National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ozone depletion warming

  1. Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2, CF2ClBr, and CF2BrCF2Br Dimitrios K. Papanastasiou,1,2,5 Nabilah. [1] The contribution of Halons, bromine-containing haloalkanes, to stratospheric ozone depletion

  2. Is the Ozone Depletion Regime a Model for an Emerging Regime on Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Winfried

    1991-01-01

    the for- mation of a global warming regime produces a highlydepletion and the global warming regimes was recognized byan Emerging Regime on Global Warming? by Winfried Lang I.

  3. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  4. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, Susan

    Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic “hole” contrasts with the generally weaker depletions ...

  5. Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

  6. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  7. Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 ozone depletion has been much studied as a case history in the interaction between environmental science the photochemistry of ozone in order to illustrate how scientific learning has the potential to mislead policy makers

  8. http://www.yfes.tn.edu.tw/environment/main1.htm Global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    ; : #12; Global warming Stratospheric ozone depletion Acid deposition Deforestation Desertification Ocean

  9. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    2008. Learning about ozone depletion. Climatic Change 89(1–and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone. San Diego, CA: AcademicPhotochemical behavior of the ozone layer. Report Number

  10. Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation, and Extreme Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation) ABSTRACT The possible impact of Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery on Southern Hemisphere (SH) mean- tercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3). By grouping models into four sets, those with and without ozone depletion

  11. I. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    such as solar panels, wind turbines or diesel generators. Typically, and more so recently dueI. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional sources of energy physical and operational state, including environmental sensor data (e.g. temperature), operational state

  12. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  13. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  14. Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY G; revised 4 May 2005; accepted 13 May 2005; published 20 August 2005. [1] We use atmospheric ozone density profiles between 35 and 65 km altitude derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements to quantify the ozone

  15. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  16. Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    via catalytic cycle: Under cold conditions, dimers ClO OCl form which are unstable in light. #3; Once concentration of ozone drops, reservoir reactions dominate and HCl and ClONO 2 reformed. #3; In antarctic spring

  17. Nighttime secondary ozone layer during major stratospheric sudden warmings in specified-dynamics WACCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasuvan, Varavut

    Nighttime secondary ozone layer during major stratospheric sudden warmings in specified to the thermosphere. Currently, the role of atmospheric dynamics on polar ozone in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere "secondary" (90­105 km) ozone maximum by examining the dynamics and distribution of key species (like H and O

  18. D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    O(1 D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases Munkhbayar Baasandorj) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O(1 D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O(1 D) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying the atmospheric loss processes of ODSs and GHGs is essential

  19. Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieder, Harald E.

    Whether stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we ...

  20. A Large Ozone-Circulation Feedback & Its Implications for Global Warming Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    Peer A Large Ozone-Circulation Feedback & Its Implications for Global Warming Assessments PeerCO2, b T by 4xCO2, c T by O3 and d water vapour by O3. 4. GLOBAL WARMING RESPONSE 0 50 100 150 200 250) Figure 1 | Temporal evolution of the annual and global mean surface tem- perature anomalies. Interactive

  1. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Koss, T.C.

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  2. Terrestrial Ozone Depletion Due to a Milky Way Gamma-Ray Burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian C. Thomas; Charles H. Jackman; Adrian L. Melott; Claude M. Laird; Richard S. Stolarski; Neil Gehrels; John K. Cannizzo; Daniel P. Hogan

    2005-02-10

    Based on cosmological rates, it is probable that at least once in the last Gy the Earth has been irradiated by a gamma-ray burst in our Galaxy from within 2 kpc. Using a two-dimensional atmospheric model we have performed the first computation of the effects upon the Earth's atmosphere of one such impulsive event. A ten second burst delivering 100 kJ/m^2 to the Earth penetrates to the stratosphere and results in globally averaged ozone depletion of 35%, with depletion reaching 55% at some latitudes. Significant global depletion persists for over 5 years after the burst. This depletion would have dramatic implications for life since a 50% decrease in ozone column density results in approximately three times the normal UVB flux. Widespread extinctions are likely, based on extrapolation from UVB sensitivity of modern organisms. Additional effects include a shot of nitrate fertilizer and NO2 opacity in the visible providing a cooling perturbation to the climate over a similar timescale. These results lend support to the hypothesis that a GRB may have initiated the late Ordovician mass extinction (Melott et al. 2004).

  3. A large ozone-circulation feedback and its implications for global warming assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Peer J.; Abraham, N. Luke; Maycock, Amanda C.; Braesicke, Peter; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Osprey, Annette; Pyle, John A.

    2014-12-01

    -climate model, we find an increase in global mean surface warming of around 1°C (~20%) after 75 years when ozone is prescribed at pre-industrial levels compared with when it is allowed to evolve self-consistently in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing...

  4. Ozone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3 to a wide span of NOx and VOC emission changes. Properly constrained and well-evaluated modelsOzone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating O3-NOx-VOC sensitivity Rahul A. Zaveri,1 Carl M. Berkowitz,1

  5. The signature of ozone depletion on tropical temperature trends, as revealed by their seasonal cycle in model integrations with single forcings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    [1] The effect of ozone depletion on temperature trends in the tropical lower stratosphere is explored with an atmospheric general circulation model, and directly contrasted to the effect of increased greenhouse gases and ...

  6. Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: An interdisciplinary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-07-01

    This book focuses on ozone depletion first, global warming second. It is a collection of perspectives from a variety of disciplines and includes a limited amount of technical assessment information.

  7. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances., Reader, M. C. and Jonsson, A. I. (2010) Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10. pp. 8803

  8. Reactive nitrogen, ozone and ozone production in the Arctic troposphere and the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Part I: NO x , PAN and Ozone Relationships, J. Atmos.Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arcticto springtime tropospheric ozone maxima using TOPSE measure-

  9. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  10. 2, 339356, 2002 Surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 339­356, 2002 Surface ozone depletion episodes D. W. Tarasick and J. W. Bottenheim Title ozone depletion episodes in the Arctic and Antarctic from historical ozonesonde records D. W. Tarasick.tarasick@ec.gc.ca) 339 #12;ACPD 2, 339­356, 2002 Surface ozone depletion episodes D. W. Tarasick and J. W. Bottenheim

  11. 5, 38113845, 2005 Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al. Title Page Discussions Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion G. E. Bodeker 1 , H. Shiona 1 , and H. Eskes 2 1 National Commons License. 3811 #12;ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al

  12. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

  13. Green house gases Ozone depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    · Advantages ­ CO2 at high partial pressures ­ Solvent scrubbing is proven technology ­ Benefits from improved ­ Gasification is quite different from combustion ­ Not widely demonstrated, reliability is an issue Coal Coal preparation gasification O2 gas cooling and clean-up H2O gas shift H2S, CO2 removal synthesis separation

  14. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) trap the outgoing solar radiation that is reflected by the earth by blocking "hard" ultraviolet solar radiation. #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone by using experimental data from e.g. air trapped in polar ice. CO2 concentrations started to rise in ~1800

  15. A global inventory of ecosystem sources of methyl bromide, an ozone destroying gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenney, Gareth

    2008-12-11

    Stratospheric ozone depletion is affected by halogen radicals, such as bromine, which is 40 times more effective at depleting ozone than chlorine. Methyl bromide, the largest contributor of bromine to the stratosphere is ...

  16. Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Raymond L.

    Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky Raymond L. Lee, Jr.,1, * Wolfgang Meyer absorption at longer wavelengths by ozone's Chappuis bands. Because stratospheric ozone is greatly depleted correlations between ozone concentration and twilight colors. We also used a spectroradiometer at a midlatitude

  17. Ozone Climatologies Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/m(a), percentage change in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Ozone Climatologies (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/m³(a), percentage change in ozone for the perturbed runs; tropopause region (b), whole stratosphere (c). Determining the impact of lower stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Hemisphere climate Sarah P.E. Keeley and Nathan

  18. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sprays went into effect first in the United States in 1978, and later in Canada, Norway, and Sweden. ... Over the years evidence mounted in support of Molina's theories,...

  19. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport)PriceHistoricEnergyApril 25,4Mario Molina,

  20. Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change Seok-Woo Son,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change Seok-Woo Son,1 Neil F. Tandon,2 Lorenzo M cooling resulting from ozone depletion has only recently been examined and a comprehensive picture on the stratospheric ozone forcing used, we here show that stratospheric ozone affects the entire atmospheric

  1. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.; Bodeker, G. E.; Hubert, D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Steinbrecht, W.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boone, C. D.; Bourassa, A.; Davis, S. M.; Degenstein, D.; Delcloo, A.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Jones, N.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Leblanc, S. T.; Lambert, J.-C.; Liley, B.; Mahieu, E.; Maycock, A.; de Mazière, M.; Parrish, A.; Querel, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Roth, C.; Sioris, C.; Staehelin, J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Stübi, R.; Tamminen, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Walker, K.; Wang, H. J.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-03-23

    Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC...

  2. Assessing Global Terrestrial Sources of Methyl Halides - Ozone Regulating Gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gancarczyk, Maciej

    2010-11-24

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) play significant roles in the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The vast portion of methyl halide sources and sinks sources and sinks are natural in origin. The ...

  3. Ranking* Category Aspect Normal Abnormal Emergency Impact Description Impact Comment High Water & energy Water consumption 7 (Neg) 7 (Neg) 7 (Neg) Water resource depletion. Use of chlorine / ozone in treatment and potential risk of damage to human health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    2 saving vis-à-vis national grid supplied electricity (20% electricity generation from CHP and global warming resulting in sea level rise, changing weather patterns, increased incidence of pest electrical & electronic equipment (WEEE) 7 (Neg) 7 (Neg) 7 (Neg) Breaches of environmental legislation. Human

  4. Separating the Influence of Halogen and Climate Changes on Ozone Recovery in the Upper Stratosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    causes ozone destruction by enhancing production of water vapor via methane oxidation. Additionally. Including potential climate-induced stratospheric water vapor increases, the ozone change relative to 1980 depletion chemistry, and therefore indirectly leading to more ozone. Increases in methane directly affect

  5. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  6. Depleted Uranium Technical Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Washington, DC 20460 EPA-402-R-06-011 December 2006 #12;#12;Depleted Uranium Technical Brief EPA of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division ii #12;iii #12;FOREWARD The Depleted Uranium

  7. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  8. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Global and zonal total ozone variations estimated fromon multidecadal total ozone simulations, J. Geophys. Res. ,and J. A. Logan (2007), Ozone climatolo- gical profiles for

  9. EARTH OBSERVATION 400M Indians Endangered By Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    has been linked to increases in skin cancer rates. All rights reserved. © 2004 United Press using satellite and limited ground observations, the Press Trust of India reported Tuesday. The rate the reasons for the depletion, th e report states. Ozone is an important atmospheric trace gas that blocks

  10. The Ozone Hole Some perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    The Ozone Hole · Some perspective · The British Antarctic Survey · The "Ozone Hole" · International of the predicted ozone losses! This was quite a controversy. Ultimately, ozone losses started appearing in the late 1980s (see Figure below), but by then, there was already a credibility issue for ozone scientists. #12

  11. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  12. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment October 2005. [1] Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289­339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique

  13. 6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 7427­7469, 2006 Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  14. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Jefferson's Ferry Public Affairs century. The warmest year of the millennium was 1998. #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed significantly since the late 1940s: more than half

