-nonpoint effluent trading in watersheds: A review and critique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvie, M.; Solomon, B.

    1998-03-01

    The 1990s have been characterized as the decade of market incentives in US environmental policy-making. Not only is their use expanding for air pollution control, but the US Environmental Protection Agency is now also encouraging the use of market instruments for control of effluents within watersheds. After reviewing general guidelines and principles for effluent trading, this study considers the special problems of point-nonpoint (p-n) sources, the most common focus of effluent trading to date. Four case studies of p-n trading are discussed, which illustrate the promise of the policy. Although only two of these four case study programs have involved actual effluent trades thus far, they all have resulted in more cost-effective reductions of water pollution. Overall use of effluent trading to date has been modest, and suggestions are made for improvement of this innovative policy.

  9. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2016-04-27

    There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric vertical structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season.In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements were made of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV)more » and the liquid water path (LWP) of trade cumulus clouds, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol from instrumentation at a ground observatory and on small unmanned aircraft. We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV < 40 kg m–2), a criterion which acts to filter the data to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region.We then use the aircraft and ground-based measurements to explore possible mechanisms behind this observed aerosol–LWP correlation. The increase in cloud liquid water is found to coincide with a lowering of the cloud base, which is itself attributable to increased boundary layer humidity in polluted conditions. High pollution is found to correlate with both higher temperatures and higher humidity measured throughout the boundary layer. A large-scale analysis, using satellite observations and meteorological reanalysis, corroborates these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a

  10. Emergency Diesel Generation System Surveillance Test Policy Optimization Through Genetic Algorithms Using Non-Periodic Intervention Frequencies and Seasonal Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-22-294-900 (Brazil); Frutuoso e Melo, P.F. [COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco G, sala 101, Ilha do Fundao, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear standby safety systems must frequently, be submitted to periodic surveillance tests. The main reason is to detect, as soon as possible, the occurrence of unrevealed failure states. Such interventions may, however, affect the overall system availability due to component outages. Besides, as the components are demanded, deterioration by aging may occur, penalizing again the system performance. By these reasons, planning a good surveillance test policy implies in a trade-off between gains and overheads due to the surveillance test interventions. In order maximize the systems average availability during a given period of time, it has recently been developed a non-periodic surveillance test optimization methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA). The fact of allowing non-periodic tests turns the solution space much more flexible and schedules can be better adjusted, providing gains in the overall system average availability, when compared to those obtained by an optimized periodic tests scheme. The optimization problem becomes, however, more complex. Hence, the use of a powerful optimization technique, such as GAs, is required. Some particular features of certain systems can turn it advisable to introduce other specific constraints in the optimization problem. The Emergency Diesel Generation System (EDGS) of a Nuclear Power Plant (N-PP) is a good example for demonstrating the introduction of seasonal constraints in the optimization problem. This system is responsible for power supply during an external blackout. Therefore, it is desirable during periods of high blackout probability to maintain the system availability as high as possible. Previous applications have demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the methodology. However, no seasonal constraints have ever been imposed. This work aims at investigating the application of such methodology in the Angra-II Brazilian NPP EDGS surveillance test policy optimization, considering the blackout probability

  11. Ea-168-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ea-168-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P Ea-168-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P Order authorizing PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P to export electric energy to Canada. Ea-168-A PG&E Energy Trading-Power, L.P (28.09 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-168

  12. Stratospheric ozone protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babst, C.R. III

    1993-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer protects the surface of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, which has been causally linked to skin cancer and cataracts, suppression of the human immune system, damage to crops and aquatic organisms, the formation of ground-level zone and the rapid weathering of outdoor plastics. In recent years, scientists have observed a significant deterioration of the ozone layer, particularly over the poles, but increasingly over populated regions as well. This deterioration has been attributed to the atmospheric release of certain man-made halocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Once used extensively as propellants for aerosol sprays (but generally banned for such purposes since 1978), CFCs are widely used today as refrigerants, foams and solvents. All of these chlorinated (CFC, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and brominated (halon) compounds are classified for regulatory purposes as Class I substances because of their significant ozone-depleting potential. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), developed as alternatives to CFCs and halons for many different applications, have been classified for regulatory purposes as Class II substances because of their relatively less destructive impact on stratospheric ozone. This paper describes the following regulations to reduce destruction of the ozone layer: the Montreal Protocol; Title VI of the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990; Accelerated Phase-out schedules developed by the countries which signed the Montreal Protocol; Use restrictions; Recycling and Emission reduction requirements; Servicing of motor vehicle air conditions; ban on nonessential products; labeling requirements; safe alternatives. 6 refs.

  13. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf; Mizuno, Akira

    2013-05-14

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  14. Bibliography of the seasonal thermal energy storage library

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, L.S.; Casper, G.; Kawin, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    The Main Listing is arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Each citation includes the author's name, title, publisher, publication date, and where applicable, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) number or other document number. The number preceding each citation is the identification number for that document in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Library. Occasionally, one or two alphabetic characters are added to the identification number. These alphabetic characters indicate that the document is contained in a collection of papers, such as the proceedings of a conference. An Author Index and an Identification Number Index are included. (WHK)

  15. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  16. Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

    2001-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

  17. Environmental effects of interstate power trading on electricity consumption mixes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Marriott; H. Scott Matthews

    2005-11-15

    Although many studies of electricity generation use national or state average generation mix assumptions, in reality a great deal of electricity is transferred between states with very different mixes of fossil and renewable fuels, and using the average numbers could result in incorrect conclusions in these studies. The authors create electricity consumption profiles for each state and for key industry sectors in the U.S. based on existing state generation profiles, net state power imports, industry presence by state, and an optimization model to estimate interstate electricity trading. Using these 'consumption mixes' can provide a more accurate assessment of electricity use in life-cycle analyses. It is concluded that the published generation mixes for states that import power are misleading, since the power consumed in-state has a different makeup than the power that was generated. And, while most industry sectors have consumption mixes similar to the U.S. average, some of the most critical sectors of the economy - such as resource extraction and material processing sectors - are very different. This result does validate the average mix assumption made in many environmental assessments, but it is important to accurately quantify the generation methods for electricity used when doing life-cycle analyses. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Economic model for seaborne oil trade. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kian-Wah, H.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis aims to provide some insights as to how oil prices and oil flows might vary with the carrying capacity of the tanker fleet as affected by political events. It provides an econometric analysis of tanker freight rates in the modern era and proposes a mathematical (quadratic) programming economic model that links the crude oil market to the supply elasticity of the world oil tanker fleet based on a competitive economy. The economic model can be considered as a version of the Walras-Cassel general-equilibrium system which possesses an economically meaningful equilibrium solution in terms of oil prices, freight rates and the pattern of oil distribution. The implementation of the model is completed using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The study concludes with a scenario study showing how the model could be used to examine the importance of South East Asia`s sealanes in world seaborne oil trade. The model shows the economic vulnerability of oil importing nations, especially Japan, the United States, and Western Europe, to a possible closure of South East Asian sealanes.

  19. Booming Mexican market may flourish with free trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    Private power developers and utilities in the US are courting deals to build powerplants or supply electricity in Mexico. An the pending North American Free Trade Agreement, if passed, is expected to vastly increase the Mexican market for US constructors and manufacturers in the power sector. Ironically, a powerplant now under construction near the US border could be a factor in scuttling the NAFTA treaty. Mexico is seeking more than $18 billion in private sector investment. New regulations there now allow foreign firms to own 100% of the powerplants they build. The government-owned utility, Comision Federal de Electricidad, will offer firms power purchase agreements lasting up to 30 years. CFE also offers build-operate-transfer arrangements. It recently selected a consortium including General Electric Co., Bechtel Enterprises Inc., and Mexico's Groupo ICA to build the $600-million, 700-Mw, gas and oil-fired Samalayuca II project, about 20 miles south of El Paso, Texas. It will revert to CFE after 15 years.

  20. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  1. Fact #592: October 12, 2009 The Trade Value of Petroleum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2: October 12, 2009 The Trade Value of Petroleum Fact #592: October 12, 2009 The Trade Value of Petroleum The U.S. petroleum balance, calculated as petroleum exports minus petroleum imports, has been declining since 2002. In 2008, the balance fell to -388 billion dollars, which is almost four times the 2002 balance. Petroleum Trade Balance, 2002-2008 Graph showing the U.S. petroleum balance which fell in 2008 to almost four times the 2002 balance. For more detailed information, see

  2. Environmental patterns from free trade: Implications from dynamic NAFTA models of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    Studies of the economic impact on Mexico from joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) point to significant dynamic gains from trade. Few studies, however, have effectively related these changes in economic variables to changes in environmental variables. Using sector-share relationships and projections of income growth from dynamic computable general equilibrium models of Mexico, several possible time paths for carbon dioxide emissions are derived. Various scenarios of trade and investment liberalization and increased fuel efficiency under NAFTA result in simulated pollution paths of carbon dioxide that show a reduction in not only the amount of emissions but also in rate of growth of emissions.

  3. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  4. Response of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations to seasonally unpredictable perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, M.J.; Stewart, A.J.

    1990-07-01

    Many questions remain unresolved about the linkages between life history attributes of fishes and the tactics that these organisms employ in response to environmental uncertainty. Such questions include (1). If a perturbation affects the entire ecosystem, what are the consequences for a given population of fish (2) What tactics can a fish employ to increase its chances of leaving offspring (3) Do fish respond differently to such perturbations depending on the season (4) How do these changes relate to the overall resilience of the population The research reported here was designed to address such questions. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) populations in thirteen experimental ponds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were sampled ten times between June 1988, and July 1989 in response to a series of chemical disturbances. During each sampling period the population size and total biomass of Gambusia in each pond was estimated using photographs and a length weight regression. Size-frequency histograms were used to examine seasonal and dose-related changes in population structure. Lipid content and reproductive allotment were measured for a series of fish from each pond on all dates to explore the energy allocation patterns at the individual. 106 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function and symptoms in Mexico City schoolchildren

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.R.; Dockery, D.; Tosteson, T.; Baum, T.; Speizer, F.E. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of ambient ozone (O3) on respiratory function and acute respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 143 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren followed longitudinally at 1- to 2-wk intervals over a period of 6 months at three schools in Pedregal, Mexico City. The maximum O3 level exceeded the World Health Organization guideline of 80 ppb and the U.S. standard of 120 ppb in every week. For an increase from lowest to highest in the mean O3 level during the 48 hr before spirometry (53 ppb), logistic regression estimated relative odds of 1.7 for a child reporting cough/phlegm on the day of spirometry. For the full population, the mean O3 level during the hour before spirometry, not adjusted for temperature and humidity, predicted a significant decrement in FVC but not in FEV1 or FEF25-75. In contrast, the mean O3 level during the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted significant decrements in FEV1 and FEF25-75 but not in FVC. Ozone was consistently associated with a greater decrement in lung function for the 15 children with chronic phlegm as compared with the children without chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or wheeze. Ozone in the previous 24-, 48-, and 168-h periods predicted decrements in FEV1 for children of mothers who were current or former smokers, but not for children of mothers who were never smokers. Many of these effects were reduced in multiple regression analyses including temperature and humidity, as temperature and O3 were highly correlated.

