National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ozone particulate matter

  1. Modeling regional/urban ozone and particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, J.S.; Streets, D.G.; Jang, C.J.; Hao, J.; He, K.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines Beijing air quality in the winter and summer of 2001 using an integrated air quality modeling system (Fifth Generation Mesoscale Meteorological Model (MM5)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)) in nested mode. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) emission inventory is used in the 36- (East Asia), 12- (East China), and 4-km (greater Beijing area) domains. Furthermore, we develop a local Beijing emission inventory that is used in the 4-km domain. We also construct a corroborated mapping of chemical species between the TRACE-P inventory and the Carbon Bond IV (CB-IV) chemical mechanism before the integrated modeling system is applied to study ozone (O{sub 3}) and particulate matter (PM) in Beijing. Meteorological data for the integrated modeling runs are extracted from MM5. Model results show O{sub 3} hourly concentrations in the range of 80-159 parts per billion (ppb) during summer in the urban areas and up to 189 ppb downwind of the city. High fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations (monthly average of 75 {mu}g.m{sup -3} in summer and 150 {mu}g.m{sup -3} in winter) are simulated over the metropolitan and down-wind areas with significant secondary constituents. Major sources of particulates were biomass burning, coal combustion and industry. A comparison against available O{sub 3} and PM measurement data in Beijing is described. We recommend refinements to the developed local Beijing emission inventory to improve the simulation of Beijing's air quality. The 4-km modeling configuration is also recommended for the development of air pollution control strategies. 31 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particulate Matter Aerosols The study of atmospheric aerosols is important because of its adverse effects on health, air quality, visibility, cultural heritage, and Earth's radiation balance. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of particulate matter (PM) aerosols. Carbon is one of the main constituents of atmospheric aerosols. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement performed on aerosol particulate matter

  3. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  4. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 1999 Northeast Corridor Ozone & Particulate Study 1999.07.23 - 1999.08.11 Lead...

  6. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  7. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. PDF icon p-10gibbs.pdf More ...

  8. Particulate matter pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega R, E.; Mora P, V.; Mugica A, V.

    1998-12-31

    The levels of particulate matter are of concern since they may induce severe effects on public health and is the second atmospheric pollution problem in Mexico City. Another noticeable effect in large cities attributable to particulate matter, is the deterioration of visibility. In this paper the analysis of the data of TSP and PM10 during 1988 to 1996 is presented. The seasonal variation of particulate matter, the typical ratios of PM10/TSP and relationships of the two variables were determined. It was found that PM10 concentrations show an important tendency to decrease during this period, due to some control strategies, although this is not the case for TSP. The monthly trend exhibits a clear relationship with the dry (October through April) and wet (May through September) seasons. The particulate matter concentrations are lower during the wet season. The hourly behavior shows that the highest concentrations are correlated with the traffic rush hours. The most TSP polluted area was the northeast, meanwhile the southeast is the most PM10 polluted area. There is a clear evidence of the particulate matter transportation from these areas to other sites of the City.

  9. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Findings of important implications for aftertreatment devices such as EGR coolers and diesel particulate filters, of physico-chemical changes observed in particulate matter during ...

  10. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  11. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace056stewart2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter ...

  12. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric decision tree to measure transient PM could correctly identify 94% of high ...

  13. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer.

  14. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  15. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines 2009 DOE ...

  16. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-24storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate ...

  17. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel Concentrations ...

  18. Optical Backscatter Probe for Sensing Particulate Matter - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Optical Backscatter Probe for Sensing Particulate Matter Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTo provide emissions information for automotive engines, ORNL researchers developed a technology that enables very rapid measurement of particulate matter in gas emissions. This fiber optic-based probe can be

  19. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  20. Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Ament, Frank

    2012-02-21

    A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

  1. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace056_stewart_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

  2. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  3. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  4. Development and Demonstration of an Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Both Engine-Out and Post-DPF Exhaust Monitoring | Department of Energy Demanding emission legislation has created a need for low-cost, sensitive, accurate, and robust PM sensors for OBD PDF icon deer09_steppan.pdf More Documents & Publications On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines Exhaust Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel

  5. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  6. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  7. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  8. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  9. Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

  10. How new ozone particulate matter rules will affect fuel choices?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, L.

    1998-07-01

    EPA, OTC and OTAG are all coming out with new air emissions rules for electric utility plants. The economic impact of these new rules is certain to be far-reaching and influence fuel choices, capital investments and electric plant dispatch decisions. Recent studies by Hill and Associates of these emerging rules and their economic impacts under deregulation indicate significant shifting of fuel choices and strong inter-regional wheeling of electricity. The author discusses the following: Which NERC regions fare best and worst under the combination of deregulation and the environmental rules? Whether just switching to cleaner coal will be enough for most coal plants? How coal usage is stimulated by electric utility deregulations? How electric utility mergers affect the economics of environmental compliance? Projections of future SO{sub 2} allowance prices. Why NO{sub x} allowance will likely follow a different price path then SO{sub 2} allowances? How coal prices are likely to respond to increased fuel switching? Which electric transmission bottlenecks are critical to environmental and economic dispatch?

  11. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  12. EPA programs to reduce NO{sub x} and particulate matter emissions from electric utility sources and the possible impact of deregulation on those EPA programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, A.B.

    1997-12-31

    At the same time that the electric utility industry is in the midst of deregulation, it could be hit with numerous additional regulatory burdens. For example, EPA now plans to decide by July 1997 whether to make major changes to the current ozone and particulate matter ambient standards -- changes which could force utilities to reduce significantly both their nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Even if EPA does not adopt new ambient standards, though, many electric utilities still face the prospect of making additional NO{sub x} reductions if they are found to be contributing to ozone levels in areas that are not meeting the current ozone ambient standards. Several multi-state groups -- notably the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) -- are evaluating programs that could lead to calls for additional NO{sub x} reductions from power plants in ozone nonattainment areas and from plants located outside the nonattainment areas but found to be contributing to ozone levels in those areas. And these multi-state groups are motivated not only by pollution levels they see now, but also by what they fear will be increased pollution levels as a result of deregulation. This paper examines the status of the major rulemakings now underway that could force substantial additional reductions in electric utility NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. It also discusses the impacts that deregulation could have in those rulemakings.

  13. Development and Demonstration of an Electronic Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment and Low Pressure Loop EGR Applied to an Off-Highway Engine Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Filter Loading and ...

  14. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  15. Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy presentation details how a possibly catalyzed active diesel particulate filter can be used to control off-road particulate matter. PDF icon deer08_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCR/DPF Applications/Data-Logger for Vehicle Data Acquisition Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology

  16. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  17. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace056_stewart_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

  18. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  19. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic collection efficiency using an increased temperature gradient, and shielding the resonator electronics from deposition of ultrafine particles.

  20. Observations and Modeling of GoAmazon Particulate Matter and Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON): Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary RHM Godoi RAF Souza CGG Barbosa SL Paralovo P Kurzlop IPS Carneiro March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  1. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  2. Observations and Modeling of GoAmazon Particulate Matter and Gases

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ENERGY Office of Science DOE/SC-ARM-15-059 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON): Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary RHM Godoi CGG Barbosa P Kurzlop RAF Souza SL Paralovo IPS Carneiro March 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  3. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  4. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The PM characterization at various engine speeds and loads will help enable optimized GPF design and control to achieve more fuel efficient lean GDI vehicles with low PM emissions.

  5. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  6. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  7. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between the rate of production of SOA and “Odd Oxygen” (O3 + NO3) and primary organic PM with CO in the urban plume; a more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between ozone formation and ozone precursors: while ozone production in the urban area is VOC-limited, the response is mostly NOx-limited in the surrounding mountain. Comparison of the findings from 2003 and 2006 also confirm that the VOC levels have decreased during the three-year period, while NOx levels remain the same. The results from the 2002/2003 and 2006 have been presented at international conferences and communicated to Mexican government officials. In addition, a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral associates were involved in the project. All data sets and publications are available to the scientific community.

  8. Cytotoxicity of settling particulate matter and sediments of the Neckar River (Germany) during a winter flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollert, H.; Duerr, M.; Erdinger, L.; Braunbeck, T.

    2000-03-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of settling particulate matter (SPM) carried by the Neckar River, a well-studied model for a lock-regulated river in central Europe, during a flood, acute cytotoxicity was investigated using the fibroblast-like fish cell line RTG-2 with the neutral red retention, the succinic acid dehydrogenase (MTT), and the lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) release assays as well as microscopic inspection as endpoints. Genotoxicity of water, pore water, sediments, and SPM were assessed using the Ames test. Different extraction methods (Soxhlet extraction with solvents of variable polarity as well as a fluid/fluid extraction according to pH) in addition to a supplementation of biotests with 59 fractions from the liver of {beta}-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital-induced rats allowed a further characterization of the biological damage. Both sediments and SPM extracts caused cytotoxic effects in RTG-2 cells. Cytotoxicity was found to increase significantly with polarity of extracting solvents. Following extraction according to pH, cytotoxicity could be attributed mainly to neutral substances, whereas the slightly acid and basic fractions already showed little or no cytotoxicity. Samples taken during the period of flood rise showed the highest cytotoxic activities. Cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of S9 preparations. In contrast, no genotoxic activity was found in native surface waters, pore waters, and SPM.

  9. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  10. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the dominant phase present for most metals (V, Ni, Zn, etc.). This allowed conclusive identification in the leaching residue of important secondary sulfide and oxide phases, including Ni sulfide, a toxic and carcinogenic phase observed in the leached PM{sub 2.5+} samples. Other significant secondary phases identified included V{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V sulfide, and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  11. Cashew nut roasting: Chemical characterization of particulate matter and genotocixity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira Galvo, Marcos Felipe de; Melo Cabral, Thiago de; Andr, Paulo Afonso de; Ftima Andrade, Maria de; Miranda, Regina Maura de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilrio Nascimento; Castro Vasconcellos, Prola de; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2014-05-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) is potentially harmful to health and related to genotoxic events, an increase in the number of hospitalizations and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study conducted the first characterization of elemental composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis of PM, as well as the biomonitoring of genotoxic activity associated to artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic and social activity worldwide. Methods: The levels of PM{sub 2.5} and black carbon were also measured by gravimetric analysis and light reflectance. The elemental composition was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and PAH analysis was carried out by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Genotoxic activity was measured by the Tradescantia pallida micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN). Other biomarkers of DNA damage, such as nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear fragments, were also quantified. Results: The mean amount of PM{sub 2.5} accumulated in the filters (January 2124.2 g/m{sup 3}; May 1022.2 g/m{sup 3}; September 1291.9 g/m{sup 3}), black carbon (January 363.6 g/m{sup 3}; May 70 g/m{sup 3}; September 69.4 g/m{sup 3}) and concentrations of Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Pb were significantly higher than the non-exposed area. Biomass burning tracers K, Cl, and S were the major inorganic compounds found. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, phenanthrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the most abundant PAHs. Mean benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power values showed a significant cancer risk. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed an increase in micronucleus frequency, 27 times higher than the negative control and significantly higher in all the months analyzed, possibly related to the mutagenic PAHs found. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that artisanal cashew nut roasting is a serious occupational problem, with harmful effects on workers' health. Those involved in this activity are exposed to higher PM{sub 2.5} concentrations and to 12 PAHs considered potentially mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The Trad-MCN with T. pallida was sensitive and efficient in evaluating the genotoxicity of the components and other nuclear alterations may be used as effective biomarkers of DNA damage. - Highlights: The cashew nut roasting generated high concentrations of particulate matter fine. The biomass burning tracers K, Cl, S were the major inorganic compounds found. It was identified 12 PAHs considered to be potentially mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The genotoxic potential of this activity was confirmed by the Trad MCN assay. This activity is a serious occupational problem with harmful effects to health workers.

  12. Exposure assessment approaches to evaluate respiratory health effects of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Several approaches can be taken to estimate or classify total personal exposures to air pollutants. While personal exposure monitoring (PEM) provides the most direct measurements, it is usually not practical for extended time periods or large populations. This paper describes the use of indirect approaches to estimate total personal exposure for NO2 and particulate matter (PM), summarizes the distributions of these estimates, and compares the effectiveness of these estimates with microenvironmental concentrations for evaluating effects on respiratory function and symptoms. Pollutant concentrations were measured at several indoor and outdoor locations for over 400 households participating in an epidemiological study in Tucson, Arizona. Central site monitoring data were significantly correlated with samples collected directly outside homes, but the former usually had higher pollutant concentrations. Integrated indices of daily total personal exposure were calculated using micro-environmental (ME) measurements or estimates and time-budget diary information. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were measured for up to four times a day during two-week study periods. In thirty children (ages 6-15 years) with current diagnosed asthma, a significant reduction in PEFR was associated with NO2 levels measured outside of their homes. Additional decrements of morning PEFR were found in those children sleeping in bedrooms with higher measured NO2 levels. Morning and noon PEFR decrements were also linked to higher morning NO2 levels that were measured at central monitoring stations. Effects of PM were also found, but were limited to morning PEFR. No effects were found in non-asthmatic children. The relationship of PEFR to the calculated indices of daily average total exposure were weaker than to the microenvironment concentrations.

  13. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  14. Source apportionment of particulate matter in the US and associations with lung inflammatory markers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duvall, R.M.; Norris, G.A.; Dailey, L.A.; Burke, J.M.; McGee, J.K.; Gilmour, M.I.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B.

    2008-07-01

    Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from six U.S. cities and chemically analyzed as part of the Multiple Air Pollutant Study. Particles were administered to cultured lung cells and the production of three different proinflammatory markers was measured to explore the association between the health effect markers and PM. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse PM samples were collected between December 2003 and May 2004 over a 4-wk period in each city. Filters were pooled for each city and the PM samples were extracted then analyzed for trace metals, ions, and elemental carbon. Particle extracts were applied to cultured human primary airway epithelial cells, and the secreted levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), heme oxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were measured 1 and 24 h following exposure. Fine PM sources were quantified by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The relationship between toxicological measures, PM sources, and individual species were evaluated using linear regression. Ultrafine and fine PM mass were associated with increases in IL-8 (r{sup 2} = .80 for ultrafine and r{sup 2} = .52 for fine). Sources of fine PM and their relative contributions varied across the sampling sites and a strong linear association was observed between IL-8 and secondary sulfate from coal combustion (r{sup 2} = .79). Ultrafine vanadium, lead, copper, and sulfate were also associated with increases in IL-8. Increases in inflammatory markers were not observed for coarse PM mass and source markers. These findings suggest that certain PM size fractions and sources are associated with markers of lung injury or inflammation.