  15. Validation of operational ozone profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Validation of operational ozone profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument M. Kroon,1 J. F. de we present the validation results of the operational vertical ozone profiles retrieved from the nadir observations by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura

  16. NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vi NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prepared as a NARSTO initiative, this tropospheric O3 in the accompanying Textbox, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment contains two product components. The first of these is a set aspects of tropospheric ozone pollution. The second component, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment Document

  17. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  18. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  19. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  20. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  1. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    models include a nearly complete set of chemical species and reactions that affect ozone, but are costly to Earth System

  2. 5, 59575985, 2005 European ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction explain the trends in European ozone levels? J. E. Jonson 1 , D. Simpson 1 , H. Fagerli 1 , and S. Solberg License. 5957 #12;ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract

  3. 6, 56715709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Hemispheric ozone variability indices derived from satellite observations.erbertseder@dlr.de) 5671 #12;ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page

  4. 4, 32853332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa B. Sauvage et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa: regional aspects from the MOZAIC data B Correspondence to: B. Sauvage (saub@aero.obs-mip.fr) 3285 #12;ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over

  5. Assimilation of Aura ozone data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assimilation of Aura ozone data I. Stajner, H. Hayashi, K. Wargan, L.-P. Chang, and S. Pawson Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) NASA/Goddard AGU Fall meeting December 2004 #12;2 Ozone assimilation at GMAO · Total ozone columns and stratospheric profiles from SBUV/2 instrument are assimilated

  6. 2, 921942, 2002 Global ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone forecasting H. J. Eskes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geophysical Society 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global ozone forecasting based on ERS-2 July 2002 Correspondence to: H. J. Eskes (eskes@knmi.nl) 921 #12;ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone

  7. 6, 51375162, 2006 Oceanic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W. Fairall et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean C. W. Fairall1 , D. Helmig2 , L. Fairall (chris.fairall@noaa.gov) 5137 #12;ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W

  8. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  9. Ozone decomposition in water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Cecil Grayson

    1969-01-01

    OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...

  10. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  11. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models. (2010) Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models Chemistry and Physics Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery

  12. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  13. Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

  14. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

  15. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

  16. Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

    2002-01-01

    The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

  17. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandyby George Lakoff Yes, global warming systemically causedExplain to others why global warming systemically caused the

  18. Global Warming* The Perfect Storm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming* The Perfect Storm Jim Hansen 29 January 2008 Health Implications of Climate Change opinion #12;Perfect Storm, Perfect Disaster 1. Great Inertia of Systems - Ocean: Half of Warming still "In

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consumption, peak electric demand, and avoid using refrigerants with high potentials for global warming and ozone depletion. * Further study is ongoing for the economical...

  20. Population Issues & Policies Population Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Youqin

    Desertification Food Production & Environment Cost of extensification Deforestation Soil erosion Desertification Loss of biodiversity Local and global weather change (global warming) Ozone depletion Can we

  1. 6, 66276694, 2006 linearized ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry.mccormack@nrl.navy.mil) 6627 #12;ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al

  2. Forecasting phenology under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silander Jr., John A.

    Forecasting phenology under global warming Ine´s Iba´n~ez1,*, Richard B. Primack2, Abraham J in phenology. Keywords: climate change; East Asia, global warming; growing season, hierarchical Bayes; plant is shifting, and these shifts have been linked to recent global warming (Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Root et al

  3. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  4. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  5. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  6. Oceanic alkyl nitrates as a natural source of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Lawler, Michael J; Prather, Michael J; Saltzman, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001ozonesondes, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer columns,behaviour of tropospheric ozone precursors in a global 3-D

  7. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    by and influencing ozone in unpolluted tropospheric air,R. C. , et al. (2004), Ozone production in transpacificplumes and implications for ozone air quality in California,

  8. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  9. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  10. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  11. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production...

  13. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at...

  14. The influence of cosmic rays on the size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alvarez Madrigal; J. Perez Peraza; V. M. Velasco

    2010-01-15

    The Antarctic region in which severe ozone depletion has taken place is known as the ozone hole. This region has two basic indicators: the area, where the ozone abundance is low (size), and the quantity of ozone mass deficit (depth). The energetic particles that penetrate deeply into the atmosphere and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) modify the ozone abundance in the stratosphere. With this research project, we are looking for evidence of a connection between variations in the cosmic ray flux and variations in the size of the ozone hole. In addition, we are looking for signs of the kind of processes that physically connect GCR fluxes with variations in the stratospheric ozone hole size (OHS) in the Antarctic region. With this goal in mind, we also analyze here the atmospheric temperature (AT) anomalies, which have often been linked with such variations. Using Morlet's wavelet spectral analysis to compute the coherence between two time series, we found that during the analyzed period (1982-2005), there existed a common signal of around 3 and 5 years between the OHS and GCR time series, during September and November, respectively. In both cases, the relationship showed a time-dependent anti-correlation between the two series. On the other hand, for October the analysis showed a time-dependent correlation that occurs around 1.7 years. These results seem to indicate that there exist at least two kinds of modulation processes of GCR fluxes on the OHS that work simultaneously but that change their relative relevance along the timeline.

  15. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Problem 15 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole" The figure below shows typical observations of the total amount of ozone in a layer of air 8 km thick between 12 and 20 km over the South Pole (recall that we like to express the `thickness of ozone

  16. N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone" Search done of Ozone by G. C. Carnahan and O. A. DeCelle; Chemical Engineering program, 1914 Call No. Thesis 543.2 C22 Press releases issued by Illinois Institute of Technology, 1940-1968 that include the word "ozone

  17. Climatology of UTLS ozone and the ratio of ozone and potential vorticity over northern Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkwood, Sheila

    Climatology of UTLS ozone and the ratio of ozone and potential vorticity over northern Europe T variations of ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region have been studied using of ozone exhibits a prominent annual cycle in the UTLS region. The observed change in the phase

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies of heterogeneous chemical processes leading to stratospheric ozone depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mantz, Yves André, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic chemical mechanisms of heterogeneous reactions involving HC on crystalline ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) are of fundamental interest to physical chemists, because such reactions yield "active" chlorine ...

  19. Modeling the climate impact of Southern Hemisphere ozone depletion: The importance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC)) used by many Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth/summer polar cap cooling, geopotential height decreases, and zonal wind increases in the BDBP simulations

  20. 7, 1009710129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 7, 10097­10129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes 1 , R. M Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  1. 5, 243286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone column content during SOLVE II J. M. Livingston et al and Physics Discussions Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during Aerospace Center), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany 243 #12;ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

  2. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  3. 6, 43254340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Long-memory processes in global ozone and temperature variations C #12;ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title

  4. 7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

  5. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  6. 8, 50075060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone trends from g-b FTIR observations C. Vigouroux et al.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 5007 #12;ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

  7. 8, 49114947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss processes B. Vogel et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4911 #12;ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss

  8. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  9. 6, 84578483, 2006 Low ozone over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone over the UK M. Keil et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions The January 2006 low ozone event over the UK M. Keil, D. R. Jackson, and M. C. Hort Met Office 2006 Correspondence to: M. Keil (mike.keil@metoffice.gov.uk) 8457 #12;ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone

  10. 5, 96419668, 2005 The origin of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9641­9668, 2005 The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions-5-9641 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions The origin of ozone V. Grewe The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  11. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  12. 3, 187223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone anomaly X. Liu et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy 2003 Correspondence to: X. Liu (xliu@nsstc.uah.edu) 187 #12;ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

  13. 3, 10811107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 3, 1081­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page-dimensional model study of long-term mid-high latitude lower stratosphere ozone changes M. P. Chipperfield School­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page Abstract Introduction

  14. 4, 21672238, 2004 Ozone loss and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991­2003 S Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone loss and chlorine activation Correspondence to: S. Tilmes (simone.tilmes@t-online.de) 2167 #12;ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine

  15. Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiteboul, Serge

    Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ? Tirthankar Lahiri 1 , Serge Abiteboul 2 language, and we implement our extensions in a system called Ozone. In our approach, structured data may full knowledge of structure. Ozone also enhances both ODMG/OQL and OEM/Lorel by virtue

  16. Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2003) Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies. Geophysical Research persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto

  17. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  18. Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

  19. Global Warming Hole 31 March 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Hole 31 March 2015 James Hansen Sorry to have disappeared for two months. I-thirds of North America know that global warming is really happening. In fact, 2015 should be the year that stifles discussion of a warming hiatus. A substantial developing El Nino will add to the global warming

  20. PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

  1. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  2. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  3. Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming forecasts of how global warming will affect polar icepacks. See also: Earth & Climate q Global Warming q the effects of climate warming, and its presence greatly reduces solar heating of the polar oceans." "Sea ice

  4. Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a Post Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 3 Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World Worry About Global Warming.. 14 Everybody Loses on Fuel Efficiency

  5. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  6. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil

  7. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

    2007-06-28

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  8. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, T

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  9. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  10. Ground-level ozone following astrophysical ionizing radiation events: an additional biological hazard?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to-date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling we have examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and find that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supe...

  11. A study of the effect of ozone and antioxidants on ozone-sensitive loblolly pine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, Karen Lashea

    1995-01-01

    Ozone, a phytotoxic air pollutant, is formed from photochemical reactions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the troposphere. Ozone is taken into the plant through the stomata, and quickly broken down into hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl...

  12. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING: GREENHOUSE GASES, AEROSOLS, RADIATIVE FORCING dioxide increase: sources, mixing ratio, forcing Global temperature change Climate sensitivity and time;#12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL

  13. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Ethical Culture Society of Suffolk;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

  14. Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 2 Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter spectrometers using convergence behaviour diagnostics Abstract The Ozone Profile Algorithm (OPERA), developed at KNMI, retrieves the vertical ozone distribution from nadir spectral satellite measurements of back scattered sunlight

  15. oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students Log in to ozone.ou.edu. Click the Advising tab. Please lecture schedule CRN ­ Course Reference Number In oZONE the Registration Add Errors will display one

  16. Controls over ozone deposition to a high elevation subalpine forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turnipseed, AA; Burns, SP; Moore, DJP; Hu, J; Guenther, AB; Monson, RK

    2009-01-01

    D.L. , Fehsenfeld, F.C. , 1986b. Background ozone andanthropogenic ozone enhancement at Niwot Ridge, Colorado.Day-time variations of ozone eddy ?uxes to maize. Boundary-

  17. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2012-01-01

    carbon filters for the control of ozone, sulfur dioxide, andMendell (2008). "Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  18. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01

    particles produced by ozone/limonene reactions in indoor airgas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds underNazaroff, W.W. , 2008. Ozone levels in passenger cabins of

  19. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Shuojun Wang

    2011-01-01

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  20. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Leeuw, Jan; Wang, Shuojun

    2007-01-01

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  1. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  2. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  3. 5, 58415874, 2005 Ozone/tracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et al. Title Page Discussions Impact of mixing and chemical change on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller 1 Commons License. 5841 #12;ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et

  4. 17 October 2014 Antarctic Ozone Bulletin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    17 October 2014 Antarctic Ozone Bulletin No 4/2014 Global Atmosphere Watch 0 5 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 Ushuaia 2014-10-10 Total ozone = 180 DU 14-21 km column = 39 DU 12-20 km column = 53 DU Ozone Temperature ECMWF analysis of PV at 475 K on 2014-10-10 at 12h -65.0 -59.5 -54.0 -48

  5. A fast stratospheric ozone chemistry schemeA fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme Michel Bourqui1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    A fast stratospheric ozone chemistry schemeA fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme Michel a computationally efficient chemical scheme, the FAst STratospheric Ozone Chemistry (FASTOC) scheme, which has advantages over many existing fast methods, as it does not rely on relaxation to assumed conditions, does

  6. On global warming T. C. Dorlas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorlas, Teunis C.

    On global warming T. C. Dorlas Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies School of Theoretical Physics- ature curve The ongoing debate about global warming prompted me to have a look at the physics myself

  7. Climate Whiplash: What Happens AFTER Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Climate Whiplash: What Happens AFTER Global Warming? with Dr. Curt Stager Author and Professor, Paul Smith's College Department of Natural Sciences Most debate over global warming looks only as far

  8. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  9. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  10. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  11. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution and Personal Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ://www.nctcog.org/trans/air/ozone/formation.gif #12;Health Effects · Chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion · Wheezing and difficulty

  12. The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    iii ABSTRACT The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination with other instruments tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) can be derived. In this study, the trajectory

  13. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  14. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01

    to determine deposition velocity, reaction probability, orOzone level, deposition velocity, reaction probability wereOzone level, deposition velocity, reaction probability were

  15. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California...