  6. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  7. Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J., E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei, E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Peng, Lianmao [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-21

    Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

  8. Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-01-05

    Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

  9. Systemic responses to inhaled ozone in mice: cachexia and down-regulation of liver xenobiotic metabolizing genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, Jerold A. . E-mail: jalast@ucdavis.edu; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Mathrani, Vivek C.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2005-10-15

    Rats or mice acutely exposed to high concentrations of ozone show an immediate and significant weight loss, even when allowed free access to food and water. The mechanisms underlying this systemic response to ozone have not been previously elucidated. We have applied the technique of global gene expression analysis to the livers of C57BL mice acutely exposed to ozone. Mice lost up to 14% of their original body weight, with a 42% decrease in total food consumption. We previously had found significant up-regulation of genes encoding proliferative enzymes, proteins related to acute phase reactions and cytoskeletal functions, and other biomarkers of a cachexia-like inflammatory state in lungs of mice exposed to ozone. These results are consistent with a general up-regulation of different gene families responsive to NF-{kappa}B in the lungs of the exposed mice. In the present study, we observed significant down-regulation of different families of mRNAs in the livers of the exposed mice, including genes related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and to carbohydrate metabolism in this tissue, consistent with a systemic cachexic response. Several interferon-dependent genes were down-regulated in the liver, suggesting a possible role for interferon as a signaling molecule between lung and liver. In addition, transcription of several mRNAs encoding enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism in the livers of mice exposed to ozone was decreased, suggesting cytokine-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 expression. This finding may explain a previously controversial report from other investigators more than 20 years ago of prolongation of pentobarbital sleeping time in mice exposed to ozone.

  10. Fact #673: May 2, 2011 U.S. Trade Balance for Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor vehicles, aircraft, ships, and rail locomotives are imported to and exported from the U.S. The trade balance (exports minus imports) shows that the U.S. imports more motor ...

  11. DOE GC Joins Customs Service Trade Data System to Strengthen Enforcement Effort

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy today announced that its Office of the General Counsel has joined the Board of Directors of the International Trade Data System, and now has access to the U.S. Customs and...

  12. Will You Be Trading in Your Clunker for Cash--and a More Efficient Vehicle?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Tuesday, Amy told you about the Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS) Program, widely known as "Cash-for-Clunkers," which provides an incentive to trade in your old vehicle for a new, fuel...

  13. DOE and Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry Sign Memorandum of Cooperation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE and Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to foster collaboration on carbon capture and storage technologies, along with an Implementing Arrangement to further R&D cooperation on clean energy technology.

  14. DOE Finalizes New Rule to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy today announced that it has issued a new rule standardizing how private parties applying for DOE assistance should submit trade secrets and other confidential business...

  15. DOE Proposes New Rules to Protect Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy today proposed to revise its rules to standardize how private parties applying for DOE assistance should submit trade secrets and other confidential business information. ...

  16. U.S. Department of Energy and UK Department of Trade and Industry Conclude

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contract Negotiations Associated with BNFL Inc's Work on the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project in Idaho and East Tennessee Technology Park Cleanup Project in Tennessee | Department of Energy UK Department of Trade and Industry Conclude Contract Negotiations Associated with BNFL Inc's Work on the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project in Idaho and East Tennessee Technology Park Cleanup Project in Tennessee U.S. Department of Energy and UK Department of Trade and Industry Conclude

  17. Protecting your Trade Secrets, Commercial, and Financial Information | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Protecting your Trade Secrets, Commercial, and Financial Information Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR/STTR Home About Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) Applicant and Awardee Resources Quick Links DOE SBIR Online Learning Center External link DOE Phase 0 Small Business Assistance External link Protecting your Trade Secrets, Commercial, and Financial Information Preparing and Submitting a Phase I

  18. Methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargrave, T.; Helme, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December, 1997, the international community established binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions obligations for industrialized countries. The Parties to the new Kyoto Protocol also agreed on the use of a number of market-based mechanisms, including international GHG emissions trading. These market mechanisms were of critical to the importance because they have the potential to significantly reduce the costs of treaty compliance. In principle, an international cap-and-trade system appears to be one of the most cost-effective means of reducing GHG emissions. Maintaining the integrity of the trading system is of primary importance in ensuring that trading helps countries to meet their GHG commitments. This paper explores methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system, starting with a discussion of preconditions for participation in trading and then moving to features of an international compliance system. Achieving maximum compliance with international requirements may best be accomplished by limiting participation in trading to Annex I countries that maintain strong domestic compliance systems. Prior to the climate negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, the US Administration proposed a number of preconditions for participation in trading, including the adoption of international measurement standards and the establishment of domestic compliance and enforcement programs. This paper explores these and other preconditions, including the establishment of tough domestic financial penalties on companies that exceed allowed emissions and seller responsibility for the delivery of real reductions. The paper also discusses several necessary features of the international compliance system.

  19. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLean, B.J.; Rico, R.

    1995-12-31

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions).

  20. Seasonal cycle dependence of temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, B.F.

    1994-08-01

    The correlation statistics of meteorological fields have been of interest in weather forecasting for many years and are also of interest in climate studies. A better understanding of the seasonal variation of correlation statistics can be used to determine how the seasonal cycle of temperature fluctuations should be simulated in noise-forced energy balance models. It is shown that the length scale does have a seasonal dependence and will have to be handled through the seasonal modulation of other coefficients in noise-forced energy balance models. The temperature field variance and spatial correlation fluctuations exhibit seasonality with fluctuation amplitudes larger in the winter hemisphere and over land masses. Another factor contributing to seasonal differences is the larger solar heating gradient in the winter.

  1. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  2. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, Michael J.; Hsu, Juno; Nicolau, Alex; Veidenbaum, Alex; Smith, Philip Cameron; Bergmann, Dan

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  3. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  4. Isotope separation of {sup 17}O by photodissociation of ozone with near-infrared laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashida, Shigeru; Kambe, Takashi; Sato, Tetsuya; Igarashi, Takehiro; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2012-04-01

    Oxygen-17 is a stable oxygen isotope useful for various diagnostics in both engineering and medical applications. Enrichment of {sup 17}O, however, has been very costly due to the lack of appropriate methods that enable efficient production of {sup 17}O on an industrial level. In this paper, we report the first {sup 17}O-selective photodissociation of ozone at a relatively high pressure, which has been achieved by irradiating a gas mixture of 10 vol% O{sub 3}-90 vol% CF{sub 4} with narrowband laser. The experiment was conducted on a pilot-plant scale. A total laser power of 1.6 W was generated by external-cavity diode lasers with all the laser wavelengths fixed at the peak of an absorption line of {sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 17}O around 1 {mu}m. The beams were introduced into a 25 -m long photoreaction cell under the sealed-off condition with a total pressure of 20 kPa. Lower cell temperature reduced the background decomposition of ozone, and at the temperature of 158 K, an {sup 17}O enrichment factor of 2.2 was attained.

  5. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  6. Synthesis of MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles for azo dye degradation by catalytic ozonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manivel, Arumugam; Lee, Gang-Juan; Chen, Chin-Yi; Chen, Jing-Heng; Ma, Shih-Hsin; Horng, Tzzy-Leng; Wu, Jerry J.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of one-dimensional MoO{sub 3} nanostructures using hydrothermal, microwave, and sonochemical methods. • Sonochemical synthesized MoO{sub 3} presents the best efficiency for the dye removal by catalytic ozonation. • Efficient environmental remediation process. - Abstract: One-dimensional molybdenum trioxide nanostructures were prepared in three different approaches, including thermal, microwave, and sonochemical methods. The physicochemical properties of the obtained MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles were investigated by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Among the methods as investigated, sonochemical synthesis gave well-dispersed fine MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles compared with the other approaches. All the synthesized MoO{sub 3} nanostructures were examined for the catalytic ozonation to degrade azo dye in aqueous environment. Different performances were obtained for the catalyst prepared in different methods and the catalytic efficiencies were found to be the order of sonochemical, microwave, and then thermal methods. The sonochemical MoO{sub 3} catalyst allowed the total dye removal within 20 min and its good performance was justified according to their higher surface area with higher number of active sites that provide effective dye interaction for better degradation.

  7. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-211-C DTE Energy Trading Inc: Federal Register Notice, Volume 77, No. 50-March 14, 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Application from DTE Energy Trading Inc to export electric energy to Canada. Federal Register Notice.

  8. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  9. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly.

  10. Derivation of Seasonal Cloud Properties at ARM-NSA from Multispectral...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Derivation of Seasonal Cloud Properties at ARM-NSA from Multispectral MODIS Data D. A. ... over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. ...

  11. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+δ thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 °C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 °C to 380 °C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on themore »same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.« less

  12. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum annealing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+δ thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 °C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 °C to 380 °C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on themore » same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.« less

  13. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  14. A review of EIAs on trade policy in China: Exploring the way for economic policy EIAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng; Kørnøv, Lone; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-01-15

    During the discussion on the “Environmental Protection Law Amendment (draft)” in 2011, it was decided to drop the proposed clauses related to environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on policy, which means that there remained no provisions for policy EIAs, and China's strategic environmental assessment system stayed limited to the planning level. However, considering that economic policy making is causing significant direct and indirect environmental problems and that almost every aspect of governmental policy has an economic aspect, EIAs on economic policies are of the utmost urgency. The purpose of this study is to review the EIA work that has been carried out on trade policy in China through four case studies, and illustrate how trade policy EIAs can be helpful in achieving better environmental outcomes in the area of trade. Through the trade policy EIA case studies we try to argue for the feasibility of conducting EIAs on economic policies in China. We also discuss the implications of the case studies from the point of view of how to proceed with EIAs on economic policy and how to promote their practice. - Highlights: • SEA system is incomplete and stays limited to the plan EIA level in China. • EIA on economic policy is of utmost importance for all the developing countries. • Four case studies of trade policy EIA in China are reviewed for policy implications. • Departmental competition for political power impedes economic policy EIAs in China. • Legislative regulation on policy EIA is the first thing needed to overcome barrier.

