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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

2

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

3

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

4

SENSITIVE OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monoxide by Resonance Absorption Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.the context of atmospheric absorption. The carbon monoxide

Gerlach, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Why sequence carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? carbon monoxide oxidizing thermophiles? Many microbes that use carbon monoxide as an energy source are found in high temperature environments such as geothermal areas. Researchers think that these carboxydotrophs may be involved in reducing potentially toxic carbon monoxide hotspots by combine with water to form hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which are in turn used for thermophilic energy conservation and carbon sequestration mechanisms. The project focuses on sequencing two closely related microbes, one of which is Carboxydothermus hydrogenformans. A strain of C. hydrogenformans has been grown in hydrogen-enriched synthesis gas (syngas), which contains a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Researchers are interested in sequencing both microbial strains to track the genome's evolution and

6

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

7

Desorption of carbon monoxide from nickel using mercaptans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An IR spectroscopic study on the displacement of carbon monoxide with 1-propyl, 2-propyl-, 1-butyl-, 2-butyl-, and tert.-butyl mercaptan from nickel foil and silica-supported nickel showed that at low carbon monoxide coverage on supported nickel, mercaptan adsorption initially converted bridged to linear carbon monoxide surface species. At higher mercaptan pressures, carbon monoxide desorbed into the gas phase. A small amount of carbon monoxide remained on the surface when the poisoned sample was evacuated, and additional carbon monoxide adsorbed when 5 mm Hg of carbon monoxide was added to the evacuated sample.

Neff, L.D.; Sturdivant, A.E.; Wallace, J.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Carbon Monoxide Concentration Trends in Urban Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...BOVE, J.L., AIRBORNE LEAD AND CARBON MONOXIDE...various procedures that release transmitter has been...conclusion for trans-mitter release. He also provided evidence...suburban counties, a larger fraction of the gasoline is undoubtedly...in the huts (indoor fires are used for space heating...

Merril Eisenbud; Laurel R. Ehrlich

1972-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

10

Isotopic equilibration of carbon monoxide catalyzed by supported ruthenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopic equilibration of carbon monoxide catalyzed by supported ruthenium was studied with oxygen-18 and carbon-13 labeled carbon monoxide in the presence and absence of hydrogen. The results showed that carbon monoxide was present on commercial alumina-supported ruthenium in a reactive undissociated form at 373/sup 0/K; that it adsorbed as a single carbonyl and in a geminal dicarbonyl form; and that hydrogen inhibited the exchange reaction by competitive adsorption and by stabilizing the carbonyl bond. The results elucidate the carbon monoxide methanation and Fischer-Tropsch reactions on this catalyst.

Bossi, A. (Cent. Ric. Novara); Zanderighi, L.; Carnisio, G.; Garbassi, F.; Giunchi, G.; Petrini, G.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

12

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be produced via radiolysis of carbon monoxide ices.5 Indeed, the effects of ionizing radiation on pure carbonMechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice901220f Binary ice mixtures of two carbon monoxide isotopomers, 13 C16 O and 12 C18 O, were subjected

Kaiser, Ralf I.

13

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

14

The Catalysis of the Carbon Monoxide-Steam Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Catalysis of the Carbon Monoxide-Steam Reaction F. J. Long K. W. Sykes The kinetics of the carbon monoxide-steam reaction occurring heterogeneously at...nearly unity, while that with respect to steam is correspondingly lowered; a slight...

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient carbon monoxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FACT SHEET Carbon monoxide (CO), known as the Invisible Killer... , propane, oil, wood, coal, and gasoline. Exposure to carbon monoxide can cause flu-like symptoms and can... .)...

16

Carbon and carbon monoxide hydrogenation on nickel: support effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of carbon, deposited on nickel catalysts by CO disproportionation, was investigated by temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) for four oxide supports, alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), silica (SiO/sub 2/), titanium oxide (TiO/sub 2/), and SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was measured by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) for comparison. The rate of carbon hydrogenation to methane was found to be independent of the support and an average activation energy of 42 kJ/mol was estimated. In contrast, the rate of carbon monoxide hydrogenation was very sensitive to the catalyst support. Nickel (Ni) supported on TiO/sub 2/ exhibited the highest specific activity, and two distinct sites for methanation were observed on Ni/TiO/sub 2/ and Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The lowest specific activities were observed for Ni/SiO/sub 2/ and Ni/SiO/sub 2/.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. For all catalysts, carbon hydrogenation occurred at a lower temperature than carbon monoxide hydrogenation. For both TPR and TPSR, small amounts of ethane were formed and at a lower temperature than methane. The amount of less-active, ..beta..-carbon observed in TPSR experiments was very small on all catalysts. These results indicate that at high coverages, carbon hydrogenation does not depend on the support, and thus it is not rate-determining for CO hydrogenation in excess hydrogen. The support is also shown to change the specific rate of carbon monoxide methanation; activity differences seen in steady-state experiments are not just due to differences in site densities. 5 figures, 5 tables.

Ozdogan, S.Z.; Gochis, P.D.; Falconer, J.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Process for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen from methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen which comprises contacting methanol vapor at a temperature of 200 degrees to 300 degrees C with an indirectly heated zinc containing catalyst to obtain an effluent gas in which the components of carbon monoxide and hydrogen constitute at least 90% by volume of said gas. At least a part of the impurities from said effluent gas are removed and said effluent gas is deparated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by adsorption. The effluent gas can be separated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by use of a plurality of adsorbers containing zeolite-type molecular sieve material where the zeolite is substantially permeable to hydrogen but sorbs carbon monoxide.

Jockel, H.; Marschner, F.; Moller, F.W.; Mortel, H.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

18

Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Comparison of Three CarbonComparison of Three Carbon Monoxide Databases in ConnecticutMonoxide Databases in Connecticut  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of Three CarbonComparison of Three Carbon Monoxide Databases in ConnecticutMonoxide Databases in Connecticut Brian Toal, MSPHBrian Toal, MSPH Patricia Miskell, MPHPatricia Miskell, MPH Connecticut Department of Public HealthConnecticut Department of Public Health Environmental & Occupational

20

Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

Schrock, R. R.

1982-00-00T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Nickel and iron EXAFS of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum strain DSM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel and iron EXAFS of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum strain DSM ...

Neil R. Bastian; Gabriele. Diekert; Eric C. Niederhoffer; Boon Keng. Teo; Christopher T. Walsh; William H. Orme-Johnson

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system in the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)s. The CNTs synthesized from carbon monoxide validate

Zheng, Yufeng

24

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Avoided Through Weatherization October 5, 2010 - 10:56am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this mean for me? Getting your heating pipes fixed can not only save you money, but also improve your health. "If we'd had a couple cold nights where I would've had to use my heat more than usual, it probably would've put me to sleep and left me there -- it was just too much carbon monoxide coming out in the house," says Mark Pickartz, of Van Buren, Ark. Pickartz's home was weatherized in February by his local community action agency, Crawford-Sebastian Community Development Council (C-SCDC). When energy auditors arrived to his house, they found that his home's heater was severely leaking the poisonous gas. C-SCDC, based in Fort Smith, Ark.,

25

Carbon Monoxide Toxicity after Lighting Coals at a Hookah Bar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unintentional non-fire-related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings continue to account for a significant health and economic burden in the United States. While most of these poisonings are related to faulty...

Ryan Misek; Christine Patte

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Carbon monoxide-silicon carbide interaction in HTGR fuel particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The corrosion of the coating-layers of silicon carbide (SiC) by carbon monoxide (CO) was observed in irradiated Triso-coated uranium dioxide particles, used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, by optical ...

Kazuo Minato; Toru Ogawa; Satoru Kashimura; Kousaku Fukuda…

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor Nancy O. Savagea , Sheikh as a trap for the oxidation products of CO and CH4. Upon oxidation of CO on ALC, carbonate species were detected, whereas the reaction of CH4 produced negligible carbonate species. The insensitivity of the ALC

Dutta, Prabir K.

28

Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

he effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). This animal model has been well characterized, especially regarding the role of environmental agents in exacerbating early stages of plaque development. Cockerels injected with subtumorigenic doses of carcinogens exhibit markedly accelerated development of aortic arteriosclerotic plaques. Inhalation of mainstream smoke from two packs of cigarettes (100 minutes/day for 16 weeks) causes small but statistically significant increases in plaque size. As is the case with many animal models of plaque development, raised fat-proliferative plaques also appear in these animals following cholesterol feeding. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous pollutant in urban environments, where it is derived largely from mobile sources and cigarette smoke. Exposure to chronically elevated carbon monoxide levels has been implicated in a number of health-related problems. Whether such exposure plays a role in the development of arteriosclerosis has not been determined conclusively. In the present study, three questions were posed: 1. Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm)* (two hours/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels, in the absence of other plaque-promoting agents 2. Will the inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 16 weeks), concomitant with the feeding of low levels (0.1%) of cholesterol, yield larger plaques than those obtained with either of these agents administered alone 3. Will inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 11 or 22 weeks), by cockerels in whom plaques have already appeared, further augment plaque development Cockerels were exposed to carefully regulated levels of carbon monoxide in stainless-steel and Plexiglas dynamic exposure chambers.

Penn, A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Disproportionation of carbon monoxide on supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disproportionation of carbon monoxide was investigated mainly on a 5.5% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst by infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption. The reaction was found to be of first order with respect to the surface concentration of CO below 200/sup 0/C, while at 450/sup 0/C the reaction proceeded as a second order reaction for the pressure of CO. Results obtained with predeposited carbon indicated that the disproportionation reaction requires an ensemble of several nickel atoms. In agreement with this result, the disproportionation did not take place readily on a 1.1% Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst on which a high dispersion of the metal was indicated by both infrared spectroscopy and the chemisorption of hydrogen. In the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) carbon monoxide desorbed in a single peak before 300/sup 0/C. Some of the carbon monoxide, however, underwent disproportionation during TPD and a carbon dioxide peak appeared at about 220/sup 0/C. Furthermore, carbon thus deposited on the surface was oxidized to carbon monoxide by oxygen supplied from the catalysts and gave a second peak of CO in TPD at temperatures higher than 300/sup 0/C. Possible sources of the oxygen were discussed.

Galuszka, J.; Chang, J.R.; Amenomiya, Y.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute carbon monoxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

28, 2007 Summary: OSHAReproToxin AcutelyHazardousWaste Carbon monoxide CalOSHAReproToxin Carbon Tetrachloride IARC-2BNTP Carbonic... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic...

31

Kinetic model of catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed for describing the previous disclosed multiplicity of equilibrium states in the oxidation of carbon monoxide on metallic nickel. In contrast to the known mechanism for oxidation of CO on platinum metals it includes a nonlinear stage of carbon monoxide adsorption and a linear stage of oxygen adsorption. A kinetic model has been obtained and stage velocity constants have been found, providing a basis for obtaining a quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimental relations between the reaction velocity and the reagent concentrations. Opinions are stated in relation to the causes for evolution of the CO oxidation reaction from platinum metals to nickel.

Pyatnitskii, Yu.I.; Ostapyuk, V.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring and autumn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring the distribution, photoproduction, microbial uptake, and air­sea exchange of carbon monoxide (CO), a key that in warmer seas. Carbon monoxide (CO) is the dominant sink for hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, thus

Vincent, Warwick F.

34

Infrared spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on palladium black  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigate the heterogeneous adsorption of carbon monoxide and the concurrent catalytic and sorptive properties of palladium black from the standpoint of a comprehensive analysis of the infrared spectra of the reaction pathways and their various products as well as the pressure dependence of the line behavior at various wavelengths.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Catalytic activation of carbon monoxide on metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In discussing the important basic aspects of carbon monoxide chemistry, this review covers the adsorption and reaction of CO with H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/ on reduced metal surfaces. Carbon monoxide adsorption of the Group VIII metals exhibits certain patterns. Typically, as coverages exceed one-half, compression occurs in the monolayer and the molecules lose registry with the surface metal atoms. Particular sites associated with rough surfaces facilitate CO dissociation to the surface carbon; these sites may have a significant effect on selectivity in the CO hydrogenation reaction. The support used and the metal crystallite size both affect the catalyst activity and product selectivity. Indications are strong that a better knowledge of metal-support interactions combined with a more complete understanding of the surface chemistry involved will lead to improved catalyst systems in the future.

Vannice, M.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. B. Optical System Absorption Signal C. Small SignalNoise . Sensitivity of Absorption Spectroscopy EXPERIMENTSINFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON

Bailey, Robert Brian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Bacteria Associated with the Roots of Freshwater Macrophytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consumption and production of atmospheric carbon monoxide by...the consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by...rapid oxidation of atmospheric CO to CO2 by soils...D. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide...rice fields and biogas generators: CH4, N2O, CO...

Jeremy J. Rich; G. M. King

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monoxide Poisoning from Propane- Fueled Forklifts." JournalMonoxide Poisoning from Propane- Fueled Fotklifts" Journalto the Indoor Use of Propane-Fueled Forklifts in Colorado

Apte, Michael G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

Alfani, F.; Greco, G. Jr.; Iroio, G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and transport. CO AMS 2000 subject classifications: Carbon monoxide; satellite data; Bayesian hierarchi- cal models; interpolation; data assimilation 1 imsart-aoas ver. 2007/04/13 file: COpaper.tex date: March 24Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE DATA USING

Nychka, Douglas

42

Interaction of carbon monoxide with supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of carbon monoxide with Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing 0.5-5% Pt by weight has been investigated by means of thermal desorption and IR spectroscopy. It has been shown that CO is adsorbed in three different forms, corresponding to the desorption temperature intervals 25-250/sup 0/C (I), and 250-700/sup 0/C (II), and 550-850/sup 0/C (III). In the adsorption of CO in the first two forms, the metal takes part (absorption band at 2080 cm/sup -1/), and also the support (1800, 1260, 1390, 1470, 1550, and 1640 cm/sup -1/). The adsorption in form III probably takes place on oxidized platinum centers with the formation of strong surface carbonate structures. High temperatures tend to increase the adsorption of CO in forms II and III.

Savel'eva, G.A.; Galeev, T.K.; Popova, N.M.; Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Mishchenko, V.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity ...