  16. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

  17. Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet* Jim Hansen 17 April 2007 2007 Leo Szilard Lecture. Graham Red Squirrel #12;Survival of Species 1. "Business-as-Usual" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 3ºC - Likely Extinctions ~ 50 percent 2. "Alternative" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 1ºC - Likely Extinctions

  18. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

  19. 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Does global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, Geoff

    © 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Does global warming make Triton blush? Neptune's largest moon (refs 5,6), and global warming has now been observed7 . We obtained four spectra of Triton between 0. Both the spectral changes and the global warming may have been caused by a triggering event

  20. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course Spring 2014 Instructors: Peter Huybers and Eli Tziperman of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

  1. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course spring 2012 Instructors: Eli Tziperman and Peter Huybers Hurricanes due to global warming? Apr 7: Stratospheric cooling: Why is the stratosphere cooling? Apr 14: Mid will be the impact of global warming on agriculture? Apr 28: Final Debate: Take sides! Should we act to curb global

  2. Global Warming and the Free State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Global Warming and the Free State Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland of the report. Citation Boesch, D.F. (editor). 2008. Global Warming and the Free State: Comprehensive AssessmentJuskelis,MarylandSierraClub Global Warming and the Free State Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland Report

  3. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course spring 2010 Instructors: Eli Tziperman and Peter Huybers Hurricanes due to global warming? Apr 7: Stratospheric cooling: Why is the stratosphere cooling? Apr 14: Mid will be the impact of global warming on agriculture? Apr 28: Final Debate: Take sides! Should we act to curb global

  4. The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

  5. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  6. Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galam, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotio...

  7. Using Depletion to Tune Colloid Shape for Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew S. Karas; Jens Glaser; Sharon C. Glotzer

    2015-10-14

    Depletion interactions arise from entropic forces and their ability to induce aggregation and even ordering of colloidal particles through self-assembly is well established, especially for spherical colloids. We vary the size and concentration of penetrable hard sphere depletants in a system of nonspherical colloids, and show how depletion effectively changes the shape of the colloids and thereby selects different crystal structures. We provide a simple explanation of this effective shape change using cuboctahedra, and explain the stability of the distinct crystals formed via depletion using free energy calculations that consider separately the contribution of the cuboctahedra and depletant entropy. We show that, counterintuitively, the colloid contribution to the free energy stabilizes the simple cubic phase. We corroborate our results by analyzing how the depletant concentration and size affect the emergent directional entropic forces and hence effective particle shape. We propose the use of depletants as a means of easily changing the effective shape of self-assembling anisotropic colloids.

  8. Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques L.M. Strijbosch April 25 to the process of ozone profile retrieval, a method for retrieving a global ozone distribution from satellite Machines are selected to replace the forward model, which is the slowest part of ozone profile retrieval

  9. Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone Wenshou Tian,1,2 Martyn in both the troposphere and stratosphere. The modeled total column ozone agrees well with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer observations. Modeled ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

  10. Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Observed by Data Assimilation Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange of ozone at tropopause folds is an important process in the atmosphere. Reconstruction of the evolution of ozone at a tropopause fold by conventional means requires synoptic ozone

  11. Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest Jacqueline Costello1, Farren: Tropospheric ozone is difficult to retrieve from satellites because of the abundance of ozone in the stratosphere. Tropospheric ozone has become a significant environmental issue and can be exacerbated by UT

  12. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  13. Effects of 20002050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Effects of 2000­2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone in the United States Shiliang Wu,1 Loretta J. Mickley,1 Daniel J. Jacob,1 David Rind) on the global tropospheric ozone budget and on the policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone in the United States

  14. Microarray-based analysis of survival of soil microbial community during ozonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    3 ] in Ozonation time (h) Ozone BTC TSEM content was used to1. Ozone breakthrough curve (BTC) and TSEM removal during

  15. Exposure to Particulate Matter and Ozone of Outdoor Origin in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Chen, Ailu; Chang, Victor; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    ulate matter (PM) or ozone, at concentration increments of ~SL, Samet JM, Dominici F. Ozone and short-term mortality inthe penetration of ambient ozone into residential buildings.

  16. LARGE MULTICONFIGURATION SELF-CONSISTENT-FIELD WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR THE OZONE MOLECULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer III., Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    theory comparable to that employed here for ozone. HoweverB (cyclopentadiyl) > B (ozone) > B (methylene), based onfor the its state of ozone near geometry. Coefficients of

  17. Modeling Ozone Removal to Indoor Materials, Including the Effects of Porosity, Pore Diameter, and Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    of healthy young volunteers to ozone causes cardiovasculareffects of five common ozone-initiated terpene reactiondecay rates, and removal of ozone and their relation to

  18. Ozone photochemical production in urban Shanghai, China: Analysis based on ground level observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    of aerosols on surface ozone concentration in Tianjin,W. P. L. (1994), Development of ozone reactivity scales forand M. M. Fox (1953), Ozone formation in photochemical

  19. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 63 (2013)Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 63 (2013)of the Air & Waste Management Association Publication

  20. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  1. Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2001-01-01

    stream_size 21847 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt stream_source_info Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text.... This study will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare...

  2. Directional depletion interactions in shaped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Scala; P. G. De Sanctis Lucentini

    2014-10-16

    Entropic forces in colloidal suspensions and in polymer-colloid systems are of long-standing and continuing interest. Experiments show how entropic forces can be used to control the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Significant advances in colloidal synthesis made in the past two decades have enabled the preparation of high quality nano-particles with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions, indicating that such particles can be utilized as "artificial atoms" to build new materials. To elucidate the effects of the shape of particles upon the magnitude of entropic interaction, we analyse the entropic interactions of two cut-spheres. We show that the solvent induces a strong directional depletion attraction among flat faces of the cut-spheres. Such an effect highlights the possibility of using the shape of particles to control directionality and strength of interaction.

  3. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 50% compared to today's best common practice - Alternative refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) are needed to achieve these goals - Provide guidance to the...

  4. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of planet formation and structures as well as the evolution of an imploding inertial fusion capsule depends on our understanding of matter in the complex warm dense matter...

  5. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  6. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy by George Lakoffsystemically caused Hurricane Sandy -- and the Midwestenormous energy and size of Hurricane Sandy, as well as the

  7. Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erin Mentuch; Alexis Brandeker; Marten H. van Kerkwijk; Ray Jayawardhana; Peter H. Hauschildt

    2008-08-26

    We estimate cluster ages from lithium depletion in five pre-main-sequence groups found within 100 pc of the Sun: TW Hydrae Association, Eta Chamaeleontis Cluster, Beta Pictoris Moving Group, Tucanae-Horologium Association and AB Doradus Moving Group. We determine surface gravities, effective temperatures and lithium abundances for over 900 spectra through least squares fitting to model-atmosphere spectra. For each group, we compare the dependence of lithium abundance on temperature with isochrones from pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks to obtain model dependent ages. We find that the Eta Chamaelontis Cluster and the TW Hydrae Association are the youngest, with ages of 12+/-6 Myr and 12+/-8 Myr, respectively, followed by the Beta Pictoris Moving Group at 21+/-9 Myr, the Tucanae-Horologium Association at 27+/-11 Myr, and the AB Doradus Moving Group at an age of at least 45 Myr (where we can only set a lower limit since the models -- unlike real stars -- do not show much lithium depletion beyond this age). Here, the ordering is robust, but the precise ages depend on our choice of both atmospheric and evolutionary models. As a result, while our ages are consistent with estimates based on Hertzsprung-Russell isochrone fitting and dynamical expansion, they are not yet more precise. Our observations do show that with improved models, much stronger constraints should be feasible: the intrinsic uncertainties, as measured from the scatter between measurements from different spectra of the same star, are very low: around 10 K in effective temperature, 0.05 dex in surface gravity, and 0.03 dex in lithium abundance.

  8. Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ." #12;Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources in Minnesota A Study gas (GHG) emissions from Minnesota's transportation sector. #12;Research Study Team UniversityBackground: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems

  9. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site;...

  10. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Targeted Review of the Fire Protection Program at the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enterprise Assessments...

  11. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

  12. PATTERNS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING "Projected warming in the 21st century shows scenario-independent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PATTERNS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING "Projected warming in the 21st century shows scenario in response to increasing greenhouse gas levels will not be geographically uniform. · Computer models indicate greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. However, the warming is not expected to be uniform over the globe, nor

  13. 5, 90039038, 2005 Ozone in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that extensive forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula, resulting from the drought and heat, contributed to the peak ozone values observed in15 North Europe in August. Additionally, forest fires in Siberia probably

  14. Ozone determination in different copying centers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chen-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Photocopying machines have been in existence for forty years: however, few people recognize their potential to create a human health hazard by ozone emission. This study was designed to determine the photocopier's emission rate and evaluate tile...