  15. Fuel Cycle Scenario Definition, Evaluation, and Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Christopher T. Laws; Lee C. Cadwallader; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Robert N. Hill; J. D. Smith; Andrew S. Goldmann; George Bailey

    2006-08-01

    This report aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, potential need for transmutation of technetium and iodine, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. It documents most of the work produced by INL, ANL, and SNL personnel under their Simulation, Evaluation, and Trade Study (SETS) work packages during FY2005 and the first half of FY2006. This report represents the first attempt to calculate a full range of metrics, covering all four AFCI program objectives - waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety - using a combination of "static" calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This is a technical report, not aimed at a policy-level audience. A wide range of options are studied to provide the technical basis for identifying the most attractive options and potential improvements. Option improvement could be vital to accomplish before the AFCI program publishes definitive cost estimates. Information from this report will be extracted and summarized in future policy-level reports. Many dynamic simulations of deploying those options are included. There are few "control knobs" for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future, even though it is dark (uncertain) and controls are sluggish with slow time response: what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants. Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would

  16. Ge Interface Engineering with Ozone-oxidation for Low Interface State Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Krishnamohan, T.; Pethe, Abhijit J.; Okyay, Ali, K.; Oshima, Yasuhiro; Sun, Yun; McVittie, Jim P.; Pianetta, Piero A.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; /Stanford U., CIS

    2008-06-02

    Passivation of Ge has been a critical issue for Ge MOS applications in future technology nodes. In this letter, we introduce ozone-oxidation to engineer Ge/insulator interface. Interface states (D{sub it}) values across the bandgap and close to conduction bandedge were extracted using conductance technique at low temperatures. D{sub it} dependency on growth conditions was studied. Minimum D{sub it} of 3 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} V{sup -1} was demonstrated. Physical quality of the interface was investigated through Ge 3d spectra measurements. We found that the interface and D{sub it} is strongly affected by the distribution of oxidation states and quality of the suboxide.

  17. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on Class I areas: part I. impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-07-01

    Published in two parts, this article describes a new emissions cap-and-trade program to reduce acid deposition and visibility impacts in four Class I areas (e.g. wildernesses and national parks) from the proposed Longview Power coal-fired power plant to be located in Maidsville, WV. Part I discusses the air quality impacts of the proposed project. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A cheap and effective CO{sub 2} cap-and-trade for electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, Steven

    2009-10-15

    Now that debate has shifted from regional toward federal cap-and-trade policy, it's time to reintroduce the idea of using reduction credits rather than allowances to drive emission reductions. A credit system appears to work well to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions with minimal compliance cost - and without windfall, wealth transfer, or market power concerns. It also provides a strong incentive for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and a ready means to harmonize a federal cap-and-trade with state and federal renewable energy portfolio requirements. (author)

  19. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap | Department of Energy Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR. deer09_lymburner.pdf (522.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle

  20. PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC Order No. EA-250 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC Order No. EA-250 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On September 14, 2001, PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC (PSEG ER&T) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. The power to be

  1. Copper smelters and atmospheric visibility in the southwest, seasonal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nochumson, D.H.; Williams, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    Seasonal results from a study which evaluated the effects of sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/) emitted from 11 copper smelters on atmospheric visibility in 14 national parks and wilderness areas are presented. In addition two alternative strategies for controlling SO/sub x/ are compared. They are supplementary control systems (SCS) and continuous emission controls (CEC). The objective of each strategy is not to improve visibility but is to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). SCS is a strategy that has been used by almost all of the 11 copper smelters. It reduces SO/sub x/ emissions during adverse meteorological conditions through production curtailment. SCS has not been successful at eliminating NAAQS violations. The emissions used for the SCS control alternative are based upon actual copper smelter SO/sub x/ emissions and operating conditions during 1979. The year 1979 was selected because it is fairly representative of production levels, though highly variable, from 1965 to 1978 and copper smelter SO/sub x/ emissions during the latter half of the 1970s. In more recent years, the copper industry has been economically depressed and copper smelter production and SO/sub x/ emissions have been lower. The southwestern states are implementing the CEC strategy to control SO/sub x/ emissions from copper smelters as part of their state implementation plans. For production levels typical of 1979, the CEC regulations would require about a two-thirds reduction in SO/sub x/ emissions from that allowed under SCS. The study estimates the effect of this reduction upon the improvement of visibility in southwestern national parks and wilderness areas.

  2. From SO{sub 2} to greenhouse gases: trends and events shaping future emissions trading programs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Kruger

    2005-06-15

    Cap-and-trade programs have become widely accepted for the control of conventional air pollution in the United States. However, there is still no political consensus to use these programs to address greenhouse gases. Meanwhile, in the wake of the success of the US SO{sub 2} and NOx trading programs, private companies, state governments, and the European Union are developing new trading programs or other initiatives that may set precedents for a future national US greenhouse gas trading scheme. This paper summarizes the literature on the 'lessons learned' from the SO{sub 2} trading program for greenhouse gas trading, including lessons about the potential differences in design that may be necessary because of the different sources, science, mitigation options, and economics inherent in greenhouse gases. The paper discusses how the programs and initiatives mentioned above have been shaped by lessons from past trading programs and whether they are making changes to the SO{sub 2} model to address greenhouse gases. It concludes with an assessment of the implications of these initiatives for a future US national greenhouse gas trading program. 91 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. The NO{sub x} Budget trading program: a collaborative, innovative approach to solving a regional air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napolitano, Sam; Stevens, Gabrielle; Schreifels, Jeremy; Culligan, Kevin

    2007-11-15

    The NO{sub x} Budget Trading Program showed that regional cap-and-trade programs are adaptable to more than one pollutant, time period, and geographic scale, and can achieve compliance results similar to the Acid Rain Program. Here are 11 specific lessons that have emerged from the experience. (author)

  4. Economics of pollution trading for SO{sub 2} and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans; Alan Krupnick; Karen Palmer; Russell Toth

    2005-03-15

    For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major US programs for SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides. These programs are evaluated along measures of performance including cost savings, environmental integrity, and incentives for technological innovation. The authors offer lessons for the design of future programs including, most importantly, those reducing carbon dioxide. 128 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Industry sector analysis, Ecuador: Thermal power generating equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Thermal Power Generation Equipment Market in Ecuador, dated April 1993, prepared by P. Zaldumbide, A. Moreno, and N. Ordonez, American Embassy - Quito. The article consists of 10 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  6. Hanford Atomic Metal Trades Council Gives Gifts to More Than 100 Children in Need

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the fifth consecutive year, members of the Hanford Atomic Metal Trades Council’s 14 affiliates and other workers at the Hanford Site donated bicycles, helmets, toys, clothes, books, diapers, and other items to 107 children in need over the holidays.

  7. Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

  8. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO₂ levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO₂ trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO₂ vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO₂ algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trends and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO₂ concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO₂ standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO₂ reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO₂ VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations

  9. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO₂ levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO₂ trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO₂ vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO₂ algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore » and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO₂ concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO₂ standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO₂ reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO₂ VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model

  10. Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte

    2006-11-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.

  11. Generation co-ordination and energy trading systems in an open market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichler, R.

    1998-07-01

    The power industry in many parts of the world is currently undergoing dramatic changes: deregulation, privatization, competition and 3rd party access are the keywords. The major trends are summarized at the beginning of the paper to provide the basis for the evolving consequences for the power generation industry. In the restructured environment of the Open Market power generation companies frequently are organizationally separated from transmission, distribution, and supply and now have to sell their product directly to customers. This necessitates the introduction of energy trading support functions for both bilateral trading and power exchange trading. On the other hand, there is a close relationship between energy trading and the technical process of energy production. The paper discusses design principles for software systems supporting maximum economic benefits. First practical application experience is also presented. The energy trading process requires the break up of proprietary databases and proprietary data structures as this process has a major need to communicate with external partners who normally use different systems. This directly leads to 3rd party products for the database, standardized data structures and standardized communication protocols. The Open Market environment calls for new and modified planning functions: in some cases measured value information necessary for updating load forecasts cannot be directly achieved. This leads to the need for an estimator of the actual load situation, a completely new function. Power scheduling has to take care of the generation company's balance but it need not always be forced to 0. Regulating services from the grid companies can be used instead. This gives the scheduling functions additional freedom for determining more economic overall solutions considering both purchase and services and sales of energy.

  12. Subtask 1.18 - A Decision Tool for Watershed-Based Effluent Trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xixi Wang; Bethany A. Kurz; Marc D. Kurz

    2006-11-30

    Handling produced water in an economical and environmentally sound manner is vital to coalbed methane (CBM) development, which is expected to increase up to 60% in the next 10-15 years as the demand for natural gas increases. Current produced water-handling methods (e.g., shallow reinjection and infiltration impoundments) are too costly when implemented on a well-by-well basis. A watershed-based effluent credit trading approach may be a means of managing produced water at reduced cost while meeting or surpassing water quality regulations. This market-based approach allows for improved water quality management by enabling industrial, agricultural, and municipal discharge facilities to meet water quality permit requirements by purchasing pollutant reduction credits from other entities within the same watershed. An evaluation of this concept was conducted for the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). To conduct this assessment, the EERC collected and evaluated existing water quality information and developed the appropriate tools needed to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of specific trading scenarios. The accomplishments of this study include (1) an exploration of the available PRB water quantity and quality data using advanced statistical techniques, (2) development of an integrated water quality model that predicts the impacts of CBM produced water on stream salinity and sodicity, (3) development of an economic model that estimates costs and benefits from implementing potential trading options, (4) evaluation of hypothetical trading scenarios between select watersheds of the PRB, and (5) communication of the project concept and results to key state and federal agencies, industry representatives, and stakeholders of the PRB. The preliminary results of a basinwide assessment indicate that up to $684 million could be saved basinwide without compromising water quality as a result of

  13. Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons- August 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In an effort to better understand what actions the energy industry has taken in response to the 2005 and 2008 hurricane seasons, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and...

  14. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  15. Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Seasonal and inter-annual variability in 13C composition of ecosystem carbon fluxes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  16. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  17. Natural gas inventories heading to record levels at start of winter heating season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural gas inventories heading to record levels at start of winter heating season U.S. natural gas inventories are expected to be at record levels to start the winter heating season. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the amount of natural gas stored underground should total almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the beginning of November, reflecting record high natural gas production. Inventories could go even higher if heating demand is not strong during October

  18. Appliance Upgrades to Consider for Next Tax Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliance Upgrades to Consider for Next Tax Season Appliance Upgrades to Consider for Next Tax Season April 15, 2013 - 2:28pm Addthis Solar energy systems are among the renewable and efficiency purchases that are eligible for tax credits. | Photo courtesy of Industrial Solar Technology Corp. Solar energy systems are among the renewable and efficiency purchases that are eligible for tax credits. | Photo courtesy of Industrial Solar Technology Corp. Erik Hyrkas Erik Hyrkas Media Relations

  19. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-367-A EDF Trading North America, LLC: Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 153- August 10, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Application from EDF Trading North America to export electric energy to Canada.  Federal Register Notice.