  15. Cell-specific oxidative stress and cytotoxicity after wildfire coarse particulate matter instillation into mouse lung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Keisha M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5}) from wildfire smoke is more toxic to lung macrophages on an equal dose (by mass) basis than coarse PM isolated from normal ambient air, as evidenced by decreased numbers of macrophages in lung lavage fluid 6 and 24 hours after PM instillation into mouse lungs in vivo and by cytotoxicity to a macrophage cell line observed directly in vitro. We hypothesized that pulmonary macrophages from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM would undergo more cytotoxicity than macrophages from controls, and that there would be an increase in oxidative stress in their lungs. Cytotoxicity was quantified as decreased viable macrophages and increased percentages of dead macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM. At 1 hour after PM instillation, we observed both decreased numbers of viable macrophages and increased dead macrophage percentages as compared to controls. An increase in free isoprostanes, an indicator of oxidative stress, from control values of 28.1 3.2 pg/mL to 83.9 12.2 pg/mL was observed a half-hour after PM instillation. By 1 hour after PM instillation, isoprostane values had returned to 30.4 7.6 pg/mL, not significantly different from control concentrations. Lung sections from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM showed rapid Clara cell responses, with decreased intracellular staining for the Clara cell secretory protein CCSP 1 hour after wildfire PM instillation. In conclusion, very rapid cytotoxicity occurs in pulmonary macrophages and oxidative stress responses are seen 0.51 hour after wildfire coarse PM instillation. These results define early cellular and biochemical events occurring in vivo and support the hypothesis that oxidative stress-mediated macrophage toxicity plays a key role in the initial response of the mouse lung to wildfire PM exposure. -- Highlights: ? We studied very early events (0.51 hour) after giving wildfire PM{sub 10-2.5} to mice. ? Wildfire PM{sub 10-2.5} rapidly kills lung macrophages in mice. ? Wildfire PM{sub 10-2.5} rapidly elicits oxidative stress in mice. ? Wildfire PM{sub 10-2.5} rapidly elicits Clara cell CCSP secretion in mice. ? Wildfire PM{sub 10-2.5} rapidly elicits TNF-? secretion into BALF in mice.

  16. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size distribution remained approximately the same (50 nm) but the particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content in the fuel. In addition, increasing ethanol content significantly reduced the number concentration of 50 and 100 nm particles during gradual and WOT accelerations.

  17. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  18. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-02-24

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

  19. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  20. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement/lime, iron/steel, and gasoline/diesel factors, while associations with the sludge incineration factor and components were less consistent. In winter, increases in HR were associated with a refinery factor and its components. CAPs-associated HR decreases in winter were linked to sludge incineration, cement/lime, and coal/secondary factors and the majority of their associated components. Specific relationships for increased rMSSD in winter were difficult to determine due to lack of consistency between factors and associated constituents. In Steubenville, we observed significant changes in HR (both increases and decreases), SDNN, and rMSSD in the summer, but not in the winter. We examined associations between individual source factors/PM components and HRV metrics segregated by predominant wind direction (NE or SW). Changes in HR (both increases and decreases) were linked with metal processing, waste incineration, and iron/steel factors along with most of their associated elemental constituents. Reductions in SDNN were associated with metal processing, waste incineration, and mobile source factors and the majority of elements loading onto these factors. There were no consistent associations between changes in rMSSD and source factors/components. Despite the large number of coal-fired power plants in the region, and therefore the large contribution of secondary sulfate to overall PM mass, we did not observe any associations with the coal/secondary factor or with the majority of its associated components. There were several inconsistencies in our results which make definitive conclusions difficult. For example, we observed opposing signs of effect estimates with some components depending on season, and with others depending on wind direction. In addition, our extensive dataset clearly would be subject to issues of multiple comparisons, and the 'true' significant results are unknown. Overall, however, our results suggest that acute changes in cardiac function were most strongly associated with local industrial sources. Results for coal-fired power plant-derived PM were

  1. Mechanisms of particulate matter formation in spark-ignition engines. 2: Effect of fuel, oil, and catalyst parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayes, D.; Hochgreb, S.

    1999-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling effort was performed in order to understand how particulate matter (PM) is formed in spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. Fuel type and fuel/air ratio strongly affect particle concentrations. PM emissions vary by up to 6 orders of magnitude between fuels at the same fuel/air ratio. Minimum PM concentrations are emitted at a global fuel/air ratio within 10% of stoichiometric, with the exact value depending on the particular fuel. Concentrations can increase by more than 3 orders of magnitude when the fuel/air ratio is either increased or decreased 30% from stoichiometric. Particles derived from oil consumption were found to be between 0 and 40% of the PM concentration for the oils used in the present experiments. Differences in PM emissions with and without the catalytic converter are not statistically significant. Particulate number and mass concentrations plus particle sizes are addressed in this paper, as is the correlation between PM and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions.

  2. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  3. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate ...

  4. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  6. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  7. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  8. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  9. Advances in exposure and toxicity assessment of particulate matter: An overview of presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunasekar, Palur G.; Stanek, Lindsay W.

    2011-07-15

    The 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference (TRAC) session on 'Advances in Exposure and Toxicity Assessment of Particulate Matter' was held in April 2009 in West Chester, OH. The goal of this session was to bring together toxicology, geology and risk assessment experts from the Department of Defense and academia to examine issues in exposure assessment and report on recent epidemiological findings of health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. Important aspects of PM exposure research are to detect and monitor low levels of PM with various chemical compositions and to assess the health risks associated with these exposures. As part of the overall theme, some presenters discussed collection methods for sand and dust from Iraqi and Afghanistan regions, health issues among deployed personnel, and future directions for risk assessment research among these populations. The remaining speakers focused on the toxicity of ultrafine PM and the characterization of aerosols generated during ballistic impacts of tungsten heavy alloys.

  10. The use of CETANER{trademark} for the reduction of particulate matter emissions in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, H.S.; Chiodo, J.A.; Boehman, A.L.; Tijim, P.J.A.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    In this experimental study, the effects of the addition of CETANER{trademark} to a premium diesel fuel at various blend levels (5%, 10% and 15% by weight) were evaluated using a 1.9 liter turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. CETANER{trademark}, a product developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., can be manufactured from coal-derived syngas through a two-stage process: (i) Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether synthesis (LPDME); and (ii) oxidative coupling of DiMethyl Ether (DME) to form long chain linear ethers. When compared to other oxygenated components currently being researched, CETANER has several key advantages: (1) it is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock; (2) it has a cetane number greater than 100; and (3) it will have a cost comparable to diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions and exhaust gas composition (NOx and CO), were determined at six steady-state engine operating conditions. In addition, fuel properties (viscosity, cloud point, pour point, density, flash point and calorific value) of the various blends were also determined. Engine test results indicate that CETANER is effective in reducing particulate matter emissions at all blend levels tested, without any modifications to engine operating parameters. At the highest blend level (15% CETANER by weight), particulate matter emissions were reduced by greater than 20% when compared to premium diesel fuel.

  11. Chemical changes to nonagrregtaed particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to woodland transition ina subtropical savanna.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.; Jastrow, J. D.; Gamblin, D. E.; Biosciences Division; Purdue Univ.; Texas A&M

    2008-07-19

    Encroachment of thorn woodlands into grasslands of southern Texas has resulted in greater aboveground and belowground biomass and greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Our previous studies showed that a large percentage of the SOC accrued under invading woody clusters was not stabilized within protective soil aggregates or on mineral-surfaces. Here we evaluated lignin and cutin- and suberin-derived substituted fatty acid (SFA) chemistry to determine if the accrual of nonaggregated particulate organic matter (POM) in woodlands was promoted by inherently greater recalcitrance of tissues from woody versus grass species, and if there was selective input of aboveground versus belowground plant carbon to POM. Woody clusters exhibited reduced concentrations of cutin-derived SFA and cinnamyl phenols within surface litter compared to fresh aboveground plant material. However, root litter exhibited relatively minor changes in biopolymer chemistry compared to fresh root tissue, suggesting it was either more stable or was refreshed at a greater rate. Between 14 and 105 years of woody plant encroachment, SFA in free POM fractions appeared to be consistently derived from root material while SFA within intraaggregate POM were increasingly derived from cutin sources. In addition, the shift from herbaceous to woody input was accompanied by enrichment in the amount of cutin and suberin-derived aliphatics with respect to lignin in both root and surface litter as well as nonaggregated POM. Woody plant encroachment at this site results in the rapid accrual of POM pools that are biochemically recalcitrant, providing a mechanism by which soil organic carbon can accumulate in this sandy soil system. Our results also lend further credence to the hypothesis that aliphatic biopolymers, particularly root-derived suberin, are important components of long-term soil organic carbon stabilization.

  12. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  13. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ? Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ? Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ? Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ? Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ? Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  14. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serkiz, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  15. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD reduced this by 7% while the EvCh reduced it by 13%. For other operating conditions, PM treated for volatile removal actually exhibited an increase in organic fraction on the order of 5%. This addition appears to be sensitive to the gaseous hydrocarbon concentrations in the exhaust although a precise correlation has not yet been derived. It has been concluded that VOCs are tightly bound to the PM carbon core and thus are not effectively removed by either treatment method.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  19. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This is accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results were compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratorys monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions provides critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

  20. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter during a 2001 summer intensive study at the CMU Supersite and NETL Pittsburgh Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; Nolan F. Mangelson; Richard R. Anderson

    2007-10-15

    Gaseous and particulate pollutant concentrations associated with five samples per day collected during a July 2001 summer intensive study at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Supersite were used to apportion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) into primary and secondary contributions using PMF2. Input to the PMF2 analysis included the concentrations of PM2.5 nonvolatile and semivolatile organic material, elemental carbon (EC), ammonium sulfate, trace element components, gas-phase organic material, and NOx, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} concentrations. A total of 10 factors were identified. These factors are associated with emissions from various sources and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. In addition, four secondary sources were identified, three of which were associated with secondary products of local emissions and were dominated by organic material and one of which was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the CMU site from the west and southwest. The three largest contributors to PM2.5 were secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) from the west and southwest from sources including coal-fired power plants, coke processing plants and steel mills, (49%), secondary material formed during midday photochemical processes (24%), and gasoline combustion emissions (11%). The other seven sources accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5. Results obtained at the CMU site were comparable to results previously reported at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), located approximately 18 km south of downtown Pittsburgh. The major contributor at both sites was material transported from the west and southwest. Some difference in nearby sources could be attributed to meteorology as evaluated by HYSPLIT model back-trajectory calculations. 27 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Aerosol Methods | Department of Energy Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends. PDF icon deer12_zelenyuk.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

  3. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. w. Hahn; K. r. Hencken; H. A. Johnsen; J. R. Ross; P. M. Walsh

    1998-12-10

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 {micro}m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine for NO{sub x} control. Iron-containing particles are expected to be scale from ferrous metals. A commercial photoelectric aerosol sensor was used to measure PAH adsorbed on particles in the exhaust from the steam generator and the rich-burn engine. The conversion of the instrument readings to PAH concentrations is dependent upon the specific distribution of PAH species present. Using the typical calibration factor recommended by the instrument manufacturer, the estimated average concentration of particle-bound PAH was below the instrument detection limit (3--10 ng/m{sup 3}) in the stack gas from the steam generator, and was estimated to be 0.045--0.15 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the exhaust from the rich-burn engine. Particle mass concentrations estimated from number concentrations determined using the particle counting and sizing instrument were only small fractions of the concentrations measured using Method 5. This is thought to be due primarily to the limited range over which size was quantified (0.1 to 7.5 {micro}m) and the poor efficiency with which the sampling system transferred large particles.

  4. The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Aftertreatment Research Prioritization: A CLEERS ...

  5. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in ... Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF ...

  6. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary Because of their proven adverse effects on human health and vegetation, and also considering their influence over the local and regional

  7. Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor (RF-DPF) is a sensor that uses radio frequencies to measure the amount and distribution of soot and ash in the filters that remove particulate matter from the exhaust of diesel engines.

  8. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)or with casearin X0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BWafter which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ? We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ? We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ? We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ? We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ? The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Ozone Concentration The atmospheric concentration or volume mixing ratio (mole fraction) of Ozone Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is...

  10. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  11. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plains Site Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report The purpose of this study was to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM2.5 particulate matter at the U.S. Department

  12. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Engines | Department of Energy 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace083_lee_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems

  13. Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter: application

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the lattice-Boltzmann technique | Department of Energy 02 DEER Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PDF icon 2002_deer_muntean.pdf More Documents & Publications The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of Acicular Mullite Diesel Particulate Filters Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

  14. EERE Success Story—Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor (RF-DPF) is a sensor that uses radio frequencies to measure the amount and distribution of soot and ash in the filters that remove particulate matter from the exhaust of diesel engines.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Ozone measurements are given in Dobson units and are integers with 3...

  16. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ozone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsozone Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Ozone Monitor (OZONE) Instrument...

  17. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  18. Accelerated Extraction of Diesel Particulate Matter SOF

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  19. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  20. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  1. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  2. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  3. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  4. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  5. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Goodstine, Stephen L. (Windsor, CT)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  6. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... formation during cofiring of coal and biomass (Figure 3). Particulate-and-Gaseous-Emissions3-300x134 Figure 2. Important reaction pathways for conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to ...

  7. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  10. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  11. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.

  12. Void/particulate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, Thomas N.; Karplus, Henry B.

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  13. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  14. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  15. Monitoring and Control of Alkali Volatilization and Batch Carryover for Minimization of Particulates and Crown Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-01-01

    New Technology will Allow Glass Manufacturers to Optimize Furnace Conditions. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a continuous monitoring technique that glass manufacturers can use to reduce particulate matter emissions and extend furnace life.

  16. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Specific ...

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  18. Void/particulate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  19. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  20. Tropospheric ozone in east Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadnis, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the observed data for the tropospheric ozone at mid latitudes in east Asia is done. There are three ways by which the tropospheric ozone is calculated, namely: (1) Ozonesonde measurements, (2) Fishman`s method of Residual Ozone and (3) TOMS measurements - an indirect method of calculating tropospheric ozone. In addition the surface ozone values at the network sites in Japan is also considered. The analysis of data is carried out for a period of twelve years from 1979 to 1991. In general it is observed that the tropospheric ozone is more in summer than winter, obviously because of the larger tropopause height in summer. On an average for the period of the analysis, the ozone values are at a high of about 60 DU (dobson units). While in winter the values go down to around 30 DU. Also a time series analysis shows an increasing trend in the values over the years. The ozonesonde values are correlated more to the TOMS tropospheric ozone values. For the stations analyzed in Japan, the TOMS tropospheric ozone values are generally greater than the ozonesonde values. The analysis of the average monthly surface ozone in Japan shows highs in spring and lows in summer. This can be attributed to movement of pollutant laden fronts towards Japan during spring. The highs for surface ozone are about 50 DU while the lows are around 20 DU.

  1. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L.

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  2. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Durability of ...

  3. Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters ...

  4. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Biofuels Impact ...

  5. Ozone Risk Assessment Utilities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-08-10

    ORAMUS is a user-friendly, menu-driven software system that calculates and displays user-selected risk estimates for health effects attributable to short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone. Inputs to the risk assessment are estimates of exposure to ozone and exposure-response relationships to produce overall risk estimates in the form of probability distributions. Three fundamental models are included: headcount risk, benchmark risk, and hospital admissions. Exposure-response relationships are based on results of controlled human exposure studies. Exposure estimates aremore » based on the EPA''s probabilistic national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) exposure model, pNEM/Osub3, which simulates air quality associated with attainment of alternative NAAQS. Using ORAMUS, risk results for 27 air quality scenarios, air quality in 9 urban areas, 33 health endpoints, and 4 chronic health endpoints can be calculated.« less

  6. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Subsequently, extensive theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale investigations were completed to find an approach to prevent bag damage without compromising AHPC performance. Results showed that the best bag protection and AHPC performance were achieved by using a perforated plate installed between the discharge electrodes and bags. This perforated-plate design was then installed in the 2.5-MW AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant in Big Stone City, South Dakota, and the AHPC was operated from March to June 2001. Results showed that the perforated-plate design solved the bag damage problem and offered even better AHPC performance than the previous design. All of the AHPC performance goals were met, including ultrahigh collection efficiency, high air-to-cloth ratio, reasonable pressure drop, and long bag-cleaning interval.