  15. Group Work: Global warming & natural variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

  16. Wildfires ignite debate on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    Wildfires ignite debate on global warming Astemperaturessoar. Is there a link with global warming? We have good reason to think so, and not taking the link seriously could have on climate change and global fire predictions last month, and I have been in my own media storm ever since

  17. Advanced Review Drought under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 of the warmest SSTs in the Atlantic and warming in the Indian Ocean are responsible for the recent Sahel droughts

  18. PRINCETON//989 Princeton WarmBore Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    in that it has a horizontal ``warm bore'' passing completely through the solenoidal coil, giving easy access, the internal Helium valve has been capped off. On the other hand, the cold volume service lines open directly pumpout port, opening the valve and pumping down. When warm, the system will eventually pump down to about

  19. Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming Pieter De Frennea,b,1 , Francisco of Land Use Systems, Leibniz-ZALF, DE-15374 Müncheberg, Germany; u Beechwood House, St. Briavels Common, Stanford, CA, and approved September 24, 2013 (received for review June 13, 2013) Recent global warming

  20. The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood complexities ·Introduce a Simple Model of Energy Balance ·Understand the Vocabulary ·Point out some units of energy input from the Sun = Temperature: 5.3 oC Greenhouse Effect 101: A Balance is Achieved

  1. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  2. The Impact of Global Warming and Air Pollution on Patient Visits in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derlet, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Review The Impact sf Global Warming and 1 Air pollution onair pollution problems and global warming will effect thesites in the human body. Global Warming Global warming goes

  3. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant

  4. Recovery of Depleted Uranium Fragments from Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, C.P.; Alecksen, T.J.; Heronimus, R.S.; Simonds, M.H.; Farrar, D.R.; Baker, K.R. [Environmental Restoration Group, Inc., Washington St. NE, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A cost-effective method was demonstrated for recovering depleted uranium (DU) fragments from soil. A compacted clean soil pad was prepared adjacent to a pile of soil containing DU fragments. Soil from the contaminated pile was placed on the pad in three-inch lifts using conventional construction equipment. Each lift was scanned with an automatic scanning system consisting of an array of radiation detectors coupled to a detector positioning system. The data were downloaded into ArcGIS for data presentation. Areas of the pad exhibiting scaler counts above the decision level were identified as likely locations of DU fragments. The coordinates of these locations were downloaded into a PDA that was wirelessly connected to the positioning system. The PDA guided technicians to the locations where hand-held trowels and shovels were used to remove the fragments. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and the new data patched into the data base to replace the original data. This new data set along with soil sample results served as final status survey data. (authors)

  5. Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

  6. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

  7. Global environmental change: Its nature and impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidore, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    This book is intended as an entry-level textbook on environmental science for nonscience majors. Twenty chapters address topics from historical geology and climatic change to population dynamics, land-use, water pollution, ozone depletion and biodiversity, global warming.

  8. A A~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -ton C hier,this effHiiency difference can provide centrifug a lchiller in a ' inqgsof over -$24000per of ozone depletion, global warming this: If every centrifugal chiller in the world and energy efficiency

  9. Comparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional Passive Warming Methods for Optimizing Perioperative Body Core Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B

    2015-01-01

    provided the new-technology passive warming devices (Opt-on the most effective passive warming method to improve theComparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional

  10. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2003-02-03

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  11. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot...

  12. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  13. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2002-06-07

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  14. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

  15. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  16. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of Standards and Technology -...

  17. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot more to the observed climate warming than current...

  18. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015...

  20. Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widen, Donald Allen

    1966-01-01

    Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

  1. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  2. What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found in the strato-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found it represents only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, ozone is crucial for life on Earth. Ozone--acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. With- out ozone, the Sun

  3. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong-Hoo Park a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong Received in revised form 26 May 2010 Accepted 2 June 2010 Keywords: Ozone fluxes Citrus Tropospheric ozone climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed

  4. Seasonal ozone variations in the upper mesosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, R.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1990-05-20

    The global daytime ozone was measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite (SME) for 5 years. The measurements extend through the mesosphere, covering from 50 km to over 90 km. The ozone in the upper mesosphere varies annually by up to a factor of 3. The observed seasonal variations may be summarized in several different ways. From year to year there is a great deal of repeatability of these variations. This repeatability occurs in most of the upper mesosphere outside the tropics. Near 0.01 mbar (80 km) the mid- and high-latitude mixing ratio peaks each year in mid-April. A secondary maximum in the altitude profile of ozone density usually occurs near 85 km. Changes in this structure are directly related to the April maximum and other seasonal changes seen at 0.01 mbar. The changing seasonal structure produces a bump at the ozone mixing ratio minimum that is largest just after spring equinox. This perturbation to the mixing ratio profile seems to move upward during the first half of the year. The seasonal changes of ozone were analyzed in terms of annual and semiannual structure. The variations generally have both an annual and semiannual component depending on altitude and latitude. The phases of the variations change quickly with both altitude and latitude. The semiannual component peaks in April, over most of the upper mesosphere.

  5. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982000 tropical ozone climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998­2000 tropical ozone climatology 2; published 31 January 2003. [1] The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere

  6. Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: results from the Canadian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model., Medvedev, A. S. and Shepherd, T. G. (2000) Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: results from RESEARCH, VOL. 105,NO. D21, PAGES 26,475-26,491,NOVEMBER 16, 2000 Ozone climatology using interactive

  7. Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone Article Published Version Austin, J. (2010) Chemistry climate model simulations of spring Antarctic1 ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research ozone John Austin,1,2 H. Struthers,3 J. Scinocca,4 D. A. Plummer,5 H. Akiyoshi,6 A. J. G. Baumgaertner,7

  8. Assigning vibrational polyads using relative equilibria. Application to ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadovskií, Dmitrií

    Assigning vibrational polyads using relative equilibria. Application to ozone I. N. Kozin a,1 , D equilibria. We use the ozone molecule as a concrete example where n­polyads or ``hyperpolyads'' should structure of the vibrational levels of ozone. We consider the classical mechanical analogue

  9. Using transport diagnostics to understand chemistry climate model ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Using transport diagnostics to understand chemistry climate model ozone simulations Article chemistry climate model ozone simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 116 (D17). D17302 transport diagnostics to understand chemistry climate model ozone simulations S. E. Strahan,1 A. R. Douglass

  10. A comparison study of data assimilation algorithms for ozone forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    A comparison study of data assimilation algorithms for ozone forecasts Lin Wu,1,2 V. Mallet,1,2 M assimilation schemes with the aim of designing suitable assimilation algorithms for short- range ozone but stable systems with high uncertainties (e.g., over 20% for ozone daily peaks (Hanna et al., 1998; Mallet

  11. On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies Article Published Version in total ozone anomalies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. D16306. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2009JD the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies D. I. Vyushin,1 T. G. Shepherd,1 and V. E

  12. Ozone Chemistry in the High-Latitude Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Ozone Chemistry in the High-Latitude Boundary Layer Linnea Avallone Department of Atmospheric layer ozone loss phenomenon · In situ observations of BrO at Arctic sites · Preliminary results from Antarctic experiments in 2002 and 2004 #12;Brief History · Springtime ozone loss observed at many sites

  13. Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E for their species effectiveness in reducing ozone concentrations in a simulated indoor environment. Continuously supply system were used to simulate an indoor environment in which ozone concentrations could be measured

  14. A global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    A global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies Article Published persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. D18119. ISSN 0148-0227 doi global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies S. Tegtmeier,1,2 V. E

  15. Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua ELINOR M. RAVESI, JOSEPH J. L1CCIARDELLO and LINDA D. RACICOT Introduction The strong oxidizing nature of ozone, known since its discovery in 1840 (1977) cited in a review article numerous reports of the successful use of ozone to I) control microbial

  16. Relative importance of radical families The "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    · Relative importance of radical families · The "Ozone Hole" · Introduction to heterogeneous chemistry Tuesday, March 8, 2011 #12;Review of important points so far Stratospheric ozone is only produced with these parameters Sir Sydney Chapman nearly got it right. He could account for the formation of the ozone layer

  17. oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides and the Registration Add Errors They Resolve Departments of the overrides within the registration component of oZONE. We have, however, retained a few instances where some. There is also a link to this document on the Student Training and Instructions page in the oZONE info site

  18. Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the ðJ ¼ 0Þ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which

  19. The Ozone Layer in the 21st Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    CHAPTER 6 The Ozone Layer in the 21st Century Lead Authors: G.E. Bodeker D.W. Waugh Coauthors: H;#12;CHAPTER 6 THE OZONE LAYER IN THE 21ST CENTURY Contents SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 6.2 A FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING CHANGES IN OZONE ABUNDANCES

  20. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982004 tropical ozone climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998­2004 tropical ozone climatology: 3 more than 3000 ozone profiles from 14 tropical and subtropical sites using balloon- borne technique might cause small station-to-station biases in the total ozone measurement. We present further

  1. Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2005) Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar's research outputs online #12;Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes Vitali E

  2. Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wuhu

    Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated three­dimensional model study Chipperfield winter­spring chemical ozone loss from 1991 2003, its observed correlation with low temperatures. CTM throughout studied. The model reproduces large column winters also captures shape of ozone loss profile

  3. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982000 tropical ozone climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998­2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements Anne M. Thompson,1 Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone

  4. Hot/Warm Gas Cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissett, Larry A.

    2001-11-06

    Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or warm gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of large-scale sorbent failure.

  5. REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence ecosystem processes worldwide. Despite their globally how increased temperature and frequency of summertime precipitation affect the contributions of crust

  6. Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

    While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

  7. The economics of fuel depletion in fast breeder reactor blankets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Shelby Templeton

    1972-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor fuel depletion-economics model was developed and applied to a number of 1000 MWe UMBR case studies, involving radial blanket-radial reflector design, radial blanket fuel management, and sensitivity ...

  8. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  9. ProteoSpinTM Abundant Serum Protein Depletion Kit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    abundance proteins. Depleted serum profile on 2D is clean and smearless with enrich- ment of some minor CORPORATION 3 General Introduction 2The use of body fluids, including serum and plasma, has become widespread

  10. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Jack Zimmerman, DUF6 at the PortsmouthPaducah Project Office. DUF6 is depleted uranium hexafluoride, a byproduct of uranium enrichment that has taken place at U.S. gaseous...

  11. Lymphocyte depletion in peripheral blood of gamma irradiated rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldin, Eric Michael

    1972-01-01

    LYMPHOCYTE DEPLETION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF GAMMA IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis by ERIC MICHAEL GOLDIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1972 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering (Health Physics) LYMPHOCYTE DEPLETION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF GAMMA IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis by ERIC MICHAEL GOLDIN Approved as to sty1e and con ent by: ( hairman of Co it ee) (H of Depar ment...

  12. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  13. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  14. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to...

  15. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF{sub 6} is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings.

  16. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    2012-01-01

    photosynthetic rate responses to ozone in some foliose andof gaseous nitric acid and ozone on lichens. Dissertations &with nitric acid and ozone. Environmental Pollution, In

  17. Tropospheric column ozone: matching individual profiles from Aura OMI and TES with a chemistry-transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Q.; Prather, M. J

    2012-01-01

    Science Objectives of the Ozone Monitoring In- strument,G. J. , and Logan, J. A. : Ozone climatolog- ical profilestroposphere ex- change ozone flux related to deep

  18. Megacity impacts on regional ozone formation: observations and WRF-Chem modeling for the MIRAGE-Shanghai field campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Tie, X. : Analysis of ozone and VOCs measured in Shanghai: AMegacity impacts on regional ozone formation terminations inand Tie, X. : Study of ozone “weekend effect” in Shanghai,

  19. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortz, Sarah E; Prather, Michael J; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An extension of the measurement of ozone and water vapour byin-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) ozone climatologies usingcomparison with SHADOZ ozone and MODIS aerosol, J. Geophys.

  20. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  1. Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air rises.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air of the cold water because warm air (or water) is less dense than cold air (or water). This concept can be seen the bottom floor of a house. Less dense warm air settles on top of cold air when winds are light

  2. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy Residential Building Envelopes Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy ResearchOzone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff

  3. Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-04-01

    ``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

  4. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  5. Tuning of depletion interaction in nanoparticle-surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, D., E-mail: debes@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: debes@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) without and with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticlesurfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-C12E10 system leads to the depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The system however behaves very differently on addition of SDS where depletion interaction gets suppressed and aggregation of nanoparticles can be prevented. We show that C12E10 and SDS form mixed micelles and the charge on these micelles plays important role in tuning the depletion interaction.