Judy L. Mumford; Ron W. Williams; Debra B. Walsh; Robert M. Burton; David J. Svendsgaard; Jane C. Chuang; Virginia S. Houk; Joellen Lewtas

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Some observations on the kinetics of the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the hydrogenation of CO a positive order of hydrogen and a slightly negative or a zero order in carbon monoxide are generally reported. The negative (or zero) order in carbon monoxide is often explained by assuming a strong adsorption of carbon monoxide on the same sites as used by the hydrogen. It is then assumed that the surface is ''almost totally'' covered by carbon monoxide. From experiments in which the surface products on an unsupported cobalt catalyst after the reaction were stripped off by a hydrogen treatment it was concluded that more than 95% of the surface (as determined from the adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature) was covered by carbon-containing species. This paper illustrates that ''zero order in carbon monoxide'' can be obtained with much lower coverage of carbon-containing species in equilibrium with gas-phase carbon monoxide than indicated above. Equations for reaction rates are presented, and data is calculated on the fraction of the catalyst surface covered by active carbon-containing species when the reaction is zero order in CO. The results suggest that only a small fraction of the catalyst surface is actively engaged in the hydrogenation of CO. This further suggests that the low turnover frequencies found for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis could be caused by a small number of sites which are active in the rate-determining step. (MWF)

Rautavuoma, A.O.I.; van der Baan, H.S.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Influence of the electrode material on carbon monoxide adsorption and electroreduction in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide electroreduction was studied at rotating disk electrodes made of different materials (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd; amalgamated Cu; Al, Ga, In, glassy carbon, Sn, Pb, Mo, Fe, Ni, and certain binary systems). Positive partial currents which are evidence for a direct electroreduction of CO have been observed only at Zn, Ga, and Cd. The observation that CO is less susceptible to electroreduction than carbon dioxide is explained by the stronger chemisorption of carbon monoxide on the electrodes.

Osetrova, N.V.; Vasil'ev, Yu.B.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions with regenerative thermal oxidizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been extensively used for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from various sources. However, very little information is available on the ability of RTOs to control carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. This paper presents the results of extensive tests conducted on two RTOs to determine their VOC and CO control efficiencies. The inlet gas stream to the RTOs includes VOC and CO concentrations as high as 2,000 ppm and 3,600 ppm, respectfully. The testing demonstrated that both RTOs were capable of controlling greater than 98% of both inlet VOCs and CO. While the destruction efficiencies within the combustion chambers exceeded 99.9%, direct leakage past valves accounted for the lower control efficiencies. The tests indicated that the overall VOC and CO control efficiencies of the RTOs may be limited by valve leakage. The design and permitting of a RTO should include conservative control estimates which account for possible valve leakage.

Firmin, S.M.; Lipke, S.; Baturay, A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Crystallographic Snapshots of Cyanide- and Water-Bound C-Clusters from Bifunctional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs) reversibly catalyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and are of vital importance in the global carbon cycle. The unusual catalytic CODH C-cluster ...

Kung, Yan

49

Role of Microorganisms in the Consumption and Production of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide by Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Winzer. 1932. Uber die Bildung von Essigsaure bei der biologischen Umsetzung von Kohlenoxyd und Kohlensaure mit Wasserstoff zu Methan. Biochem. Z. 245:2-12. 14. Fuchs, G., U. Schnitker, and R. K. Thauer. 1974. Carbon monoxide...

Ralf Conrad; Wolfgang Seiler

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

51

Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present three different detection schemes for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) in direct absorption using a thermoelectrically cooled, distributed-feedback pulsed quantum cascade (qc) laser operating between 217...

B.W.M. Moeskops; H. Naus; S.M. Cristescu; F.J.M. Harren

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE IMPROVES COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY OF CO BOILERS Russell L. Branham ana James J. Prichard Ashland Oil Company Catlettsburg, KY ABSTRACT The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO... measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency. INTRODUCTION In the petroleum industry, the efficient operation of a fluid-cata1ytic-cracking unit, produces gases rich in carbon monoxide...

Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Reformer-pressure swing adsorption process for the production of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved process for the production of carbon monoxide by the steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described comprising: (a) catalytically reacting a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a steam reformer; (b) passing the reformer effluent containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the steam reformer, without scrubbing to remove the carbon dioxide content thereof, to a pressure swing adsorption system having at least four adsorbent beds, each bed of which, on a cyclic basis, undergoes a processing sequence; (c) recycling the carbon dioxide-rich stream to the steam reformer for reaction with additional quantities of the hydrocarbon feed stream being passed to the stream reformer to form additional quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with product recovery being enhanced and the need for employing a carbon dioxide wash system being obviated.

Fuderer, A.

1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrÃ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium carbonates Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air pollutants are defined in the Clean Air Act and include ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide... .g., americium-241, cesium- 137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, uranium-...

56

Coadsorption of hydrogen and ethylene, and carbon monoxide and ethylene on the Ru(001) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed investigation of the coadsorption of ethylene with both preadsorbed hydrogen and preadsorbed carbon monoxide on the Ru(001) surface is reported here. Both preadsorbed hydrogen and carbon monoxide reduce the saturation coverage of subsequently chemisorbed ethylene. The coadsorption of hydrogen with ethylene results in detectable hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane below 250 K, whereas no self-hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane is observed. High-resolution electron energy loss spectra show that ethylene coadsorbed with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide decomposes to ethylidyne (CCH/sub 3/) and acetylide (CCH), as it does on the clean surface. Carbon monoxide preadsorption enhances the stability of the ethylidyne such that it decomposes at approximately 420 K, rather than 355 K as on the initially clean Ru(001) surface. Preadsorbed carbon monoxide also reduces the ratio of ethylidyne to acetylide that is formed from ethylene, compared to the ratio observed from an equivalent coverage of ethylene on the clean surface; hydrogen preadsorption, on the other hand, increases this ratio.

Hills, M.M.; Parmeter, J.E.; Weinberg, W.H.

1986-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications by anodic oxidation of titanium foil followed with O2 and CO annealing were employed as matrices consisted of Ti3+ defects with carbon-doping and exhibited well defined quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric

Cao, Guozhong

58

An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for syngas turbine applications S.M. Walton *, X. He, B.T. Zigler, M.S. Wooldridge Department of Mechanical of simulated syngas mixtures of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and carbon mechanism for H2 and CO. Ã? 2006 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

Wooldridge, Margaret S.

59

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction in the St. Lawrence Estuarine System (Canada)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction in the St. Lawrence Estuarine System (Canada) ... The solar insolation-weighted mean apparent quantum yield of CO (?CO) decreased as much as fourfold with increasing salinity and showed a strong positive correlation with the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm. ...

Yong Zhang; Huixiang Xie; Guohua Chen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

Apte, M.G.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine possible mechanisms of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported copper catalysts. Two broad categories of reaction mechanism can be identified: (a) Type I: Carbon monoxide, adsorbed on the copper surface, is hydrogenated by the addition of hydrogen atoms while the C-O bond remains intact. A second C-O bond is neither formed nor broken. (b) Type II: Carbon monoxide (or a partially hydrogenated intermediate, e.g., HCO) reacts with an oxygen atom on the catalyst surface to give an intermediate, typically a formate, which contains two C-O bonds. Subsequent reaction leads overall to methanol and the reformation of the surface oxygen atom. Both mechanisms are discussed.

Fakley, M.E.; Jennings, J.R.; Spencer, M.S. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd, Billingham, Cleveland (England))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I and angular distributions of CO2 produced by CO oxidation on Rh 111 have been measured as a function a fundamental and a practical point of view. CO2 formation serves as a model recombina- tion reaction

Sibener, Steven

64

Observations of rotating jets of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp with the IRAM interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations of rotating jets of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp with the IRAM interferometer;eres, France Abstract. CO was observed on March 11, 1997 in comet Hale-Bopp with the IRAM Plateau de for parent molecules. We have developed a 3-D model simulating rotating spiral jets of CO gas. We present

Demoulin, Pascal

65

Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH), also known as Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), is one of seven known Ni containing enzymes. CODH/ACS is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes CO to CO2 reversibly and synthesizes acetyl-CoA. Recently, X-ray crystal...

Kim, Eun Jin

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

Feng, Jian

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

Study of hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption on modified Zn/Cr catalysts by adsorption calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differential heat of adsorption (q) of hydrogen (a) and carbon monoxide (b) as a function of the adsorbed amount (a) on Zn/Cr catalysts at 463/sup 0/K; 1) unpromoted catalyst, 2) catalyst promoted with 2.5% of K/sub 2/O.

Yoshin, S.V.; Klyacho, A.L.; Kondrat'ev, L.T.; Leonov, V.E.; Skripchenko, G.B.; Sushchaya, L.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Association of hydrogen metabolism with unitrophic or mixotrophic growth of Methanosarcina barkeri on carbon monoxide.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...by the simultaneous consumption of methanol and CO...by the simultaneous consumption of methanol and CO...conbustion of fossil fuels. Carbon monoxide is...involves the production and consumption of a carbonyl group...served as experi- mental vessels. Immediately after...

J M O'Brien; R H Wolkin; T T Moench; J B Morgan; J G Zeikus

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Sivagaminathan Balasubramanian, Charles E. Holland,* and John W. Weidner*,z Center in reformate hydrogen. In this design, the potential and gas flow are switched between the two filter cells so

Weidner, John W.

70

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

71

Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle. When used as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of fuel at a fuel cell anode, this structure exhibits low platinum loading and elevated tolerance to carbon...

72

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

73

Relative and kinetic properties of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on a graphite surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results after chemisorption of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) on polycrystalline graphite are presented. CO adsorbs onto graphite with a very low sticking coefficient. After CO chemisorption CO (mass 28 amu) desorbs in two temperature regions, between 400 and 700 K and between 1000 and 1300 K, and CO/sub 2/ (mass 44 amu) desorbs below 950 K. The intensity of the CO/sub 2/ signal is less than 1 order of magnitude lower than the CO intensity. After CO/sub 2/ adsorption the major desorption product is CO at high temperatures (1000 < T (K) < 1300), whereas a small amount of CO/sub 2/ desorbs around 450 K. The adsorption of C/sup 16/O/sub 2/ and C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ mixture leads to a nearly total oxygen scrambling of the CO/sub 2/ desorbed. A mechanism for CO and CO/sub 2/ interconversion on the graphite surface is presented in terms of surface oxide species, mainly lactones and semiquinones, and their relative stability. Assignments of the TPD features are proposed accordingly. Reaction studies on the CO/sub 2/ gasification of clean graphite and the CO disproportionation (Boudouard reaction) have been performed. A good agreement is found between the activation energies obtained and the desorption energies calculated from the analysis of the TPD results.

Marchon, B.; Tysoe, W.T.; Carrazza, J.; Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1988-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Catalytic reactions on well-characterized vanadium oxide catalysts. 1. Oxidation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of carbon monoxide over unsupported and supported vanadium oxide catalysts was investigated from the standpoint of structure sensitivity. The activity of unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ markedly decreased the turnover frequency, while the reduction-oxidation treatment of the fused catalyst increased it. The turnover frequency of V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with low V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content was much smaller than that of the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//TiO/sub 2/ with high V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content or the unsupported V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Such a retarding effect of the TiO/sub 2/ support on the activity of the oxidation of carbon monoxide is in contrast to the known promoting effect of TiO/sub 2/ for the oxidations of various hydrocarbons. From these results coupled with the characterization of the catalysts, it was concluded that the oxidation of carbon monoxide on vanadium oxide catalysts is a structure-sensitive reaction and that the activity of surface defects such as steps, kinks, and vacancies is much higher than that of the surface V=O species in the smooth (010) face of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

Mori, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Murakami, Y.

1984-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gravimetric study of adsorbed intermediates in methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to more fully elucidate the adsorbed intermediates and mechanism involved in catalytic methanation of CO on a typical nickel methanation catalyst. Rates of adsorption and desorption of surface species and of gasification of carbon were measured gravimetrically to determine their kinetics and possible roles in methanation. 19 refs.

Gardner, D.C.; Bartholomew, C.H.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Mechanism of iron catalysis of carbon monoxide decomposition in refractories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors discuss the catalytic effects of selected iron phases (metals, oxides, sulfides, and carbides) on the Boudouard reaction studied in an effort to more fully understand the disintegration of refractories when exposed to CO for long periods of time. It was found that active Fe atoms generated from the reduction of the iron oxides, especially {alpha}-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, are the actual catalysts for the Boudouard reaction. The catalytic process confirmed by thermodynamic calculations, kinetic data, and X-ray diffraction data, consists of adsorption and decomposition of CO simultaneously forming carbides of iron. The chemisorption and subsequent decomposition of the iron carbides, rather than diffusion, constitute the rate-controlling process for carbon deposition.

Xu, M.W.P.; Brown, J.J. Jr. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts which were examined by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The metal particle size and number of particles per area of catalyst increased with increasing metal loading. The particles were approx. 10 A. in diameter, cubo-octahedral shaped, and approx. 80-90% disperse. The STEM electron beam caused negligible damage to the samples. Hydrogen adsorption measurements showed that the hydrogen-iridium atom ratio was 1.2:1-1.3:1 and increased with decreasing metal loading. Temperature-programed desorption showed four types of adsorbed hydrogen desorbing at -90/sup 0/C (I), 15/sup 0/C (IV), 115/sup 0/C (II), and 245/sup 0/C (III). Types II and IV desorb from single atom sites and Types I and III from multiple atom sites. Type I is in rapid equilibrium with the gas phase. All desorption processes appear to be first order. Carbon monoxide adsorbed nondissociatively at 25/sup 0/C with approx. 0.7:1 CO/Ir atom ratio. It adsorbed primarily in linear forms at low coverage, but a bridged form appeared at high coverage.

Etherton, B.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic study of the interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benzene on the Pt(111) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benezene has been studied on the Pt(111) crystal surface by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The adsorptive changes reported in previous studies for carbon monoxide and benzene when potassium is coadsorbed are correlated with the UPS results presented here and are explained with the aid of a molecular orbital analysis. The authors find that the valence molecular orbitals increase their binding energy slightly when the potassium is coadsorbed, implying a model in which the adsorbates sense the potassium-induced changes in dipole field at the surface. 36 references, 11 figures.

Kudo, M.; Garfunkel, E.L.; Somorjai, G.A.

1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

Observation of two-dimensional compositional ordering of a carbon monoxide and argon monolayer mixture physisorbed on graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commensurate monolayers of a mixture of 70% carbon monoxide and 30% argon on graphite are studied by neutron and low-energy-electron diffraction. A 2 x 2 superstructure due to 3:1 compositional ordering is observed below 25 K. The compositional ordering is most likely due to molecular-axis ordering of carbon monoxide molecules into a pinwheel pattern with argon atoms at the central sites of each pinwheel. Such a pinwheel structure has been predicted by Harris, Mouritsen, and Berlinsky for planar rotors with anisotropic interactions on a triangular lattice with vacancies.

You, H.; Fain, S.C. Jr.; Satija, S.; Passell, L.

1986-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

80

Impact of the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide on Gas Oil Hydrotreatment: Investigation on Liquids from Biomass Cotreatment with Petroleum Cuts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide on Gas Oil Hydrotreatment: Investigation on Liquids from Biomass Cotreatment with Petroleum Cuts ... A potential way of utilizing these bioliquids as fuels could be the direct hydrotreatment(6) or the cohydrotreatment with petroleum fractions,(7) such as atmospheric gas oils, to achieve the technical and environmental fuel standards, especially in terms of sulfur content. ...