  7. Ozone transport commission developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    On September 27, 1994, the states of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) signed an important memorandum of understanding (MOU) agreeing to develop a regional strategy for controlling stationary sources of nitrogen oxide emissions. Specifically, the states of the Ozone Transport Region, OTR, agreed to propose regulations for the control of NOx emissions from boilers and other indirect heat exchangers with a maximum gross heat input rate of at least 250 million BTU per hour. The Ozone Transport Region was divided into Inner, Outer and Northern Zones. States in the Outer Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions by 55%. States in the Inner Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions 65%. Facilities in both zones have the option to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million Btu by May 1, 1999. This option provides fairness for the gas-fired plants which already have relatively low NOx emissions. Additionally, States in the Inner and Outer Zones agreed to reduce their NOx emissions by 75% or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.15 pounds per million BTU by May 1, 2003. The Northern Zone States agree to reduce their rate of NOx emissions by 55% from base year levels by May 1, 2003, or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million BTU. As part of this MOU, States also agreed to develop a regionwide trading mechanism to provide a cost-effective mechanism for implementing the reductions.

  8. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.

  9. 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: Southwest Research Institute PDF icon 2004_deer_khalek.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of

  10. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Carbon | Department of Energy Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-14_strzelec.pdf More Documents & Publications Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Fuel Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot

  11. Evaluation of a Partial Flow Dilution System for Transient Particulate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Matter Emissions | Department of Energy A commercially available partial flow dilution system was evaluated against a constant volume sampling system over a suite of transient engine dynamometer tests. PDF icon deer08_shade.pdf More Documents & Publications Evaluation of the European PMP Methodologies Using Chassis Dynamometer and On-road Testing of Heavy-duty Vehicles Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post

  12. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis SEM Photomicrograph X-ray Spectrum C Cu F Si 6 Analysis of Particulates ... Analysis X-Ray Spectrum O F 13 SEM images of lint free cloth used to collect particles. ...

  13. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  14. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  15. Investigations of release phenomenon of volatile organic compounds and particulates from residual storage chip piles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, S.; Nagarkatti, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the method for estimating Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from wood handling and storage operations at a pulp mill. Fugitive particulate matter emissions from wood handling and storage operations are due to material load/dropout operations, wind erosion from storage piles and vehicular traffic on paved roads. The particulate matter emissions are a function of a number of variables like windspeed, surface moisture content, material silt content, and number of days of precipitation. Literature review attributes VOC emissions to biological, microbiological, chemical, and physical processes occurring in wood material storage pile. The VOC emissions are from the surface of these piles and the VOC released during retrieval of chips from the pile. VOC emissions are based on the chip throughput, number of turnovers, moisture content and surface area of the pile. The emission factors with the requisite calculation methodology to be utilized for quantifying VOC emissions from chip piles has been discussed in this paper.

  16. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems 2011 DOE Hydrogen and ... Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate ...

  17. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron computed tomography shows soot and ash loading in a cordierite diesel particulate filter PDF icon ...

  18. Durability of Diesel Particulate Filters - Bench Studies on Cordierite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filters - Bench Studies on Cordierite Filters Durability of Diesel Particulate ... More Documents & Publications Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design ...

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control Title: Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control A system includes a particulate ...

  20. Promising Technology: Ozone Laundry System for Multiload Clothes Washers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These laundry systems use ozone as the chemical cleaning agent. The system generates ozone by electrifying oxygen in the air, and then dissolves the ozone in water.

  1. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste ...

  2. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace056stewart2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline ...

  3. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric GDI Engine Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall goal of this study is to help identify which conditions and potential mechanisms impede soot formation in GDI operations.

  4. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    What will the project do? Combined, the projects are estimated to create nearly 1,800 jobs and enough energy to power more than 100,000 homes. Today, Secretary Chu announced conditional commitments for approximately $2 billion in loan guarantees to two California concentrating solar power plants. The projects are estimated to create nearly 1,800 jobs and will utilize advanced technologies which can help drive down the cost of solar power. The two plants, the Mojave Solar Project in San

  6. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    States: Report to Congress | Department of Energy report to Congress estimates the employment effects of a transformation of the U.S. economy to the use of hydrogen in the 2020 to 2050 timeframe. PDF icon Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress More Documents & Publications The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities, Progress, and Plans: Report to Congress Hydrogen Policy and

  7. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Column Abundance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Abundance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Column Abundance The vertically integrated amount of ozone (commonly measured in Dobson Unit, 1 DU = 134 mmol/m^2) Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  8. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

  9. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  11. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Particulate Generation in a Tritium System Paul Cloessner, PhD Laboratory Fellow Tritium Focus Group February 22, 2014 Outline * Description of Events * Analysis of Material * Sources of material contamination * System Restoration/Modifications * Contaminant Minimization and Control * Lessons Learned 2 An Unpleasant Surprise * Let down filter on compressor became plugged after 10 years of operation. * Tritium processing interrupted when other filters (flow orifices) became plugged approximately

  12. Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This involves a decrease of ozone in the 50 to 65 deg N region and an increase south of 50 deg N. Two or three days after the storm, the ozone amount increases in the 50 to 65 deg ...

  13. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  14. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  15. Ceramic Particulate Filters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_yonushonis.pdf More Documents & Publications Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters

  16. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  17. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  18. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  19. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  1. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  2. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  4. Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate Filters for LIght-Duty Diesel Vehicles Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate Filters ...

  5. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Joseph Silk

    2010-01-08

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  6. Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx ...

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. ...

  8. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods ...

  9. Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Corning ...

  10. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  11. Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, ...

  12. New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications 2003 DEER ...

  13. CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets 2005 ...

  14. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  15. Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel ...

  16. Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine Engine Ceramic Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol ...

  17. A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration PDF icon ...

  18. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  19. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prize-winning Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) The Science and Policies of the Ozone Layer -- A Historical Perspective, IDEaS - Nobel Laureate Mario J....

  20. Sizes, graphitic structures and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. O.; Zhu, J.; Ciatti, S.; Choi, M. Y.; Energy Systems; Drexel Univ.

    2003-01-01

    The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads. It was also revealed that the other important parameters sensitive to the particulate formation, such as exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, equivalence ratio, and temperature, affected particle sizes significantly. Bigger primary particles were measured at higher EGR rates, higher equivalence ratios (fuel-rich), and lower exhaust temperatures. Fractal dimensions (D{sup f}) were measured at a range of 1.5 - 1.7, which are smaller than those measured for heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine particulates in our previous study. This finding implies that the light-duty diesel engine used in this study produces more stretched chain-like shape particles, while the heavy-duty diesel engine emits more spherical particles. The microstructures of diesel particulates were observed at high TEM magnifications and further analyzed by a Raman spectroscope. Raman spectra revealed an atomic structure of the particulates produced at high engine loads, which is similar to that of typical graphite.

  1. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization of ozone dose and contact time for CT calculations was performed in the pilot plant. Operational guidelines for the application of ozone in Union Hills pilot plant ...

  2. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment

  3. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment 2003 DEER Conference ...

  4. Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

  5. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels You are...

  6. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Authors:...

  7. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium...

  8. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  9. The use of a receptor model for fine particulate in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, E.; Garcia, I.; Ruiz, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) faces severe pollution problems typical of large urban areas all over the world. The city is in an elevated basin (2,240 m) at a subtropical latitude (19.5N), with a high mountain chain at the West and South. This basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to the frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The study of atmospheric pollution and its control have been carried out using physico-chemical dispersion models, and the type known as receptor models often finds favor. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of a chemical mass balance receptor model applied to two different data sets of particulate matter. The twelve-hour samples were collected during day and night periods in the winter of 1989, previous to the introduction of catalytic converters in automobiles, and the other after 1991, since the catalytic converters are compulsory in all the new model vehicles. Samples of particulate matter were collected using a denuder and a Hi-Vol systems for the fine fraction (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 {micro}m) and total suspended particles respectively. The results show that the major source contributions to the inhalable particulate matter for the first period are: automobiles (44%); secondary aerosols (19%); dust (10%).

  10. Requirements from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate ...

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle ... An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on ...

  12. Dry scrubbing oxides and particulate contaminants from hot gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quee, J. A.; Haak, M. P.

    1985-03-12

    Sulfur dioxides are dry scrubbed from a flue gas by introducing minute droplets containing a liquid, such as water, and an alkali or alkaline reactant, such as lime, into the spray zone in the primary spray drying chamber of a spray dryer and concurrently contacting these droplets with the hot flue gas. The droplets are partially dried to a tacky condition before reaching a foraminous collecting member extending through the primary spray drying chamber and collect on the collecting member as a moist, porous mat. As the flue gas continues to flow through the mat, the mat serves as a filter for removing fly ash and other particulate matter and remaining sulfur oxides react with unreacted particles of the reactant and reactive ingredients of the fly ash particles in the mat.

  13. Integrated exhaust and electrically heated particulate filter regeneration systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2013-01-08

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes multiple zones. An electrical heater includes heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A post-fuel injection system injects fuel into at least one of a cylinder of an engine and an exhaust system. A control module is configured to operate in a first mode that includes activating the electrical heater to heat exhaust of the engine. The control module is also configured to operate in a second mode that includes activating the post-injection system to heat the exhaust. The control module selectively operates in at least one of the first mode and the second mode.

  14. Dark Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Scientists are using the underground of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to try to solve the universe's major missing mass problem. He is enjoying his search They are searching for the presence of particles that may have mass but hardly interact with other matter. Based on observations of the relationships between mass and gravity and the speed of the stars and other cosmological systems, scientists believe that more than 90 percent of the universe's mass is "missing." A

  15. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  16. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  17. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  18. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note ...

  19. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration Title: Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material

  20. Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transient distributed DPF wall and gas temperature were simultaneously measured using ... Filter Regeneration Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ...

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hybrid vehicles (Patent) | DOEPatents Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles Title: Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls

  2. Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEER Conference Presentation: Industrial Ceramic Solutions, LLC PDF icon ... Time and Fuel Consumption Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Versatile ...

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  4. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace024_lee_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANL/Corning/Caterpillar CRADA)

  5. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm041_lance_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461)

  6. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingqing Liang, Tao Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM{sub 10}) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and those for PM{sub 10} were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m{sup 3}, in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM{sub 10} and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM{sub 10} were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N}, La{sub N}/Sm{sub N}, Gd{sub N}/Yb{sub N}). - Highlights: • TSP and PM{sub 10} samples were collected to analyze the levels and distributions of REE. • Enrichment factors indicated that REE enrichment was caused by anthropogenic sources. • The distribution of REEs showed a strong gradient in the prevailing wind direction. • Obvious fractionation between LREEs and HREEs is observed in atmospheric particulates.

  7. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S.

  8. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Lotte; Buczynska, Anna; Walgraeve, Christophe; Delcloo, Andy; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester ; Van Grieken, Rene; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Backer, Hugo; Nemery, Benoit; Nawrot, Tim S.; Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  9. Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ozone is used commercially for treatment of potable and non-potable water, and as an industrial oxidant. ISU and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a method for using iron in ozone oxidation that significantly improves the speed of oxidation reactions. Description Ozone is recognized as potent and effective oxidizing agent, and has a

  10. Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances Results are given for a study of the behavior of the mean meridional distribution of total ozone over 15 European stations (38 to 78 deg N) during severe magnetic storms. The storms studied were 14 severe geomagnetic disturbance; in 1957, 1958, and 1959, and the ozone distributions were studied

  11. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  12. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  13. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  14. Effect of the ozonization of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin on its pyrolysis in a mixture with polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Sharypov; N.G. Beregovtsova; S.V. Baryshnikov; B.N. Kuznetsov

    2008-06-15

    It was found that the treatment of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin with an ozone-oxygen mixture at 25-100{sup o}C for 1-8 h was accompanied by the formation of oxygen-containing structural groups in the organic matter of coal, the thermal stability of these groups was comparatively low. The preliminary ozonization of coal resulted in an increase in the degree of conversion and the yield of liquid distillation products in the course of coprocessing of coal with polyethylene.

  15. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  16. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  17. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  18. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia | Department of Energy Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, Massachusetts was retained by Mirant Potomac River, LLC (Mirant) to provide sampling and analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission

  19. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) DOE-STD-3020-2015 Specification for HEPA Filters Used by DOE Contractors The purpose of this standard is to establish specifications and quality assurance (QA) requirements for the procurement, packaging, shipping and storage of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. DOE-STD-3025-2007 Quality Assurance Inspection and Testing of HEPA

  20. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  1. Durability of Diesel Particulate Filters - Bench Studies on Cordierite

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Filters | Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_dacosta.pdf More Documents & Publications Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of Acicular Mullite Diesel Particulate

  2. Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications | Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_rubeli.pdf More Documents & Publications Testing an Active Diesel Particulate Filter on a 2-Cycle Marine Engine Ceramic Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters

  3. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  4. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  5. Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for Diesel PM Reduction Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  6. Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in ...

  7. Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner Terahertz scanning system produced 3-dimensional image of local PM density in catatalyzed ...

  8. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  9. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, ...

  10. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Non-destructive, non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter.

  11. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter. PDF icon...

  12. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) PDF icon ace22lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel ...

  13. Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System using a Ceria-Based Fuel-Borne Catalyst in Serial Applications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel ...

  14. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures PDF icon p-19seong.pdf ...

  15. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine ...

  16. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter ... An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system ...

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  18. Development of Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate Filters Future Trends for DPFSCR On-Filter (SCRF) fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of ...

  19. Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency Mass Correlation of Engine Emissions with Spectral Instruments Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel ...

  20. Blowers for Air Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon p-14milburn.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a Non Air-assisted Thermal Regenerator Development of an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter System ...

  1. Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Filters for LIght-Duty Diesel Vehicles | Department of Energy PDF icon 2005_deer_anderson.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Filter Loading and Regeneration Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency TG-1: Portable Instrument for Transient PM Measurements

  2. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  3. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Bernard D.; Williams, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    A plastic article having a number of surfaces with at least one surface being modified by contacting that surface with a reactive gas atmosphere containing F.sub.2, Cl.sub.2, O.sub.2, Ozone, SO.sub.3, oxidative acids, or mixtures thereof, at a temperature and gas partial pressure sufficient to increase the surface energy of the at least one surface being modified to at least 40 dynes/cm at a temperature of 20.degree. C., to enhance bonding of non-slip polymer coatings to the modified surface, to which coatings elastomeric or rigid particles may be admixed for imparting a surface profile and increasing the coefficient of friction between the coated surface and the counter-surface.