  6. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  7. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  8. Relations between isoprene and nitric oxide in exhaled breath and the potential influence of outdoor ozone: a pilot study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Alya; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Galassetti, Pietro; Blake, Donald R.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    2-day 3-day 5-day a 12.7 ppb ozone b Adjusted for splines ofoutput after exposure to ozone. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 80:apparatus against ozone damage, quenches ozone products, and

  9. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16

    llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Sean M. McDeavitt Committee Members, Kenneth L. Peddicord Lin Shao Head of Department, Yassin A. Hassan May 2012 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering iii.../m-K) Density (units: g/cm3) CHTA Crucible Heater Test Assembly DU Depleted uranium EU Enriched uranium LFA Laser (or light) ash analysis LFA 447 Light ash analyzer, model 447, by Netzsch Instruments LWR Light water reactor ODU Oxidized depleted uranium...

  10. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, J M; Zhang, H F; Zuo, W

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  11. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; U. Lombardo; H. F. Zhang; W. Zuo

    2015-12-09

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  12. The Effects of Ozone Deposition and Dissolved Organic Matter on Manganese Speciation in the Surface Ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Alison Michelle

    2014-07-31

    Despite the known reactivity of ozone (O_(3)) in water and ozone’s environmental importance in the atmosphere, there are relatively few studies published examining the chemistry of O_(3) in seawater. This study focused on ...

  13. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the UnitedAltshuler, S. ; Franco, G. Ozone formation in California'sSeinfeld, J. H. Analysis of ozone in the San Joaquin Valley

  14. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    J. C. , Reactivity of ozone on solid potassium iodide.and mechanisms of aqueous ozone reactions with bromide,for Dry Deposition of Ozone to Seawater Surfaces. Journal of

  15. Ground-level ozone influenced by circadian control of isoprene emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    S. The relation between ozone, NO x and hydrocarbons inAmerican emissions on surface ozone in the US. Atmos. Chem.10.1038/NGEO1271 Ground-level ozone influenced by circadian

  16. OZONE INDUCED CONDUCTANCE INCREASES ASSAYED WITH LIPID IMPREGNATED FILTER MEMBRANES-EFFECT OF VITAMIN E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheih, P.K

    2011-01-01

    29-44. R. L. Heath (1975) Ozone, in Response of Plants toSince it is possible that ozone absorption "is incompleteof the filter. After the ozone treatment was stopped the

  17. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destaillats, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    used in LBNL, exposed to 150 ppb ozone at two different flowMendell, 2008. Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  18. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D7, PAGES 9873-9887, JULY 20, 1989 The Sensitivity of Total Ozone and Ozone Perturbation Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    of Total Ozone and Ozone Perturbation Scenarios in a Two-Dimensional Model Due to Dynamical Inputs CHARLESTland The sensitivity of the total ozone distribution in our two-dimensional photochemical model to dynamical inputs has average total ozone varies by up to 10%. dependingon the various dynamical inputs, and the seasonaland

  19. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01

    periodically and analyzed for total ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations using the Direct Nessleriza- tion Method and the Cadmium Reduction Method, respectively (APHA, 1976) . 2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ozonation: The solutions... level. 29 7. Tests of the homogeneity of variance and oneway analysis of variance for the effects of ozonation on two levels of nitrite nitrogen concentration with 95X confidence limit. . . . 31 8. Effects of ozone on ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, COD...

  20. Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01

    2006, September 25). Is global warming raising a tempest?or her behavior towards global warming in 2007. *Timberlake,Editorial: The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy

  1. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andZ. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andAir Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and

  2. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Canada Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming:His timely book, Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,

  3. Tropospheric Ozone ATOC/CHEM 5151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ) ( production! #12;18 Ozone production CO + OH CO2 + H loss · Photolysis (1.4 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) · Oxidation of CO (3.5 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) 4. Chemical production #12;23 Formaldehyde chemistry CH2O + h H + HCO H + O2 + M HO2 + M HCO + O2 CO + HO2 2x [HO2

  4. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  5. Central issues in the negotiations on limiting greenhouse warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The three central questions in the international negotiations on greenhouse warming are: (1) How much global warming should be tolerated? (2) How much responsibility for past emissions should be assigned to present ...

  6. Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality.Natural gas (NG); Hydrogen pathways; Ozone formation; Ozone air quality

  8. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  9. Population and Climate Change: How Depletion of Nature and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    , Deforestation, Desertification, etc Inputs: 1. Energy Oil, Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Biomass, Renewables, etc 2Population and Climate Change: How Depletion of Nature and Human Inequality Impact Sustainability best farmland This is not sustainable: "We are drawing down the stock of natural capital

  10. Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Bouvier

    2008-09-03

    Israelian et al. (2004) reported that exoplanet host stars are lithium depleted compared to solar-type stars without detected massive planets, a result recently confirmed by Gonzalez (2008). We investigate whether enhanced lithium depletion in exoplanet host stars may result from their rotational history. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow and fast solar-type rotators from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the age of the Sun and compare them to the distribution of rotational periods observed for solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 5 Gyr. We show that slow rotators develop a high degree of differential rotation between the radiative core and the convective envelope, while fast rotators evolve with little core-envelope decoupling. We suggest that strong differential rotation at the base of the convective envelope is responsible for enhanced lithium depletion in slow rotators. We conclude that lithium-depleted exoplanet host stars were slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) and argue that slow rotation results from a long lasting star-disk interaction during the PMS. Altogether, this suggests that long-lived disks (> 5 Myr) may be a necessary condition for massive planet formation/migration.

  11. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures. Size-effect tuning also en- ables the useDepleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Andras G. Pattantyus-Abraham,, Illan J requires thick, high-purity solar cells with correspondingly long carrier transport lengths;3 organic

  12. Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2: inferences for the nitrogen cycle H O R M O an integrated assessment of the nitrogen (N) cycle and whether it is influenced by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 significantly changes foliage d15 N in a wide range

  13. Impact of the global warming hiatus on Andean temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuille, Mathias

    Impact of the global warming hiatus on Andean temperature Mathias Vuille1 , Eric Franquist1 , René Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología, Quito, Ecuador Abstract The recent hiatus in global warming in global warming has spurred a debate regarding its underlying causes. While some have suggested

  14. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  15. Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

  16. Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

  17. Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

  18. Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

  19. California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

  20. The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

  1. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  2. Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in Drosophila subobscura" Francisco in response to global warming. However, that conclusion is not adequately buttressed by their data, because that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms of Drosophila subobscura are evolving in response to global warming. (2

  3. Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Uma

    Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

  4. Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft James Hansen American: "Subversion of Public Affairs Chart 7: The Global Warming Story C. Tenets of a Democracy: "An Informed Public, not as a spokesman for NASA There is a huge gap between what is understood about global warming and what is known

  5. Strategies to Address Global Warming Is Sundance Kid a Criminal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Strategies to Address Global Warming & Is Sundance Kid a Criminal? Jim Hansen In my opinion, it is still feasible to solve the global warming problem before we pass tipping points that would guarantee ppm yields global warming about 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial level. Such a level of atmospheric

  6. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  7. Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster James Hansen 26 October 2009 Club statements relating to policy are personal opinion Global Warming Status 1. Knowledge Gap Between - What Benefits of Solution Despite the publicity that global warming has received, there is a large gap between

  8. Laughing Turfgrass Warms Mother Earth Dale Bremer, Kansas State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming and climate change. In truth, none of us would be able to survive on the earth were be global warming and climate change. So why are we measuring nitrous oxide emissions from turfgrass at KLaughing Turfgrass Warms Mother Earth Dale Bremer, Kansas State University Published October 2005

  9. The Science and Ethics of Global Warming George Philander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Storch, Hans

    The Science and Ethics of Global Warming George Philander (Lecture given on 26 August 2009, Cape Town, South Africa) The controversies of global warming are ostensibly about divergent interpretations at the equator, which is similar to global warming in having both scientific and ethical aspects, but which

  10. Global warming is real, and Nevertheless, practical actions, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Global warming is real, and Nevertheless, practical actions, which ICEBERG BREAKS OFF the San BY JAMES HANSEN Global Warming Defusing the #12;became strikingly apparent to me one summer afternoon. Objective analysis of global warming requires quantitative knowledge of three issues: the sensitivity

  11. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming Henrik Svensen a carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming, and the Toarcian global warming. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: climate change; Toarcian

  12. Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, S. Kathleen

    #12;Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Scott L. Wing. Freeman3 Rapid global warming of 5- to 10-C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided shape and size suggest that climate warmed by È5-C during the PETM and that precipitation was low early

  13. Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

  14. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  15. BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 1999Byrne, Yun / EFFICIENT GLOBAL WARMING Efficient Global Warming: Contradictions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 1999Byrne, Yun / EFFICIENT GLOBAL WARMING Efficient Global Warming: Contradictions in Liberal Democratic Responses to Global Environmental Problems democracies can be ex- pected to pursue a policy regime of "efficient global warming." Key words

  16. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  17. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion, unlike ORIGEN, which only depletes the isotopes specified by the user. This means that depletions done by MRTAU more accurately reflect reality. MRTAU also allows the user to build new isotope data sets, which means any isotope with nuclear data could be depleted, something that would help predict the outcomes of nuclear reaction testing in materials other than fuel, like beryllium or gold.

  18. Reactive uptake of ozone at simulated leaf surfaces: implications for "non-stomatal" ozone flux 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cape, J Neil; Hamilton, Richard P; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of ozone (O3) with ?-pinene has been studied as a function of temperature and relative humidity and in the presence of wax surfaces that simulate a leaf surface. The objective was to determine whether the presence of a wax surface...

  19. Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions Bryan J. Bloomer,1, and R. R. Dickerson (2009), Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions decreased by 43% for the time period 1995 to 2002 compared with 2003 to 2006 as a result of air pollution

  20. URBAN OZONE CONCENTRATION FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CORSICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Perceptron; Ozone concentration. 1. Introduction Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollution problem, both, Ajaccio, France, e-mail: balu@univ-corse.fr Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants concentration forecasting is an important issue in air quality monitoring. Qualitair Corse, the organization responsible for monitoring air

  1. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Ozone and Short-term Mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    . With the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), we have developed na- tional approaches Ambient Air Qual- ity Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, adding a daily maximum 8-hour stan- dard of 80 ppb.19 Because of the relevance of epidemiologic evi- dence to the NAAQS for ozone and other pollutants

  2. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  3. Modeling Transport E ects on Ground-Level Ozone Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Su-Yun

    Modeling Transport E ects on Ground-Level Ozone Using a Non-Stationary Space-Time Model Hsin on Ground-Level Ozone 1 #12;Summary This article presents a novel autoregressive space-time model for ground-level ozone data, which models not only spatio-temporal dynamics of hourly ozone con- centrations, but also

  4. Simulations of Ozone Distributions in an Aircraft Cabin Using Computational Fluid1 Aakash C. Rai1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Simulations of Ozone Distributions in an Aircraft Cabin Using Computational Fluid1 Dynamics2 3 10 Ozone is a major pollutant of indoor air. Many studies have demonstrated the adverse health effect of11 ozone and the byproducts generated as a result of ozone-initiated reactive chemistry

  5. Improving total column ozone retrievals by using cloud pressures derived from Raman scattering in the UV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joiner, Joanna

    Improving total column ozone retrievals by using cloud pressures derived from Raman scattering resolution, coverage, and sampling of the Aura satellite ozone monitoring instrument (OMI), as compared with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) should allow for improved ozone retrievals. By default, the TOMS

  6. Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials Paper # 715 Donna A) Austin, TX 78758, USA ABSTRACT Most ozone exposure occurs indoors even though some surfaces consume ozone and reduce its concentration relative to outdoors. Ozone consumption often results in emissions of secondary

  7. Why are there large differences between models in global budgets of tropospheric ozone?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Why are there large differences between models in global budgets of tropospheric ozone? Shiliang Wu for tropospheric ozone. The ozone production rate in the troposphere, P(Ox), varies from 2300 to 5300 Tg yrÀ1 compounds (NMVOCs, mostly biogenic isoprene), and ozone influx from stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE

  8. An intramolecular theory of the mass-independent isotope effect for ozone. I.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathorn, Bryan C.