  20. Season and diurnal variations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in a suburban area of central Italy and their relation with the meteorological conditions and the concentration of other photochemical oxidants and their precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Brachetti, A. )

    1988-09-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), is a photochemical oxidant formed in the atmosphere when large amounts of hydrocarbons (HC) and NO{sub x} are emitted in air and exposed to the UV radiation coming from the sun. Its formation proceeds through the conversion of HC, mainly olefins, into aldehydes that, after oxidation into peroxyradicals, react with NO{sub 2} to give this gaseous pollutant. Although the amount of PAN in air represents a suitable index for measuring photochemical smog and photochemical episodes can easily be observed in many Italian cities, almost no data have been collected in their country. In this paper the authors present the results obtained during a two years monitoring campaign carried in a suburban area of Central Italy placed downwind to Rome. Seasonal and daily trends of PAN will be reported together with the meteorological parameters and the change in concentration of other photochemical oxidants (ozone), its precursors (HC and aldehydes) and some acidic species. The results indicate that PAN, formed within the city, is transported into site together with other oxidants.

  1. OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

    2001-10-01

    As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

  2. Comparison of the responses of children and adults to acute ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonnell, W.F.; Chapman, R.S.; Horstman, D.H.; Leigh, M.W.; Salaam, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to compare the results of two studies in which the respiratory responses of children and adults to acute ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure were measured. Forty-two 18-30 year old males were exposed for 2.5 hours in a controlled environmental chamber to either 0.0 or 0.12 ppm O3 while performing intermittent heavy exercise. Twenty-two 8-11 year old males were exposed in a similar manner to both air and 0.12 ppm O3. Measures of respiratory symptoms and function were made before and after exposure. Adults experienced an increase in the symptom cough and decrements in forced vital capacity and some measures of forced expiratory flow. Children experienced similar decrements in pulmonary function, but had no increase in symptoms. The authors concluded that as measured by pulmonary function children appear to be no more responsive to O3 exposure than are adults and may experience fewer symptoms.

  3. Respiratory responses of vigorously exercising children to 0. 12 ppm ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonnell, W.F. 3d.; Chapman, R.S.; Leigh, M.W.; Strope, G.L.; Collier, A.M.

    1985-10-01

    Changes in respiratory function have been suggested for children exposed to less than 0.12 ppm ozone (O3) while engaged in normal activities. Because the results of these studies have been confounded by other variables, such as temperature or the presence of other pollutants or have been questioned as to the adequacy of exposure measurements, the authors determined the acute response of children exposed to 0.12 ppm O3 in a controlled chamber environment. Twenty-three white males 8 to 11 yr of age were exposed once to clean air and once to 0.12 ppm O3 in random order. Exposures were for 2.5 h and included 2 h of intermittent heavy exercise. Measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the symptom cough were determined prior to and after each exposure. A significant decline in FEV1 was found after the O3 exposure compared to the air exposure, and it appeared to persist for 16 to 20 h. No significant increase in cough was found due to O3 exposure. Forced vital capacity, specific airways resistance, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and other symptoms were measured in a secondary exploratory analysis of this study.

  4. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edith Gego; Alice Gilliland; James Godowitch

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the 'no-control' with the '2002' scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Monopolistic recycling of oil revenue and intertemporal bias in oil depletion and trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillman, A.L.; Long, N.V.

    1985-08-01

    This paper investigates oil depletion and trade when monopolistic oil producers also exercise monopoly power in the capital market. A two-period model views collusively organized oil producers with an initial trade surplus and a subsequent deficit. When monopoly power in the capital market is applied to the disadvantage of borrowers, less oil is initially made available to oil importers than if the interest rate had been competitively determined. This depletion bias, however, is reversed if, because of incentives for capital accumulation, it is to the advantage of the oil producers to subsidize lending to the oil importers. In either case the bias in oil depletion due to monopolistic recycling of oil revenue is greater, the more vulnerable are oil importer's incomes to a curtailment of oil supplies. 25 references.

  6. NREL Reports Examine Economic Trade-offs of Owning versus Leasing a Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System - News Releases | NREL Reports Examine Economic Trade-offs of Owning versus Leasing a Solar Photovoltaic System January 21, 2015 Two new reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examine the economic options customers face when deciding how to finance commercial or residential solar energy systems. NREL analysts found that businesses that use low-cost financing to purchase a photovoltaic (PV) system and homeowners who use

  7. Yuzhno-sakhalin TET`s-1 modernization study. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted to assess the rehabilitation of the Sakhalin TETs-1 thermal power station. The study includes the complete plant equipment and operations, and recommendation and budgetary pricing to upgrade to present standards. This is Volume 1 of the report and it contains the following sections: (A) Abstract; (B) Technical.

  8. Feasibility study for integrated solar cell manufacture in Russia. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    This report, conducted by Global Photovoltaic Specialists, Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study concerns the techno-economic feasibility of fully integrated photovoltaic manufacture in Russia. In addition to the executive summary, the study consists of the following: (1) background of the project; (2) world market study; (3) technology prospects; (4) techno-economic feasibility-proprietary deleted; (5) financial-proprietary deleted; (6) conclusions and recommendations; (7) references; (8) bibliography.

  9. Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Limited, Kakira biomass cogeneration: Volume 3 -- Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    This report, conducted by John H. Payne, Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study concerns the technical and financial feasibility of the Kakira Sugar Works Limited to increase its capacity to 5,000 TCD and to sell its surplus power to the Uganda Electricity Board. This is Volume 3, the Purchase Energy Contract between Kakira Cogeneration Company Limited and Uganda Electricity Board.

  10. Bataan naphtha cracker project. Final report prepared for PNOC Petrochemical Development Corporation (PPDC). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The study, conducted by Chem Systems, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency. The final report determines the feasibility of an ethylene/polyethylene facility in the Philippines. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Technical Description; (3) Implementation Plan; (4) Feasibility Study; (5) Licensor Status; (6) Recommended Contract Principles; (7) Recommended Olefins Pricing Basis; (8) Clarifications/Discussion of Issues; (9) Appendix.

  11. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  12. Political Economy of Brazilian foreign policy: nuclear energy, trade, and Itaipu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soares de Lima, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation advances an analytical framework intended to account for the international strategies of semi-peripheral countries: those industrialized Third World countries able to manufacture and export industrial goods. The empirical validation of the proposed framework was assessed through five case studies of Brazil's conduct in the following issue areas: nuclear energy, trade, and hydroelectric development of the Parana River Basin. A free-rider strategy was observed in the case of the nonproliferation regime. The decision to attain nuclear self sufficiency through the 1975 agreement with West Germany conforms to what was defined as unilateral behavior. Brazil's activism on behalf of Third World demands in North South negotiations as they impinge upon trade matters was accounted for in terms of the existence of private gains accruing from participation in that collective endeavor. Compliance with a regime's rules resulting from the use or threat of use of coercion was observed in the case of multilateral trade negotiations. The last case study examines a pattern of behavior defined as a hegemonic. In the development of a regime for the utilization of the Parana River Basin's hydroelectric potential, Brazil provided positive incentives to its junior partner (Paraguay) and negative inducements to the uncooperative partner (Argentina).

  13. Input quality, trade liberalization, and abatement of carbon-dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, M.; Zilberman, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a methodology to derive the incentives provided by two alternative policies--an emissions tax vs. liberalization of trade in higher quality coal--for increasing conversion-efficiency of electricity generation and for analyzing their impact on carbon emissions as well as on output of electricity. This methodology is applied empirically to examine the potential for abatement of carbon emissions from existing coal-based plants in the thermal power sector in India through the adoption of higher qualities of coal. The paper provides strong empirical support for achieving a complementarity between the goals of abatement and increased output, through policies which remove distortions in domestic and trade policies. It also demonstrates that abatement induced by an emissions-tax alone leads to a conflict between these goals. The authors examine a situation where the availability of higher quality coal is constrained by domestic and trade barriers. The role of coal quality in improving conversion-efficiency is analyzed when microunits are heterogeneous and have putty-clay technologies. The framework developed here juxtaposes engineering relationships governing plant performance and stylized features of electricity-generating technologies with a behavioral economic model.

  14. Photoperiodic Regulation of the Seasonal Pattern of Photosynthetic Capacity and the Implications for Carbon Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauerle, William L.; Oren, Ram; Way, Danielle A.; Qian, Song S.; Stoy, Paul C.; Thornton, Peter E; Bowden, Joseph D.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Reynolds, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Although temperature is an important driver of seasonal changes in photosynthetic physiology, photoperiod also regulates leaf activity. Climate change will extend growing seasons if temperature cues predominate, but photoperiod-controlled species will show limited responsiveness to warming. We show that photoperiod explains more seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity across 23 tree species than temperature. Although leaves remain green, photosynthetic capacity peaks just after summer solstice and declines with decreasing photoperiod, before air temperatures peak. In support of these findings, saplings grown at constant temperature but exposed to an extended photoperiod maintained high photosynthetic capacity, but photosynthetic activity declined in saplings experiencing a naturally shortening photoperiod; leaves remained equally green in both treatments. Incorporating a photoperiodic correction of photosynthetic physiology into a global-scale terrestrial carbon-cycle model significantly improves predictions of seasonal atmospheric CO{sub 2} cycling, demonstrating the benefit of such a function in coupled climate system models. Accounting for photoperiod-induced seasonality in photosynthetic parameters reduces modeled global gross primary production 2.5% ({approx}4 PgC y{sup -1}), resulting in a >3% ({approx}2 PgC y{sup -1}) decrease of net primary production. Such a correction is also needed in models estimating current carbon uptake based on remotely sensed greenness. Photoperiod-associated declines in photosynthetic capacity could limit autumn carbon gain in forests, even if warming delays leaf senescence.