Ana Pinheiro; Nathalie Dupassieux; Damien Hudebine; Christophe Geantet

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sensor for carbon monoxide measurement has been developed using a mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) laser operating in the fundamental band (?v= 1) of CO near 4.5 ?m. The fundamental band was chosen due to its stronger absorption line...

Camou, Alejandro

2014-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

82

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on highly dispersed technetium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to study, in infrared spectroscopy, the surface compounds formed on adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on Tc/SiO/sub 2/. The samples were prepared by soaking Aerosil with aqueous solution of ammonium pertechnetate containing 10 wt.% of Tc. Reduction with hydrogen to the metal was carried out at 700-800/sup 0/C. Results indicated that chemisorption of CO on highly dispersed technetium gives rise to a single type of linear and several types of multicentered adsorption forms. Occurrence of bridge form of adsorbed CO was also suggested on the basis of the data on chemisorption stoichiometry. Formation of a structure characterizable by absorption at 1790 cm/sup -1/ may indicate, only after protracted analysis, that the surface of the technetium introduced gradually suffers significant rearrangement facilitating formation of this type of complexes.

Serebryakova, N.V.; Sokolova, N.P.; Spitsyn, V.S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Transformation of carbon monoxide dimer surface structures on yttrium oxide modified by silver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been established that introducing ions of silver(II) in yttrium(III) oxide leads to the formation of a significant concentration of a paramagnetic dimer species (CO)/sub 2/-in the course of the adsorption of carbon monoxide, and that these dimers exhibit high thermal stability and reactivity. Reactions are proposed for the formation of the dimer species (CO)/sub 2//sup 2 -/ and (CO)/sub 2//sup -/ on the surface of the Ag/Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst that involve the reduction of the anion vacancies and a change in the oxidation state of the silver ions. Modifying the yttrium oxide with ionic silver leads to a marked decrease in the strength of the oxidative ability of the surface of the catalyst for CO, while the nature of the active sites of the yttrium oxide, which adsorbs CO in three forms, remains unchanged.

Vydrin, S.N.; Bobolev, A.V.; Loginov, A.Yu.

1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

Infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1 to 50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 +- 3 and 2204 +- 1 cm/sup -1/, which are ascribed to CO adsorbed on copper(II) oxide and on isolated copper(II) ions in the silica surface, respectively. Reduction and reoxidation removed the band at 2204 cm/sup -1/ with all samples and raised the intensity of the 2136-cm/sup -1/ band with the precipitated catalysts but not with the impregnation catalyst. Evidence is brought forward that the isolated copper ions are mobilized during reduction and generate new copper (oxide) surface. The change in background transmission of the samples could be used to obtain further information about the interaction of O/sub 2/ and CO with copper oxide.

De Jong, K.P.; Geus, J.W.; Joziasse, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Modification of copper-chromium catalyst for steam conversion of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of model tests that show that the copperchromium sample is superior in stability and activity to the industrial NTK-5 catalyst. Under unfavorable conditions with the use of industrial converted gas containing more than 20 vol.% of carbon monoxide, and with sulfur compounds, chlorine, and ammonia as impurities, after 3 months of continuous operation in the temperature range 190-260 degrees the catalyst lost less than 10% of inactivity (with respect to the degree of CO conversion), whereas the activity of the industrial NTK-4 catalyst fell by 15% under the same conditions. It is shown that a catalyst not inferior in properties to the industrial NTK-4 catalyst can be obtained by modifying the copper-chromium catalyst with aluminum compounds.

Khabibullin, R.R.; Torocheshnikov, N.S.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Carbon monoxide adsorption/desorption processes over NaX zeolite and supported ruthenium catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The binding states of CO on NaX zeolite and RuNaX were investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Desorption peaks centered at around 390, 430, 490, and 520 K were observed from NaX following room-temperature adsorption of CO. The activation energy values corresponding to these peaks were calculated to be 41.4, 45.7, 53.8, and 57.7 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, respectively. These peaks were also observed in desorption profiles from RuNaX although their temperatures were higher by 10 to 20 K. In addition, the desorption spectra from RuNaX also comprise two high-temperature peaks at around 575 and 640 K. With both the RuNaX and the NaX samples the temperature and relative intensities of the desorption peaks depended on pretreatment conditions and on the lapsed time between CO exposure to the sample and the commencement of programmed heating. Mass spectral analysis revealed that the gas desorbed at 300-500 K consisted mainly of CO while at higher temperatures CO{sub 2} was the main component. The desorption peaks below 500 K are attributed to the release of carbon monoxide from structural and intragranular or intergranular zeolitic pores. Lewis sites on the zeolite surface are found to facilitate activation of CO, resulting in its transformation to CO{sub 2}. The initial adsorption of carbon monoxide in zeolite pores and subsequent diffusion to metal sites leading to its disproportionation/oxidation is found to play an important role in the CO adsorption/desorption process on RuNaX.

Kamble, V.S.; Gupta, N.M.; Iyer, R.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON INSECT DENSITIES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combustion of fossil fuels is profoundly altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased from approximately 280 to 370 {micro}l l{sup -1} in 2004, and it is expected to exceed 550 {micro}l l{sup -1} by 2050. Tropospheric ozone has risen even more rapidly than CO{sub 2} and average summer concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere are expected to continue to increase by 0.5-2.5% per year over the next 30 years. Although elevated CO{sub 2} stimulates photosynthesis and productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, ozone (O{sub 3}) is deleterious. In addition to directly affecting the physiology and productivity of crops, increased concentrations of tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} are predicted to lower the nutritional quality of leaves, which has the potential to increase herbivory as insects eat more to meet their nutritional demands. We tested the hypothesis that changes in tropospheric chemistry affect the relationship between plants and insect herbivores by changing leaf quality. The susceptibility to herbivory of soybean grown in elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3} was examined using free air gas concentration enrichment (SoyFACE). FACE technology has the advantage that plants are cultivated under realistic field conditions with no unwanted alteration of microclimate or artificial constraints on the insect community.

DELUCIA, E.; DERMODY, O.; O'NEILL, B.; ALDEA, M.; HAMILTON, J.; ZANGERL, A.; ROGER, A.; BERENBAUM, M.

2005-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

88

Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.

Thomas R. Ayres; Claude Plymate; Christoph U. Keller

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Kinetics of the Reduction of Wüstite by Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide for the Chemical Looping Production of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced could be stored, e.g. by geological sequestration, making the overall process “carbon-neutral”, or “carbon-negative” when biomass is used as fuel. In addition, the hydrogen produced during the oxidation of FexO and metallic Fe in steam can be kept... Kinetics of the reduction of wüstite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide for the chemical looping production of hydrogen Wen Liu a,n, Jin Yang Lim b, Marco A. Saucedo a, Allan N. Hayhurst b, Stuart A. Scott a, J.S. Dennis b a Department of Engineering...

Liu, Wen; Lim, Jin Yang; Saucedo, Marco A.; Hayhurst, Allan N.; Scott, Stuart A.; Dennis, J. S.

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

91

Using the HP-41CV calculator as a data acquisition system for personal carbon monoxide exposure monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of small, personal monitors as instruments for air pollution data acquisition, storage, and retrieval presents a new set of monitoring considerations. Portability, ruggedness, power supplies, and data capture are functions to be addressed in designing personal monitoring systems. The emphasis herein is on the data capture function. This paper describes experiences using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV system as a data management system interfaced with personal carbon monoxide monitors (General Electric Carbon Monoxide Detector, Model 15EC53CO3). In general, the HP-41CV proved to be reliable, adaptable, and easy to use. Problems with the monitor power source (battery failure) were more frequent than with the HP-41CV itself. Using the HP-41CV for the specific data collection requirements of the Washington Microenvironment Study is a focal point of this presentation.

Fitz-Simons, T.; Sauls, H.B.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on a smooth palladium electrode: an in-situ infrared spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on a smooth palladium electrode in 1 M HClO/sub 4/ saturated with CO was studied by two in-situ IR reflectance spectroscopic methods: EMIRS (electrochemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy) and LPSIRS (linear potential sweep infrared reflectance spectroscopy). Two types of adsorbed CO, linear and bridged, were identified from the observed IR spectra, the latter being the predominant surface species. The C-O stretching frequency of the linear CO shifts to higher frequencies at more positive potentials with a slope of 48 cm/sup -1//V. The frequency of the bridged CO increases by 63 cm/sup -1/ between -0.5 and 0.9 V(NHE) and its integrated band intensity decreases continuously in the same potential region while the intensity of the linear CO is almost constant up to 0.1 V and then decreases gradually with increasing positive potential. The surface selection rule of the IR reflection absorption spectroscopy was tested for the present system by using the p- and s-polarized light. It was found that only p-polarized light gave the IR spectra of CO adsorbed on the palladium electrode thus proving the selection rule at the electrode/solution interface.

Kunimatsu, K.

1984-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Cysteine 295 indirectly affects Ni coordination of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase-II C-cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •CODH-II harbors a unique [Ni-Fe-S] cluster. •We substituted the ligand residues of Cys{sup 295} and His{sup 261}. •Dramatic decreases in Ni content upon substitutions were observed. •All substitutions did not affect Fe-S clusters assembly. •CO oxidation activity was decreased by the substitutions. -- Abstract: A unique [Ni–Fe–S] cluster (C-cluster) constitutes the active center of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs). His{sup 261}, which coordinates one of the Fe atoms with Cys{sup 295}, is suggested to be the only residue required for Ni coordination in the C-cluster. To evaluate the role of Cys{sup 295}, we constructed CODH-II variants. Ala substitution for the Cys{sup 295} substitution resulted in the decrease of Ni content and didn’t result in major change of Fe content. In addition, the substitution had no effect on the ability to assemble a full complement of [Fe–S] clusters. This strongly suggests Cys{sup 295} indirectly and His{sup 261} together affect Ni-coordination in the C-cluster.

Inoue, Takahiro; Takao, Kyosuke; Yoshida, Takashi [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Wada, Kei [Organization for Promotion of Tenure Track, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Organization for Promotion of Tenure Track, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Daifuku, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuko [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Fukuyama, Keiichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sako, Yoshihiko, E-mail: sako@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. R. Holmes (1977): “Nitrogen Dioxide Photolysis in the LosO3 Ozone NO Nitric Oxide NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NO3 NitrateNitrogen Pentoxide HONO Nitrous Acid HNO3 Nitric Acid HNO4 Peroxynitric Acid HO2H Hydrogen Peroxide CO Carbon Monoxide SO2 Sulfur Dioxide

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Supporting Information for Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIOXIDE H2O2 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE NH3 AMMONIA NIT AEROSOL NITRATE SO2 SULFUR DIOXIDE SO3 SULFUR TRIOXIDE OSD extensions* NO NITRIC OXIDE NO2 NITROGEN DIOXIDE O3 OZONE HONO NITROUS ACID HNO3 NITRIC ACID HNO4 PERNITRIC ACID N2O5 NITROGEN PENTOXIDE NO3 NITRATE RADICAL HO2 HYDROPEROXY RADICAL CO CARBON MONOXIDE CO2 CARBON

Dabdub, Donald

97

Carbon monoxide in the solar atmosphere I. Numerical method and two-dimensional models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radiation hydrodynamic code CO5BOLD has been supplemented with the time-dependent treatment of chemical reaction networks. Advection of particle densities due to the hydrodynamic flow field is also included. The radiative transfer is treated frequency-independently, i.e. grey, so far. The upgraded code has been applied to two-dimensional simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the non-magnetic solar photosphere and low chromosphere. For this purpose a reaction network has been constructed, taking into account the reactions which are most important for the formation and dissociation of CO under the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere. The network has been strongly reduced to 27 reactions, involving the chemical species H, H2, C, O, CO, CH, OH, and a representative metal. The resulting CO number density is highest in the cool regions of the reversed granulation pattern at mid-photospheric heights and decreases strongly above. There, the CO abundance stays close to a value of 8.3 on the usual logarithmic abundance scale with [H]=12 but is reduced in hot shock waves which are a ubiquitous phenomenon of the model atmosphere. For comparison, the corresponding equilibrium densities have been calculated, based on the reaction network but also under assumption of instantaneous chemical equilibrium by applying the Rybicki & Hummer (RH) code by Uitenbroek (2001). Owing to the short chemical timescales, the assumption holds for a large fraction of the atmosphere, in particular the photosphere. In contrast, the CO number density deviates strongly from the corresponding equilibrium value in the vicinity of chromospheric shock waves. Simulations with altered reaction network clearly show that the formation channel via hydroxide (OH) is the most important one under the conditions of the solar atmosphere.

S. Wedemeyer-Boehm; I. Kamp; J. Bruls; B. Freytag

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Impacts of 2006 Indonesian fires and dynamics on tropical upper tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reproduce seasonal mean lightning flash rates to match theobser- vations of lightning flashes from the Optical

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development of a gridded climatology for tropospheric ozone,et al. , 2000] O 3 climatology based on satellite and sondeO 3 nudged toward climatology above 380 K zonal mean O 3

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W.J. Dawson, and P.K. Dutta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Carbon Monoxide Sensor for PEM Fuel Cell Systems C.T. Holt, A.-M. Azad, S.L. Swartz, W The importance of carbon monoxide sensors for automotive PEM fuel cell systems is illustrated by a schematic will protect the PEM fuel cell stack; detection of CO is extremely important because too much CO will poison

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

102

Establishing Policy Relevant Background (PRB) Ozone Concentrations in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado ... Processes that contribute to PRB ozone concentrations include photochemistry associated with natural emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) from sources such as biogenic emissions (not including agricultural activities), wildfires, lightning, the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from outside of North America, and stratospheric-tropospheric exchange (STE) of ozone. ... Models generally find little ozone production in wildfire plumes for short aging times (days) because NOx emissions are low and conversion to peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) is rapid. ...

Elena C. McDonald-Buller; David T Allen; Nancy Brown; Daniel J. Jacob; Daniel Jaffe; Charles E. Kolb; Allen S. Lefohn; Samuel Oltmans; David D. Parrish; Greg Yarwood; Lin Zhang

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

Interaction of copper oxides with reaction medium in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen. IV. IR spectroscopic study of carbon monoxide interaction with copper oxide surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An IR spectroscopic study has been made of the interaction of CO with CuO prepared in different ways, and the interaction of O/sub 2/ with carbon monoxide preadsorbed on CuO. A number of Cu/sup +/CO surface complexes have been detected (2114-2148 cm/sup -1/) with a heat of adsorption about 79.5-180 kJ/mole. From an analysis of the nature of these complexes, we have evaluated the processes taking place on the CuO surface when it interacts with CO and have compared the properties of massive CuO with those of CuO on oxide supports. The data are interpreted on the assumption that extended defects - dislocations - exist and play an important role, determining to a considerable degree the properties of the massive CuO in the reaction of CO oxidation.