  4. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  5. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

  6. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  7. Development of Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Application | Department of Energy 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_pyzik.pdf More Documents & Publications Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate Filters Future Trends for DPFƒSCR On-Filter (SCRF) fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of Acicular Mullite Diesel Particulate Filters

  8. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion Resources with Additional Information In 1973 Mario Molina ... was a postdoctoral researcher working in the laboratory of F. Sherwood Rowland at the University of California at Irvine ... when he made an unsettling discovery. He had been investigating a class of compounds called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. CFCs were used as refrigerants, aerosol sprays, and in making plastic foams. Molina wondered what happened to them once they

  9. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    requirements (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection requirements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection requirements Tracer studies were performed in bench and pilot scale ozone diffusion contactors to determine actual contact times for the bench and pilot scale units and to characterize the flow pattern through these reactors. It was recognized that the

  10. DOE SC ARM TR 179 Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... data increment. Ozone - Mixing volume of O3 in ambient air (no water vapor correction). ... However, the supplied pressure regulator only supplies consistent gauge pressure, not ...

  11. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. ... measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. ...

  12. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  13. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  14. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. ...

  15. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

    1993-04-13

    A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

  16. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Mitchell R.; Gal, Eli

    1993-01-01

    A process and system for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous The government of the United States of America has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC 23174 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  18. Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappok, Alex; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF soot levels and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based soot emission measurement instrument (TEOM). Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF soot loading and good dynamic response. Additional computational and experimental work further illustrates the spatial resolution of the RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayuti, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Malikussaleh University of Lhokseumawe, 24300 Aceh (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

    2011-01-17

    This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

  20. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organic Compound Exhaust Materails from a Set of Gasoline and a Set of Diesel Engine Vehicles Operated at 30F In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic ...

  1. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace024lee2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate...

  2. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Optimization | Department of Energy harris.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Europe

  3. Development of an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles Donaldson Active Regeneration PM System A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter ...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Semi-Continuous OCEC Particulate Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Campaign : Semi-Continuous OCEC Particulate Measurement 2013.06.01 - 2013.11.27 Lead Scientist : Robert Cary For data sets, see below. Abstract The Sunset Laboratory...

  5. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using a non-parametric decision tree to measure transient PM could correctly identify 94% of high opacity spikes and used to take targeted action to reduce PM without affecting NOx.

  6. High-Energy Laser Diagnostics (HELD) for the Measurement of Diesel Particulate Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility

  7. Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  8. Method and apparatus for acoustically monitoring the flow of suspended solid particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Paul D.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring char flow in a coal gasifier system cludes flow monitor circuits which measure acoustic attenuation caused by the presence of char in a char line and provide a char flow/no flow indication and an indication of relative char density. The flow monitor circuits compute the ratio of signals in two frequency bands, a first frequency band representative of background noise, and a second higher frequency band in which background noise is attenuated by the presence of char. Since the second frequency band contains higher frequencies, the ratio can be used to provide a flow/no flow indication. The second band can also be selected so that attenuation is monotonically related to particle concentration, providing a quantitative measure of char concentration.

  9. Axisymmetrical separator for separating particulate matter from a fluid carrying medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Hans D.

    1984-09-04

    A separator for separating particles carried in a fluid carrying medium is disclosed. The separator includes an elongated duct and associated openings incorporated in a solid body. The duct is axisymmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, and includes a curved wall portion having a curved cross-section taken along the longitudinal axis. An axisymmetrical opening located downstream of the curved wall portion leads from the duct into an axisymmetrical channel which is substantially radially disposed relative to the longitudinal axis. Continuation of the duct downstream of the opening is a discharge portion which is substantially colinear with the longitudinal axis. In operation, a substantial majority of the fluid carrying medium leaves the duct radially through the opening and channel in a state substantially free of particles. A remaining small portion of the fluid carrying medium and a substantial majority of the particles are channelled into the discharge portion by centrifugal forces arising due to travel of the particles along the curved walls. For industrial scale separation of particles from a fluid carrying medium, such as for the clean-up of stack gases, an array of several hundred to several thousand of the separators is provided.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel...

  11. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel...

  13. Variable power distribution for zoned regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN; Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-04-03

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with multiple zones, an electric heater and a control module. The electrical heater includes heater segments, which each correspond with a respective one of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and is proximate with the PM filter. The control module selectively applies a first energy level to a first one of the zones via a first one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the first zone. The control module also selectively applies a second energy level that is less than the first energy level to a second one of the zones via a second one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the second zone.

  14. Particulate and gaseous organic receptor modeling for the southern California Air Quality Study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.G.; Lu, Z.; Gertler, A.W.

    1993-11-01

    The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to the chemically-speciated diurnal particulate matter samples and volatile organic compound (VOC) acquired during the summer and fall campaigns of the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Source profiles applicable to the Los Angeles area were used to apportion PM[sub (2.5)] and PM[sub (10)] to primary paved road dust, primary construction dust, primary motor vehicle exhaust, primary marine aerosol, secondary ammonium nitrate, and secondary ammonium sulfate. Nonmethane hydrocarbon was apportioned to motor vehicle exhaust, liquid fuel, gasoline vapor, gas leaks, architectural and industrial coatings, and biogenic emissions. Suspended dust was the major contributor to PM(10) during the summer, while secondary ammonium nitrate and primary motor vehicle exhaust contributions were high in the fall. Motor vehicle exhaust was the major contributor to nonmethane hydrocarbons, ranging from 30% to 70% of the total.

  15. Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange multiplier technique (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Authors: Kanarska, Y ; Lomov, I ; Antoun, T Publication Date: 2010-09-10 OSTI Identifier: 1120915 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-455392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  16. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  17. Requirements from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial Vehicles:

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sintered Metal Particulate Filter Opens a New Dimension of Performance | Department of Energy biddinger.pdf More Documents & Publications 12TH DIESEL ENGINE-EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS RESEARCH CONFERENCE (DEER 2006) PRESENTATIONS Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines

  18. Development of Advanced Particulate Filters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace024_lee_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency

  19. Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 3 DEER Conference Presentation: Faurecia Exhaust Systems PDF icon 2003_deer_parmann.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System using a Ceria-Based Fuel-Borne Catalyst in Serial Applications Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2

  20. Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ceramics | Department of Energy Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF architecture to evaluate failure initiation stress and apparent elastic modulus of the ceramics. PDF icon p-15_wereszczak.pdf More Documents & Publications Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461) Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices

  1. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  2. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-12-05

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  3. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Weldon S.; Gonze, Eugene V.

    2008-12-30

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  4. Progression of soot cake layer properties during the systematic regeneration of diesel particulate filters measured with neutron tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toops, Todd J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Gregor, Jens; Bilheux, Hassina

    2015-01-01

    Although particulate filters (PFs) have been a key component of the emission control system for modern diesel engines, there remain significant questions about the basic regeneration behavior of the filters and how it changes with accumulation of increasing soot layers. This effort describes a systematic deposition and regeneration of particulate matter in 25-mm diameter × 76-mm long wall-flow PFs composed of silicon carbide (SiC) material. The initial soot distributions were analyzed for soot cake thickness using a nondestructive neutron imaging technique. With the PFs intact, it was then possible to sequentially regenerate the samples and reanalyze them, which was performed after nominal 20, 50, and 70 % regenerations. The loaded samples show a relatively uniform distribution of particulate with an increasing soot cake thickness and nearly identical initial density of 70 mg/cm3. Throughout regeneration, the soot cake thickness initially decreases significantly while the density increases to 80–90 mg/cm3. After ~50 % regeneration, the soot cake thickness stays relatively constant, but instead, the density decreases as pores open up in the layer (~35 mg/cm3 at 70 % regeneration). Complete regeneration initially occurs at the rear of the PF channels. With this information, a conceptual model of the regeneration is proposed.

  5. Progression of soot cake layer properties during the systematic regeneration of diesel particulate filters measured with neutron tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toops, Todd J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Finney, Charles E. A.; Gregor, Jens; Bilheux, Hassina

    2015-01-01

    Although particulate filters (PFs) have been a key component of the emission control system for modern diesel engines, there remain significant questions about the basic regeneration behavior of the filters and how it changes with accumulation of increasing soot layers. This effort describes a systematic deposition and regeneration of particulate matter in 25-mm diameter × 76-mm long wall-flow PFs composed of silicon carbide (SiC) material. The initial soot distributions were analyzed for soot cake thickness using a nondestructive neutron imaging technique. With the PFs intact, it was then possible to sequentially regenerate the samples and reanalyze them, which was performedmore » after nominal 20, 50, and 70 % regenerations. The loaded samples show a relatively uniform distribution of particulate with an increasing soot cake thickness and nearly identical initial density of 70 mg/cm3. Throughout regeneration, the soot cake thickness initially decreases significantly while the density increases to 80–90 mg/cm3. After ~50 % regeneration, the soot cake thickness stays relatively constant, but instead, the density decreases as pores open up in the layer (~35 mg/cm3 at 70 % regeneration). Complete regeneration initially occurs at the rear of the PF channels. With this information, a conceptual model of the regeneration is proposed.« less

  6. Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.

  7. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  8. Ghost dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furukawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: naoshi@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    We revisit ghost dark matter, the possibility that ghost condensation may serve as an alternative to dark matter. In particular, we investigate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background evolution and the large-scale structure (LSS) in the ΛGDM universe, i.e. a late-time universe dominated by a cosmological constant and ghost dark matter. The FRW background of the ΛGDM universe is indistinguishable from that of the standard ΛCDM universe if M∼>1eV, where M is the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking. From the LSS we find a stronger bound: M∼>10eV. For smaller M, ghost dark matter would have non-negligible sound speed after the matter-radiation equality, and thus the matter power spectrum would significantly differ from observation. These bounds are compatible with the phenomenological upper bound M∼<100GeV known in the literature.

  9. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials/Condensed Matter Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials research provides the foundation on which the economic well being of our high-tech society rests. The impact of advanced materials ranges dramatically over every aspect of our modern world from the minutiae of daily life to the grand scale of our national economy. Invariably, however, breakthroughs to new technologies trace their origin both to fundamental research in the basic properties of condensed matter and to applied

  10. OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

    2001-10-01

    As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

  11. Magnetization of neutron matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigdeli, M.

    2011-09-21

    In this paper, we compute magnetization of neutron matter at strong magnetic field using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) technique.

  12. Dark Matter Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    matter? What is its large scale structure and evolution of the Universe? results from satelite satellite image Read caption + Figure: Recent results from the Planck satellite...

  13. Cosmology with Mimetic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2014-06-01

    We consider minimal extensions of the recently proposed Mimetic Dark Matter and show that by introducing a potential for the mimetic non-dynamical scalar field we can mimic nearly any gravitational properties of the normal matter. In particular, the mimetic matter can provide us with inflaton, quintessence and even can lead to a bouncing nonsingular universe. We also investigate the behaviour of cosmological perturbations due to a mimetic matter. We demonstrate that simple mimetic inflation can produce red-tilted scalar perturbations which are largely enhanced over gravity waves.

  14. Energy Matters Mailbag

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This edition of the mailbag tackles follow-up questions from our Energy Matters discussion on breaking our reliance on foreign oil.

  15. Science on Tap - Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science on Tap - Matter Science on Tap - Matter WHEN: Feb 18, 2016 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 USA SPEAKER: Jack Shlachter CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Mark your calendars for this event held every third Thursday from 5:30 to 7 p.m. A short presentation is followed by a lively discussion on a different subject each month. What's the Matter with Matter?

  16. Dark Matter Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email Dark Matter Theory The existence of dark matter can be traced back to the pioneering discoveries of Fritz Zwicky and Jan Oort that the motion of galaxies in the Coma cluster, and of nearby stars in our own Galaxy, do not follow the expected motion based on Newton's law of gravity and the observed visible

  17. Process-scale modeling of elevated wintertime ozone in Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Holdridge, D. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-31

    Measurements of meteorological variables and trace gas concentrations, provided by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality for Daniel, Jonah, and Boulder Counties in the state of Wyoming, were analyzed for this project. The data indicate that highest ozone concentrations were observed at temperatures of -10 C to 0 C, at low wind speeds of about 5 mph. The median values for nitrogen oxides (NOx) during these episodes ranged between 10 ppbv and 20 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during these periods were insufficient for quantitative analysis. The few available VOCs measurements indicated unusually high levels of alkanes and aromatics and low levels of alkenes. In addition, the column ozone concentration during one of the high-ozone episodes was low, on the order of 250 DU (Dobson unit) as compared to a normal column ozone concentration of approximately 300-325 DU during spring for this region. Analysis of this observation was outside the scope of this project. The data analysis reported here was used to establish criteria for making a large number of sensitivity calculations through use of a box photochemical model. Two different VOCs lumping schemes, RACM and SAPRC-98, were used for the calculations. Calculations based on this data analysis indicated that the ozone mixing ratios are sensitive to (a) surface albedo, (b) column ozone, (c) NOx mixing ratios, and (d) available terminal olefins. The RACM model showed a large response to an increase in lumped species containing propane that was not reproduced by the SAPRC scheme, which models propane as a nearly independent species. The rest of the VOCs produced similar changes in ozone in both schemes. In general, if one assumes that measured VOCs are fairly representative of the conditions at these locations, sufficient precursors might be available to produce ozone in the range of 60-80 ppbv under the conditions modeled.

  18. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  19. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  20. Fluidizing a mixture of particulate coal and char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W.

    1979-08-07

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  1. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

  2. Projections of Future Summertime Ozone over the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, G. G.; Walters, Stacy; Lamarque, J. F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barth, Mary; Wong, John; Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy

    2014-05-05

    This study uses a regional fully coupled chemistry-transport model to assess changes in surface ozone over the summertime U.S. between present and a 2050 future time period at high spatial resolution (12 km grid spacing) under the SRES A2 climate and RCP8.5 anthropogenic pre-cursor emission scenario. The impact of predicted changes in climate and global background ozone is estimated to increase surface ozone over most of the U.S; the 5th - 95th percentile range for daily 8-hour maximum surface ozone increases from 31-79 ppbV to 30-87 ppbV between the present and future time periods. The analysis of a set of meteorological drivers suggests that these mostly will add to increasing ozone, but the set of simulations conducted does not allow to separate this effect from that through enhanced global background ozone. Statistically the most robust positive feedbacks are through increased temperature, biogenic emissions and solar radiation. Stringent emission controls can counteract these feedbacks and if considered, we estimate large reductions in surface ozone with the 5th-95th percentile reduced to 27-55 ppbV. A comparison of the high-resolution projections to global model projections shows that even though the global model is biased high in surface ozone compared to the regional model and compared to observations, both the global and the regional model predict similar changes in ozone between the present and future time periods. However, on smaller spatial scales, the regional predictions show more pronounced changes between urban and rural regimes that cannot be resolved at the coarse resolution of global model. In addition, the sign of the changes in overall ozone mixing ratios can be different between the global and the regional predictions in certain regions, such as the Western U.S. This study confirms the key role of emission control strategies in future air quality predictions and demonstrates the need for considering degradation of air quality with future climate change in emission policy making. It also illustrates the need for high resolution modeling when the objective is to address regional and local air quality or establish links to human health and society.