  15. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  16. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE):  Application from Centre Land Trading Limited to export electric energy to Canada

  17. The combined effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on crop systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Shafer, S.R.; Heck, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) in the troposphere have risen in the last century due to industrialization. Current levels of tropospheric O{sub 3} suppress growth of crops and other plants, and O{sub 3} concentrations may continue to rise with changes in global climate. On the other hand, projected increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the next 50 to 100 years are expected to cause significant increases in growth of most species. Since elevated concentrations of these gases will co-occur, it is important to understand their joint action. Until recently, however, the combined effects of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} have received little attention. Most publications on combined CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} effects have described experiments conducted in greenhouse or controlled-environment facilities. To date, data on responses of agricultural species to the combined gases have come from experiments with radish, tomato, white clover, tobacco, or wheat. In most cases, CO{sub 2} stimulated and O{sub 3} suppressed growth of the plant tissues studied, and CO{sub 2} usually attenuated development of O{sub 3}-induced visible injury. Some data have indicated a tendency for CO{sub 2}, in concentrations up to double the current ambient level, to attenuate effects of O{sub 3} on growth, but statistical analyses of such data often have not supported such a conclusion. In this paper, the results of a recent field experiment with soybean are reported, and the results are compared to other similar research with elevated atmospheric concentrations of both O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  18. Modeling regional/urban ozone and particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, J.S.; Streets, D.G.; Jang, C.J.; Hao, J.; He, K.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines Beijing air quality in the winter and summer of 2001 using an integrated air quality modeling system (Fifth Generation Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)) in nested mode. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) emission inventory is used in the 36- (East Asia), 12- (East China), and 4-km (greater Beijing area) domains. Furthermore, we develop a local Beijing emission inventory that is used in the 4-km domain. We also construct a corroborated mapping of chemical species between the TRACE-P inventory and the Carbon Bond IV (CB-IV) chemical mechanism before the integrated modeling system is applied to study ozone (O{sub 3}) and particulate matter (PM) in Beijing. Meteorological data for the integrated modeling runs are extracted from MM5. Model results show O{sub 3} hourly concentrations in the range of 80-159 parts per billion (ppb) during summer in the urban areas and up to 189 ppb downwind of the city. High fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations (monthly average of 75 {mu}g.m{sup -3} in summer and 150 {mu}g.m{sup -3} in winter) are simulated over the metropolitan and down-wind areas with significant secondary constituents. Major sources of particulates were biomass burning, coal combustion and industry. A comparison against available O{sub 3} and PM measurement data in Beijing is described. We recommend refinements to the developed local Beijing emission inventory to improve the simulation of Beijing's air quality. The 4-km modeling configuration is also recommended for the development of air pollution control strategies. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The pulmonary response of white and black adults to six concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.; Salaam, S.A.; Dewitt, P.J.; Butler, S.O.; Green, J.; Raggio, L. )

    1993-04-01

    Many early studies of respiratory responsiveness to ozone (O3) were done on healthy, young, white males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender or race differences in O3 response exist among white and black, males and females, and to develop concentration-response curves for each of the gender-race groups. Three hundred seventy-two subjects (n > 90 in each gender-race group), ages 18 to 35 yr, were exposed once for 2.33 h to 0.0 (purified air), 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm O3. Each exposure was preceded by baseline pulmonary function tests and a symptom questionnaire. The first 2 h of exposure included alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a motorized treadmill producing a minute ventilation (VE) of 25 L/min/m2 body surface area (BSA). After exposure, subjects completed a set of pulmonary function tests and a symptom questionnaire. Lung function and symptom responses were expressed as percent change from baseline and analyzed using a nonparametric two factor analysis of variance. Three primary variables were analyzed: FEV1, specific airway resistance (SRaw), and cough. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in response to O3 among the individual gender-race groups. For the group as a whole, changes in the variables FEV1, SRaw, and cough were first noted at 0.12, 0.18, and 0.18 ppm O3, respectively. Adjusted for exercise difference, concentration-response curves for FEV1 and cough among white males were consistent with previous reports (1).

  20. Air pollution and childhood respiratory health: Exposure to sulfate and ozone in 10 Canadian Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, B.R.; Raizenne, M.E.; Burnett, R.T.; Jones, L.; Kearney, J.; Franklin, C.A. )

    1994-08-01

    This study was designed to examine differences in the respiratory health status of preadolescent school children, aged 7-11 years, who resided in 10 rural Canadian communities in areas of moderate and low exposure to regional sulfate and ozone pollution. Five of the communities were located in central Saskatchewan, a low-exposure region, and five were located in southwestern Ontario, an area with moderately elevated exposures resulting from long-range atmospheric transport of polluted air masses. In this cross-sectional study, the child's respiratory symptoms and illness history were evaluated using a parent-completed questionnaire, administered in September 1985. Respiratory function was assessed once for each child in the schools between October 1985 and March 1986, by the measurement of pulmonary function for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1.0]), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), mean forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the FVC curve (FEF[sub 25-75]), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of the expired vital capacity (V[sub 50]max). After controlling for the effects of age, sex, parental smoking, parental education and gas cooking, no significant regional differences were observed in rates of chronic cough or phlegm, persistent wheeze, current asthma, bronchitis in the past year, or any chest illness that kept the child at home for 3 or more consecutive days during the previous year. Children living in southwestern Ontario had statistically significant (P < 0.01) mean decrements of 1.7% in FVC and 1.3% in FEV[sub 1.0] compared with Saskatchewan children, after adjusting for age, sex, weight, standing height, parental smoking, and gas cooking. There were no statistically significant regional differences in the pulmonary flow parameters (P > 0.05). 54 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. Iron(II) catalysis in oxidation of hydrocarbons with ozone in acetonitrile

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2015-02-11

    Oxidation of alcohols, ethers, and sulfoxides by ozone in acetonitrile is catalyzed by submillimolar concentrations of Fe(CH3CN)62+. The catalyst provides both rate acceleration and greater selectivity toward the less oxidized products. For example, Fe(CH3CN)62+-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol yields benzaldehyde almost exclusively (>95%), whereas the uncatalyzed reaction generates a 1:1 mixture of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Similarly, aliphatic alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes/ketones, cyclobutanol to cyclobutanone, and diethyl ether to a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetaldehyde. The kinetics of oxidation of alcohols and diethyl ether are first-order in [Fe(CH3CN)62+] and [O3] and independent of [substrate] at concentrations greater thanmore » ~5 mM. In this regime, the rate constant for all of the alcohols is approximately the same, kcat = (8 ± 1) × 104 M–1 s–1, and that for (C2H5)2O is (5 ± 0.5) × 104 M–1 s–1. In the absence of substrate, Fe(CH3CN)62+ reacts with O3 with kFe = (9.3 ± 0.3) × 104 M–1 s–1. The similarity between the rate constants kFe and kcat strongly argues for Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction as rate-determining in catalytic oxidation. The active oxidant produced in Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction is suggested to be an Fe(IV) species in analogy with a related intermediate in aqueous solutions. As a result, this assignment is supported by the similarity in kinetic isotope effects and relative reactivities of the two species toward substrates.« less

  2. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  3. Effect of canopy structure and open-top chamber techniques on micrometeorological parameters and the gradients and transport of water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone in the canopies of plum trees (`prunus salicina`) in the San Joaquin valley. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Metheny, P.A.; Malkus, P.; Wosnik, K.

    1995-03-15

    Plum trees (Prunus salicina cv. Casselman) were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers (OTC) or chamberless plots, and trace gas concentrations and microenvironmental conditions were monitored within tree canopies inside the outside the OTC. Concentrations of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor, leaf and air temperature, light intensity, and wind speed were measured at nine positions in the tree canopies. The objectives were to: (1) map the distribution of microenvironmental parameters within the canopies inside and outside the OTC; (2) determine transport parameters for gas exchange, and (3) calculate ozone flux. Significant vertical and horizontal gradients were observed; gradients were diminished and often inverted inside relative to outside the OTC due to air distribution at the bottom of the OCT. Ozone flux was readily modeled from measures of stomatal conductance, nonstomatal conductance and ozone concentration at the leaf surface.

  4. Joint Statement between U.S. Department of Energy and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Japanese Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry, Toshimitsu Motegi, and U.S. Secretary of Energy, Ernest Moniz, met on July 24, 2013, in Washington, D.C. Both sides noted the central role played by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in U.S.-Japan energy cooperation, particularly on energy security matters, civil nuclear energy and clean energy technology research and development (R&D).

  5. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs Production Builders

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    field projects with production builders have demonstrated that high-performance homes experience significant cost trade-offs that offset other cost increases. This proved transformational, gaining builder traction with related market-based programs like ENERGY STAR for Homes and DOE Challenge Home. "Break points" or cost trade-offs that are identified during the engineering analysis of the residential construction process can yield two types of business savings: 1) reductions in costs

  6. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Saewung; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Meehye; Shim, Heeyoun; Wolfe, Glenn; Guenther, Alex B.; He, Amy; Hong, Youdeog; Han, Jinseok

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Gangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical concentrations, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational dataset of CO, NOX, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh BVOC emissions. With the dataset, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated with the University of Washington Chemical Box Model (UWCM v 2.1). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that 1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOX distributions especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times) and 2) radical destruction (HO2+HO2 or HO2+RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (HO2+NO) especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone-VOC-NOX sensitivity and oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the VOC limited regime in ozone photochemistry is predicted but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with OVOCs production that is not routinely

  7. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  8. Seasonal thermal energy storage program. Progress report, January 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minor, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    The objectives of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program is to demonstrate the economic storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste sources or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. Aquifers, ponds, earth, and lakes have potential for seasonal storage. The initial thrust of the STES Program is toward utilization of ground-water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. Program plans for meeting these objectives, the development of demonstration programs, and progress in assessing the technical, economic, legal, and environmental impacts of thermal energy storage are described. (LCL)

  9. Effect of the ozonization of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin on its pyrolysis in a mixture with polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Sharypov; N.G. Beregovtsova; S.V. Baryshnikov; B.N. Kuznetsov

    2008-06-15

    It was found that the treatment of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin with an ozone-oxygen mixture at 25-100{sup o}C for 1-8 h was accompanied by the formation of oxygen-containing structural groups in the organic matter of coal, the thermal stability of these groups was comparatively low. The preliminary ozonization of coal resulted in an increase in the degree of conversion and the yield of liquid distillation products in the course of coprocessing of coal with polyethylene.

  10. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle in 200 hPa kinetic energy in AMIP GCM simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 hPa kinetic energy is represented by means of the spherical harmonic components for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations, the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA). The data used are the monthly mean wind fields from 1979 to 1988. The kinetic energy is decomposed into the divergent (DKE) and rotational (RKE) components and emphasis is placed on examining the former. The two reanalysis data sets show reasonable agreement that is best for the rotational kinetic energy. The largest difference in the divergent kinetic energy occurs during the northern summer. As might be expected, the two analyses are closet in regions where there are sufficient observations such that the effect of the model used in the assimilation cycle are minimized. The observed RKE show only a slight seasonal cycle with a maximum occuring during the northern winter. The DKE, on the other hand, has a very pronounced seasonal cycle with maxima at the solsticial seasons and minima during the equinoctial seasons. The model results show a very large spread in the magnitudes of the RKE and DKE although the models all evince a seasonal variation in phase with that observed. The median values of the seasonal cycle of RKE and DKE for the models are usually superior to those of any individual model. Results are also presented for simulation following the AMIP protocol but using updated versions of the original AMIP entries. In most cases these new integrations show better agreement with the observations.

  11. Trading trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linguist, T.

    1993-10-01

    Waste products which were once deemed unusable may now be recyclable, thus minimizing waste production and lowereing waste disposal cost. State and national agencies and exchanges are ready to help companies discover what material they can recycle and where these products can be marketed for possible reuse.