Lokhov, Y.A.; Popovskii, V.V.; Sadykov, V.A.; Tikhov, S.F.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11213-11219 11213 Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Site of Myoglobin: Picosecond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 11213-11219 11213 Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, Califomia 94305 Received: April 27, 1994: In Final Form at Urbana-Champaign. Deparlment of Chemistry, Sfanford University. Hansen ExperimentaJ Physics Laboratory

Fayer, Michael D.

105

Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Resilience of gas-phase anharmonicity in the vibrational response of adsorbed carbon monoxide and breakdown under electrical conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In surface catalysis, the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition-metal electrodes represents the prototype of strong chemisorption. Notwithstanding significant changes in the molecular orbitals of adsorbed CO, spectroscopic experiments highlight a close correlation between the adsorbate stretching frequency and equilibrium bond length for a wide range of adsorption geometries and substrate compositions. In this work, we study the origins of this correlation, commonly known as Badger's rule, by deconvoluting and examining contributions from the adsorption environment to the intramolecular potential using first-principles calculations. Noting that intramolecular anharmonicity is preserved upon CO chemisorption, we show that Badger's rule for adsorbed CO can be expressed solely in terms of the tabulated Herzberg spectroscopic constants of isolated CO. Moreover, although it had been previously established using finite-cluster models that Badger's rule is not affected by electrical conditions, we find here th...

Dabo, Ismaila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Adsorbate effects on a mixed-valence compound: Carbon monoxide chemisorption on CeIr/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effects of stoichiometry change and CO chemisorption on the surface electronic structure of the mixed-valence compound CeIr/sub 2/. We show that the surface iridium to cerium ratio can be varied by changing sample temperature while sputtering. Carbon monoxide is found to adsorb 80% molecularly on the surface and cause a mild surface oxidation which induces a shift of electron density into available cerium f orbitals. Peaks due to the 4sigma, 1..pi.., and 5sigma CO molecular orbitals appear at different binding energies than those due to molecular CO on the pure iridium surface. This binding-energy shift as well as the high percentage of molecular CO on the surface (CO adsorption on pure cerium is completely dissociative) points toward a surface which has lost much of the elemental character of its two constituents upon compound formation.

Lindquist, J.M.; Hemminger, J.C.; Lawrence, J.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Auger electron spectroscopy, electron loss spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction of oxygen and carbon monoxide adsorption of Pd films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of oxygen and carbon monoxide at room temperature on polycrystalline and (111) monocrystalline thin films of Pd vapor deposited on mice was investigated by AES, ELS, and LEED. The results show that adsorbate coverage depends strongly on surface microstructure, composition, and topography. Polycrystalline or Cl contaminated surfaces adsorb large amounts of the gases, while flat, monocrystalline surfaces will adsorb almost none. These results are quite different from those observed earlier using sputter etched and annealed bulk single cyrstals where adsorbate superlattices formed after rather low gaseous exposures. In the present work no superlattices were observed after exposures ranging up to several thousand langmuirs. The contradictory results obtained in the two cases are attributed to probable differences in surface microtopography and microstructure.

Vook, R.W.; De Cooman, B.C.; Vankar, V.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Remarkable catalytic activity of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin modified on a titania for the oxidation of carbon monoxide below room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CoTPP on TiO/sub 2/-120s modified at 250 /sup 0/C under vacuum catalytically oxidized carbon monoxide rapidly with oxygen even at -79/sup 0/C. Its catalytic activity was incomparably higher than that of commercial Hopcalite. Comparison of its catalytic performance with those of the same catalyst or different TiO/sub 2/ supporting catalyst both evacuated at 200 /sup 0/C revealed unique features of the present catalyst in terms of its oxygen adsorption, the poisoning of adsorbed oxygen, and the insolubility of the complex in benzene. Both significant structural modification of the complex and its strong interaction with properly dehydrated TiO/sub 2/-120s brought about by evacuation at 250 /sup 0/C may induce such extraordinary activity. 14 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Mochida, I.; Iwai, Y.; Kamo, T.; Fujitsu, H.

1985-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

110

Adsorbate effects on a mixed-valence compound: carbon monoxide chemisorption on CeIr/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors studied the effects of stoichiometry change and CO chemisorption on the surface electronic structure of the mixed-valence compound CeIr/sub 2/. It is shown that the surface iridium to cerium ratio can be varied by changing sample temperature while sputtering. Carbon monoxide is found to adsorb 80% molecularly on the surface and cause a mild surface oxidation which induces a shift of electron density into available cerium f orbitals. Peaks due to the 4 sigma, 1 pi, and 5 sigma CO molecular orbitals appear at different binding energies than those due to molecular CO on the pure iridium surface. This binding-energy shift as well as the high percentage of molecular CO on the surface (CO adsorption on pure cerium is completely dissociative) points toward a surface which has lost much of the elemental character of its two constituents upon compound formation.

Lindquist, J.M.; Hemminger, J.C.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

E-Print Network 3.0 - accidental carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Collection: Biology and Medicine 33 Assessing and Modeling Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution among Rural Women in Guatemala Summary: pollution exposures to carbon...

112

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerates carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Collection: Biology and Medicine 31 Assessing and Modeling Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution among Rural Women in Guatemala Summary: pollution exposures to carbon...

113

Formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and specific natural organic matter (NOM) fractions during ozonation of phytoplankton  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ozonation of natural surface water increases the concentration of oxygen-containing low molecular weight compounds. Many of these compounds support microbiological growth and as such are termed assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Phytoplankton can contribute substantially to the organic carbon load when surface water is used as source for drinking water treatment. We have investigated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) formation from the ozonation of a pure culture of Scenedesmus vacuolatus under defined laboratory conditions, using a combination of DOC fractionation, analysis of selected organic acids, aldehydes and ketones, and an AOC bioassay. Ozonation of algae caused a substantial increase in the concentration of DOC and AOC, notably nearly instantaneously upon exposure to ozone. As a result of ozone exposure the algal cells shrunk, without disintegrating entirely, suggesting that DOC from the cell cytoplasm leaked through compromised cell membranes. We have further illustrated that the specific composition of newly formed AOC (as concentration of organic acids, aldehydes and ketones) in ozonated lake water differed in the presence and absence of additional algal biomass. It is therefore conceivable that strategies for the removal of phytoplankton before pre-ozonation should be considered during the design of drinking water treatment installations, particularly when surface water is used.

Frederik Hammes; Sébastien Meylan; Elisabeth Salhi; Oliver Köster; Thomas Egli; Urs von Gunten

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

States of cobalt and iron in catalysts supported in TiO{sub 2} from data of diffuse reflectance IR spectra of adsorbed carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The variations in the oxidation states of cobalt and iron atoms in pure and mixed Co- and Fe-containing catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2} as a function of the conditions in which the catalysts were prepared and preliminarily treated were studied by analysis of the IR spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on these catalysts. A mutual influence of the components was discovered; iron was found to promote reduction of cobalt.

Davydov, A.A. [G.K. Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Coville, N. [Univ. of the Wiswatersrand Wits, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Relation between surface adsorption states and emf in a solid electrolyte concentration cell during carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum studied by local current measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of measuring adsorption during surface catalysis has been emphasized often. This is true for the oxidation of carbon monoxide on a platinum surface. Surface adsorption states during the reaction under steady states can be learned from electromotive force (emf) measurement with appropriate assumptions. Two mechanisms for emf generation have been proposed, one is that only oxygen activity generates emf, the other is that both oxygen and CO adsorption generates emf.

Okamoto, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kudo, T.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of catalysts used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are determined to a significant degree by the carriers used in their preparation. This paper deals with a study of the effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt-based catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/. Co catalysts that are active in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are those on which the adsorption of H/sub 2/ exceeds 3.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co and the adsorptin of carbon monoxide exceeds 7.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are adsorbed on active catalysts in weakly bound forms. A mechanism is proposed for the formatin of an active center and the adsorption of carbon monoxide on Co-catalysts which includes the appearance of a partial positive charge on the cobalt atom.

Lapidus, A.L.; Jem, H.C.; Krylova, A.Y.

1983-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

Kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of nitrogen and carbon monoxide with liquid niobium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of N{sub 2} and CO with liquid niobium were investigated in the temperature range of 2,700 to 3,000 K in samples levitated in N{sub 2}/Ar and CO/Ar streams. The nitrogen absorption and desorption processes were found to be second-order with respect to nitrogen concentration, indicating that the rate controlling step is either the adsorption of nitrogen molecules on the liquid surface or dissociation of absorbed nitrogen molecules into adsorbed atoms. The carbon and oxygen dissolution in liquid niobium from CO gas is an exothermic process and the solubilities of carbon and oxygen (C{sub Ce}, C{sub Oe} in at%) are related to the temperature and the partial pressure of CO. The reaction CO {yields} (C) + (O) along with the evaporation of niobium oxide takes place during C and O dissolution, whereas C and O desorption occurs via CO evolution only.

Park, H.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Ozone Abundance in a Nitrogen-Carbon Dioxide Dominated Terrestrial Paleoatmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the ozone distribution for a model terrestrial paleoatmosphere in which the present oxygen abundance is largely replaced by carbon dioxide, which we argue is a reasonable working assumption. In principle, the presence of carbon dioxide might supplement the ozone shield as compared with models based on nitrogen without high carbon dioxide abundance so that early life need not have been as UV-resistant as often assumed. An extrasolar planet with a high-CO2 atmosphere might contain enough O3 to be a source of false positive biomarkers. We find that the globally averaged O3 column density can be the same, or nearly four times higher (depending upon the O2 partial pressure) when CO2 is used in place of N2 as the replacement component for lowered O2 in a 1-atm terrestrial planet with solar radiation. The effect is important for making quantitative deductions from future data, but does not invalidate the use of O3 as a biomarker for free oxygen. These results make prospects for detection of extrasolar planetary O3 absorption somewhat better than before.

B. C. Thomas; A. L. Melott; L. D. Martin; C. H. Jackman

2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

119

Ozone Abundance in a Nitrogen-Carbon Dioxide Dominated Terrestrial Paleoatmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the ozone distribution for a model terrestrial paleoatmosphere in which the present oxygen abundance is largely replaced by carbon dioxide, which we argue is a reasonable working assumption. In principle, the presence of carbon dioxide might supplement the ozone shield as compared with models based on nitrogen without high carbon dioxide abundance so that early life need not have been as UV-resistant as often assumed. An extrasolar planet with a high-CO2 atmosphere might contain enough O3 to be a source of false positive biomarkers. We find that the globally averaged O3 column density can be the same, or nearly four times higher (depending upon the O2 partial pressure) when CO2 is used in place of N2 as the replacement component for lowered O2 in a 1-atm terrestrial planet with solar radiation. The effect is important for making quantitative deductions from future data, but does not invalidate the use of O3 as a biomarker for free oxygen. These results make prospects for detection of extrasolar pla...

Thomas, B C; Martin, L D; Jackman, C H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting low H.sub.2 /CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinium, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n+1).gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n.gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Goldberg, Robert I. (Selden, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

122

Carbon monoxide line emission as a CMB foreground: tomography of the star-forming universe with different spectral resolutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rotational lines of carbon monoxide and the fine structure lines of CII and of the most abundant metals, emitted during the epoch of enhanced star formation in the universe, are redshifted in the frequency channels where the present-day and future CMB experiments are sensitive. We estimate the contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum by the emission in such lines in merging star-forming galaxies. We used the Lacey-Cole approach to characterize the distribution of the merging halos, together with a parametrization for the star formation rate in each of them. Using observational data from a sample of local, low-redshift, and high-redshift objects, we calibrated the luminosity in each line as a function of the star formation rate. We show that the correlation term arising from CO line emission is a significant source of foreground for CMB in a broad range of frequencies (in particular in the 20-60 GHz band) and for 1000

Mattia Righi; Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Rashid Sunyaev

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

123

Photochemical generation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reduction of carbon dioxide and water under visible light irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...energy conversion with consumption of a pollutant, CO2...energy conversion with consumption of a pollutant, CO...energy conversion with consumption of a pollutant, CO2...energy by producing fuels (hydrogen, carbon...M) in the reaction vessel; the gas contained...

Jean-Marie Lehn; Raymond Ziessel

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Infrared spectroscopic studies of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a series of silica-supported copper catalysts in different oxidation states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide (358-493 K, 0.1-20 kPa) on four copper-on-silica (2-10 wt% Cu) catalysts prepared by the ion-exchange technique. The measurements are made for each sample in three different states: unreduced (predominantly Cu{sup 2+}), and reduced (Cu{sup 0}), and partially reoxidized in nitrous oxide (Cu{sup +}). On unreduced samples, a major absorption band between 2127 and 2132 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO adsorbed on small CuO particles and a weak band at 2199 cm{sup {minus}1} due to CO on isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions incorporated in the silica surface have been identified. The former adsorption obeys a Langmuir isotherm with a heat of adsorption of 29 kJ/mol independent of CuO particle size and surface coverage. After catalyst reduction, the major absorption band lies between 2090 and 2113 cm{sup {minus}1} and arises from CO linearly bound to very small (1- to 5-nm) copper metal clusters. The observed frequency shifts indicate the presence of steps and terraces similar to low index Cu planes in very small particles (1- to 2-nm), and the presence of similar higher index Cu planes on larger clusters (2- to 5-nm). The absorption is described by a Freundlich isotherm with the heat of CO adsorption decreasing with coverage from 50 to 22 kJ/mol on bigger particles but more constant (27 to 22 kJ/mol) on small particles. A surface copper/CO atomic ratio increasing from 5 to 12 is established at equilibrium saturation between 358 and 493 K using extinction coefficients determined in this study. In the reduced catalysts, a weakly adsorbed ({Delta}H{sub a} = {minus}20 kJ/mol) species assigned to CO bound to isolated Cu{sup +} ions is also found and absorbs at 2175 cm{sup {minus}1}. The frequency of this band does not vary with catalyst loading and is not affected by reoxidation of the catalyst in nitrous oxide.

Kohler, M.A.; Wainwright, M.S.; Trimm, D.L.; Cant, N.W. (Macquarie Univ., New South Wales (Australia) Univ. of South Wales (Australia))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Infrared spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on SiO sub 2 -supported lanthanide-Ni bimetallic catalysts and their catalytic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the surface properties of the lanthanide (rare earth) - transition metal intermetallics and lanthanide metal overlayers have attracted a growing interest from the point of view of technical applications in catalyst and hydrogen storage. However, despite the intrinsic interest and considerable potential of these novel materials, very little detailed work has been carried out with a view to unveiling the specific properties upon interactions of lanthanides with transition metals. It has been shown that Eu and Yb metals dissolve in liquid ammonia to yield homogeneous solutions containing the ammoniated electrons. When the transition metal powders are added to this solution, the metal powders react with the dissolved lanthanide metals in liquid ammonia to form novel bimetallic catalysts. Such a system can be used as a catalyst probe for studying the catalytic actions induced by interactions between the lanthanide and transition metals. The present investigation was extended to include a SiO{sub 2}-supported bimetallic systems obtained when Eu or Yb dissolved in liquid ammonia reacts with silica-supported Ni. Using Fourier transform (FT)-IR studies of adsorbed carbon monoxide the authors provided information about the way the surface components were disposed in this bimetallic system. Adsorbed carbon monoxide was used as a molecular probe for the nature of bimetallic surface since the IR spectra of adsorbed probe molecules directly reflected variations in the surface.