    An intramolecular theory of the mass-independent isotope effect for ozone. I. B. C. Hathorn and R-independent isotope effect for ozone formation and dissociation is described. The experiments include the enrichment and asymmetric ozone isotopomers, the enrichment of ozone formed from heavily enriched oxygen isotopes

  9. A cohesive total ozone data set from the SBUV(/2) satellite system A. J. Miller,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    A cohesive total ozone data set from the SBUV(/2) satellite system A. J. Miller,1 R. M. Nagatani,1 of total ozone estimates from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Ozone Sensors (SBUVand SBUV/2) began of individual instruments are good, they give total ozone accuracies of approximately 2%. However, without

  10. PPPL-3281, Preprint: January 1998, UC-426 Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in industrial processes is increasing. Applications for ozone include treatment of waste water, water

  11. Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

  12. Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Building Codes on Energy Consumption and the Impact of Ozone on Crop Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aroonruengsawat, Anin

    2010-01-01

    14 Impact of ozone on crop yield15 Data 15.1 OzoneEstimated effect of mean ozone on crop yields. . . . . . .

  13. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar CoFacility | Open EnergyWarm

  14. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  15. Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-05-01

    Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global warming, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and environmental fate. These three areas are reviewed.

  16. Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.

  17. Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    50 years (4). The greatest warm anomalies in 2001 were in Alaska-Canada, in a band from North Africa. Geophys. Res. 106, 23947, 2001. 2. R.W. Reynolds, N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith, D.C. Stokes, W. Wang, J

  18. Eos, Vol. 88, No. 21, 22 May 2007 Humans have come to the realization that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    activities, the defense policies of many nations, and nuclear proliferation.Thus, we must seek ways, ozone depletion, global warming, and nuclear smoke all are human- driven problems that have actual and global warming are already happening, while drastic cooling from smoke from nuclear-generated fires has

  19. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis Henrik Svensen a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    and 2006. Heating of organic-rich shale and petroleum bearing evaporites around sill intrusions led with the end-Permian global warming and mass extinction. Heating experiments to 275 °C on petroleum-bearing of the erupted gases. The results indicate that global warming and ozone depletion were the two main drivers

  20. Abstracts EuroDendro 2004 [P] Poster [L] Lecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to limitation factors. At natural conditions the level of potential stability is essentially higher for investigation of modern global change effects: global warming, total ozone depletion etc. Very important-year Solar activity cycles ­ increment maximums coincided with favourable for growth warm periods

  1. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  2. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  3. {sup 85}Kr induced global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.

  4. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  5. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke...

  6. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies...

  7. Call for emission limits heats debate on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    Emission limits on carbon dioxide is recommended by an Intergovernmental Panel in a discussion on global warming. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heimbucher, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    charged particle physics Introduction . . . . . . . . .Driven Warm Dense Matter Physics, Four Point Sher- atonIntroduction to Plasma Physics, Plenum Press, New York [18

  9. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska Citation...

  10. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium forinertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles opacity table of...

  11. Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  12. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  13. Utilizing weak pump depletion to stabilize squeezed vacuum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Denker; Dirk Schütte; Maximilian H. Wimmer; Trevor A. Wheatley; Elanor H. Huntington; Michèle Heurs

    2015-03-10

    We propose and demonstrate a pump-phase locking technique that makes use of weak pump depletion (WPD) - an unavoidable effect that is usually neglected - in a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). We show that the phase difference between seed and pump beam is imprinted on both light fields by the non-linear interaction in the crystal and can be read out without disturbing the squeezed output. Our new locking technique allows for the first experimental realization of a pump-phase lock by reading out the pre-existing phase information in the pump field. There is no degradation of the detected squeezed states required to implement this scheme.

  14. Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects on photosynthesis to a complex canopy architecture§ M.J. Martina, *, G.E. Hosta; accepted 17 July 2001 ``Capsule'': A process model is described that predicts the relative effects of ozone

  15. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decai Sun

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramicâ?¢ and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. Another achievement in the development of the phosphor integration technology is the demonstration of tight color control. The high power WW LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability. The manufacturing of the product will be done in Philips Lumiledsâ?? LUXEON Rebel production line which has produced billions of high power LEDs. The first high power WW LED product will be released to the market in 2011.

  16. Global Health and Economic Impacts of Future Ozone Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort D.

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis-Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the ...

  17. Comparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional Passive Warming Methods for Optimizing Perioperative Body Core Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B

    2015-01-01

    BCG Medical provided the new-technology passive warmingpersonal copy Comparing New-Technology Passive Warmingreducing hypothermia. New-technology passive warming holds

  18. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  19. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Avci, H.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bradley, C.E. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  20. Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan R. Thomas

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

  1. The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

    2014-12-15

    Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

  2. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  3. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  4. Foliar ozone injury and gas exchange among black cherry genotypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouterick, K.B.; Skelly, J.M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kolb, T.E.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. (Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The effect of differing ozone exposures on seedlings of black cherry genotypes was investigated in northcentral Pennsylvania. Ozone exclusion treatments were administrated to half-sib families R12 and MO-7, and wild-type (WT) grown in open-top chambers. Over the 1993 growing season, left gas exchange and stem volume were related to percentage of foliar ozone injury observed as adaxial stipple. Ozone symptoms decreased significantly with increasing ozone filtration. R12 exhibited the most severe foliar injury, while WT seedlings showed slightly less symptoms. MO-7 had the least amount of foliar injury. No clear trends in stomatal conductance or net photosynthesis were observed until August. During August, foliar injury was positively related to stomatal conductance. Stomatal conductance values were greatest in R12, followed by WT and MO-7. Photosynthesis followed the same pattern at stomatal conductance. Dark respiration rates were variable across treatments for the entire growing season. Differing ozone exposures did not affect stem volume, but stem volume of seedlings of all families in the open plot were significantly lower than seedlings within chambers. Overall, R12 had higher stem volume than MO-7 and WT seedlings.

  5. Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been performed

  6. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    VOC reactivity and its effect on ozone production during theand HONO chemistry on ozone A. , Molina, L. T. , Nenes, A. ,15/4357/2015/ emissions on ozone concentration during summer

  7. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming Anders Levermanna,b,1 , Peter U. Clarkc of as much as several meters per degree of warming during previous intervals of Earth history when global. Moore, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing, China, and accepted by the Editorial

  8. Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stireman III, John O.

    Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming J. O that are associated with global warming (1, 2). Additional studies have demon- strated changes in ecological outbreaks are expected to increase in frequency and inten- sity with projected changes in global climate

  9. On warming, Williams is 'just plain wrong' Durham Herald Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    run we know that these emissions can retard warming, but we also know that carbon dioxide stays dampened the warming response to increased carbon dioxide. These aerosols result from inceased smokestack in the atmosphere 1,000 times longer than the aerosols, so ultimately the carbon dioxide will win out. In fact

  10. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pederson, Joel L.

    LETTERS Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere Mousumi Roy1 , Thomas H. Jordan2 & Joel Pederson3 The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high experienced 2 km of rock uplift7 without significant internal deformation2­4 . Here we propose that warming

  11. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation and biotic resistance in regulating or limiting exotic prey. We investigate how global warming potentially alters the strength damselfly Megalag- rion calliphya as predator and the invasive southern house mosquito Culex

  13. Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc mmccull3@nd.edu ABSTRACT: The recent destruction due to hurricanes and the apparent increase in frequency. Warm water holds more energy to fuel hurricanes and may contribute to the conditions needed

  14. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

  15. Projections of Future Summertime Ozone over the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, G. G.; Walters, Stacy; Lamarque, J. F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barth, Mary; Wong, John; Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy

    2014-05-05

    This study uses a regional fully coupled chemistry-transport model to assess changes in surface ozone over the summertime U.S. between present and a 2050 future time period at high spatial resolution (12 km grid spacing) under the SRES A2 climate and RCP8.5 anthropogenic pre-cursor emission scenario. The impact of predicted changes in climate and global background ozone is estimated to increase surface ozone over most of the U.S; the 5th - 95th percentile range for daily 8-hour maximum surface ozone increases from 31-79 ppbV to 30-87 ppbV between the present and future time periods. The analysis of a set of meteorological drivers suggests that these mostly will add to increasing ozone, but the set of simulations conducted does not allow to separate this effect from that through enhanced global background ozone. Statistically the most robust positive feedbacks are through increased temperature, biogenic emissions and solar radiation. Stringent emission controls can counteract these feedbacks and if considered, we estimate large reductions in surface ozone with the 5th-95th percentile reduced to 27-55 ppbV. A comparison of the high-resolution projections to global model projections shows that even though the global model is biased high in surface ozone compared to the regional model and compared to observations, both the global and the regional model predict similar changes in ozone between the present and future time periods. However, on smaller spatial scales, the regional predictions show more pronounced changes between urban and rural regimes that cannot be resolved at the coarse resolution of global model. In addition, the sign of the changes in overall ozone mixing ratios can be different between the global and the regional predictions in certain regions, such as the Western U.S. This study confirms the key role of emission control strategies in future air quality predictions and demonstrates the need for considering degradation of air quality with future climate change in emission policy making. It also illustrates the need for high resolution modeling when the objective is to address regional and local air quality or establish links to human health and society.

  16. Global Warming: What It Is What Is Controversial About It and What We Might Do in Response to It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botkin, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    along coasts. If global warming occurs, many environmentalSee, eg. , S. SCHNEIDER, GLOBAL WARMING: ARE WE ENTERING THETRANSITION (1989); Roberts, Global Warming: Blaming The Sun,

  17. Will U.S. Agriculture Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting for Irrigation in the Hedonic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01

    Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting forR. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: Comment,”371–411. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A

  18. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tognelli, Emanuele; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary (LDB). To do that we computed almost 12000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_sun by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross-sections, plasma electron screening, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical elements abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy elements mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, alpha_ML). As a first step, we studied the effect of varying these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input/parameters without an a priori assumption of independence. Such an approach allowed us to build for the first time the cumulative error stripe, which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical LDB age. We found that the cumulative error stripe ...