  12. EnergySavers.gov: A New Season, a New URL for the Consumer's Guide |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EnergySavers.gov: A New Season, a New URL for the Consumer's Guide EnergySavers.gov: A New Season, a New URL for the Consumer's Guide April 3, 2009 - 5:47pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL If you're a regular visitor to EERE's Consumer's Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, you may have noticed some changes this week. The site has moved to EnergySavers.gov and is now called "Energy Savers." The same in-depth information is still

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Warm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWarm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Warm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test 1993.06.01 - 1993.06.30 Lead Scientist : Dave Parsons Data Availability Complete output from a 10-day simulation using a high resolution mesoscale model is available at 1-hr intervals. Verification of June 1993 IOP Assimilation Dataset and its use in Driving a

  14. Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips November 26, 2013 - 9:23am Addthis Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Jason

  15. 'Tis the Season for Giving the Gift of Energy Savings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 'Tis the Season for Giving the Gift of Energy Savings 'Tis the Season for Giving the Gift of Energy Savings November 27, 2013 - 10:00am Addthis Giving energy-efficient gifts is an easy way to save money and energy year-round. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/nano Giving energy-efficient gifts is an easy way to save money and energy year-round. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/nano Christina Stowers Communications Specialist in the Weatherization and Intergovernmental

  16. Natural gas inventories to remain high at end of winter heating season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural gas inventories to remain high at end of winter heating season Despite the jump in natural gas use to meet heating demand during the recent winter storm that walloped the East Coast, total U.S. natural gas inventories remain near 3 trillion cubic feet. That's about 20 percent higher than at this time last year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said that by the end of the winter heating season at the close of March, it expects natural gas inventories

  17. Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products will Save You

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Money and Energy All Year! | Department of Energy an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products will Save You Money and Energy All Year! Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products will Save You Money and Energy All Year! December 12, 2012 - 11:40am Addthis When shopping for appliances or electronics for the holidays, look for the ENERGY STAR® and EnergyGuide labels. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 22090. When shopping for appliances or electronics for the

  18. The magic school bus TV project. Final technical performance report, July 1, 1992--July 31, 1995. Season III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    For Season III, our goal has been to produce 13 new episodes that can optimally benefit from our research and experience in developing this unique series. With a total of 39 episodes, MSB`s third season will move the production from a weekly to a daily series, airing Monday to Friday and Sundays on PBS. As we delivered the 13 Season II episodes to PBS during fall of 1995, we also completed 13 more scripts for Season III production. During the remaining portion of Season III, these 13 scripts are being animated and prepared for delivery to PBS for an October 7th, 1996 launch date. Based on staggered phases of production used since the project`s inception, the development of science topics and show scripting for Season IV occurs at the same time that Season III shows are in animation and post-production. Thus, topics for Season IV shows are being selected, and science research and scripting have also begun during this time period. Both the National Science Foundation and PBS have made a commitment to Season IV, and a proposal has been submitted to Microsoft for consideration.

  19. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2014-08-21

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadening of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L.; Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A.

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  1. Iron(II) catalysis in oxidation of hydrocarbons with ozone in acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2015-02-11

    Oxidation of alcohols, ethers, and sulfoxides by ozone in acetonitrile is catalyzed by submillimolar concentrations of Fe(CH3CN)62+. The catalyst provides both rate acceleration and greater selectivity toward the less oxidized products. For example, Fe(CH3CN)62+-catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol yields benzaldehyde almost exclusively (>95%), whereas the uncatalyzed reaction generates a 1:1 mixture of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Similarly, aliphatic alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes/ketones, cyclobutanol to cyclobutanone, and diethyl ether to a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetaldehyde. The kinetics of oxidation of alcohols and diethyl ether are first-order in [Fe(CH3CN)62+] and [O3] and independent of [substrate] at concentrations greater than ~5 mM. In this regime, the rate constant for all of the alcohols is approximately the same, kcat = (8 ± 1) × 104 M–1 s–1, and that for (C2H5)2O is (5 ± 0.5) × 104 M–1 s–1. In the absence of substrate, Fe(CH3CN)62+ reacts with O3 with kFe = (9.3 ± 0.3) × 104 M–1 s–1. The similarity between the rate constants kFe and kcat strongly argues for Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction as rate-determining in catalytic oxidation. The active oxidant produced in Fe(CH3CN)62+/O3 reaction is suggested to be an Fe(IV) species in analogy with a related intermediate in aqueous solutions. As a result, this assignment is supported by the similarity in kinetic isotope effects and relative reactivities of the two species toward substrates.

  2. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  3. A Reference-Dependent Regret Model for Deterministic Trade-off Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2005-02-25

    Today's typical multi-criteria decision analysis is based on classical expected utility theory that assumes a mythical ''Rational Individual'' immune to psychological influences such as anticipated regret. It is therefore in conflict with rational individuals who trade-off some benefits and forgo the alternative with the highest total classical utility for a more balanced alternative in order to reduce their levels of anticipated regret. This paper focuses on decision making under certainty. It presents a reference-dependent regret model (RDRM) in which the level of regret that an individual experiences depends on the absolute values rather than the differences of the utilities of the chosen and forgone alternatives. The RDRM best choice may differ from the conventional linear additive utility model, the analytic hierarchy process, and the regret theory of Bell and Loomes and Sugden. Examples are presented that indicate that RDRM is the better predictive descriptor for decision making under certainty. RDRM satisfies transitivity of the alternatives under pairwise comparisons and models rank reversal consistent with observed reasonable choices under dynamic or distinct situations. Like regret theory, the RDRM utilities of all the alternatives under consideration are interrelated. For complex trade-off studies regret is incorporated as an element of a cost-utility-regret analysis that characterizes each alternative in terms of its monetary cost, an aggregate performance utility, and a regret value. This provides decision makers adequate information to compare the alternatives and depending on their values they may trade-off some performance and/or cost to avoid high levels of regret. The result is a well-balanced alternative often preferred by reasonable decision makers to the optimal choice of classical multi-attribute utility analysis. The model can readily be extended to incorporate rejoicing to suit decision makers who seek it. The approach is illustrated using a

  4. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  5. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I foundmore » that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.« less

  6. Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Entering the 2000-2001 Heating Season

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This special report looks at the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network in 2000 and provides an assessment of the current levels of available capacity to transport supplies from production areas to markets throughout the United States during the upcoming heating season. It also examines how completion of currently planned expansion projects and proposed new pipelines would affect the network.

  7. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  8. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  9. Public summaries of feasibility studies conducted for the trinidad LNG project. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The study, conducted by The M. W. Kellog Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago. It shows the results of Project Definition Phase which was implemented as a follow-up to two previous feasibility studies which were conducted for a LNG plant in Trinidad. The objective of this report is to develop a project design basis and implementation plan plus a cost estimate. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Design Basis; (3) Seismic Hazard Assessment; (4) Geotechnical; and (5) Environmental Assessment.

  10. Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume I, the Final Report, is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Design Basis; (3.0) Analysis; (4.0) System Definition; (5.0) Implementation; (6.0) Schedule; (7.0) Economics; (8.0) Recommendations.

  11. The North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for the parties and world oil markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verleger, P.K. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been criticized because it failed to open Mexico`s hydrocarbon reserves to development by private parties. This failure is an economic tragedy. Consumer welfare will clearly be reduced as a consequence. However, the loss is confined to Mexico where economic growth rates may be reduced by as much as one half of one percent per year. Otherwise, the agreement will have insignificant impacts on the world oil market. Future levels of production and prices will be unaffected by the agreement. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. New hydrocracker complex: The master plan study report, volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-16

    The study, conducted by ABB Lummus Crest, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The purpose of the Master Plan is to aid in the implementation of the new hydrocracker complex at the Kirishi Refinery in Russia. The report contains financial information, including the project costs and the development of a financing plan. Also covered in the study is a marketing plan for both the domestic and export scenarios for products produced by the complex. This is Volume 2 of a three volume report and it is divided into the following sections: (2) Background and Introduction; (3) Project Profile; (4) Safety. Appendixes A and B follow.

  13. New hydrocracker complex: The master plan study report. Executive summary. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-16

    The study, conducted by ABB Lummus Crest, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The purpose of the Master Plan is to aid in the implementation of the new hydrocracker complex at the Kirishi Refinery in Russia. The report contains financial information, including the project costs and the development of a financing plan. Also covered in the study is a marketing plan for both the domestic and export scenarios for products produced by the complex. This is Volume 1 of a three volume report and it contains the Executive Summary.

  14. New hydrocracker complex: The master plan study report. Volume 3. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-16

    The study, conducted by ABB Lummus Crest, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The purpose of the Master Plan is to aid in the implementation of the new hydrocracker complex at the Kirishi Refinery in Kirishi, Russia. The report contains financial information, including the project costs and the development of a financing plan. Also covered in the study is a marketing plan for both the domestic and export scenarios for products produced by the complex. This is Volume 3 of a three volume report and is divided into the following sections: (5) Marketing Plan; (6) Project Costs and Economics; (7) Project Execution. Appendix C follows.

  15. Speakers: Stephen Harvey, EIA Dan M. Berkovitz, U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6: "Regulating Energy Commodities" Speakers: Stephen Harvey, EIA Dan M. Berkovitz, U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission Sean Cota, Cota & Cota R. Skip Horvath, Natural Gas Supply Association Deanna L. Newcomb, McDermott Will & Emery LLP [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Steve Harvey: Why don't we start kind taking our seats and give it just a...well, no looks like we're pretty

  16. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+? by ozone and vacuum annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Xiang; Bozovic, Ivan

    2014-11-21

    In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+? thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship between the effective doping and the vacuum annealing time has been studied. Short-time ozone annealing at 470 C oxidizes an underdoped film all the way to the overdoped regime. The subsequent vacuum annealing at 350 C to 380 C slowly brings the sample across the optimal doping point back to the undoped, non-superconducting state. Several ozone and vacuum annealing cycles have been done on the same sample and the effects were found to be repeatable and reversible Vacuum annealing of ozone-loaded LSCO films is a very controllable process, allowing one to tune the doping level of LSCO in small steps across the superconducting dome, which can be used for fundamental physics studies.

  17. Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.

    1991-12-01

    The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.

  18. Power and Performance Trade-offs for Space Time Adaptive Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Tumeo, Antonino; Tallent, Nathan R.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-07-27

    Computational efficiency – performance relative to power or energy – is one of the most important concerns when designing RADAR processing systems. This paper analyzes power and performance trade-offs for a typical Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) application. We study STAP implementations for CUDA and OpenMP on two computationally efficient architectures, Intel Haswell Core I7-4770TE and NVIDIA Kayla with a GK208 GPU. We analyze the power and performance of STAP’s computationally intensive kernels across the two hardware testbeds. We also show the impact and trade-offs of GPU optimization techniques. We show that data parallelism can be exploited for efficient implementation on the Haswell CPU architecture. The GPU architecture is able to process large size data sets without increase in power requirement. The use of shared memory has a significant impact on the power requirement for the GPU. A balance between the use of shared memory and main memory access leads to an improved performance in a typical STAP application.