Imamura, Hayao; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Sakata, Yoshihisa; Tsuchiya, Susumu (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Increased combustion rate of chlorobenzene on Pt/?-Al2O3 in binary mixtures with hydrocarbons and with carbon monoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene on a 2 wt.% Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst in binary mixtures with various hydrocarbons (toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, 2-butene, and ethene) and with carbon monoxide has been explored. For all binary mixtures used the (excess of) added hydrocarbon increased the rate of conversion of chlorobenzene. With 2-butene, T50% and T100% for chlorobenzene were reduced by 100 and 200°C, respectively. Toluene and ethene were almost equally efficient as 2-butene. Co-feeding benzene or carbon monoxide resulted in a much smaller decrease of the T50%. The additional heat and water production in hydrocarbon combustion may contribute to some extent to the observed rate acceleration, but removal of Cl from the surface due to the hydrocarbon appears to be the major factor. The co-feeding of hydrocarbons invariably reduced the output of polychlorinated benzenes, which are formed as byproducts in the combustion of chlorobenzene on Pt/?-Al2O3. Again, especially toluene, ethene, and 2-butene were very efficient. Benzene — as well as cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, which were converted in situ into benzene — was much less effective, due to chlorination of the aromatic nucleus. In chlorobenzene–CO mixtures the levels of polychlorinated benzenes were almost as high as with chlorobenzene per se. Removal of Cl from the surface (mainly in the form of HCl) by (non-aromatic) hydrocarbons is responsible for reducing the formation of byproducts.

R.W. van den Brink; R. Louw; P. Mulder

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

Wayland, B.B.

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and biochemical oxygen demands were measured before and after ozaontion as well as the amount of ozone consumed. Non-adsorbable COD was measured and a comparison of ozonized and unozonized wastewater made. BOD concentration rose after ozonation, but decreased... of solids retention time on nonadsorbable COD, with and without ozonation. 39 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Biochemical and chemical oxygen demand data. COD removal and ozone consumption data 21 26 iVon-adsorbable COD data for bio-oxidized effluent. . 3O...

Buys, Ronald Earl

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

Quantum-chemical investigation of the interaction of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with the Lewis acid sites of aluminium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the framework of the cluster approximation, using covalent and ionic models of Lewis acid sites of aluminumoxide, their electronic structure, as well as that of complexes of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with them, was calculated. It was shown that the Lewis acid sites, representing a truncated tetrahedron, exhibit stronger electron-acceptor properties than the corresponding sites in the form of a truncated octahedron. For both molecules, the linear form of adsorption is energetically more profitable than the T-shaped form. The results obtained by the nonempirical SCF MO LCAO method in the STO-3GF basis and by semiempirical methods in CNDO/2 and INDO approximatations, are qualitatively the same.

Senchenya, I.N.; Chuvylkin, N.D.; Kazanskii, V.B.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Studies on the sulfur poisoning of Ru-RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for the adsorption and methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of sulfur poisoning on the chemisorption and on the methanation of carbon monoxide over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalyst were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and volumetric gas adsorption measurements. The CS{sub 2} molecules are {eta}` bonded to Ru sites through one of the sulfur atoms and decompose to the constituent elements on thermal activation. Each S atom may deactivate 3 to 10 metal sites even at low coverages, the effect being more pronounced on the chemisorption of hydrogen. The deposited sulfur (and possibly carbon also) sterically hinders the formation of certain multicarbonyl and monocarbonyl species (vCO in 2055-2140 cm{sup -1} region), which otherwise transform to methane via surface methylene groups in the presence of chemisorbed hydrogen and are found to play an important role in the low-temperature methanation activity of the studied catalyst. The Ru-CO species giving rise to lower frequency vibrational bands are affected to a lesser extent. The presence of sulfur also results in the development of some new CO binding states which are weak and are identified with the CO and S coadsorbed at Ru sites of different oxidation states or of varying crystallographic nature. The CO adsorbed in these states is not reactive to hydrogen. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kamble, V.S.; Londhe, V.P.; Gupta, N.M. [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India)] [and others] [Bhambha Atomic Research centre, Bombay (India); and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

FTIR study of carbon monoxide oxidation and scrambling at room temperature over copper supported on ZnO and TiO{sub 2} No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An FTIR and quadrupole mass spectroscopic study of CO adsorption and oxidation with {sup 16}O{sub 2} and {sup 18}O{sub 2} on copper supported on ZnO and TiO{sub 2} is presented. The experimental results indicate that CO is adsorbed on the metallic particles dispersed on both oxides on two kinds of sites, on the normal terrace sites and on sites at the borderline of the particles. Moreover, on titania, a band at 2126 cm{sup -1}, assigned to CO adsorbed on isolated Cu atoms and/or on two-dimensional small clusters, is detected. A frequency shift of the bands of CO adsorbed on the metallic particles observed in the CO-O{sub 2} coadsorption experiments and the occurrence of a scrambling reaction between CO and {sup 18}O{sub 2} reveal that on all these samples, there are metallic sites which are able to adsorb at the same time oxygen atoms and carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide and carbonate-like species are formed: the asymmetric stretching frequencies of CO{sub 2} and the quadrupole mass spectroscopic analysis reveal that with {sup 18}O{sub 2}, different isotopic molecular CO{sub 2}`s are formed, while the carbonate-like species have the same frequencies of those produced in {sup 16}O{sub 2}. Moreover, these species are completely lacking in the absence of oxygen in the gas phase. The experimental results indicate the there are, on these samples, two independent pathways for the CO oxidation, a direct oxidation of CO at the surface of the metallic particles and an induced oxidation with the surface lattice oxygen species of the supports. 46 refs., 8 figs.

Baccuzzi, F.; Chiorino, A. [Universita di Torino (Italy)] [Universita di Torino (Italy)

1996-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ozonization at the Vacancy Defect Site of the Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Lei Vincent Liu, Wei Quan Tian, and Yan Alexander Wang*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ozonization at the Vacancy Defect Site of the Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Lei Vincent Liu, Wei at the vacancy defect site of the single-walled carbon nanotube has been studied by static quantum mechanics approach. Among five different reaction pathways at the vacancy defect, the reaction involving

Wang, Yan Alexander

133

2005: Future effects of ozone on carbon sequestration and climate change policy using a global  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production and carbon sequestration. The reduced carbon storage would then require further reductions in

B. Felzer; J. Reilly; J. Melillo; D. Kicklighter; M. Sarofim; C. Wang; R. Prinn; Q. Zhuang

134

THE INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE ON GLOBAL CARBON AND WATER CYCLES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ozone (O3) is a phytotoxic greenhouse gas that has increased more than 3-fold at Earth’s surface from pre-industrial values. In addition to directly increasing radiative forcing as a greenhouse gas, O3 indirectly impacts climate through altering ...

D. Lombardozzi; Samuel Levis; G. Bonan; P.G. Hess; J.P. Sparks

135

Extending surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to transition-metal surfaces: carbon monoxide adsorption and electrooxidation on platinum- and palladium-coated gold electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin (ca. one to three monolayers) films of platinum and palladium electrodeposited on electrochemically roughened gold are observed to yield surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra for adsorbed carbon monoxide. The major vibrational band(s) on these surfaces are diagnosed from their frequencies as arising from C-O stretching vibrations, nu/sub CO/ bound to the transition-metal overlayers rather than to residual gold sites. The observed SFR nu/sub CO/ frequencies are closely similar to (within ca. 10 cm/sup -1/ of) those obtained for these systems from potential-difference infrared (PDIR) spectra. The major SERS and PDIR nu/sub CO/ features for the platinum and palladium surfaces appear at 2060-2090 and 1965-1985 cm/sup -1/, respectively, consistent with the presence of terminal and bridging CO on these two electrodes. The infrared as well as electrochemical properties of these systems are closely similar to those for the corresponding polycrystalline bulk electrodes. A difference between the SER- and IR-active adsorbed CO, however, is that the former undergoes electrooxidation on both surfaces at 0.2-0.3 V higher overpotentials than the latter form. Examination of the potential-dependent SERS bands for metal oxide vibrations, nu/sub PtO/, on the platinum surface shows that the electrooxidation potential for the SERS-active adsorbed CO coincides with that for the appearance of the nu/sub PtO/ band. Some broader implications to the utilization of SERS for examining transition-metal surfaces are pointed out.

Leung, L.W.H.; Weaver, M.J.

1987-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

136

Mechanistic and kinetic evaluation of organic disinfection by-product and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) formation during the ozonation of drinking water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ozonation of drinking water results in the formation of low molecular weight (LMW) organic by-products. These compounds are easily utilisable by microorganisms and can result in biological instability of the water. In this study, we have combined a novel bioassay for assessment of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) with the detection of selected organic acids, aldehydes and ketones to study organic by-product formation during ozonation. We have investigated the kinetic evolution of LMW compounds as a function of ozone exposure. A substantial fraction of the organic compounds formed immediately upon exposure to ozone and organic acids comprised 60–80% of the newly formed AOC. Based on experiments performed with and without hydroxyl radical scavengers, we concluded that direct ozone reactions were mainly responsible for the formation of small organic compounds. It was also demonstrated that the laboratory-scale experiments are adequate models to describe the formation of LMW organic compounds during ozonation in full-scale treatment of surface water. Thus, the kinetic and mechanistic information gained during the laboratory-scale experiments can be utilised for upscaling to full-scale water treatment plants.

Frederik Hammes; Elisabeth Salhi; Oliver Köster; Hans-Peter Kaiser; Thomas Egli; Urs von Gunten

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Chemisorption and catalysis by metal clusters. II. Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and of oxygen by supported osmium clusters derived from Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ and from Os/sub 6/(CO)/sub 18/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide and oxygen have been chemisorbed at 293 K on the high-nuclearity carbonyl-protected clusters (the various species A) obtained by heating in vacuo to 523 K Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ or Os/sub 6/(CO)/sub 18/ impregnated on silica, alumina, or titania. The adsorption isotherms have a conventional appearance, but most are composed of a primary and a secondary region. Material adsorbed in the secondary region is removed by evacuation at room temperature whereas that adsorbed in the primary region is removed by evacuation at elevated temperatures. For species A/alumina and the species A/titania the primary region is complete and the secondary region commences when the pressure over the adsorbent is 0.2 Torr. Species A/silica gave no secondary region in oxygen adsorption. Adsorption and subsequent temperature-programmed desorption of (/sup 18/O)CO occurred without any dilution by (/sup 16/O)CO, indicating that ligand-(/sup 16/O)CO and adsorbed-(/sup 18/O)CO do not exchange even at elevated temperatures. The two species A/aluminas catalyzed oxygen isotope exchange at 293 K. From the experimental evidence it is deduced that carbon monoxide and oxygen each adsorbs molecularly in both the primary and the secondary regions. In the primary region carbon monoxide adsorption occurs at osmium sites on the cluster framework, whereas in the secondary region it occurs at ligand-carbon bonded to osmium. For oxygen, adsorption in the primary region is again at osmium sites on the cluster framework but that in the secondary region is at osmium sites of the cluster framework suitably modified as a result of the support-cluster interaction.

Hunt, D.J.; Jackson, S.D.; Moyes, R.B.; Wells, P.B.; Whyman, R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Studies of the coadsorption of deuterium and carbon monoxide with silver on rhodium and the adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene on clean and carbon covered platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ag adsorbed on Rh(100) is presented as a model of the corresponding bimetallic catalyst. Ag overlayer growth follows the Frank-Van der Merwe growth mechanism at 300 K and the Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism at 640 K. Ag(3d) binding energies are found to track the vacuum level rather than the Fermi level. The results of D/sub 2/ and CO adsorption studies on Ag/Rh(100) show that adsorbed Ag does not significantly alter the properties of adjacent D/sub 2/ or CO adsorption sites on the Rh(100) surface. The desorption and decomposition of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on clean and carbon covered Pt(111) is also reported. No evidence for TNT decomposition on the carbon covered surface is found. Molecular TNT desorption kinetics at low coverage are first order, yielding an activation energy of 16.7 +/- 1 Kcal/mol and a preexponential factor of 2.3 x 10/sup 11/ (x e/sup - + 0.5/) sec/sup -1/. TNT adsorbed on the clean Pt(111) surface at submonolayer coverages undergoes almost complete decomposition during heating. The major decomposition products are H/sub 2/O, NO, CO/sub 2/, CO, HCN, and a carbon residue left on the surface. TNT adsorbed in the second and higher monolayers desorbs molecularly. The significance of these results in understanding the performance of a commercial explosive vapor preconcentrator is discussed.

Peebles, H.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

FTIR study of hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption on Pt/TiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pt/TiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts submitted to low-temperature reduction (LTR,200 C) and high-temperature reduction (HTR, 500 C) and exposed to hydrogen and carbon monoxide at room temperature were studied by infrared spectroscopy. There is a strong loss of transmission in the entire infrared spectra on Pt/TiO{sub 2} after its exposure to hydrogen, which is related to the reducibility of the support. A typical SMSI behavior (strong metal-support interaction), such as the decrease in carbon monoxide adsorption capacity, was detected on Pt/TiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZrO{sub 2} after exposure to hydrogen, even for the catalysts submitted to LTR treatment. Also a carbonyl band shift to lower wavenumber was observed on LTR-treated Pt/TiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} after exposure to hydrogen. The authors interpreted this SMSI behavior as an electronic rather than morphological effect, which was induced by the presence of hydrogen spillover.