  3. Morphological basis of tolerance to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.J.; Dekker, N.P.; Cabral-Anderson, L.J.; Shami, S.G.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Type 1 epithelial cells in the ozone (O/sub 3/)-tolerant lung epithelium. Rats were made tolerant by exposure to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 days and allowed to recover in air. Reexposure to a lethal concentration of O/sub 3/ (6 ppm) at 3, 7, and 15 days of recovery revealed that tolerance was present at 3 days but almost absent at 7 and 15 days of recovery. Using Type 2 cell proliferation as a means of quantitating Type 1 cell injury, it was observed that when the preexposed rats were reexposed to 0.5 ppm at 3, 7, and 15 days, very little Type 1 cell injury occurred at 3 days. However, at 7 and 15 days the amount of Type 1 cell injury was the same as that associated with the original exposure. To determine whether there was any change in the alveolar epithelial cell populations between the periods of tolerance (3 days) and its decline (7 and 15 days), the percentage of tritiated thymidine (( /sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells at these times were determined. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells between the third and fifteenth days of recovery as excess cells were sloughed off and the tissue returned to normal. Using electron microscopic morphometry, Type 1 and 2 cells were then studied during the decline of tolerance. No change was found in the morphology of Type 2 cells; however, the morphology of Type 1 cells revealed a 58% decrease in surface area and a 25% increase in the arithmetic mean thickness when tolerance was present at 3 days. As tolerance declined (7 and 15 days), Type 1 cell morphology returned to normal. It was concluded that tolerance exists when the surface area of a cell exposed to a particular concentration of ozone is small enough so that the existing antioxidant mechanism contained within that cell volume can protect it from damage.

  4. Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters using a High-Flux Neutron Source Detailed images of deposits identified ...

  5. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  6. Reliability and Design Strength Limit Calculations on Diesel Particulate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Filters | Department of Energy Confererence Presentation: Corning PDF icon 2004_deer_webb.pdf More Documents & Publications Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices Effect of Machining Procedures on the Strength of Ceramics for Advanced Diesel Engine Applications

  7. Comparison of Particulate Collection in Probes and on Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, J.M.; Humphreys, M.P.

    2001-06-14

    Major radionuclide emissions from the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex are nuclides of uranium which are emitted as a particulate. The radionuclide NESHAP regulation requires stack sampling to be conducted in accordance with ANST Standard N13.1, 1969. Appendix B of this standard requires in every case where sampling delivery lines are used that an evaluation should be made of deposition in these lines. A number of Y-12 Complex stacks are fitted with continuous samplers which draw particulate laden air through a probe and across a sample filter. One approach to evaluate line loss as required by the ANSI standard is to establish a representative factor that is used for all subsequent sampling efforts. Another approach is to conduct a routine probe wash procedure on an ongoing basis to account for line losses. In 1991, Y-12 National Security Complex personnel began routine probe washes as part of their sample collection procedure. Since then, 50-80 stacks have been sampled on a near continuous basis and probe washes have been conducted quarterly. Particulate collection in probes versus particulate collection on filters is recorded as a probe factor and probe factor trends for a 10-year period are available.

  8. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  9. Development of an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter System |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy PDF icon 2004_deer_anderson.pdf More Documents & Publications A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles Donaldson Active Regeneration PM System A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

  10. Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Europe | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Aaqius and Aaqius PDF icon 2004_deer_seguelong2.pdf More Documents & Publications A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles French perspective on diesel engines & emissions Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems

  11. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  12. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber with a total exposure of 129 kg-days at a thermodynamic threshold energy of 3.3 keV. These data show that measures taken to control particulate contamination in the superheated fluid resulted in the absence of the anomalous background events

  13. Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved dark matter search results from PICO-2L Run 2 New data are reported from a second run of the 2-liter PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber with a total exposure of 129 kg-days at a thermodynamic threshold energy of 3.3 keV. These data show that measures taken to control particulate contamination in the superheated fluid resulted in the absence of the anomalous background events

  14. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 ...

  15. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  16. Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California ...

  17. Matter in transition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, wheremore » a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.« less

  18. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  19. Impact of heterogeneous chemistry on model predictions of ozone changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granier, C.; Brasseur, G. )

    1992-11-20

    A two-dimensional chemical/transport model of the middle atmosphere is used to assess the importance of chemical heterogeneous processes in the polar regions (on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs)) and at other latitudes (on sulfate aerosols). When conversion on type I and type II PSCs of N[sub 2]O[sub 5] into HNO[sub 3] and of CIONO[sub 2] into reactive forms of chlorine is taken into account, enhanced CIO concentrations lead to the formation of a springtime ozone hole over the Antarctic continent; no such major reduction in the ozone column is found in the Arctic region. When conversion of nitrogen and chlorine compounds is assumed to occur on sulfate particles in the lower stratosphere, significant perturbations in the chemistry are also found. For background aerosol conditions, the concentration of nitric acid is enhanced and agrees with observed values, while that of nitrogen oxides is reduced and agrees less than if heterogeneous processes are ignored in the calculations. The concentration of the OH radical is significantly increased. Ozone number density appears to become larger between 16 and 30 km but smaller below 16 km, especially at high latitudes. The ozone column is only slightly modified, except at high latitudes where it is substantially reduced if the CIONO[sub 2] conversion into reactive chlorine is considered. After a large volcanic eruption these changes are further exacerbated. The ozone budget in the lower stratrosphere becomes less affected by nitrogen oxides but is largely controlled by the CIO[sub x] and HO[sub x] chemistries. A substantial decrease in the ozone column is predicted as a result of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, mostly in winter at middle and high latitudes. 62 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

  1. Coordinated NO{sub x} control strategies: Phase II Title IV, ozone transport region and ozone transport assessment group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, W.F.; Dunn, R.M.; Baublis, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    Many electric utilities are faced with future nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) reduction requirements. In some instances, these utilities will be affected by multiple regulatory programs. For example, numerous fossil fired plants must comply with Phase II of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), state NO{sub x} rules as a result of the recommendations of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) and future requirements of the Proposed Rule for Reducing Regional Transport of Ground-Level Ozone (Ozone Transport SIP Rulemaking). This paper provides an overview of NO{sub x} regulatory programs, NO{sub x} compliance planning concepts, and NO{sub x} control technology options that could be components of an optimized compliance strategy.

  2. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.

    1999-10-26

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  3. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  4. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  5. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-04-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m/sup -3/, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r<0.5 mm). The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d/sup 13/C = 26 +- 2/sup 0///sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (<20% of the total concentration) is likely to have a direct marine origin since its carbon isotopic composition is close to the expected value (d/sup 13/C = -21 +- 2/sup 0///sub 00/) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere.

  6. Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System using a

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ceria-Based Fuel-Borne Catalyst in Serial Applications | Department of Energy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Rhodia Electronics and Catalysis PDF icon 2004_deer_macaudiere.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La

  7. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment.

  8. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J.

    2003-04-08

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between the rows of filter elements are rows of high voltage discharge electrodes. Between the rows of discharge electrodes and the rows of filter elements are grounded perforated plates for creating electrostatic precipitation zones.

  9. Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Particulate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Filter Loading and Regeneration | Department of Energy Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_sappok.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor and Controls for Advanced Low-Pressure Drop Systems to Reduce Engine Fuel Consumption Development of Radio Frequency Diesel

  10. Development and Applications of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 04 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Sud Chemie Prototech Inc. PDF icon 2004_deer_huang.pdf More Documents & Publications CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration: In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation

  11. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories at the High

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy 9 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lmp_04_shyam.pdf More Documents & Publications Selection of a Wear-Resistant Tractor Drivetrain Material: Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters High Temperature Thermoelectric

  12. Experimental Diesel Particulate Filter Capabilities at PNNL | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_gallant.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Soot Filter Characterization and Modeling for Advanced Substrates fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of Acicular Mullite Diesel Particulate Filters Vehicle Evaluation of Downsized Dow ACM DPF

  13. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-09

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

  14. Mutagenic activity and chemical analysis of airborne particulates collected in Pisa (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vellosi, R.; Fiorio, R.; Rosellini, D.; Bronzetti, G. ); Vannucchi, C.; Ciacchini, G.; Giaconi, V. ); Bianchi, F. )

    1994-03-01

    In the last few years there has been much concern about the problem connected to the exposure to mutagens present in the environment of industrialized countries. Particularly, the mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter has been studied by many investigators and correlated with elevated lung cancer mortality rates. In most cases the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome test has been used for these studies. This short-term test, which is the most validated among the short-term genotoxicity tests, provides an important indication on the carcinogenic potential of environmental pollutants. That are complex mixtures containing a wide variety of compounds potentially capable of causing additive, antagonistic or synergistic genotoxic response in living organisms. Several studies have suggested that diverse factors, such as traffic and meteorological conditions, could affect the levels of pollutants in the air. In our work, we have investigated three different areas in Pisa, where the intensity and the kind of the road traffic were different. Airborne particles have been collected during a year and the genotoxic activity has been studied using TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Detailed Characterization of Particulates Emitted by Pre-Commercial Single-Cylinder Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Reitz, Paul; Stewart, Mark L.; Imre, D.; Loeper, Paul; Adams, Cory; Andrie, Michael; Rothamer, David; Foster, David E.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Najt, Paul M.; Solomon, Arun S.

    2014-08-01

    Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines have the potential to achieve high fuel efficiency and to significantly reduce both NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions by operating under dilute partially-premixed conditions. This low temperature combustion strategy is dependent upon direct-injection of gasoline during the compression stroke and potentially near top dead center (TDC). The timing and duration of the in-cylinder injections can be tailored based on speed and load to create optimized conditions that result in a stable combustion. We present the results of advanced aerosol analysis methods that have been used for detailed real-time characterization of PM emitted from a single-cylinder GCI engine operated at different speed, load, timing, and number and duration of near-TDC fuel injections. PM characterization included 28 measurements of size and composition of individual particles sampled directly from the exhaust and after mass and/or mobility classification. We use these data to calculate particle effective density, fractal dimension, dynamic shape factors in free-molecular and transition flow regimes, average diameter of primary spherules, number of spherules, and void fraction of soot agglomerates.

  16. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  17. Energy Matters - Fall 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. This issue focus of this edition of the Energy Matters Newsletter is on energy and environmental issues. Read more about compressed air's role in productivity, making good motor decisions, and more.

  18. The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2013-11-20

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  19. The Search for Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2014-07-24

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  20. Direct search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  1. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.J.

    1999-08-17

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements. 12 figs.

  2. Controlled laser production of elongated articles from particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2002-01-01

    It has been discovered that wires and small diameter rods can be produced using laser deposition technology in a novel way. An elongated article such as a wire or rod is constructed by melting and depositing particulate material into a deposition zone which has been designed to yield the desired article shape and dimensions. The article is withdrawn from the deposition zone as it is formed, thus enabling formation of the article in a continuous process. Alternatively, the deposition zone is moved along any of numerous deposition paths away from the article being formed.

  3. Advanced hybrid particulate collector and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J.

    1999-01-01

    A device and method for controlling particulate air pollutants of the present invention combines filtration and electrostatic collection devices. The invention includes a chamber housing a plurality of rows of filter elements. Between each row of filter elements is a grounded plate. Between the grounded plates and the filter elements are electrode grids for creating electrostatic precipitation zones between each row of filter elements. In this way, when the filter elements are cleaned by pulsing air in a reverse direction, the dust removed from the bags will collect in the electrostatic precipitation zones rather than on adjacent filter elements.

  4. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  5. MOL.19980331.0174 PARTICULATE MATTEX AMBIENT A I R QUALITY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    MOL.19980331.0174 PARTICULATE MATTEX AMBIENT A I R QUALITY DATA REPORT FOR 1989 AND 1990 ... Applications International Corporation Technical & Management Support Services Las Vegas, ...

  6. Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the lattice-Boltzmann technique Development of a Sub-Grid Model of a Diesel Particulate Filter: application of the lattice-Boltzmann technique 2002 DEER Conference ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems for GDI Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about particulate...

  9. Measuring PM Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter using a Terahertz Wave Scanner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Terahertz scanning system produced 3-dimensional image of local PM density in catatalyzed particulate filters tested under loading and oxidizing conditions

  10. Inflatable Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2015-07-30

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.

  11. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  12. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  13. Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, G.T.

    1991-04-08

    This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

  14. Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, George T.

    1992-01-01

    An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

  15. Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greaves, Melvin J.

    1977-06-14

    Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

  16. Meeting the New Ozone Standard: Challenges and Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Anna Garcia, executive director of the Ozone Transport Commission, was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  17. Age-dependent inhibition of pentobarbital sleeping time by ozone in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Leonard, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of age on the metabolism of pentobarbital in mice and rats was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 3.75 hr. Young animals were 2.5 months of age and the mature were 18 months. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly prolonged following the ozone exposure in both the mice and rats when compared with an air control. No ozone effect on sleeping time was found in the young animals. The results indicate that there may be an age-related sensitivity to the occurrence of ozone-related inhibition of pentobarbital metabolism.

  18. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+ by ozone and vacuum annealing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling superconductivity in ...

  19. Discrete dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z{sub 2} subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while {theta}{sub 13}=0 gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  20. Resistive heater geometry and regeneration method for a diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Amanda; Kirby, Kevin W.; Gregoir, Daniel J.

    2011-10-25

    One embodiment of the invention includes a diesel particulate filter comprising a first face and a second face; a bottom electrode layer formed over the first face of the diesel particulate filter; a middle resistive layer formed over a portion of the bottom electrode layer; and a top electrode layer formed over a portion of the middle resistive layer.

  1. A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regeneration | Department of Energy PDF icon 2004_deer_hou.pdf More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Vehicle Evaluation of Downsized Dow ACM DPF

  2. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  3. Decoding dark matter in genes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decoding dark matter in genes Decoding dark matter in genes Possible future applications, for example, include making new cancer therapies based on how ribosomes differentiate in healthy versus cancerous tissue. February 19, 2016 Decoding dark matter in genes In 1994, researchers from Harvard and Stanford published a paper in which they described three mice: one was yellow and fat, one mottled and fat, and the last one was brown and lean. An ordinary image, except for one thing: despite being so

  4. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  5. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baltz, Ted

    2009-09-01

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  6. Geometry Matters | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geometry Matters Researchers have discovered how the geometry of gold nanoparticles affects their images. Gold nanoparticles can be imaged optically and their movements can be seen...

  7. Superconducting magnetic control system for manipulation of particulate matter and magnetic probes in medical and industrial applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung Sheng; Hull, John R.; Askew, Thomas R.

    2006-07-11

    A system and method of controlling movement of magnetic material with at least first and second high temperature superconductors at spaced locations. A plurality of solenoids are associated with the superconductors to induce a persistent currents in preselected high temperature superconductors establishing a plurality of magnetic fields in response to pulsed currents introduced to one or more of the solenoids. Control mechanism in communication with said solenoids and/or said high temperature superconductors are used to demagnetize selected ones of the high temperature superconductors to reduce the magnetic fields substantially to zero. Magnetic material is moved between magnetic fields by establishing the presence thereof and thereafter reducing magnetic fields substantially to zero and establishing magnetic fields in other superconductors arranged in a predetermined configuration.