  19. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Kinahan, Sean; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Santarpia, Joshua L.

    2015-10-14

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometermore » (UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor.« less

  20. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective.

  1. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Kinahan, Sean; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Santarpia, Joshua L.

    2015-10-14

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometer (UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor.

  2. Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia`s coal energy sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC`s fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts.

  3. Remarks by Deputy Secretary Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall on the Joint Trade Mission to China at the Microsoft Campus in Beijing on April 14, 2015-- As Prepared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deputy Secretary Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall's prepared remarks on the Joint Trade Mission to China at the Microsoft Campus in Beijing on April 14, 2015.

  4. Establishment of warm-season native grasses and forbs on drastically disturbed lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.

    1998-12-31

    Establishment of warm-season native grasses and forbs (WSNGs) has been viewed by landowners, agronomists, natural resource managers and reclamation specialists as being too expensive and difficult, especially for reclamation, which requires early stand closure and erosion control. Natural resource managers have learned a great deal about establishing WSNGs since the implementation of the 1985 Farm Bill`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Reclamation specialists must begin to use this information to improve reclamation success. Quality control of seed equipment and planting methods has been proven to be the crucial first step in successful establishment. Seedling germination, growth and development of WSNGs are different from that of introduced cool-season grasses and legumes. Specialized seed drills and spring planting periods are essential. Because shoot growth lags far behind root growth the first two seasons, WSNGs often are rejected for reclamation use. Usually, the rejection is based on preconceived notions that bare ground will erode and on reclamation specialists` desire for a closed, uniform, grassy lawn. WSNG`s extensive root systems inhibit rill and gully erosion by the fall of the first season. Planting a weakly competitive, short-lived nurse crop such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) at low rates with the WSNG mixture can reduce first-season sheet and rill erosion problems and give an appearance of a closed stand. Benefits of WSNGs in soil building and their acid-tolerance make them ideal species for reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. WSNGs and forbs enhance wildlife habitat and promote natural succession and the invasion of the reclamation site by other native species, particularly hardwood trees, increasing diversity and integrating the site into the local ecosystem. This is perhaps their most important attribute. Most alien grasses and legumes inhibit natural succession, slowing the development of a stable mine soil ecosystem. This

  5. Multi-model Estimates of Intercontinental Source-Receptor Relationships for Ozone Pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, A M; Dentener, F J; Wild, O; Cuvelier, C; Schultz, M G; Hess, P; Textor, C; Schulz, M; Doherty, R; Horowitz, L W; MacKenzie, I A; Sanderson, M G; Shindell, D T; Stevenson, D S; Szopa, S; Van Dingenen, R; Zeng, G; Atherton, C; Bergmann, D; Bey, I; Carmichael, G; Collins, W J; Duncan, B N; Faluvegi, G; Folberth, G; Gauss, M; Gong, S; Hauglustaine, D; Holloway, T; Isaksen, I A; Jacob, D J; Jonson, J E; Kaminski, J W; Keating, T J; Lupu, A; Marmer, E; Montanaro, V; Park, R; Pitari, G; Pringle, K J; Pyle, J A; Schroeder, S; Vivanco, M G; Wind, P; Wojcik, G; Wu, S; Zuber, A

    2008-10-16

    Understanding the surface O{sub 3} response over a 'receptor' region to emission changes over a foreign 'source' region is key to evaluating the potential gains from an international approach to abate ozone (O{sub 3}) pollution. We apply an ensemble of 21 global and hemispheric chemical transport models to estimate the spatial average surface O{sub 3} response over East Asia (EA), Europe (EU), North America (NA) and South Asia (SA) to 20% decreases in anthropogenic emissions of the O{sub 3} precursors, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO (individually and combined), from each of these regions. We find that the ensemble mean surface O{sub 3} concentrations in the base case (year 2001) simulation matches available observations throughout the year over EU but overestimates them by >10 ppb during summer and early fall over the eastern U.S. and Japan. The sum of the O{sub 3} responses to NO{sub x}, CO, and NMVOC decreases separately is approximately equal to that from a simultaneous reduction of all precursors. We define a continental-scale 'import sensitivity' as the ratio of the O{sub 3} response to the 20% reductions in foreign versus 'domestic' (i.e., over the source region itself) emissions. For example, the combined reduction of emissions from the 3 foreign regions produces an ensemble spatial mean decrease of 0.6 ppb over EU (0.4 ppb from NA), less than the 0.8 ppb from the reduction of EU emissions, leading to an import sensitivity ratio of 0.7. The ensemble mean surface O{sub 3} response to foreign emissions is largest in spring and late fall (0.7-0.9 ppb decrease in all regions from the combined precursor reductions in the 3 foreign regions), with import sensitivities ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 (responses to domestic emission reductions are 0.8-1.6 ppb). High O{sub 3} values are much more sensitive to domestic emissions than to foreign emissions, as indicated by lower import sensitivities of 0.2 to 0.3 during July in EA, EU, and NA when O{sub 3} levels are typically highest

  6. Table 10.8 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, Trade, and Prices, 1982-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Type, Trade, and Prices, 1982-2010 Year U.S. Companies Reporting Shipments Shipments Trade Prices 1 Crystalline Silicon Thin-Film Total 2 Imports Exports Cells Modules Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Cells and Modules Modules Only Number Peak Kilowatts 3 Dollars 4 per Peak Watt 3 1982 19 NA NA NA NA 6,897 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 18 NA NA NA NA 12,620 NA NA NA

  7. Hardening and Resiliency: U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hardening and Resiliency U.S. Energy Industry Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. Department of Energy August 2010 OE/ISER Final Report 8/16/10 i For Further Information This report was prepared by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability under the direction of Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary, and William Bryan, Deputy Assistant Secretary. Specific questions about

  8. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern formore » sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.« less

  9. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern for sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.

  10. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  11. Reverse trade mission on the drilling and completion of geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-09

    This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

  12. Petroleum-processing projects in Venezuela: Definitional-Mission report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grady, R.B.; Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-02-01

    The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) contracted a Definitional Mission to evaluate the prospects of TDP funding feasibility studies of three petroleum refining projects for Maraven, an integrated oil subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA). Maraven has requested TDP support for feasibility studies of the following projects: Zuata (Orinoco Belt) Extra Heavy Crude Upgrading, Boscan Heavy Crude Gasification Complex, and High Quality Lube Oil Base Manufacting Project. The ratio of U.S. export potential to the cost of the feasibility studies is very high (350:1 for the lube project to 1600:1 for the heavy crude projects). Even assuming relatively low probabilities of timely implementation, the projects meet TDP potential export benefit/cost requirements. Therefore, the study recommends that TDP support all three projects at a level of 50 percent of the estimated cost.

  13. Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume II contains the Appendix and is divided into the following sections: (1.0) PTT Data; (2.0) Design Criteria; (3.0) Khao Bo Ya Soils Data; (4.0) Khao Bo Ya Oceanographic Data; (5.0) Thailand Seismic Data; (6.0) Risk Assessment; (7.0) Equipment Lists; (8.0) Equipment Data Sheets; (9.0) Drawings; (10.0) Cost Data; (11.0) Calculations; (12.0) Terms of Reference.

  14. Movements of people, ideas, trade, and technology: Toward a peaceful coexistence of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Das, S.

    1998-03-01

    The potential exists for peaceful and constructive bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. Domestic developments in both countries, the changing global economic and political environment, and structural changes in regional trading patterns have created new opportunities for replacing traditional Indian and Pakistani perceptions of hostility and suspicion with mutual understanding and trust. This substitution process can be accelerated by increasing people-to-people contact, the free flow of information, and economic and technological cooperation between the two neighbors. Nonmilitary confidence building measures could create conditions for an incremental reduction on tensions between India and Pakistan. A popular consciousness for enhanced bilateral cooperation is growing. This process could be strengthened by identifying and exploring new areas of mutually beneficial cooperation that could pave the way for peace.

  15. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. This is Volume 2 of the study.

  16. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Final report. Volume 3. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. This is Volume 3 of the study.

  17. Dual fuel Russian urban transit buses: Economical reduced emissions. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This study, conducted by Caterpillar, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The scope of this project was to examine the financial and environmental aspects of introducing new alternative fuel engines to the buses of Russia`s public transportation system. The report consists of the following: (1) executive summary; (2) background/overview; (3) 3306 design, development, test; (4) electronic governed engines; (5) Moscow bus testing; (6) conclusions; (7) appendices. The appendices include: (1) Caterpillar emissions lab report; (2) dyno tests -- dual fuel data sheets; (3) 3360 horizontal engine lub tilt test; (4) 1000 hour endurance test -- engine operator sheets; (5) 1000 hour endurance test -- 250 hour check; (6) Caterpillar dual fuel electronic engines; (7) product description -- dual fuel electronic governed engines; (8) California Environmental Protection Agency -- certification of caterpillar electronic governed engines; (9) annual payback data.

  18. Mazheikiai refinery modernization study. Final report. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The study, conducted by Foster Wheeler Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Lithuania's Ministry of Energy. The Mazheikiai Oil Refinery is the only one in the Baltic Region and serves the needs of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Kaliningrad. Before Lithuania's independence in 1990, the refinery was assured of crude supplies from Russia. However, since then the need has arisen to secure alternate sources of crude oil and the ability to process them. The purpose of the report is to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy for process improvements, environmental control measures, physical rehabilitation and energy conservation plans for the Mazheikiai Oil Refinery. This is Volume 1 of the study.

  19. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  20. Temporal variability of the trade wind inversion: Measured with a boundary layer vertical profiler. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindinger, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.

  1. Study of the export potential of the Bolivian Power Sector. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was conducted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a review of export potential and to assess the ability of the Bolivian power sector to provide these exports economically and with financially viable projects. The study includes technical, economic, and financial analyses of export power stations alternatives. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) The Bolivian Power Sector; (3) Market Assessment for Brazil; (4) Market Assessment for Argentina; (5) Market Assessment for Export; (6) Market Assessment for Peru; (7) Project Selection; (8) Transmission Plans for Power Export; (9) Delivered Natural Gas Costs; (10) Power Plant Characteristics; (11) Economic Screening of Export Power Station Options; (12) Project Financing; (13) Conclusions and Recommendations.