Benvenutti, E.V.; Franken, L.; Moro, C.C.; Davanzo, C.U.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

140

Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The structure of adsorbed sulfur and carbon on molybdenum and rhenium single crystal surfaces, and their influence on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon chemisorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultra-high vacuum (10/sup -10/ Torr) study was performed on the chemisorption and structures of S and C adsorbates on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010) single crystal surfaces. Both S and C adsorb strongly on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010), with adsorption energies >70 kcal/mol for coverages less than saturation. S was proposed to adsorb in the highest symmetry sites on all surfaces except for theta/sub s/ > 0.75 on Mo(100), where studies suggest two different adsorption sites. C adsorbs in a ''carbidic'' or active phase on Mo(100), where it is also proposed to adsorb in the highest symmetry sites. However, C adsorbs in a ''graphitic'' or inactive phase on Re(0001) and Re(1010). CO chemisorption on the S and C overlayers was found to be blocked (except for C on Mo(100)), with S blocking adsorption more efficiently than C. Changes in adsorption energy were determined to be caused by local crowding of CO molecules by S or C, rather than a long-range electronic interaction. Unsaturated hydrocarbons decomposed completely on Mo(100), Re(0001), and Re(1010). Similar to the results for CO chemisorption, strong adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons (leading to decomposition) was blocked by pre-adsorbed S, allowing only physisorption to occur (adsorption energies < 11 kcal/mol). The effect of pre-adsorbed ''graphitic'' C on Re(0001) and Re(1010) on unsaturated hydrocarbon chemisorption was the same; strong adsorption (leading to decomposition) was blocked allowing only physisorption. However, Mo(100) with pre-adsorbed ''carbidic'' carbon blocks only decomposition while allowing strong reversible molecular chemisorption (12 to 23 kcal/mol). Differences in inhibition efficiency of S and C are proposed to be caused by differences in bond distances of the adsorbates to the surface. Greater distance from the metal surface causes more interaction with neighboring metal atoms. These differences also suggest explanations for catalytic hydrodesulfurization of thiophene.

Kelly, D.G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ozone decomposing filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Synthesis and reactivity of sterically congested metallacyclobutenes and metal-mediated carbon-sulfur bond activation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methods for this conversion typically involve the production of byproducts like carbon monoxide and hydrogen

Vélez, Carmen L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Exhaust-catalyst development for methanol-fueled vehicles. II. Synergism between palladium and silver in methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation over an alumina-supported palladium-silver catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation were examined over 0.01 Pd, 5% Ag, and 0.01% Pd/5% Ag catalysts - all supported on ..gamma..-alumina. The bimetallic catalyst showed greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation activity than either of the single-component catalysts; moreover, the Pd and Ag interacted synergistically in the bimetallic catalyst to produce greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation rates and lower yields of methanol partial oxidation products than expected from a mixture of the single-component catalysts. Temperature-programmed oxidation experiments and reactivity experiments involving changes in O/sub 2/ partial pressure both provided evidence that the Pd-Ag synergism results from Pd promoting the rate of O/sub 2/ adsorption and reaction with CO and CH/sub 3/OH on Ag. The data also indicate that virtually all of the Pd in the bimetallic catalyst is present in Pd-Ag crystallites.

McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A DFT Study of Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Carbonaceous Materials Juan F. Espinal, Alejandro Montoya, Fanor Mondragon,*, and Thanh N. Truong*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an important process in the gasification of carbon materials such as char, coke, soot, as well as in the growth it is a clean and efficient alternative to the use of coal instead of combustion. The gasification process

Truong, Thanh N.

147

Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from and comprise 32 ± 2% of gasoline exhaust and 26 ± 1% of diesel exhaust by mass. We calculate and compare ozone production potentials of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, and nontailpipe gasoline emissions. Per mass

Cohen, Ronald C.

148

Use of carbon monoxide and third-derivative EPR spectra to probe the coordination of surface V/sup 4 +/ ions on reduced V/sub 2/O/sub 5//SiO/sub 2/ catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coordination properties of surface V/sup 4 +/ ions of reduced V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ supported on silica have been studied by EPR using the adsorption of various probe molecules. The spectrum resolution, greatly enhanced with the third-derivative presentation, indicates an orthorhombic symmetry for the V/sup 4 +/ ions after CO adsorption (g/sub 1/ approx. g/sub 2/ = 1.985, g/sub 3/ = 1.931, A/sub 1/ approx. A/sub 2/ 71.4 G, A/sub 3/ = 191.4 G). The use of /sup 13/C-enriched carbon monoxide allows us to observe that the V/sup 4 +/ surface ions can coordinate two CO molecules from the gas phase to form, together with four lattice oxide ions, a distorted octahedron with one pronounced vanadyl character bond. The /sup 13/C superhyperfine coupling constant is found to be about 7 G. The influence of the adsorbed molecules (CO, H/sub 2/O, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) on the properties of the V/sup 4 +/ ions at the surface is further discussed. 33 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Che, M.; Canosa, B.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

1986-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Interaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen in the adsorbed layer on Pd, Ce, Pd-Ce catalysts supported on /gamma/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of CO and the interaction of CO/sub ads/ with O/sub 2/ on Pd, Ce, and Pd-Ce//gamma/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (0.5 wt. % Pd, 2.0 wt. % Ce) has been studied using the methods of IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The identity of the adsorbed CO complexes, the temperature ranges over which they desorb, and their reactivity with O/sub 2/ have been established. The interaction of bridging and carbonate - carboxylate CO complexes and carbon (disproportionation and dissociation products) with O/sub 2/ on Pd and Pd-Ce catalysts is preceded by the coadsorption of oxygen and the evolution of heat. During the oxidation of CO, autooscillation, heat evolution, and the concentration of oxygen in the flow are observed.

Savel'eva, G.A.; Sass, A.S.; Speranskaya, G.V.; Tenchev, K.K.; Petrov, L.A.; Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Galeev, T.K.; Popova, N.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Conversion of carbon monoxide on membrane catalysts of palladium alloys. I. Reaction between CO and H/sub 2/ on binary palladium alloys with ruthenium and nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of saturated and unsaturated C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and water is observed during reaction CO and H/sub 2/ on binary palladium alloys with 10 wt. % of Ru and 5.5 wt. % Ni at atmospheric pressure and 523-683 K. The introduction of hydrogen into the reaction zone by different methods, bu diffusion through a membrane catalyst or in a mixture with CO, influences the activity and selectivity of the catalysts investigated.

Gur'yanova, O.S.; Serov, Yu.M.; Gyl'yanova, S.G.; Gryaznov, V.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute ozone-induced change Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract Predicting ozone-induced reduction of carbon... a leaf-level model to the whole tree, it is possible to investigate whether the ozone-induced ... Source: Michigan...

152

Identifying and counting point defects in carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of single-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Phys. Chem. B 103,single-walled carbon nanotubes on patterned silicon wafers.of single-walled carbon nanotubes from carbon monoxide.

Fan, Y W; Goldsmith, B R; Collins, Philip G

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Identifying and Counting Point Defects in Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

single-walled carbon nanotubes on patterned silicon wafers.of single-walled carbon nanotubes from carbon monoxide.single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science 306, 1362–1364 (

Collins, Philip G

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

Toohey, Darin W.

156

Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

Chi-Chi Lin; Hsuan-Yu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A New Approach to Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... carbon monoxide plus hydrogen respectively, under the usual conditions of temperature and pressure applying in gasification practice, the rates of reaction measured by the number of gm. moles of product ...

J. D. BLACKWOOD; F. K. McTAGGART

1959-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ozone in Michigan's Environment 1876–1880  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric ozone was monitored in Michigan during the late 1880's using Schoenbein's test paper. A conversion chart was constructed to relate the Schoenbein ozone scale at various relative humidifies to ozone levels indicated by a Dasibi ozone ...

Dale E. Linvill; W. J. Hooker; Brian Olson

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials Paper # 715 Donna A and unpainted drywall as passive ozone control surfaces in a room-sized laboratory chamber. Mean deposition-50%, resulted in increased reactivity for activated carbon. In our model for a typical house, about 35

Siegel, Jeffrey

160

Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A nonthermal carbon monoxide plasma is known to produce a solid deposition which is thought to be a polymer of carbon suboxide (C3O2); however there are very few investigations of this deposition in the literature. This thesis contains an analysis...

Geiger, Robert

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

7, 97959828, 2007 Tropospheric ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 7, 9795­9828, 2007 Tropospheric ozone climatology over Beijing A. J. Ding et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tropospheric ozone climatology over Beijing: analysis of aircraft data;ACPD 7, 9795­9828, 2007 Tropospheric ozone climatology over Beijing A. J. Ding et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

8, 1106311101, 2008 Tropospheric Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 11063­11101, 2008 Tropospheric Ozone climatology in the southern subtropics G. Clain et al.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tropospheric ozone climatology at two southern Tropospheric Ozone climatology in the southern subtropics G. Clain et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

Wastewater Ozonation Catalyzed by Iron  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Another attempt to improve ozonation removal efficiency is the use of metals or their oxides to catalyze ozonation. ... The waveforms were generated by a potentiostat BAS model Epsilon-2. ... Sreethawong, T.; Chavadej, S.Color removal of distillery wastewater by ozonation in the absence and presence of immobilized iron oxide catalyst J. Hazard. ...

Anaid Cano Quiroz; Carlos Barrera-Di?az; Gabriela Roa-Morales; Patricia Balderas Herna?ndez; Rubi? Romero; Reyna Natividad

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

Ozone removal by HVAC filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded with particles during operation in the field can remove ozone from intake or recirculated air. However, knowledge of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial buildings is incomplete. We measured the ozone removal efficiencies of clean (unused) fiberglass, clean synthetic filters, and field-loaded residential and commercial filters in a controlled laboratory setting. For most filters, the ozone removal efficiency declined rapidly but converged to a non-zero (steady-state) value. This steady-state ozone removal efficiency varied from 0% to 9% for clean filters. The mean steady-state ozone removal efficiencies for loaded residential and commercial filters were 10% and 41%, respectively. Repeated exposure of filters to ozone following a 24-h period of no exposure led to a regeneration of ozone removal efficiency. Based on a theoretical scaling analysis of mechanisms that are involved in the ozone removal process, we speculate that the steady-state ozone removal efficiency is limited by reactant diffusion out of particles, and that regeneration is due to internal diffusion of reactive species to sites available to ozone for reaction. Finally, by applying our results to a screening model for typical residential and commercial buildings, HVAC filters were estimated to contribute 22% and 95%, respectively, of total ozone removal in HVAC systems.

P. Zhao; J.A. Siegel; R.L. Corsi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

--No Title--  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

quality standard established by the Environmental Protection Agency for designated pollutants, such as carbon monoxide and ozone. OPRG - "Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated...

166

Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Standards (New Jersey) This article lists specific standards for ambient air quality standards for particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead and...

167

Chapter 21 Air Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for which the airsheds are "in attainment or unclassified" are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, lead, and particulate matter (PM) including PM...

168

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Low Emission (VALE) Program The goal of the VALE Program is to reduce ground level emissions at commercial service airports located in designated ozone and carbon monoxide...

169

Detection of Carbon Monoxide within the Magellanic Bridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Mopra 22m and SEST 15m telescopes have been used to detect and partially map a region of 12CO(1-0) line emission within the Magellanic Bridge, a region lying between the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The emission appears to be embedded in a cloud of neutral hydrogen, and is in the vicinity of an IRAS source. The CO emission region is found to have a 60um/100um flux density ratio typical for 12CO(1-0) detections within the SMC, although it has a significantly lower 12CO brightness and velocity width. These suggest that the observed region is of a low metallicity, supporting earlier findings that the Magellanic Bridge is not as evolved as the SMC and Magellanic Stream, which are themselves of a lower metallicity than the Galaxy. Our observations, along with empirical models based on SMC observations, indicate that the radius of the detected CO region has an upper limit of ~16 pc. This detection is, to our knowledge, the first detection of CO emission from the Magellanic Bridge and is the only direct evidence of star formation through molecular cloud collapse in this region.

E. Muller; L. Staveley-Smith; W. Zealey

2002-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 40 ( )-, 7) 50 I I ) 'I ' 0 (. ' i . l') 4! !, , /' / 600 700 TRAFFTC/15 N!. Ii Fig. 14. Carl~co moaoxicle come. atrat ion v, traffic for Sampler 2 fro' t 12 15PN7 00PYCI/To ? 'JU)v 20' 1969(r'057) 29 if] 8!. & vcti jr. ';"; /I 7... correlation co"fficient 0. 47% 16. 6% 2. 44% 0. 13% Table 10 sboms 95/ confislence limits for average values for the three days. T1-e...

Thomas, John Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Cell Extracts of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Winzer. 1932. Uber die Bildung von Essigsaure bei der biologischen Umsetzung von Kohlenoxyd und Kohlensaure mit Wasserstoff zu Methan. Biochem. Z. 245:2-12. 9. Fuchs, G., G. Andress, and R. K. Thauer. 1975. CO- oxidation by anaerobic...

Ortwin Meyer; Hans G. Schlegel

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

173

ILENR/RE-AQ-ON-ROAD CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. McVey, and Stuart P. Beaton Prepared for: Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources Office A. Witter Director State of Illinois Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources #12;NOTE This report has been reviewed by the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR) and approved

Denver, University of

174

Computer simulation of the dispersion of carbon monoxide from roadways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and that the transport of material in the x-direction is due mainly to the mean wind, one can reduce equation (1) to BB B BV B BB u ? = ? (K ? ) + ? (K ? ) Bx By y By Bz z Bz (4) with the following boundary conditions, 1) I ~ 0 as x -+ 2) V~ asx-+0 (5) 3... are illustrated in Figures 5 and 6. Using equations (24) and (25) with n = 1 and equation (21), the concentration equations (19) and (20) become Q 1 v 21 r&(x, y, z, h) 2rra a u exp P- ? (~) J L2 ~ z z-h) 1 z+h)2 a az 'z (28) t(x, z, h) = exp /2rr a u z...

Maldonado, Cesar

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Decomposition and Polymerization of Solid Carbon Monoxide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By performing constant-pressure deformable-cell ab initio molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the pressure-induced chemical instability of CO above 5 GPa. The simulation shows that, contrary to previous speculations, polymerization proceeds without CO bond dissociation. The resulting polymer consists of a disordered network of small polycarbonyl (CO)n chains connecting fivefold C4O cycles. The computed vibrational spectra and electronic gap agree very well with (and shed light on) very recent experimental data.

Stéphane Bernard; Guido L. Chiarotti; Sandro Scandolo; Erio Tosatti

1998-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Response: Stratospheric Ozone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Stratospheric Ozone The Upper Atmosphere Research Pro-gram...not coincide with true atmospheric change. A major review...report "Spacelab-2 plasma depletion experiments...correct figure 5 is printed below. N 2.5 OMS...360 MHz0 o 1.704 MHz'(a O, 2.108 MHz...

KENNETH P. BOWMAN

1988-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

177

Stratospheric ozone depletion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...atmospheric lifetimes. The water solubility of the CFCs is very...surface back into the gas phase, where they...sufficient additional water molecules can accumulate...stratospheric ozone by nitrogen oxide catalysts from...Gille, J.C1986The water vapor budget of the...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ozone and ethylene stress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIRá"In a recent News and Views article1 "Adding ethylene to injury", M. Unsworth discussed the results of Mehlhorn and Wellburn2, who reported ... M. Unsworth discussed the results of Mehlhorn and Wellburn2, who reported that both endogenous ethylene (a stress-hormone) and exogenous ozone are cooperating prerequisites for injury to pea plants ...