  8. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six highly cited papers and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  9. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  11. Classical and alternative macrophage activation in the lung following ozone-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-09-01

    Ozone is a pulmonary irritant known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue injury. Evidence suggests that macrophages play a role in the pathogenic response; however, their contribution depends on the mediators they encounter in the lung which dictate their function. In these studies we analyzed the effects of ozone-induced oxidative stress on the phenotype of alveolar macrophages (AM). Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3 h) resulted in increased expression of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in AM. Whereas 8-OHdG was maximum at 24 h, expression of HO-1 was biphasic increasing after 3 h and 4872 h. Cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, were also induced in AM 24 h post-ozone. This was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating alveolar epithelial injury. Ozone intoxication resulted in biphasic activation of the transcription factor, NF?B. This correlated with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein?1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase?2, markers of proinflammatory macrophages. Increases in arginase-1, Ym1 and galectin-3 positive anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages were also observed in the lung after ozone inhalation, beginning at 24 h (arginase-1, Ym1), and persisting for 72 h (galectin-3). This was associated with increased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C, a marker of Type II cell proliferation and activation, important steps in wound repair. These data suggest that both proinflammatory/cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages are activated early in the response to ozone-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury. -- Highlights: ? Lung macrophages are highly sensitive to ozone induced oxidative stress. ? Ozone induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung macrophages. ? Proinflammatory and wound repair macrophages are activated early after ozone. ? Oxidative stress may contribute to regulating macrophage phenotype and function.

  12. Nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram with strangeness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barz, H. W.; Friman, B. L.; Knoll, J.; Schulz, H.

    1989-07-01

    A phenomenological equation of state of strongly interacting matter, including strange degrees of freedom, is presented. It is shown that the hyperon and kaon interactions must be included, in order to obtain a reasonable description of the deconfinement transition at high baryon densities. The consequences of kaon condensation on the nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram are explored. The relative particle abundances obtained in an isentropic expansion of a blob of quark-gluon plasma are presented for different initial conditions. Implications for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.

  13. Probing gravitational dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2015-03-27

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  14. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  15. Particulate, colloidal, and solution phase associations of plutonium, americium, and uranium in surface and groundwater at the Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, R.A.; McKnight, D.M.; Ranville, J.F.; Stephens, V.C.; Honeyman, B.D.

    1993-12-31

    With the cessation of plutonium processing at the D.O.E.-administered Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, CO, the focus of activities at the facility has switched to contaminant assessment and potential remediation strategies. In this context the authors began a study in 1991 to determine the potential for colloid-facilitated transport of the actinides Pu, Am, and in surface- and groundwater at this site. Using the technique of tangential flow ultrafiltration, the authors isolated particles from four size fractions at one groundwater well and two surface water seeps to determine the distribution of Pu, Am, and U among particulate, colloidal, and dissolved aqueous phases. Analysis of particle isolates and filtrate fractions showed significant associations of Am and Pu with colloidal and particulate size particles; uranium isotopes were associated mainly with low molecular weight organic species. The results indicate a potential for colloidal-facilitated transport of the actinides Pu and Am and a significant contribution by low molecular weight natural organic matter to uranium transport.

  16. fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of Acicular Mullite Diesel Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pore-scale simulations of filtration and regeneration in acicular muillite diesel particulate filters have suggested underlying mechanisms that contribute to lower back pressures compared to other common DPF substrates.

  17. Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters for Heavy Duty and NRMM According to Annex XXVII StVZO Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel ...

  18. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain ...

  19. Energy Matters LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Energy Matters LLC Place: Santa Rosa, California Zip: 95402 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Energy Matters specialises in software tools for the renewable energy...

  20. Perturbed recombination from dark matter annihilation (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Perturbed recombination from dark matter annihilation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Perturbed recombination from dark matter annihilation Authors: Dvorkin, Cora ; ...

  1. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  2. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  3. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  4. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  5. Physical Protection of Classified Matter

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03

    The order establishes policy and objectives for physical protection of classified matter. This directive does not cancel another directive. Chg 1, 7-30-93. Canceled by 5632.1C.

  6. Energy Matters: Our Energy Independence

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this installment of the livechat series "Energy Matters," Dr. Arun Majumdar takes questions from the public about the investments we're making today that will move us off of foreign oil and...

  7. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-09-21

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through theirmoreelectric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a BoseEinstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry.less

  8. The role of developing countries in protecting the ozone layer: An ethical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatz, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to reduce the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the nations of the world joined together in a landmark effort to address this most important problem. Unlike many environmental issues which are localized, ozone depletion is an environmental problem which must be addressed on a global scale. In order to successfully halt the depletion of the ozone layer, it is imperative that all countries amend their current practices and reduce their consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This necessity presents an ethical dilemma when assigning responsibility for ozone layer protection among nations. This paper will address the difficulties in dealing with ozone depletion on a global scale and will discuss the ethically correct role which should be assumed by developing countries. After presenting a brief history of the problem of ozone depletion and the measures which have been taken to halt it, this paper will describe an ethical framework in which ozone layer protection policies in developing countries should be evaluated. This framework is based on the concept of balancing morally-correct policies with economically-sound policies. It illustrates, in detail, how the environmental impacts of policies must be considered in conjunction with the impacts of such policies on the lives and well-being of the country`s citizens. The paper presents an ethical analysis of three primary policy options. These options address the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs) and include: the no-phaseout option, the developed country accelerated phaseout schedule, and the delayed phaseout schedule. Each option is examined within the ethical framework presented earlier in the paper. Finally, the paper concludes by addressing the ethical responsibilities of developed countries. It discusses the various ways in which developed countries should provide aid.

  9. Ozone in sea water. Part 1: Chemistry; Part 2: Corrosion of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    Ozonation of sea water for biofouling control is being utilized in desalination processes, heat exchange systems, as well as in salt water aquariums. The chemistry of ozone in sea water is much more complex than in fresh water due to the high concentration of easily oxidizable, ozone-demanding species and the formation of secondary oxidants. The major secondary oxidant is bromine in the form of hypobromite and hypobromous acid (BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr) which are formed by oxidation of the bromide ion (Br{sup {minus}}), naturally found in sea water in concentrations of 65 mg/L. HOBr can react again with ozone to return Br{sup {minus}}, resulting in accelerated decomposition of ozone, or to form bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) The BrO ion is known to interfere with the measurement of residual ozone in sea water, so it is important that the feed gas conditions, solution pH, and the hypobromous and bromate concentrations be reported to quantify the amount of ozone introduced into a system. In 0.5 N NaCl and sea water solutions, ozone appears to stabilize the passivity of passivating metals, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion appears to increase in the same environments. The effect of BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr on the corrosion of metals in sea water is believed to be similar to chlorine and ozone, in that it acts as a strong oxidizer. However, it is not certain whether BrO{sup {minus}}/HOBr and BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} have any damaging effects on protective metal films.

  10. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  11. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 Email Short-pulse ion acceleration The Trident facility is a world-class performer in the area of ion acceleration from laser-solid target interactions. Trident has demonstrated over 100 MeV protons at intensities of 8x1020 W/cm2 with efficiencies approaching 5%. These intense relativistic interactions can be diagnosed

  12. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CMMS Condensed Matter and Magnet Science The group has a distinguished history of applying cutting-edge condensed matter physics research and high magnetic field science to mission-relevant materials challenges as well as fundamental investigations of emergent physical phenomena. Contact Us Group Leader Michael Hundley Email Deputy Group Leader Chuck Mielke Email NHMFL-PFF Director Chuck Mielke Email Deputy NHMFL-PFF Director Ross McDonald Email Group Office (505) 667-4838 NHMFL Office (505)

  13. Energy Matters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Matters Energy Matters July 25, 2011 - 1:04pm Addthis On Wednesday, January 26th, Secretary Chu held an online town hall to discuss President Obama's clean energy and innovation agenda. Read a recap and watch video from the full event here. Addthis Related Articles WEDNESDAY: Secretary Chu to Host Live Chat on Clean Energy and Innovation Vice President Biden Kicks Off Five Days of Earth Day Activities with Announcement of Major New Energy Efficiency Effort Energy Secretary Steven Chu to Travel

  14. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  15. Dark matter beams at LBNF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coloma, Pilar; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2016-04-08

    High-intensity neutrino beam facilities may produce a beam of light dark matter when protons strike the target. Searches for such a dark matter beam using its scattering in a nearby detector must overcome the large neutrino background. We characterize the spatial and energy distributions of the dark matter and neutrino beams, focusing on their differences to enhance the sensitivity to dark matter. We find that a dark matter beam produced by a Zmore » $$^{'}$$ boson in the GeV mass range is both broader and more energetic than the neutrino beam. The reach for dark matter is maximized for a detector sensitive to hard neutral-current scatterings, placed at a sizable angle off the neutrino beam axis. In the case of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a detector placed at roughly 6 degrees off axis and at a distance of about 200 m from the target would be sensitive to Z$$^{'}$$ couplings as low as 0.05. This search can proceed symbiotically with neutrino measurements. We also show that the MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE detectors, which are on Fermilab’s Booster beamline, happen to be at an optimal angle from the NuMI beam and could perform searches with existing data. As a result, this illustrates potential synergies between LBNF and the short-baseline neutrino program if the detectors are positioned appropriately.« less

  16. Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    annealing (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum annealing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4+δ by ozone and vacuum annealing In this study we performed a series of ozone and vacuum annealing experiments on epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4+δ thin films. The transition temperature after each annealing step has been measured by the mutual inductance technique. The relationship

  17. Influence of ozone on pentobarbital pharmacokinetics in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.A.; Menzel, D.B.; Mole, M.L.; Miller, F.J.; Gardner, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    It had been shown that 3- to 5-hr exposures to ambient concentrations of ozone (O/sub 3/) increase pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in female mice, hamsters, and rats without decreasing heptatic cytochrome P-450 levels or selected mixed function oxidases. To elucidate potential mechanisms involved, clearance of pentobarbital from the blood of O/sub 3/-exposed mice was examined. Pentobarbital clearance followed first-order kinetics with a one-compartment model. Mice exposed to 1960 micrograms per cu. m. (1ppm) for 5 hr had a 71% increase in the plasma half-life of pentobarbital. It therefore appears possible that pentobarbital-induced sleeping time is increased due to a decrease in hepatic metabolism of pentobarbital.

  18. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  19. Improved Potential Energy Surface of Ozone Constructed Using the Fitting by Permutationally Invariant Polynomial Function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ayouz, Mehdi; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    New global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone is constructed at the complete basis set level of the multireference configuration interaction theory. A method of fitting the data points by analytical permutationally invariant polynomial function is adopted. A small set of 500 points is preoptimized using the old surface of ozone. In this procedure the positions of points in the configuration space are chosen such that the RMS deviation of the fit is minimized. New ab initio calculations are carried out at these points and are used to build new surface. Additional points are addedmore » to the vicinity of the minimum energy path in order to improve accuracy of the fit, particularly in the region where the surface of ozone exhibits a shallow van der Waals well. New surface can be used to study formation of ozone at thermal energies and its spectroscopy near the dissociation threshold.« less

  20. Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change in Twentieth Century Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Change in Twentieth Century Zuev, V Institute of Atmospheric Optics Zueva, N. Institute of Atmospheric Optics Bondarenko, S Institute of Atmospheric Optics Category: Atmospheric State and Surface It is shown that during long-term total ozone decrease everywhere at middle and high latitudes there takes place the destruction of balance in global carbon cycle first of all due to reduction of

  1. Spatially Resolved Estimation of Ozone-related Mortality in the United

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States under Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their Uncertainty (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Spatially Resolved Estimation of Ozone-related Mortality in the United States under Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their Uncertainty Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatially Resolved Estimation of Ozone-related Mortality in the United States under Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and their Uncertainty BACKGROUND: The spatial

  2. Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films for High

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Authors: Chen, Xinyi ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Banerjee, P ; Gregorczyk, Keith ; Ghodssi, Reza ; Rubloff, Gary W Publication Date: 2012-04-10 OSTI

  3. A global analysis of the ozone deficit in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Allen, M. )

    1993-01-20

    The global measurements of temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide acquired by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS), supplemented by a precomputed distribution of chlorine monoxide, are used to test the balance between odd oxygen production and loss in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. An efficient photochemical equilibrium model, validated by comparison with the results from a fully time-dependent one-dimensional model at selected latitudes, is used in the calculations. The computed ozone abundances are systematically lower than observations for May 1-7, 1979, which suggests, contrary to the conclusions of other recent studies, a problem in model simulations of stratospheric ozone. The ozone deficit' at 30[degrees]N is smaller than previous analyses of LIMS data have indicated. In the stratosphere, this reduction in the deficit is due to the fact that CIO abundances for the 1979 period utilized in this study are much lower than in earlier work, mainly as a result of lower Cl[sub y] concentrations. In the mesosphere, a correlation of the ozone deficit with the distribution of water vapor is indicated. The ozone deficit in the stratosphere can be eliminated by modifying only one model reaction rate: either by decreasing the rate of odd oxygen loss or by increasing the rate of odd oxygen production Cl[sub y] increasing the photodissociation rate of molecular oxygen primarily in the Herzberg continuum and/or invoking photolysis of vibrationally excited molecular oxygen. With the ozone abundances thus increased, a small residual deficit in the lower mesophere can be eliminated by reducing, within the recommended kinetic uncertainties, the efficiency of odd hydrogen-catalyzed odd oxygen loss. With the adjusted model, the calculated ozone abundances for the week of January 1-7. 1979, outside of winter latitudes, also agree with the LIMS observations to within 10%. 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Collection efficiency of the Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-05-26

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam–laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements aremore » used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam–particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of two. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.« less

  5. Collection efficiency of the soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) for internally mixed particulate black carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willis, M. D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E. C.; Williams, L. R.; Lambe, A. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2014-12-18

    The soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) uses an intra-cavity infrared laser to vaporize refractory black carbon (rBC) containing particles, making the particle beam–laser beam overlap critical in determining the collection efficiency (CE) for rBC and associated non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM). This work evaluates the ability of the SP-AMS to quantify rBC and NR-PM mass in internally mixed particles with different thicknesses of organic coating. Using apparent relative ionization efficiencies for uncoated and thickly coated rBC particles, we report measurements of SP-AMS sensitivity to NR-PM and rBC, for Regal Black, the recommended particulate calibration material. Beam width probe (BWP) measurements aremore » used to illustrate an increase in sensitivity for highly coated particles due to narrowing of the particle beam, which enhances the CE of the SP-AMS by increasing the laser beam–particle beam overlap. Assuming complete overlap for thick coatings, we estimate CE for bare Regal Black particles of 0.6 ± 0.1, which suggests that previously measured SP-AMS sensitivities to Regal Black were underestimated by up to a factor of 2. The efficacy of the BWP measurements is highlighted by studies at a busy road in downtown Toronto and at a non-roadside location, which show particle beam widths similar to, but greater than that of bare Regal Black and coated Regal Black, respectively. Further BWP measurements at field locations will help to constrain the range of CE for fresh and aged rBC-containing particles. The ability of the SP-AMS to quantitatively assess the composition of internally mixed particles is validated through measurements of laboratory-generated organic coated particles, which demonstrate that the SP-AMS can quantify rBC and NR-PM over a wide range of particle compositions and rBC core sizes.« less

  6. Dark matter in 3D

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.