  19. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

    1993-01-01

    and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

  20. Review: Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2014-01-01

    realities of global warming history and contemporary climatemoral discussions about global warming at home that gives meScience and the Politics of Global Warming By Joshua P. Howe

  1. Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2013-01-01

    Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

  2. Regional calibration of coral-based climate reconstructions from Palau, West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Michael C; Dunbar, Robert B; Mucciarone, David A; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Druffel, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    of the western Paci?c Warm Pool. Climate Dynamics 33, 565–of the Paci?c warm pool: implications for ENSO. Sciencein the western Paci?c warm pool. Coral Reefs 29, 413–418.

  3. Morphological basis of tolerance to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.J.; Dekker, N.P.; Cabral-Anderson, L.J.; Shami, S.G.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Type 1 epithelial cells in the ozone (O/sub 3/)-tolerant lung epithelium. Rats were made tolerant by exposure to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 days and allowed to recover in air. Reexposure to a lethal concentration of O/sub 3/ (6 ppm) at 3, 7, and 15 days of recovery revealed that tolerance was present at 3 days but almost absent at 7 and 15 days of recovery. Using Type 2 cell proliferation as a means of quantitating Type 1 cell injury, it was observed that when the preexposed rats were reexposed to 0.5 ppm at 3, 7, and 15 days, very little Type 1 cell injury occurred at 3 days. However, at 7 and 15 days the amount of Type 1 cell injury was the same as that associated with the original exposure. To determine whether there was any change in the alveolar epithelial cell populations between the periods of tolerance (3 days) and its decline (7 and 15 days), the percentage of tritiated thymidine (( /sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells at these times were determined. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells between the third and fifteenth days of recovery as excess cells were sloughed off and the tissue returned to normal. Using electron microscopic morphometry, Type 1 and 2 cells were then studied during the decline of tolerance. No change was found in the morphology of Type 2 cells; however, the morphology of Type 1 cells revealed a 58% decrease in surface area and a 25% increase in the arithmetic mean thickness when tolerance was present at 3 days. As tolerance declined (7 and 15 days), Type 1 cell morphology returned to normal. It was concluded that tolerance exists when the surface area of a cell exposed to a particular concentration of ozone is small enough so that the existing antioxidant mechanism contained within that cell volume can protect it from damage.

  4. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  5. A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timilsina, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

  6. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution. UCD-ITS-RR-96-3 (by Ozone Air Pollution from Motor-Vehicles. UCD- ITS-RR-96-by ozone air pollution from motor vehicles J. J. Murphy†?,

  7. Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone-Based Atomic Layer...

  8. Modeling Ozone Removal to Indoor Materials, Including the Effects of Porosity, Pore Diameter, and Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    C. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities andreaction phenomena described by a single parameter, the ozone deposition velocity,velocity, v t (m h ?1 ), a characteristic of the ?uid mechanics of a space, and the reaction

  9. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend...

  10. Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

    2001-05-29

    Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

  11. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  12. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Mechanical...

  13. High-resolution paleoceanography and modeling of abrupt warming events on greenhouse earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Sandra Kirtland

    2012-01-01

    simulation of an Eocene Greenhouse Climate, GeophysicalDelaney, (2009), Coupled greenhouse warming and deep-seaanalogues for a future greenhouse warming? Philosophical

  14. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,and hazards related to pollution, Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

  15. Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01

    The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back”*, Are Youwas something fun to fight about, but it never gained thepersonal contribution to the fight against global warming.

  16. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  17. Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere Piers M. Forster lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and elucidate the key role of ozone changes in driving of tropical ozone decreases at 70 hPa and lower pressures can lead to significant cooling not only

  18. THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING BAYESIAN MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING University. The authors thank Alex Guenther for supplying the high frequency ozone concentration measurements a multiscale Bayesian model for separating ozone (O 3 ) concentration turbulent fluctuations from such inherent

  19. EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE CONCENTRATIONS ON FORESTED SLOPES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKendry, Ian

    EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE CONCENTRATIONS ON FORESTED SLOPES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH, hourly average ozone concentrations were mea- sured at three sites of differing elevation (188, 588. Sites experienced ozone concentrations ranging from 0 to 88 ppb in 2001, and 0 to 96 ppb in 2002. Daily

  20. Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend W. J. Collins, R of circulation changes in a changed climate on the exchange of ozone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. We have identified an increase in the net transport of ozone into the troposphere in the future

  1. The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation Luke D impact on tropospheric circulation causes significant changes to the distribution of ozone. Here we derive the lower tropospheric to lower stratospheric ozone response to ENSO from observations

  2. How Bromate and Ozone Concentrations can be Modelled at Full Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 How Bromate and Ozone Concentrations can be Modelled at Full Scale based on Lab-Scale Experiments ­ A Case Study Running head title How to model bromate & ozone at full scale based on lab tests Pierre-scale modelling study of an industrial ozonation unit for practical application. The modelling framework combines

  3. Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone Elliott T. Gall presents a Monte Carlo simulation to assess passive removal materials (PRMs) that remove ozone of homes in Houston, Texas, were taken from the literature and combined with back- ground ozone removal

  4. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications October 2008. Courtesy of Dr Mhairi Coyle, CEH Edinburgh. #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends Limited #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century I October 2008 I iiiThe Royal Society Ground

  5. Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated) to investigate the sludge reduction potential of partially ozonating sludge return activated sludge (RAS

  6. 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herve Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crambes, Christophe

    Contents 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1;1 Ozone pollution forecasting using conditional mean and conditional quantiles with functional covariates Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1.1 Introduction Prediction of Ozone pollution

  7. Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a) Brian K for an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation is given in terms of the energy transfer mechanism, where the metastable states of ozone are formed first, and then stabilized by collisions with other atoms. Unusual

  8. A review of statistical methods for the meteorological adjustment of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    A review of statistical methods for the meteorological adjustment of tropospheric ozone Mary Lou adjustment of tropospheric ozone Mary Lou Thompson1 Joel Reynolds1 Lawrence H. Cox2 Peter Guttorp1 Paul D.larry@epamail.epa.gov ABSTRACT: A variety of statistical methods for meteorological adjustment of ozone have been proposed

  9. Ozone deposition to an orange orchard: Partitioning between stomatal and non-stomatal sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone deposition to an orange orchard: Partitioning between stomatal and non-stomatal sinks Silvano January 2012 Keywords: Orange plants Ozone flux Stomatal deposition Non-stomatal deposition BVOC a b s t r a c t Orange trees are widely cultivated in regions with high concentrations of tropospheric ozone

  10. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 1?? , Analysis of 19701995 Trends in Tropospheric Ozone at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    in Tropospheric Ozone at Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes with the GEOS­CHEM Model Andrew C. Fusco Department. The causes of trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere mid­ latitudes from 1970 to 1995 to investigate the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone with respect to (1) changes in the anthropogenic emission

  11. Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery Article Published.G. and Ravishankara, A.R. (2009) Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery's research outputs online #12;Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery J. F

  12. A Comparison of Bayesian and Conditional Density Models in Probabilistic Ozone Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, William

    A Comparison of Bayesian and Conditional Density Models in Probabilistic Ozone Forecasting Song Cai to provide predictive distributions of daily maximum surface level ozone concentrations. Five forecast models forecasts for extreme events, namely poor air quality events defined as having ozone concentration 82 ppb

  13. Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery and cloud effects radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery and cloud effects. Atmospheric Chemistry Chemistry and Physics Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery

  14. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  15. ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 10 Energetics of the Photolysis of Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 10 Energetics of the Photolysis of Ozone Answers will be posted Thursday, October 9, 2014 Photolysis of ozone is important in the formation of the OH radical throughout much standard enthalpy tables to determine the bond strength of ozone (i.e., heat of reaction O + O2 O3) 105 k

  16. Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide concentrations of Ozone destruction and creation at different altitudes and concentrations of CH4 and N2O #12;Contents levels have varying conditions and are governed by different chemical regimes We will simulate ozone

  17. Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002 R. D the characteristic Southern Hemisphere springtime tropospheric ozone maximum, but its seasonal features are modulated anticyclonic gyre over southern Africa permit the buildup of relatively high springtime midtropospheric ozone

  18. Tropical ozone as an indicator of deep convection Ian Folkins and Christopher Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Tropical ozone as an indicator of deep convection Ian Folkins and Christopher Braun Department] The climatological ozone profile in the tropics is shaped like an ``S,'' with a minimum at the surface, a maximum. These features can be reproduced by a very simple model whose only free parameter is the mean ozone mixing ratio

  19. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Influence of UV irradiation and ozone. Kelly*1 The corrosion of Ag in an atmosphere of ozone and humidity with or without irradiation corrosion product to chloride in the reduction solution. The presence of both ozone and UV radiation

  20. Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone (structure code: MFI) following a previously published procedure. The films were illuminated using an ozone. Results presented here indicate that the UV/ozone treatment under nominally room temperature conditions

  1. Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States United States. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW­GTR­155. Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus

  2. Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone Vivien Mallet1 21 September 2006. [1] The potential of ensemble techniques to improve ozone forecasts ozone-monitoring networks. We found that several linear combinations of models have the potential

  3. The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10 (19). pp. 9473-9486. ISSN 1680 of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century A. J. Charlton-Perez1, E. Hawkins1, V. Eyring2, I. Cionni2, G. E

  4. Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing Article., Bodeker, G.E., Shepherd, T.G., Shindell, D.T. and Waugh, D.W. (2011) Ozone database in support of CMIP5 and Physics Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing I

  5. Smoothing Parameter Selection When Errors are Correlated and Application to Ozone Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heckman, Nancy E.

    Smoothing Parameter Selection When Errors are Correlated and Application to Ozone Data by Robert Jr trend of daily and monthly ground ozone levels in southern Ontario. iii #12; Contents Abstract ii.2 Air Pollution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.2.1 Daily Ozone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability

  7. Analytica Chimica Acta 573574 (2006) 913 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Analytica Chimica Acta 573­574 (2006) 9­13 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone. Their structural, electrical and ozone sensing properties were analyzed. Structural investigations carried out with ultraviolet light and subsequent oxidation in ozone atmosphere at room temperature. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Low ozone concentrations over Macquarie Island during 1997. Part I: trajectory analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordero, Eugene

    Low ozone concentrations over Macquarie Island during 1997. Part I: trajectory analysis by Eugene C instruments show record low ozone column densities between 20°S and 60°S throughout 1997. The monthly averaged record from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) indicates that measurements from 1997 are lower

  9. Ozone ensemble forecast with machine learning Vivien Mallet,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Ozone ensemble forecast with machine learning algorithms Vivien Mallet,1,2 Gilles Stoltz,3; published 13 March 2009. [1] We apply machine learning algorithms to perform sequential aggregation of ozone forecasts. The latter rely on a multimodel ensemble built for ozone forecasting with the modeling system

  10. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    : Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov and Dmitri Babikov Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184304 (2012 for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented. © 2012 American Institute

  11. Conditional quantiles when the covariates are curves : an application to Ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bercu, Bernard

    Conditional quantiles when the covariates are curves : an application to Ozone pollution forecasting Summary This work deals with the study of pollution data with the aim of forecas- ting the Ozone of the maximum of Ozone one day kno- wing one or several of these functional variables the day before. To do this

  12. Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation Evgeny Vetoshkin represent the metastable O3 * species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation.1063/1.2778432 I. INTRODUCTION Ozone O3 is formed in the stratosphere as a product of the following recombination

  13. Seedling insensitivity to ozone for three conifer species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    Seedling insensitivity to ozone for three conifer species native to Great Smoky Mountains National concentrations of ozone had little eect on seedlings of three species of conifers commonly found in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Abstract Field symptoms typical of ozone injury have been observed on several

  14. Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air Purifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air ozone (O3) during operation, either in- tentionally or as a byproduct of air ionization standards. Sev- eral types of air purifiers were tested for their ability to produce ozone in various indoor

  15. The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest also acts as an antioxidant within a plant, reacting and neutralizing ozone and peroxides, though , and reacts photochemically in the presence of NOx to produce tropospheric ozone. The Model of Emissions

  16. Seasonal persistence of northern low-and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases) Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases outputs online #12;Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other

  17. Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone Article Published Version detection in total ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112. D14307. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2006JD of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone Dmitry I. Vyushin,1 Vitali E. Fioletov,2

  18. Semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations of ultrafast photodissociation dynamics associated with the Chappuis band of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    with the Chappuis band of ozone Victor S. Batista and William H. Millera) Department of Chemistry, University A ) of ozone following photoexcitation of the molecule in the gas phase with visible light. Our algorithm and recurrence events, as well as an interpretation of experimental studies of the Chappuis band of ozone

  19. A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.

    1990-01-16

    A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  1. Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Hardly a day goes by that the threats to our environment are not brought to our attention. Whether you are following oil spills, groundwater contamination, global warming, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), you must...