E. F. ELSTNER

1987-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

Metal catalyzed copolymerization processes involving carbon oxides as substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

backbone and electron donating tert-butyl groups in the phenolate rings. This catalyst was used to investigate the effect of altering the nature of the cocatalyst and its concentration. The coupling of carbon monoxide and aziridines has been shown...

Phelps, Andrea Lee

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitoring for nitrogen dioxide exposure: methodologyB.G. , Jr. (1983) Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137Personal Sampler for Nitrogen Dioxide. American Industrial

Apte, Michael G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Carbon dioxide recovery from an integrated coal gasifier, combined cycle plant using membrane separation and a CO2 gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is described for electricity production based on coal gasification with recovery of carbon dioxide. In this scheme, coal is gasified into a coal gas, consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A ...

Chris Hendriks

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Analysis, anaerobic treatment and ozonation of wool scouring wastewater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wool scouring effluents (WSE) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS), and then exposed to anaerobic biological treatment using laboratory scale fixed-bed filters. This resulted in a nearly 50% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Ozonation of the effluent from the biological step led to an even further decrease in total organic carbon (TOC). The fatty acid content of the WSE was affected by both biological treatment and ozonation. Finally, steroids in the WSE underwent reduction reactions when exposed to the anaerobic biological treatment.

Monteverdi, A.; Rindone, B.; Sorlini, C. (Univ. di Milano (Italy)); Andreoni, V. (Univ. di Torino (Italy)); Rozzi, A. (Inst. di Ingegneria Sanitaria del Politechnico di Milano (Italy))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Ozone Depletion and Global Warming.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Abstract This thesis examines global warming and the possible contribution that ozone depletion provides to this warming. An examination is performed to determine the extent… (more)

Fow, Alista John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone, 1958-1987 (1991) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.ndp023 data Data Investigators J. K. Angell, J. Korshover, and W. G. Planet Description For 1958 through 1987, this data base presents total ozone variations and layer mean ozone variations expressed as percent deviations from the 1958 to 1977 mean. The total ozone variations were derived from mean monthly ozone values published in Ozone Data for the World by the Atmospheric Environment Service in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization. The layer mean ozone variations are derived from ozonesonde and Umkehr observations. The data records include year, seasonal and annual

185

Evaluating ozone dose for AOC removal in two-step GAC filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Upgrading an existing post-ozonation plant with two-step granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration for assimilable organic carbon (AOC) removal was studied. The effects of ozone dose on AOC formation and its removal in the subsequent two-step GAC filtration was studied using chemically pretreated 2 to 14° C humic lake water. Two parallel pilot-plant trains with different ozone doses (0 to 1.2 mgO3/mgTOC) and a shortterm ozonation study were performed. The optimum ozone dose for maximum AOC formation was 0.4–0.5 mgO3/mgTOC. The AOC-P17 of ozonated water was three-fold higher and AOC-NOX over ten-fold higher than in non-ozonated water, while the following biofiltration (first step) removed 51 % and 72 % of AOC-P17 and AOC-NOX, respectively. The adsorber (second step) contributed to less than 10% of the overall AOC reduction. It appeared that biofiltration is a feasible method in upgrading water treatment plants for AOC removal even when treating cold humic waters, while the subsequent adsorber seems to have less significance for AOC removal.

R. Vahala; T. Ala-Peijari; J. Rintala; R. Laukkanen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Farman et al., 1985) and25 global ozone layer reduction, the chemical and dynamical processes causing

Boyer, Edmond

187

Hole in the ozone layer?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hole in the ozone layer? Hole in the ozone layer? Name: Kelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is there really a hole in the ozone layer? Replies: That depends on what one means by a "hole". There is a thinning of the layer that is particularly severe during certain seasons at the poles. But the ozone layer is thinning most everywhere. The thinning around the south pole of earth is particularly stunning, and has been referred to as a hole even though some ozone still exists there, it is much less concentrated. As you may know, this ozone destruction is probably due to human release of pollutants such as clorofluorocarbons (CFCs) an due to natural sources such as chemicals from volcanic eruptions. CFCs are used is cooling systems such as refrigerators and air conditioning. There is an international agreement to phase out the use of these destructive chemicals but they won't be banned entirely for years for fears of losing money. Meanwhile the ozone layer thins and we are exposed to increasingly higher doses of cancer causing radiation

188

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pulsed ozone generation in oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ozone is a powerful oxidant and bactericide which is increasingly replacing chlorine in applications such as potable water treatment, swimming pool water sterilisation and bleaching. Ozone can be produced in a number of ways but the conventional method (1) is by producing an AC barrier discharge in a uniform-field arrangement containing a thin dielectric barrier. The process is highly inefficient with most of the energy supplied being converted to unwanted heat. Thus ozone treatment, although environmentally {open_quotes}friendly{close_quotes}, tends to be more costly and so there is a compelling argument for investigating ways of increasing the efficiency.

Chalmers, I.D.; Zanella, L.; MacGregor, S.J. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (Germany)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Strain-induced band-gap engineering of graphene monoxide and its effect on graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using first-principles calculations we demonstrate the feasibility of band-gap engineering in two-dimensional crystalline graphene monoxide (GMO), a recently reported graphene-based material with a 1:1 carbon/oxygen ratio. The band gap of GMO, which can be switched between direct and indirect, is tunable over a large range (0–1.35 eV) for accessible strains. Electron and hole transport occurs predominantly along the zigzag and armchair directions (armchair for both) when GMO is a direct- (indirect-) gap semiconductor. A band gap of ?0.5 eV is also induced in graphene at the K? points for GMO/graphene hybrid systems.

H. H. Pu; S. H. Rhim; C. J. Hirschmugl; M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska; M. Weinert; J. H. Chen

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

191

Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Change in Twentieth Century Zuev, V Institute of Atmospheric Optics Zueva, N. Institute of Atmospheric Optics Bondarenko, S Institute of Atmospheric Optics Category: Atmospheric State and Surface It is shown that during long-term total ozone decrease everywhere at middle and high latitudes there takes place the destruction of balance in global carbon cycle first of all due to reduction of photosynthetical СО2 sink in consequence of UV-B radiation stress of vegetable biota. As a result, СО2 concentrations in the atmosphere considerably increase, enhancing the "greenhouse effect." Based on reconstruction of behavior of stratospheric ozone between 1600 and 2000 from dendrochronologic data, it is shown that

192

Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19, 2012) Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping in the remote tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) (2­4). IO further affects the oxidative capacity iodine species over the remote ocean remain poorly understood (11, 14) but are currently thought

193

Cutting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT): (1) Cutting of pristine SWNT by ozonolysis; (2) Ozonolysis of functionalized SWNT; (3) Cutting ozonated SWNT by e-irradiation; (4) Cutting fluorinated SWNT by pyrolysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Using perfluoropolyether as the solvent, cutting of pristine SWNT has been achieved by extensive ozonolysis with 80% carbon yield at room temperature. The intense disorder… (more)

Chen, Zheyi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollutants ozone Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Global Ozone Project Ozone Formation in Summary: , power plants and industry all emit air pollution that forms ground-level ozone. Ozone is a primary... Stratospheric and...

196

Impact of ozonation and biological treatment on disinfection by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper summarizes several recent studies on the impact of ozonation and biological treatment on DBP formation. Ozonation was characterized by the formation of ozonation DBPs such as aldehydes, assimilable organic carbon (AOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and the oxidation of bromide to bromate. The oxidation of the DBP precursor compounds and the effectiveness of biotreatent for the control of DBPs were monitored by the formation potential (FP) for total organic halogen (TOX), total THMs (TTHMs) and total measured haloacetic acid (THAAs). Special attention was also given to the impact of bromide concentration on the speciation of the DBPs. A specific objective of the paper was to compare DBP control by batch biological treatment at the bench-scale to that by a continuous flow sand filter at the pilot-scale.

Shukairy, H.M.; Summers, R.S.; Miltner, R.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Isotope Evidence for Ozone Formation on Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remarkably, the gas-phase recombination or association reaction of ozone has an unusually large (?10%) isotope effect and shows almost equal enrichments of the ozone molecules containing two different oxygen isotopes. ... For a better understanding of the pressure and temperature dependence of ozone isotopic composition in oxygen discharges, we developed a relatively simple isotope kinetic model that accounts for the processes of (i) heterogeneous ozone formation at the reactor walls, (ii) isotope exchange of oxygen atoms with O2 molecules, and (iii) ozone formation in the gas phase. ...

Christof Janssen; Béla Tuzson

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

198

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

Toohey, Darin W.

199

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The ebullition of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide and total gaseous mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of gaseous species depends of their solubility in the water. Since CH4 is relatively insoluble, ebullition-product of the respiration and is highly soluble in the water, leading ofte h- 1 . Measurements of H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 trapped gas concentrations and fluxes were used

O'Driscoll, Nelson

202

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are on the decline of the peak oil production curve, and thedue to the impending peak in oil production and the threatoil production curves for those countries that have passed peak

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graph displays not only the shift in energy from wood to fossil fuels but also shows that total energy usagegraph displays not only the shift in energy from wood to fossil fuels, but also shows that total energy usage

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressed air and hydrogen production are all frequently discussed as viable options for future energy storage.

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations in Santiago de Chile associated with traffic emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO/CO2 ratios have been measured in different locations of Santiago de Chile city. Measurements were carried out in a tunnel (prevailing emissions from cars with catalytic converter) and close to heavy traffic st...

María A. Rubio; Irene Fuenzalida…

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ozone decomposition in water solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hewes, III; B. S. , Texas ASH University Directed by Dr. R. R. Davison The rate of the decomposition of ozone in water solutions at various pH's and temperatures were ob- tained by an iodometrical method. The orders of the reactions and the reaction...

Hewes, Cecil Grayson

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from biases in the schemes' climatology coefficients. Cariolle v2.1 analyses showed biases of up to 20 and Kelder (1998) ozone climatology into the scheme. Chem2D-OPP v2.1 analyses showed biases up to 20 analysed temperatures and the temperature climatology supplied with the scheme. Future developments should

Boyer, Edmond

208

Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monoxide [NO], nitrogen dioxide [NO 2 ], carbon monoxide [monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (dioxide; NO 2 , nitrogen dioxide; CO, carbon monoxide; NO,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture ... CO2 can be captured from 34% to over 50% solar energy efficiency (depending on the level of solar heat inclusion), as solid carbon and stored, or used as carbon monoxide to be available for a feedstock to synthesize (with STEP generated hydrogen) solar diesel fuel, synthetic jet fuel, or chemical production. ... STEP Iron, a Chemistry of Iron Formation without CO2 Emission: Molten Carbonate Solubility and Electrochemistry of Iron Ore Impurities ...

Stuart Licht; Baohui Wang; Susanta Ghosh; Hina Ayub; Dianlu Jiang; Jason Ganley

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

Carbon capture by sorption-enhanced water-gas shift reaction process using hydrotalcite-based material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel route for precombustion decarbonization is the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process. In this process carbon dioxide is removed from a synthesis gas at elevated temperature by adsorption. Simultaneously, carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide by the water-gas shift reaction. The periodic adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide is induced by a pressure swing cycle, and the cyclic capacity can be amplified by purging with steam. From previous studies is it known that for SEWGS applications, hydrotalcite-based materials are particularly attractive as sorbent, and commercial high-temperature shift catalysts can be used for the conversion of carbon monoxide. Tablets of a potassium promoted hydrotalcite-based material are characterized in both breakthrough and cyclic experiments in a 2 m tall fixed-bed reactor. When exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, steam, and nitrogen at 400{sup o}C, the material shows a breakthrough capacity of 1.4 mmol/g. In subsequent experiments the material was mixed with tablets of promoted iron-chromium shift catalyst and exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, steam, hydrogen, and nitrogen. It is demonstrated that carbon monoxide conversion can be enhanced to 100% in the presence of a carbon dioxide sorbent. At breakthrough, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide simultaneously appear at the end of the bed. During more than 300 cycles of adsorption/reaction and desorption, the capture rate, and carbon monoxide conversion are confirmed to be stable. Two different cycle types are investigated: one cycle with a CO{sub 2} rinse step and one cycle with a steam rinse step. The performance of both SEWGS cycles are discussed.

van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Hufton, J.R.; van den Brink, R.W. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Discharge cell for ozone generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ozone bleaching of recycled paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorinated bleaching chemicals, notably chlorine and hypochlorite, are still being used to bleach deinked, woodfree pulps. Increasing environmental concern about the use of these chemicals--coupled with the industry's efforts to increase the use of recycled fibers--highlight the need to develop better techniques for producing high-quality deinked pulp. Results presented in this report suggest that deinked fibers can be treated with ozone followed by a peroxide bleaching stage to produce a high-quality pulp.

Muguet, M.; Kogan, J. (American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation:...

215

Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

216

The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California...

217

Ozone and life on the Archaean Earth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...John Raven Ozone and life on the Archaean Earth Charles S Cockell 1 * John A Raven 2...cockell@open.ac.uk ) 1 Centre for Earth, Planetary, Space and Astronomical Research...column abundance. On the anoxic Archaean Earth, such an ozone screen would not have existed...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in extraterrestrial, low temperature ices. Reactants and products were analyzed on line and in situ via absorption with a 1/r2 dependence, r being the distance from the sun, and thus becomes less important when the outer% H+ , 2% He2+ , and few heavier nuclei; the energy distribution maximum peaks at around 10 MeV where

Kaiser, Ralf I.

219

The influence of climate change and the timing of stratospheric warmings on Arctic ozone depletion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three-dimensional model is presented to evaluate the influence of climatic change and increased carbon dioxide concentrations on ozone depletion in the Arctic region. Satellite data showing the time of stratospheric warmings during the winters of 1979-1992 is used in a series of idealized experiments where the timing of the warmings is varied by using different geopotential wave amplitudes. Results of the experiments indicate that for doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, an ozone hole in the Arctic is more likely to develop during years where late stratospheric warming has occurred after a relatively quiescent winter. The validity of this model is dependent on the future composition and temperature of the stratosphere. 43 refs., 21 figs.

Austin, J. [Meteorological Office, Bracknell (United Kingdom)] [Meteorological Office, Bracknell (United Kingdom); Butchart, N. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom)

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone andppm) 10 mg/m 3 (9 ppm) Nitrogen dioxide EPA 100 M91m 3 (50and except for nitrogen dioxide in one of the classrooms.

Young, Rodger A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A study of the effect of ozone and antioxidants on ozone-sensitive loblolly pine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to prevent injury from other pollutants (Manning, 1992). It has been widely reported that ethylenediurea protects plants from ozone foliar injury (Bennett et al. , 1978; Lee et al. , 198 la; Clarke et al. , 1990', Whitaker et al. , 1990; Kostka-Rick... & Manning, 1991; 1992) as well as early senescence due to ozone damage (Temple & Bisessar, 1979; Lee et al. , 1981a; Kostka-Rick et al. , 1991). Ozone pretnaturely ages the leaf, and EDU counteracts these effects by enhancing cellular carbohydrates...