    2016-03-21

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our methodmore » using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.« less

  7. Transpiring purging access probe for particulate laden or hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G

    2013-12-03

    An access probe for remote-sensing access through a viewing port, viewing volume, and access port into a vessel. The physical boundary around the viewing volume is partially formed by a porous sleeve lying between the viewing volume and a fluid conduit. In a first mode of operation, a fluid supplied to the fluid conduit encounters the porous sleeve and flows through the porous material to maintain the viewing volume free of ash or other matter. When additional fluid force is needed to clear the viewing volume, the pressure of the fluid flow is increased sufficiently to slidably translate the porous sleeve, greatly increasing the flow into the viewing volume. The porous sleeve is returned to position by an actuating spring. The access probe thereby provides for alternate modes of operation based on the pressure of an actuating fluid.

  8. Advances in controlling particulate emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.

    1995-12-31

    Present and possible future Federal, state, and local air pollutant emission regulations coupled with an increasingly competitive business environment and the aging of existing particulate control equipment are motivating utilities to improve particulate control system effectiveness and reduce control cost. To these ends, several cost-effective means of improving particulate control are being developed and tested. Three fossil plant retrofit technologies of note include two flue gas conditioning systems--one ``agentless`` arrangement that uses the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas as the raw material for an SO{sub 3} conditioning system, and a promising new additive that has performed well in laboratory and pilot-scale tests. A second retrofit technology supplements all or most of the existing electrostatic precipitator with a pulse-jet baghouse. A third approach described in this paper is one example of a new class of advanced filtration systems, some of which can remove NO{sub x} and particulate in the same vessel. Technologies like these will enable utilities to boost particulate removal effectiveness after switching to lower-sulfur coal for Clean Air Act compliance, minimize compliance costs, and optimally position themselves for possible further emission regulations.

  9. Plasma regenerated particulate trap and NO.sub.x reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Brusasco, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    A non-catalytic two-stage process for removal of NO.sub.x and particulates from engine exhaust comprises a first stage that plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, and a second stage, which preferably occurs simultaneously with the first stage, that converts NO.sub.2 and carbon soot particles to respective environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced while carbon soot from trapped particulates is simultaneously converted to CO.sub.2 when reacting with the NO.sub.2 (that converts to N.sub.2). For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a chamber where carbon-containing particulates are electrostatically trapped or filtered and a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. Volatile hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) from the trapped particulates are oxidized in the plasma and the remaining soot from the particulates reacts with the NO.sub.2 to convert NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, and the soot to CO.sub.2. The nitrogen exhaust components remain in the gas phase throughout the process, with no accompanying adsorption.

  10. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, John E.; Perkins, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  11. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Toops, Todd J; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  12. EVM Subject Matter Experts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Earned Value Management » EVM Subject Matter Experts EVM Subject Matter Experts Name Title Office * Phone Email Melvin Frank Chief, Project Management Policy and Systems PM-30 202-586-5519 Send Email David Kester EVMS Subject Matter Expert PM-30 202-586-4342 Send Email Robert Loop EVMS Subject Matter Expert PM-30 202-287-1324 Send Email Karen Urschel (CONTR) EVMS Subject Matter Expert PM-30 260-417-2184 Send Email Buck Wilkerson (CONTR) Planning and Scheduling Subject Matter Expert PM-30

  13. Wino dark matter under siege

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Timothy; Lisanti, Mariangela; Pierce, Aaron; Slatyer, Tracy R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu

    2013-10-01

    A fermion triplet of SU(2){sub L} a wino is a well-motivated dark matter candidate. This work shows that present-day wino annihilations are constrained by indirect detection experiments, with the strongest limits coming from H.E.S.S. and Fermi. The bounds on wino dark matter are presented as a function of mass for two scenarios: thermal (winos constitute a subdominant component of the dark matter for masses less than 3.1 TeV) and non-thermal (winos comprise all the dark matter). Assuming the NFW halo model, the H.E.S.S. search for gamma-ray lines excludes the 3.1 TeV thermal wino; the combined H.E.S.S. and Fermi results completely exclude the non-thermal scenario. Uncertainties in the exclusions are explored. Indirect detection may provide the only probe for models of anomaly plus gravity mediation where the wino is the lightest superpartner and scalars reside at the 100 TeV scale.

  14. Z-portal dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann; Richard, Francois

    2015-03-11

    We propose to generalize the extensions of the Standard Model where the Z boson serves as a mediator between the Standard Model sector and the dark sector χ. We show that, like in the Higgs portal case, the combined constraints from the recent direct searches restrict severely the nature of the coupling of the dark matter to the Z boson and set a limit m{sub χ}≳200 GeV (except in a very narrow region around the Z-pole region). Using complementarity between spin dependent, spin independent and FERMI limits, we predict the nature of this coupling, more specifically the axial/vectorial ratio that respects a thermal dark matter coupled through a Z-portal while not being excluded by the current observations. We also show that the next generation of experiments of the type LZ or XENON1T will test Z-portal scenario for dark matter mass up to 2 TeV. The condition of a thermal dark matter naturally predicts the spin-dependent scattering cross section on the neutron to be σ{sub χn}{sup SD}≃10{sup −40} cm{sup 2}, which then becomes a clear prediction of the model and a signature testable in the near future experiments.

  15. Method for the removal of ultrafine particulates from an aqueous suspension

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Kopasz, John P. (Bolingbrook, IL); Ellison, Adam J. G. (Corning, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulates from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel containing the particulates, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  16. Method for the Removal of Ultrafine Particulates from an Aqueous Suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiko, David J.; Kopasz, John P.; Ellison, Adam J.G.

    1999-03-05

    A method of separating ultra-fine particulate from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel-containing the particulate, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

  17. Engine-External HC-Dosing for Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Heavy Duty and NRMM According to Annex XXVII StVZO | Department of Energy This presentation discusses how a diesel particulate filter can be integrated in the exhaust piping of a heavy-duty engine. PDF icon deer08_rembor.pdf More Documents & Publications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System using a Ceria-Based Fuel-Borne Catalyst in Serial Applications A Bimetmallic Fuel-Borne Catalyst for Reduce Precious Metal Use in Medium-Duty Diesel Engines APBF-DEC

  18. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  19. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  20. Science On Tap - Matter over. Antimatter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science On Tap - Matter over Antimatter Science On Tap - Matter over. Antimatter WHEN: Aug 20, 2015 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los...

  1. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  2. Policy Matters Ohio | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Matters Ohio Jump to: navigation, search Name: Policy Matters Ohio Address: 3631 Perkins Avenue - Suite 4C-East Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44114 Website: www.policymattersohio.org...

  3. MPA Materials Matter December 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA Materials Matter December 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter December 2015 This is the December 2015 issue of the MPA Materials Matter ...

  4. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  5. The equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Carlson, Joseph Allen

    2015-06-30

    A brief status report of research on equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is provided, along with two graphs.

  6. Dark matter in a bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Kang, Jin U; Li, Changhong E-mail: jin.u.kang2@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We investigate a new scenario of dark matter production in a bouncing universe, in which dark matter was produced completely out of equilibrium in the contracting as well as expanding phase. We explore possibilities of using dark matter as a probe of the bouncing universe, focusing on the relationship between a critical temperature of the bouncing universe and the present relic abundance of dark matter.

  7. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Front Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the front matter of the Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: a Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  8. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Controlling particulates, temperature, and tritium in an inert glovebox for a weapons program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purson, J.D.; Powers, D.; Walthers, C.; Navarro, C.; Newman, E.; Romero, J.; Jenkins, R.

    1996-07-01

    A glovebox is described in which several environmental parameters are controlled and monitored. Included in these are particulate, tritium, water vapor, oxygen and temperature. The paper details the design rationale and process and describes the glovebox, presently in use for neutron generator production.

  10. Methods of hydrolyzing pretreated densified biomass particulates and systems related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bals, Bryan; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Tim; Dale, Bruce

    2015-02-03

    A method is provided in which pretreated and densified cellulosic biomass particulates can be hydrolyzed at a high solids loading rate as compared with the solids loading rate of loose hydrolysable cellulosic biomass fibers. The resulting high concentration sugar-containing stream can be easily converted to biofuels or an entire suite of other useful bioproducts.

  11. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  12. Observation of stratospheric trace gases related to ozone depletion in the Antarctic spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Zafra, R.L.; Parrish, A.; Solomon, P.; Barrett, J.W.; Connor, B.; Jaramillo, M. )

    1987-01-01

    During the first National Ozone Expedition (NOZE I), which ran from 21 August to early November 1986 at McMurdo Station, the authors made frequent measurements of chlorine monoxide (CIO), ozone (O{sub 3}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and occasional measurements of hydrogen cyanide. Observations were made with a ground-based millimeters wave spectrometer capable of detecting and measuring the pressure broadened rotational emission lines of these molecules in the 260-280 gigahertz frequency range. The spectral bandpass and resolution of the instrument is sufficient to recover altitude distributions over a range of approximately 20-55 kilometers and to detect emission from as low as approximately 13-15 kilometers. Results are given and discussed on the levels of chlorine monoxide, nitrous oxide, and ozone found.

  13. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  14. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antgona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric contextparticularly redox state and O atom inventoryof the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  15. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S.F.; Bailey, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NO{sub x} in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NO{sub x} emissions while also reducing SO{sub 2} emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NO{sub x} reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NO{sub x} emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NO{sub x} titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds.

  16. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jrmie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun; Fisk, William J.

    2011-05-01

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives, rather than ozonolysis, is the main formaldehyde source in those filters. Emission rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not found to be large enough to substantially increase indoor concentrations in typical building scenarios. Nevertheless, ozone reactions on HVAC filters cannot be ignored as a source of low levels of indoor irritants.

  17. Cold fusion in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schommers, W.; Politis, C. )

    1989-01-01

    A model for cold fusion in condensed matter is proposed (cold fusion of deuterons in palladium). It is assumed that the palladium-deuterium system forms an alloy, i.e., it is assumed that Pd ions as well as d/sup +/ ions are embedded in an uniform background of negative charge (conduction electrons). The model is based on an interaction potential for deuterons in solid palladium which has been estimated by means of a theoretical picture well known in the physics of liquids. In particular, the following effects are possible: 1. Cold fusion in condensed matter can take place. 2. The observed energy should be larger than that given by the fusion reactions. 3. Hitherto unknown nuclear processes must not be postulated as reported by Fleischmann and Pons. 4. The deuterons are mobile. 5. The deuterons can form close-packed clusters, and in principle a fusion reaction can take place within such a cluster. 6. Not only /sup 3/He should be produced in Pd but possible /sup 4/He too. From their theoretical picture, it can be concluded that experimental results will be strongly dependent on the condition of the materials used in the experiments. This can possible explain that only a part of experiments could show up cold fusion. A well defined condition (lattice defects, different phases, impurities, etc.) of the materials is probably the most critical point in connection with the observation of cold fusion in condensed matter. The effect should also be influenced by lattice dilatations. Experiments with other materials instead of palladium (e.g. vanadium, titanium, lanthanide metals, and different alloys) should be probably more informative.

  18. Dark Matter in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2009-04-07

    We have recently examined a large number of points in the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, the 19-dimensional parameter space of the CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation. We determined whether each of these points satisfied existing experimental and theoretical constraints. This analysis provides insight into general features of the MSSM without reference to a particular SUSY breaking scenario or any other assumptions at the GUT scale. This study opens up new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology both in colliders and in astrophysical experiments. Here we shall discuss the implications of this analysis relevant to the study of dark matter.

  19. Flavored dark matter beyond minimal flavor violation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3)x associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter ? which transforms asmoretriplet under U(3)x , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator ? with a coupling ?. We identify a number of flavor-safe scenarios for the structure of ? which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. The combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of ? turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.less

  20. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  1. Method of making polymer powders and whiskers as well as particulate products of the method and atomizing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2001-01-09

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  2. Study of air pollution: Effects of ozone on neuropeptide-mediated responses in human subjects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boushey, H.A.

    1991-11-01

    The study examined the hypothesis that ozone inactivates the enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, responsible for limiting the effects of neuropeptides released from afferent nerve endings. Cough response of capsaicin solution delivered from a nebulizer at 2 min. intervals until two or more coughs were produced. Other endpoints measured included irritative symptoms as rated by the subjects on a nonparametric scale, spirometry, of each concentration of ozone were compared to those of filtered air in a single-blind randomized sequence. The results indicate that a 2 h. exposure to 0.4 ppm of ozone with intermittent light exercise alters the sensitivity of airway nerves that mediate the cough response to inhaled materials. This dose of ozone also caused a change in FEV1. A lower level of ozone, 0.02 ppm, caused a change in neither cough threshold nor FEV1, even when the duration of exposure was extended to three hours. The findings are consistent with the author's hypothesis that ozone may sensitize nerve endings in the airways by inactivating neutral endopeptidase, an enzyme that regulates their activity, but they do not demonstrate that directly examining an effect directly mediated by airway nerves allows detection of effects of ozone at doses below those causing effects detected by standard tests of pulmonary function.

  3. Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision: Pump Systems Matter(tm) (PSM) places a primary focus on pump systems education and outreach and addresses energy savings and total cost of pump ownership. Vision: Pump Systems Matter initiative assists North American pump users gain a more competitive business advantage through strategic, broad-based energy management and pump system performance optimization. Mission: To provide the marketplace with tools and collaborative opportunities to integrate pump

  4. TASI 2008 Lectures on Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the 2008 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI), I review here some aspects of the phenomenology of particle dark matter, including the process of thermal freeze-out in the early universe, and the direct and indirect detection of WIMPs. I also describe some of the most popular particle candidates for dark matter and summarize the current status of the quest to discover dark matter's particle identity.

  5. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Wednesday, 25 April 2012 00:00 Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material

  6. Valuing the ozone-related health benefits of methane emission controls

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the US Government to estimate the social cost of carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011) $790 and $1775 per tonnemore » methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70 and 150 % of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using global warming potential estimates. Results for monetized benefits are sensitive to a number of factors, particularly the choice of elasticity to income growth used when calculating the value of a statistical life. The benefits increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10 % accrue in the United States. As a result, this methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.« less

  7. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  8. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Barrera-Roldan, A.

    1993-12-31

    This reports on the collection and preparation of data (costs and air quality improvement) for the strategic evaluation portion of the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI). Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions. Information from appropriate options identified by SCAQMD for Southem California were also used in the analysis. A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy.

  9. Apparatus and method for removing particulate deposits from high temperature filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakaishi, Curtis V.; Holcombe, Norman T.; Micheli, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    A combustion of a fuel-air mixture is used to provide a high-temperature and high-pressure pulse of gaseous combustion products for the back-flush cleaning of ceramic filter elements contained in a barrier filter system and utilized to separate particulates from particulate-laden process gases at high temperature and high pressure. The volume of gaseous combustion products provided by the combustion of the fuel-air mixture is preferably divided into a plurality of streams each passing through a sonic orifice and conveyed to the open end of each filter element as a high pressure pulse which passes through the filter elements and dislodges dust cake supported on a surface of the filter element.

  10. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-29

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  11. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  12. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Grohse, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  13. Fogging formulations for fixation of particulate contamination in ductwork and enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maresca, Jr., Joseph W.; Kostelnik, Lori M.; Kriskivich, James R.; Demmer, Rick L.; Tripp, Julia L.