  2. LNG Analysis Summary: A Different Way of Looking at the Future of World LNG Trade

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report examines alternative future scenarios for global LNG trade. The analysis calibrates initial liquefied natural gas (LNG) demand projections to external forecasts. Alternative LNG demand and supply scenarios are then generated to assess a range of potential outcomes. Scenarios include variations in Chinese, European and Japanese market conditions, changes in natural gas pipeline supplies and alternative LNG export conditions from the Middle East. Overall, the report foresees a LNG market where supply growth is likely to outpace demand and lead to downward pressure on LNG prices. The analysis projects North American LNG exports to the Atlantic Basin to fall in a range between 8.8 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) and 12.2 Bcfd in 2030.

  3. Parameter Analysis of the VPIN (Volume synchronized Probability of Informed Trading) Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jung Heon; Wu, Kesheng; Simon, Horst D.

    2014-03-01

    VPIN (Volume synchronized Probability of Informed trading) is a leading indicator of liquidity-induced volatility. It is best known for having produced a signal more than hours before the Flash Crash of 2010. On that day, the market saw the biggest one-day point decline in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which culminated to the market value of $1 trillion disappearing, but only to recover those losses twenty minutes later (Lauricella 2010). The computation of VPIN requires the user to set up a handful of free parameters. The values of these parameters significantly affect the effectiveness of VPIN as measured by the false positive rate (FPR). An earlier publication reported that a brute-force search of simple parameter combinations yielded a number of parameter combinations with FPR of 7%. This work is a systematic attempt to find an optimal parameter set using an optimization package, NOMAD (Nonlinear Optimization by Mesh Adaptive Direct Search) by Audet, le digabel, and tribes (2009) and le digabel (2011). We have implemented a number of techniques to reduce the computation time with NOMAD. Tests show that we can reduce the FPR to only 2%. To better understand the parameter choices, we have conducted a series of sensitivity analysis via uncertainty quantification on the parameter spaces using UQTK (Uncertainty Quantification Toolkit). Results have shown dominance of 2 parameters in the computation of FPR. Using the outputs from NOMAD optimization and sensitivity analysis, We recommend A range of values for each of the free parameters that perform well on a large set of futures trading records.

  4. On the impact of CO{sub 2} emission-trading on power generation emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2009-03-15

    In Europe one of the main policy instruments to meet the Kyoto reduction targets is CO{sub 2} emission-trading (CET), which was implemented as of January 2005. In this system, companies active in specific sectors must be in the possession of CO{sub 2} emission rights to an amount equal to their CO{sub 2} emission. In Europe, electricity generation accounts for one-third of CO{sub 2} emissions. Since the power generation sector has been liberalized, reregulated and privatized in the last decade, around Europe autonomous companies determine the sectors' CO{sub 2} emission. Short-term they adjust their operation, long-term they decide on (dis) investment in power generation facilities and technology selection. An agent-based model is presented to elucidate the effect of CET on the decisions of power companies in an oligopolistic market. Simulations over an extensive scenario-space show that there CET does have an impact. A long-term portfolio shift towards less-CO{sub 2} intensive power generation is observed. However, the effect of CET is relatively small and materializes late. The absolute emissions from power generation rise under most scenarios. This corresponds to the dominant character of current capacity expansion planned in the Netherlands (50%) and in Germany (68%), where companies have announced many new coal based power plants. Coal is the most CO{sub 2} intensive option available and it seems surprising that even after the introduction of CET these capacity expansion plans indicate a preference for coal. Apparently in power generation the economic effect of CO{sub 2} emission-trading is not sufficient to outweigh the economic incentives to choose for coal.

  5. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  6. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-08-15

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D{sub max} were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm ({+-}0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D{sub max} was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams.

  7. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliaga, Cesar; Park, Jeong Y.; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Hyun Sook; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-12-10

    We report the structure of the organic capping layers of platinum colloid nanoparticles and their removal by UV-ozone exposure. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) studies identify the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and tetradecyl tributylammonium bromide (TTAB)-capped platinum nanoparticles. We found that the UV-ozone treatment technique effectively removes the capping layer on the basis of several analytical measurements including SFGVS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The overall shape of the nanoparticles was preserved after the removal of capping layers, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SFGVS of ethylene hydrogenation on the clean platinum nanoparticles demonstrates the existence of ethylidyne and di-{sigma}-bonded species, indicating the similarity between single-crystal and nanoparticle systems.

  8. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  9. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barden, Holly E.; Behnsen, Julia; Bergmann, Uwe; Leng, Melanie J.; Manning, Phillip L.; Withers, Philip J.; Wogelius, Roy A.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Silva, Lucas C. R.

    2015-09-14

    Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We presentmore » new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity) during pink band precipitation (δ18O). Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a reliable classification method for

  10. Diagnosis of extratropical variability in seasonal integrations of the ECMWF model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferranti, L.; Molteni, F.; Brankovic, C.; Palmer, T.N. )

    1994-06-01

    Properties of the general circulation simulated by the ECMWF model are discussed using a set of seasonal integrations at T63 resolution. For each season, over the period of 5 years, 1986-1990, three integrations initiated on consecutive days were run with prescribed observed sea surface temperature (SST). This paper presents a series of diagnostics of extratropical variability in the model, with particular emphasis on the northern winter. Time-filtered maps of variability indicate that in this season there is insufficient storm track activity penetrating into the Eurasian continent. Related to this the maximum of lower-frequency variability for northern spring are more realistic. Blocking is defined objectively in terms of the geostrophic wind at 500 mb. Consistent with the low-frequency transience, in the Euro-Atlantic sector the position of maximum blocking in the model is displaced eastward. The composite structure of blocks over the Pacific is realistic, though their frequency is severely underestimated at all times of year. Shortcomings in the simulated wintertime general circulation were also revealed by studying the projection of 5-day mean fields onto empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the observed flow. The largest differences were apparent for statistics of EOFs of the zonal mean flow. Analysis of weather regime activity, defined from the EOFs, suggested that regimes with positive PNA index were overpopulated, while the negative PNA regimes were underpopulated. A further comparison between observed and modeled low-frequency variance revealed that underestimation of low-frequency variability occurs along the same axes that explain most of the spatial structure of the error in the mean field, suggesting a common dynamical origin for these two aspects of the systematic error. 17 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barden, Holly E.; Behnsen, Julia; Bergmann, Uwe; Leng, Melanie J.; Manning, Phillip L.; Withers, Philip J.; Wogelius, Roy A.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Silva, Lucas C. R.

    2015-09-14

    Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We present new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity) during pink band precipitation (δ18O). Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a

  12. 2010 Dry and 2009 - 2010 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexter, W

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS 1996 and BO Conservation

  13. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product

  14. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO,more » and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the NOx limited regime is assessed except for the morning hours (8 a.m. to 12 p.m. local standard time), but the degree of sensitivity

  15. Paraguay industrial and municipal waste-water project definitional mission. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meenahan, J.G.

    1992-04-20

    The Ministry of Agriculture of Paraguay and the Municipality of Asuncion (MA) requested the assistance of the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) in the form of a grant to support an Engineering/Economic Feasibility Study. The study would address the requirements for the collection and treatment of wastewaters generated from municipal and industrial sources within the greater Asuncion area. The feasibility study would be contracted to a U.S. firm. The Definitional Mission (DM) recommends that TDP finance the requested Feasibility Study (FS) for the implementation of an adequate wastewater collection and treatment system for Paraguay. The recommended TDP investment is justifiable because this is a project that has strong popular and government support. Treating wastewaters will benefit the public health and environment of all the people within a vast geographical region and will promote economic growth. This recommendation is consistent and supportive of the U.S. foreign policy as well as providing significant opportunities for the export of U.S. goods and services.

  16. TRADE instructional materials for SARA/OSHA training. Volume 2, Managers and supervisors training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This document provides instructional materials for an eight-hour training course for managers and supervisors of hazardous waste sites. It is one of three volumes of course materials TRADE is preparing to help DOE contractor training staff comply with 29 CFR 1910.120, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) rule that implements Title I of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. OSHA`s final rule for hazardous waste operators was published in the Federal Register of March 6, 1989 (54 FR 9294). Combined with the materials in Volumes I and III and with appropriate site-specific information, these materials will help DOE contractors to meet the requirements of 1910.120 (e) that ``on-site management and supervisors directly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged in, hazardous waste operations`` receive the same initial training as that of the employees they supervise and at least eight additional hours of specialized training in managing hazardous waste operations.

  17. Computing contingency statistics in parallel : design trade-offs and limiting cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics (which we discussed in [1]) where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel. We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  18. Computing contingency statistics in parallel : design trade-offs and limiting cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-03-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and X{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics (which we discussed in [1]) where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  19. Power/Performance Trade-offs of Small Batched LU Based Solvers on GPUs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Oreste; Fatica, Massimiliano; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

    2013-08-26

    In this paper we propose and analyze a set of batched linear solvers for small matrices on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), evaluating the various alternatives depending on the size of the systems to solve. We discuss three different solutions that operate with different level of parallelization and GPU features. The first, exploiting the CUBLAS library, manages matrices of size up to 32x32 and employs Warp level (one matrix, one Warp) parallelism and shared memory. The second works at Thread-block level parallelism (one matrix, one Thread-block), still exploiting shared memory but managing matrices up to 76x76. The third is Thread level parallel (one matrix, one thread) and can reach sizes up to 128x128, but it does not exploit shared memory and only relies on the high memory bandwidth of the GPU. The first and second solution only support partial pivoting, the third one easily supports partial and full pivoting, making it attractive to problems that require greater numerical stability. We analyze the trade-offs in terms of performance and power consumption as function of the size of the linear systems that are simultaneously solved. We execute the three implementations on a Tesla M2090 (Fermi) and on a Tesla K20 (Kepler).

  20. Definitional mission report: NAPCOR thermal-power-conversion project, Philippines. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The National Power Corporation (NAPCOR) of Philippines has requested the Trade and Development Program (TDP) to fund a study to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of converting its existing oil and coal fired power plants to natural gas. The decision to undertake the study resulted from preliminary information on a large gas find off the coast of Palawan island. However, a second exploration well has come up dry. Now, the conversion of the existing power plants to natural gas seems very questionable. Even if the proven gas reserves prove to be commercially viable, the gas will not be available until 1998 or later for utilization. At that time several of NAPCOR's plants would have aged further, the political and economic situation in Philippines could have altered significantly, possibly improved, private power companies might be able to use the gas more efficiently by building state-of-the-art combined cycle power plants which will make more economic sense than converting existing old boilers to natural gas. In addition, most of the existing power equipment was manufactured by Japanese and/or European firms. It makes sense for NAPCOR to solicit services from these firms if it decides to go ahead with the implementation of the power plant conversion project. The potential for any follow on work for U.S. businesses is minimal to zero in the thermal conversion project. Therefore, at this time, TDP funding for the feasibility would be premature and not recommended.