  2. 9 Global warming stephane.gaiffas@cmap.polytechnique.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaïffas, Stéphane

    9 Global warming stephane.gaiffas@cmap.polytechnique.fr Goal The aim of this project is to study time-series measuring the evolution of global temperature. We consider a particular global temperature

  3. Press Pass - Press Release - Fermilab Hosts Global Warming Presentatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Office, 630-840-5588 For immediate release Fermilab Hosts Presentation on Global Warming on Feb. 28 Program is free and open to the public Dr. David Carlson,...

  4. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-05-10

    Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part...

  5. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  6. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T.analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects ofnet effect of a boreal forest fire on climate, on the basis

  7. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 4 Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics

  8. St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but has a high tolerance for shade-season grass. It does best in full sun and high temperatures. Goes dormant and turns brown in winter. Very

  9. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  10. A LEO-Based Solar-Shade System to Mitigate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Suresh; Andrew Meulenberg

    2015-04-20

    The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environment-friendly, space-elevator system to lift mass into space. The solar shades, even during their early deployment and growth in LEO, would provide benefits such as reduction of space-debris and depletion of the Van Allen radiation belts.The Terrestrial temperature profile has been approximated for each latitudinal zone with a one-dimensional model. A shade ring at an altitude of 2000-4000 km, consisting of thin-film mega panels totaling up to 4% of the earths surface area (to block ~1% of insolation), is proposed. The effects of such near-polar rings on the global temperature pattern has been examined using the simple model. Specific emphasis has been laid on this effect in the Polar Regions. One such proposed ring could reduce the peak summer temperature of the Polar Regions (80-90 degree latitude) by almost 3K. The tilting of the solar-shades, to reduce their cooling effect at the poles and to increase it in the near-polar regions, is recommended.

  11. A LEO-Based Solar-Shade System to Mitigate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environment-friendly, space-elevator system to lift mass into space. The solar shades, even during their early deployment and growth in LEO, would provide benefits such as reduction of space-debris and depletion of the Van Allen radiation belts.The Terrestrial temperature profile has been approximated for each latitudinal zone with a one-dimensional model. A shade ring at an altitude of 2000-4000 km, consisting of thin-film mega panels totaling up to 4% of the earths surface area (to block ~1% of insolation), is proposed. The effects of such near-polar rings on the global temperature pattern has been examined using the simple model. Specific emphasis has been laid on this e...

  12. Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy Stephen R. Humphrey of sustainable resource use A model of resource depletion The resource substitution puzzle Peak and decline of oil Quest for energy substitution What about other natural resources? #12;How Do We Add 2 billion

  13. Depletion-induced surface alignment of asymmetric diblock copolymer in selective solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depletion-induced surface alignment of asymmetric diblock copolymer in selective solvents Rong Wang online 31 July 2008 Phase separation of asymmetric diblock copolymer near surfaces in selective solvents. The walls strongly affect the phase separation of block copolymer in selective solvent, and the depletion

  14. Reservoir depletion at The Geysers geothermal area, California, shown by four-dimensional seismic tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    Reservoir depletion at The Geysers geothermal area, California, shown by four-dimensional seismic geothermal exploitation at The Geysers geothermal area, California, induces myriads of small of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective geothermal reservoir depletion monitoring tool and can potentially

  15. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley impact crop produc- tion in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for 50

  16. Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgiadi, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

  17. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  18. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  19. Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200ºC to ion doses up to 2.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 × 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

  1. Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a,*, Daniel J. Jacob a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a Accepted 23 May 2011 Keywords: Air quality Ozone Kalman filter Assimilation Remote sensing a b s t r a c satellite measurements of ozone in different spectral regions to constrain surface ozone concentrations

  2. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great by symptoms of foliar ozone injury. Abstract The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts

  3. Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

  4. Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

  5. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 Aaron warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. global warming | climate feedbacks | energy accumulation Global global warm- ing, with the world ocean as the primary reservoir for energy accumulation (1). In turn

  6. Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

  7. Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

  8. Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1 The Built-in Nonsense Detector Hardly a day Warming". A quick search of the internet uncovers literally hundreds of items about "Global Warming, usually meaning "Global Warming" or some aspect thereof. Whole generations of graduate students have been

  9. How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming? Haifeng Qian Advisor: Prof. Ning IPCC report, global warming was predicted under different CO2 scenarios. Under such warming conditions carbon cycle to the climate system, which means that under the global warming condition, the ecosystem

  10. Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Blutke; B.C. Stratton; D.R. Mikkelsen; J. Vavruska; R. Knight

    1998-01-01

    The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.

  11. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  12. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    that nuclear war could be winnable, and preceded the first significant reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles, the proliferation of nuclear weapons has produced greater risks of a regional nuclear conflict. At the same timeMassive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict Michael J. Mills* , Owen B

  13. Design and Usage of an Ozone Mapping App Ilyas Uyanik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    design, pollution visualiza- tion, air quality monitoring, ozone, user studies Permission to make digital-time, quantitative, and localized pollutant information has become available for a few big cities. Several mobile to conventional weather report- ing systems that provide a qualitative and static description of pollutant levels

  14. Tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific from ozonesonde observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    of urban air pollution. At sites in the mid and eastern Pacific the signature of transport of polluted air, Tsukuba, and Sapporo, Japan), a site in the central Pacific (Hilo, Hawaii), and a site on the west coast very high mixing ratios of ozone were observed that result from pollution transport from China

  15. Validation of satellite ozone profile retrievals using Beijing ozonesonde data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    , the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS in the stratosphere and troposphere. Stratospheric ozone forms a protective layer that absorbs enough solar) on the NASA Aqua satellite [Aumann et al., 2003] and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the NASA Aura

  16. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  17. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  18. More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-26

    Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

  19. The Exposure-Response Curve for Ozone and Risk of Mortality and the Adequacy of Current Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    and applied several statistical models to data on air pollution, weather, and mortality for 98 U.S. urban mortality. Interventions to further reduce ozone pollution would benefit public health, even in regions pollutant linked to numerous harmful health effects, including reduced lung function, increased frequency

  20. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  1. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  2. Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, P.E.

    1999-05-20

    The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

  3. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.; Caselli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Pineda, J. E.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ? 0.02 M {sub ?} (?20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ?150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ? 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  4. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  5. Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis for Reactor Depletion Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stripling, Hayes Franklin

    2013-08-02

    Depletion calculations for nuclear reactors model the dynamic coupling between the material composition and neutron flux and help predict reactor performance and safety characteristics. In order to be trusted as reliable predictive tools and inputs...

  6. Delayed neutron measurements for Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron emission rates from five very pure actinide samples (Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium) were measured following equilibrium irradiation in fast and thermal neutron fluxes. The relative abundances (alphas) for the first...

  7. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  9. Optimization of Depletion Modeling and Simulation for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Ade, Brian J; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Sunny, Eva E

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo based depletion tools used for the high-fidelity modeling and simulation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) come at a great computational cost; finding sufficient approximations is necessary to make the use of these tools feasible. The optimization of the neutronics and depletion model for the HFIR is based on two factors: (i) the explicit representation of the involute fuel plates with sets of polyhedra and (ii) the treatment of depletion mixtures and control element position during depletion calculations. A very fine representation (i.e., more polyhedra in the involute plate approximation) does not significantly improve simulation accuracy. The recommended representation closely represents the physical plates and ensures sufficient fidelity in regions with high flux gradients. Including the fissile targets in the central flux trap of the reactor as depletion mixtures has the greatest effect on the calculated cycle length, while localized effects (e.g., the burnup of specific isotopes or the power distribution evolution over the cycle) are more noticeable consequences of including a critical control element search or depleting burnable absorbers outside the fuel region.

  10. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliaga, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    and (b) after 2 hours of UV/ozone treatment. (a) 50nm (b)a) before and (b) after UV/ozone treatment for 270 minutes.from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment Cesar Aliaga, †

  11. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 91, NO. D1, PAGES 1103-1116, JANUARY 20, 1986 Two-Dimensional Monthly Average Ozone BalanceFrom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    -Dimensional Monthly Average Ozone BalanceFrom Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphereand Stratosphericand consistency.We computethe diurnal averagephotochemicalproductionand lossterms of ozone usingmonthly ozone,whichisthelossrate by thechlorinefamily,iscalculatedfroma two

  12. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  13. American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

  14. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  15. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01

    time of 30 days. 34 10 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized samples. 37 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized plus ozonated samples. 12 Effect... of solids retention time on nonadsorbable COD, with and without ozonation. 39 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Biochemical and chemical oxygen demand data. COD removal and ozone consumption data 21 26 iVon-adsorbable COD data for bio-oxidized effluent. . 3O...

  16. Role of anthropogenic direct heat emissions in global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Li, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely realized as the predominant drivers of global warming, but the huge and increasing anthropogenic direct heat emissions (AHE) has not gained enough attention in terms of its role in the warming of the climate system. Based on two reasonable assumptions of (1) AHE eventually transfers to the Earth energy system and (2) the net warming is only driven by the net radioactive forcing (RF) from either GHG or other causes, we analyzed the role of AHE in global warming. The mean annual total AHE of the four main sources including energy consumption, residual heat of electricity generation, biomass decomposition by land use and cover change (LUCC) and food consumption was estimated to be 4.41*10^20 J in 1970-2010, accounting for 6.23% of the net annual heat increase of the Earth reported by IPCC AR5 for the period. The mean annual radioactive forcing (RF) by AHE was up to 29.94 mW m^(-2) globally in 1981-2010, less than the annual net increase of total GH...

  17. Global warming. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies and general studies on global warming. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. 8th Global warming international conference and exposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  19. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) consensus forecast for climate is an increase in global temperature by 2 - 5o C of atmospheric CO2 would yield an increase in global mean temperature of T2X = 3.5o C (6.7 o F, with 95

  20. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.