    2015-09-08

    A method and an apparatus using aqueous fixatives for fogging of ventilation ductwork, enclosures, or buildings containing dust, lint, and particulates that may be contaminated by radionuclides and other dangerous or unsafe particulate contaminants, which method and apparatus are capable of (1) obtaining full coverage within the ductwork and (2) penetrating and fixing the lint, dust and large particles present in the ductwork so that no airborne particles are released during or after the application of the fixative. New aqueous fogging solutions outperform conventional glycerin-based solutions. These aqueous solutions will fog using conventional methods of application and contain a surfactant to aid wetting and penetration of the lint and dust, a binder to stabilize loose or respirable particles, and an agent to aid in fogging and enhance adhesiveness. The solutions are safe and easy to use.

  14. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composites produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intensity acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaction products comprise a solid particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particle-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  15. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  16. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  17. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Andriulli, John B. (Kingston, TN); Strain, Paul D. (Eads, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  18. Terra Matters PLLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Terra Matters, PLLC Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98122 Product: Boutique consultancy providing advice on sustainable design and business...

  19. ALS Reveals New State of Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    universe" of sorts. Some researchers believe that the conditions inside this new state of matter can be manipulated (for example, by bringing it into contact with a...

  20. Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve...

  1. Energy Matters: Industrial Energy Efficiency | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public ... discussed industrial energy efficiency on an Energy Matters video livechat. Dr. ...

  2. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  3. Jelly Bean Universe (Dark Matter / Dark Energy)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kurt Riesselmann

    2010-01-08

    Fermilab's Kurt Riesselmann explains how to make a jelly bean universe to help explain the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.

  4. Three Ways to Bust Ghostly Dark Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How the National Labs hunt for invisible “dark matter" on the Earth’s surface, underground and in space.

  5. The Impact of Emission and Climate Change on Ozone in the United States under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Drake, John B.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Liu, Yang

    2013-09-27

    Dynamical downscaling was applied in this study to link the global climate-chemistry model Community Atmosphere Model (CAM-Chem) with the regional models: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ). Two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were used to evaluate the climate impact on ozone concentrations in 2050s. Ozone concentrations in the lower-mid troposphere (surface to ~300 hPa), from mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), show decreasing trends in RCP 4.5 between 2000s and 2050s, with the largest decrease of 4-10 ppbv occurring in the summer and the fall; and increasing trends (2-12 ppbv) in RCP 8.5 resulting from the increased methane emissions. In RCP 8.5, methane emissions increase by ~60% by the end of 2050s, accounting for more than 90% of ozone increases in summer and fall, and 60-80% in spring and winter. Under the RCP 4.5 scenario, in the summer when photochemical reactions are the most active, the large ozone precursor emissions reduction leads to the greatest decrease of downscaled surface ozone concentrations, ranging from 6 to 10 ppbv. However, a few major cities show ozone increases of 3 to 7 ppbv due to weakened NO titration. Under the RCP 8.5 scenario, in winter, downscaled ozone concentrations increase across nearly the entire continental US in winter, ranging from 3 to 10 ppbv due to increased methane emissions and enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). More intense heat waves are projected to occur by the end of 2050s in RCP 8.5, leading to more than 8 ppbv of the maximum daily 8-hour daily average (MDA8) ozone during the heat wave days than other days; this indicates the dramatic impact heat waves exert on high frequency ozone events.

  6. Development of Optical Technologies for Monitoring Moisture and Particulate in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Partin

    2006-08-01

    The results of an investigation directed at evaluating the feasibility of using optical measurements for the real-time monitoring moisture and particulate in geothermal steam is described. The measurements exploit new technologies that have been developed for the telecommunications industry and includes new solid state laser devices, large-bandwidth, high-sensitivity detectors and low loss optical fiber compo-nents. In particular, the design, fabrication, and in-plant testing of an optical steam monitor for the detection of moisture is presented. The measurement principle is based upon the selective absorption of infrared energy in response to the presence of moisture. Typically, two wavelengths are used in the measurements: a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by water and a reference wavelength that is minimally influenced by water and steam which serves as a reference to correct for particulate or droplet scattering. The two wavelengths are chosen to be as close as possible in order to more effectively correct for scattering effects. The basic instrumentation platform developed for the in-situ monitoring of steam moisture can be modified and used to perform other measurements of interest to plant operators. An upgrade that will allow the instrument to be used for the sensitive detection of particulate in process streams has been investigated. The new monitor design involves the use of laser diodes that are much less sensitive to water and water vapor and more sensitive to scattering phenomena, as well as new processing techniques to recover these signals. The design reduces the averaging time and sampling volume, while increasing the laser probe power, enhancing particulate detection sensitivity. The design concept and initial laboratory experiments with this system are also reported.

  7. Engine gaseous, aerosol precursor and particulate at simulated flight altitude conditions. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wey, C.C.

    1998-10-01

    The overall objective of the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is to develop scientific bases for assessing atmospheric impacts of the exhaust emissions by both current and future fleets of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Among the six primary elements of the AEAP is Emissions Characterization. The objective of the Emission Characterization effort is to determine the exhaust emission constituents and concentrations at the engine exit plane. The specific objective of this engine test is to obtain a database of gaseous and particulate emissions as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. The database of the particulate emission properties is to be used as a comparative baseline with subsequent flight measurement. The engine used in this test was a Pratt and Whitney F100-200E turbofan engine. Aviation fuel (Jet A) with a range of fuel sulfur was used. Low and high sulfur values are limited by commercially available fuels and by fuel specification limits of 0.3% by weight. Test matrix was set by parametrically varying the combustor inlet temperature (T3) between idle and maximum power setting at simulated SLS and up to five other altitudes for each fuel. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive, were assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA extractive system includes smoke meter and analyzers for measurement of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NOx, O{sub 2}, total unburnt hydrocarbons (THC), and SO{sub 2}. Particulate emissions were characterized by University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System.

  8. Operating Experience Level 3, Update to Requalification Test Failure of Certain High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information regarding the previous requalification test failure and subsequent successful requalification, of certain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) Filters models manufactured by Flanders Corporation.

  9. Light absorption from particulate impurities in snow and ice determined by spectrophotometric analysis of filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenfell, Thomas C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Clarke, Antony D.; Warren, Stephen G.

    2011-05-10

    Light absorption by particulate impurities in snow and ice can affect the surface albedo and is important for the climate. The absorption properties of these particles can be determined by collecting and melting snow samples and extracting the particulate material by filtration of the meltwater. This paper describes the optical design and testing of a new instrument to measure the absorption spectrum from 400 to 750 nm wavelength of the particles collected on filters using an ''integrating-sandwich'' configuration. The measured absorption is shown to be unaffected by scattering of light from the deposited particulates. A set of calibration standards is used to derive an upper limit for the concentration of black carbon (BC) in the snow. The wavelength dependence of the absorption spectra from 450 to 600 nm is used to calculate an absorption Angstrom exponent for the aerosol. This exponent is used to estimate the actual BC concentration in the snow samples as well as the relative contributions of BC and non-BC constituents to the absorption of solar radiation integrated over the wavelength band 300 to 750 nm.

  10. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  11. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade-Old Proton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Puzzle | Jefferson Lab Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade-Old Proton Puzzle The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, or CLAS, in Jefferson Lab's Experimental Hall B was used to measure electrons during the experiment. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, or CLAS, in Jefferson Lab's Experimental Hall B was used to measure electrons during the experiment. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter to Resolve Decade-Old Proton Puzzle Fans of science and science

  12. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.C.; Lyon, W.G.; Ross, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluable organic matter content (that is, humin) as function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes. 56 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Wastewater treatment: Ozonation processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for wastewater disinfection. The citations cover system descriptions and evaluations, comparisons with the chlorination disinfection process, reaction kinetics, and the combination of ozonation with other wastewater treatment methods. The treatment of organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater and municipal water supplies is also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Wastewater treatment: Ozonation processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for wastewater disinfection. The citations cover system descriptions and evaluations, comparisons with the chlorination disinfection process, reaction kinetics, and the combination of ozonation with other wastewater treatment methods. The treatment of organic and inorganic compounds in wastewater and municipal water supplies is also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  16. Ratcheting Up The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDermott, Samuel Dylan

    2014-04-01

    The last several years have included remarkable advances in two of the primary areas of fundamental particle physics: the search for dark matter and the discovery of the Higgs boson. This dissertation will highlight some contributions made on the forefront of these exciting fields. Although the circumstantial evidence supporting the dark matter hypothesis is now almost undeniably significant, indisputable direct proof is still lacking. As the direct searches for dark matter continue, we can maximize our prospects of discovery by using theoretical techniques complementary to the observational searches to rule out additional, otherwise accessible parameter space. In this dissertation, I report bounds on a wide range of dark matter theories. The models considered here cover the spectrum from the canonical case of self-conjugate dark matter with weak-scale interactions, to electrically charged dark matter, to non-annihilating, non-fermionic dark matter. These bounds are obtained from considerations of astrophysical and cosmological data, including, respectively: diffuse gamma ray photon observations; structure formation considerations, along with an explication of the novel local dark matter structure due to galactic astrophysics; and the existence of old pulsars in dark-matter-rich environments. I also consider the prospects for a model of neutrino dark matter which has been motivated by a wide set of seemingly contradictory experimental results. In addition, I include a study that provides the tools to begin solving the speculative ``inverse'' problem of extracting dark matter properties solely from hypothetical nuclear energy spectra, which we may face if dark matter is discovered with multiple direct detection experiments. In contrast to the null searches for dark matter, we have the example of the recent discovery of the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is the first fundamental scalar particle ever observed, and precision measurements of the production and decay of the Higgs boson represent a unique entry p! oint to searches for new kinds of physics. Continuing to refine our understanding of the Higgs boson will also allow us to learn about a vast array of possible new physics. This dissertation includes work parameterizing some of the scenarios that are most likely to be discovered with future Higgs data.

  17. Overview of Pump Systems Matter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Pump Systems Matter Overview of Pump Systems Matter Pump Systems Matter (PSM) is a non-profit (501(c) 3) educational foundation, established to educate the marketplace and promote pumping systems energy efficiency. PDF icon G_Overview_of_Pump_Systems_Matter.pdf More Documents & Publications Summary of 2011 Accomplishments HI & PSM Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision

  18. Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision Pump Systems Matter(tm) (PSM) places a primary focus on pump systems education and outreach and addresses energy savings and total cost of pump ownership. PDF icon C_Vision_&_Mission_of_Pump_Systems_Matter.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Pump Systems Matter Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization

  19. Water vapor and ozone profiles with a CO{sub 2} DIAL system in south Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellecci, C.; Caputi, G.; De Donato, F.; Gaudio, P.; Valentini, M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors present the work carried out at the University of Calabria regarding a prototype of a DIAL system. This has been realized for remote pollution monitoring. Most of the efforts have been done to perform several measurements on an horizontal path in order to scan the wide surrounding area. The concentrations of ozone and water vapor have been carried out using two different methods both related with the DIAL technique. With the integrated technique, average concentrations have been evaluated up to 5 km using topographical targets. In the range resolution technique, profiles of ozone and water vapor have been performed up to 700 m with a spatial resolution of about 30 m. Although the system needs a revision in several subsystems of its set-up, the experimentation has pointed out the performance available and the necessary improvements.

  20. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  1. Quintessence with quadratic coupling to dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Chan, Nyein; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Lazkoz, Ruth; Maartens, Roy

    2010-04-15

    We introduce a new form of coupling between dark energy and dark matter that is quadratic in their energy densities. Then we investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is in the form of exponential quintessence. The three types of quadratic coupling all admit late-time accelerating critical points, but these are not scaling solutions. We also show that two types of coupling allow for a suitable matter era at early times and acceleration at late times, while the third type of coupling does not admit a suitable matter era.

  2. ALS Reveals New State of Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Reveals New State of Matter ALS Reveals New State of Matter Print Wednesday, 13 October 2010 00:00 ALS user groups from Princeton and Stanford have been making waves this past year with several high-profile papers and extensive news coverage of their work on a new state of matter embodied by "topological insulators," materials that conduct electricity only on their surfaces. First identified at the ALS in 2007 by a Princeton team led by M. Zahid Hasan, topological insulators have

  3. Particulate Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  4. Particulate Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Consortiums ...

  5. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, G. A.

    2013-01-30

    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX�1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku�2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon�3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.

  7. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Amanda C.; Kirby, Kevin K.; Gregoire, Daniel J.

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  8. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Koss, T.C.

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  9. Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal and F. J. Murcray Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiometric Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) has been in regular operation at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program site, conditions permitting, since the mid-1990s. We present here the analysis of several spectra

  10. A new feature in the internal heavy isotope distribution in ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, S. K. Liang, Mao-Chang; Savarino, Joel; Michalski, G.

    2014-10-07

    Ozone produced by discharge or photolysis of oxygen has unusually heavy isotopic composition ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O ratio) which does not follow normal mass fractionation rule: δ{sup 17}O ∼ 0.52{sup *}δ{sup 18}O, expressed as an anomaly Δ{sup 17}O = δ{sup 17}O − 0.52{sup *}δ{sup 18}O. Ozone molecule being an open isosceles triangle can have the heavy isotope located either in its apex or symmetric (s) position or the base or asymmetric (as) position. Correspondingly, one can define positional isotopic enrichment, written as δ{sup 18}O (s) or δ{sup 18}O (as) (and similarly for δ{sup 17}O) as well as position dependent isotope anomaly Δ{sup 17}O (s) and Δ{sup 17}O (as). Marcus and co-workers have proposed a semi-empirical model based in principle on the RRKM model of uni-molecular dissociation but with slight modification (departure from statistical randomness assumption for symmetrical molecules) which explains many features of ozone isotopic enrichment. This model predicts that the bulk isotope anomaly is contained wholly in the asymmetric position and the Δ{sup 17}O (s) is zero. Consequently, Δ{sup 17}O (as) = 1.5 {sup *} Δ{sup 17}O (bulk) (named here simply as the “1.5 rule”) which has been experimentally confirmed over a range of isotopic enrichment. We now show that a critical re-analysis of the earlier experimental data demonstrates a small but significant departure from this 1.5 rule at the highest and lowest levels of enrichments. This departure provides the first experimental proof that the dynamics of ozone formation differs from a statistical model constrained only by restriction of symmetry. We speculate over some possible causes for the departure.

  11. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area...

  12. Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological and Superconducting Phases Emerging properties in quantum matter is a major theme of modern physics, with ...

  13. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation ...

  14. Precision Determination Of The Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precision Determination Of The Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Precision Determination Of The Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum You are...

  15. Relativistic Dark Matter at the Galactic Center (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Relativistic Dark Matter at the Galactic Center In a large region of the supersymmetry parameter space, the annihilation cross section for neutralino dark matter is strongly ...

  16. The Right Technology Matters: The Importantce of Public-Private...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Right Technology Matters: The Importantce of Public-Private Partnerships for Engine Development The Right Technology Matters: The Importantce of Public-Private Partnerships for ...

  17. MPA Materials Matter September 2014 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA Materials Matter September 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter September 2014 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  18. Social Media and Messages that Matter - Top Tips and Tools |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Social Media and Messages that Matter - Top Tips and Tools Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Social Media and Messages that Matter - Top Tips and ...

  19. Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction Authors:...

  20. The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection You are accessing a...