Posey, Karen Lashea

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect. These inhibitors, also known as scavengers, can terminate the chain reaction and inhibit ozone decay and thus hydroxyl radical formation. Examples of scavengers include bicarbonate and carbonate, phosphates, humic or other organic acids... and chitin or chitosan, but lack chloroplasts (Cavalier- Smith, 1986, Tyler, 2001). Genomic analysis of RNA sequences show that fungi and oomycetes (Chromista) are phylogenetically distinct (Tyler, 2001). Species of Phytophthora belong to the phylum...

McDonald, Garry Vernon

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide Water vapor #12;Atmospheric composition (parts per million by volume) · Nitrogen (N2) 780Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0

Olver, Peter

224

Geophysics: Ancient Air, Ozone, and Faults  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...col-leagues at he Jet Propulsion Laboratory showing that the postulated reactions do occur under Antarctic stratospheric di-iions. Whether similar reactions accelerate ozone destruion under conditions more typial of the rest of the stratosphere re-mains...

RICHARD A. KERR

1988-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Ozone treatment of biomass to enhance digestibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is very resistant to enzymatic degradation. Lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment to enhance their digestibility. The main objective of this research was to further enhance the digestibility of biomass (bagasse) with ozonation as a follow...

Almendarez, Maria Elena

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

227

Intercomparison of ozone measurements over Antarctica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the abundances of ozone over Antarctic in August and September 1987 obtained during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment are intercompared. These measurements of ozone concentrations and total column abundance were obtained by three satellite instruments, two IR and one UV column-measuring instruments aboard the DC-8, one in situ DC-8, and two in situ ER-2 instruments, an upward looking lidar aboard the DC-8, and ozonesondes from four sites in Antarctica. Given the natural variability of ozone in the Antarctic and the fact that the data were not truly coincident spatially and temporally, this intercomparison is suitable only for identifying gross disparities among the techniques, rather than confirming the accuracies as rigorously as is normally done in an intercomparison. This paper presents a summary of the ozone data, using the data and accuracies given by the individual investigators in the individual papers in this issue, without any attempt to critically review or evaluate the data. In general, very good agreement (within about 10-20%, limited by natural variability) among the various techniques was found, with no systematic biases detected. These observations confirm the low ozone amounts reported in the Antarctic stratosphere.

Margitan, J.J.; Farmer, C.B.; Toon, G.C. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States)); Brothers, G.A. (Chemal, Inc., Wallops Island, VA (United States)); Browell, E.V.; Gregory, G.L.; Hypes, W.; Larsen, J.C.; McCormick, M.P. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)); Cariolle, D. (Centre National de la Recherches Meteorologiques, Toulouse (France)); Coffey, M.T.; Mankin, W. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Farman, J.C. (British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Harder, J.W.; Mount, G.H.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Schemeltekopf, A.L.; Tuck, A.F. (NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Hofmann, D.J. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States)); Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. (ST Systems, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)); Jakoubek, R.O.; Proffitt, M.H.; Wahner, A.; Watterson, I. (NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Komhyr, W. (NOAA Air Resources La

1989-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

228

Catalysis of hydrocarbon synthesis from CO and H{sub 2} on carbon membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the preparation of carbon membrane supports from polyacrylonitrile. The membranes were utilized for the preparation of cobalt catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by impregnating the membranes with a cobalt nitrate solution followed by drying on a water bath. The cobalt was sometimes introduced directly into the molding solution before the activation stage. The cobalt catalysts were utilized in the methanation of carbon monoxide. The products were dependent on the conditions utilized to obtain the carbon supports.

Lapidus, A.l.; Krylova, A.Yu.; Strupov, A.N.; Linkov, V.M.; Sanderson, R.D. [Rossiiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982000 tropical ozone climatology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more

Thompson, Anne

230

Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

Widen, Donald Allen

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Open-path ozone detection by quantum-cascade laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Open-path ozone measurements performed by mid-IR differential absorption spectroscopy are reported. Ozone spectrum was taken by fast repetitive sweeping of a quantum-cascade laser wavelength over a spectral featu...

M. Taslakov; V. Simeonov; M. Froidevaux; H. van den Bergh

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

013577. 1. Introduction [2] Since its discovery [Farman et al., 1985], the Antarctic ozone hole has been

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

233

Attribution of the Arctic ozone column deficit in March 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toronto, Ont. , Canada. Farman, J. C. , B. G. Gardiner, andthe Antarctic ozone hole [Farman et al. , 1985]. [ 13

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constant flow of air. The Orthotoridine-Manganese Method (OTM) wss employed to measure ozone in solution (APHA, 1976) . Because of the rapid rate of decomposition of ozone in water, it was determined that the production of ozone could not be measured... by introducing into water and then sampling that water for analysis with OTM. Therefore, ozone was introduced directly into a solution of OTM reagent with subsequent changes in color of the reagent, measured on a "B & L Spectronic 70" spectrophotometer, being...

Yamaguchi, Ryoji

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Process for Gas Separation from a Shifted Synthesis Gas Stream  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequestration and Sequestration and Gasification Technologies Carbon DioxiDe HyDrate ProCess for Gas seParation from a sHifteD syntHesis Gas stream Background One approach to de-carbonizing coal is to gasify it to form fuel gas consisting predominately of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This fuel gas is sent to a shift conversion reactor where carbon monoxide reacts with steam to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrogen. After scrubbing the CO 2 from the fuel, a stream of almost pure hydrogen stream remains, which can be burned in a gas turbine or used to power a fuel cell with essentially zero emissions. However, for this approach to be practical, it will require an economical means of separating CO 2 from mixed gas streams. Since viable options for sequestration or reuse of CO

236

Adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a nickel/silica catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature-programed desorption and reaction studies showed that increasing amounts of CO/sub 2/ adsorbed on silica-supported 6.9% nickel with increasing temperature to a maximum adsorption at approx. 443/sup 0/K, i.e., that the adsorption was activated; that CO/sub 2/ desorbed partly as CO/sub 2/ with the peak at 543/sup 0/K, and partly as CO with several peaks; that in the presence of hydrogen, nearly all adsorbed CO/sub 2/ desorbed as methane, and a small amount as CO; and that the methane desorption peaks from adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ both occurred at 473/sup 0/K. These results suggested that carbon dioxide adsorbed dissociatively as a carbon monoxide and an oxygen species. An observed absence of higher hydrocarbons in the methanation products of carbon dioxide was attributed to a high hydrogen/carbon monoxide surface ratio caused by the activated carbon dioxide adsorption.

Falconer, J.L.; Zagli, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Titanium monoxide spectroscopy following laser-induced optical breakdown  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work investigates Titanium Monoxide (TiO) in ablation-plasma by employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with 1 to 10 TW/cm{sup 2} irradiance, pulsed, 13 nanosecond, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The analysis of TiO is based on our first accurate determination of transition line strengths for selected TiO A-X, B-X, and E-X transitions, particularly TiO A-X {gamma} and B-X {gamma} Prime bands. Electric dipole line strengths for the A{sup 3}{Phi}-X{sup 3}{delta} and B{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{delta} bands of TiO are computed. The molecular TiO spectra are observed subsequent to laser-induced breakdown (LIB). We discuss analysis of diatomic molecular spectra that may occur simultaneously with spectra originating from atomic species. Gated detection is applied to investigate the development in time of the emission spectra following LIB. Collected emission spectra allow one to infer micro-plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density. Insight into the state of the micro-plasma is gained by comparing measurements with predictions of atomic and molecular spectra. Nonlinear fitting of recorded and computed diatomic spectra provides the basis for molecular diagnostics, while atomic species may overlap and are simultaneously identified. Molecular diagnostic approaches similar to TiO have been performed for diatomic molecules such as AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, CH, N{sub 2}, NH, NO and OH.

Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Keszler, Anna; Nemes, Laszlo; Hornkohl, James O. [The University of Tennessee/UT Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Hornkohl Consulting, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

238

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used as the only filter in a HVAC system, in this buildingair conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of

Fisk, William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference,in Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference,in Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference,

Fisk, William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

Xiao, X.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The development and deployment of a ground-based, laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the in situ detection of iodine monoxide radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High abundances of iodine monoxide (IO) are known to exist and to participate in local photochemistry of the marine boundary layer. Of particular interest are the roles IO plays in the formation of new particles in coastal marine environments and in depletion episodes of ozone and mercury in the Arctic polar spring. This paper describes a ground-based instrument that measures IO at mixing ratios less than one part in 10{sup 12}. The IO radical is measured by detecting laser-induced fluorescence at wavelengths longer that 500 nm. Tunable visible light is used to pump the A{sup 2}?{sub 3/2} (v{sup ?} = 2) ? X{sup 2}?{sub 3/2} (v{sup ?} = 0) transition of IO near 445 nm. The laser light is produced by a solid-state, Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser at 5 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced fluorescence instrument performs reliably with very high signal-to-noise ratios (>10) achieved in short integration times (<1 min). The observations from a validation deployment to the Shoals Marine Lab on Appledore Island, ME are presented and are broadly consistent with in situ observations from European Coastal Sites. Mixing ratios ranged from the instrumental detection limit (<1 pptv) to 10 pptv. These data represent the first in situ point measurements of IO in North America.

Thurlow, M. E., E-mail: thurlow@huarp.harvard.edu; Hannun, R. A.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Co, D. T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States) [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); O'Brien, A. S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States) [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hanisco, T. F. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States) [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

McCutchen, M.S.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Novel Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule Fully Protects Mice from Severe Malaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exudate, and elevated VEGF levels in plasma, followed by death between days 7 and...b) Levels of VEGF protein in the plasma of P. berghei ANKA-infected DBA-2...adequate cautions. Published ahead of print 12 December 2011 Supplemental material...

Ana C. Pena; Nuno Penacho; Liliana Mancio-Silva; Rita Neres; João D. Seixas; Afonso C. Fernandes; Carlos C. Romão; Maria M. Mota; Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes; Ana Pamplona

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

244

A Novel Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule Fully Protects Mice from Severe Malaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere. The solution was concentrated...C O) cm deltaH (400 MHz, D2O) 2.23 (3H...an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer...growth factor (VEGF) in plasma samples was determined...elevated VEGF levels in plasma, followed by death between...

Ana C. Pena; Nuno Penacho; Liliana Mancio-Silva; Rita Neres; João D. Seixas; Afonso C. Fernandes; Carlos C. Romão; Maria M. Mota; Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes; Ana Pamplona

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

245

Measuring the Kinetics of the Reduction of Iron Oxide with Carbon Monoxide in a Fluidized Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combusting a solid fuel in the presence of a metal oxide rather than air, chemical looping combustion, generates CO2suitable for sequestration and the reduced metal. For the case of iron, the reduced oxide can be...

C. D. Bohnt; J. P. Cleeton; C. M. Miiller…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) as a furnace byproduct using a rotating mask spectrometer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories, in partnership with the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has developed an optical-based sensor for the detection of CO in appliances such as residential furnaces. The device is correlation radiometer based on detection of the difference signal between the transmission spectrum of the sample multiplied by two alternating synthetic spectra (called Eigen spectra). These Eigen spectra are derived from a priori knowledge of the interferents present in the exhaust stream. They may be determined empirically for simple spectra, or using a singular value decomposition algorithm for more complex spectra. Data is presented on the details of the design of the instrument and Eigen spectra along with results from detection of CO in background N{sub 2}, and CO in N{sub 2} with large quantities of interferent CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that using the Eigen spectra technique, CO can be measured at levels well below acceptable limits in the presence of strongly interfering species. In addition, a conceptual design is presented for reducing the complexity and cost of the instrument to a level compatible with consumer products.

Sinclair, Michael B.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter; Blair, Raymond (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Albuqueruque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Test results of a ceramic-based carbon monoxide sensor in the automotive exhaust manifold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prototype CO sensor based on the anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} was fabricated and tested in a Ford V6 engine. Fuel combustion was programmed to be near stoichiometric conditions, and emissions were monitored with an FT-IR analytical instrument. The sensor, positioned near the oxygen sensor in the exhaust manifold, was successfully tested for 50 cycles of revving and idling, and was observed to respond quickly and reproducibly. The sensor response was correlated to the CO concentration at specific engine temperatures and was found to vary systematically with increasing concentrations. The results are promising and the sensor shows potentials to monitor the efficiency of the catalytic converter.

Azad, A.M.; Younkman, L.B.; Akbar, S.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Sensing mechanism of a carbon monoxide sensor based on anatase titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports results on a TiO{sub 2} (anatase)-based CO sensor and proposes a possible surface-controlled sensing mechanism. The complex plane analysis of the ac electrical data provides quantitative evidence supporting the mechanism. The grain-boundary capacitance and conductance, extracted from the impedance plane, were observed to increase with the CO concentration. This effect is attributed to a change in the depletion region thickness and barrier height at the TiO{sub 2} intergranular contact. The analysis of the electrical data combined with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations support the proposed sensing mechanism involving CO adsorption and ionization on the titania surface, and not an oxidation-reduction type reaction as observed in most oxide-based sensors.

Akbar, S.A.; Younkman, L.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Adsorption effects during temperature-programmed desorption of carbon monoxide from supported platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the effects of CO adsorption, we develop a mathematical model and use it to compute desorption spectra for the TPD of CO from Pt dispersed over a porous support into (a) an inert carrier gas and (b) a vacuum. Over the realistic parameter range considered, our model predicts that adsorption effects, caused by high concentrations of gaseous CO in the system, are always an important feature, broadening the desorption peaks and shifting them to higher temperatures. Indeed, we find that adsorption competes with desorption to the extent that adsorption equilibrium is always approached closely within the porous supported Pt samples. For desorption into a carrier gas, the adsorption effects result from limitations to the flow of CO from the sample cell, whereas for desorption into a vacuum, the adsorption effects result from limitations to the diffusion of CO from the porous sample. Our results suggest that significant adsorption effects will also be present during the TPD of CO from other Group VIII precious metals dispersed over porous supports. 4 figures, 2 tables.

Herz, R.K.; Kiela, J.B.; Marin, S.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Some general laws of the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic properties of supported transition metals in the hydrogenation of CO to hydrocarbons have been studied. A kinetic model interpreting the unusual dependence of the activation energy on temperature is proposed. It is shown that the catalytic activity (r) decreases and the selectivity with respect to methane (SCH/sub 4/) increases with an increase in the heat of adsorption of CO.

Golodets, G.I.; Pavlenko, N.V.; Tripol'skii, A.I.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Kinetic study of the reaction between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide catalyzed by clean polycrystalline platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of the platinum catalyzed reaction between NO and CO has been studied under conditions chosen to approximate those observed during operation of catalysts in automotive exhaust gas treatment applications. The catalysts were polycrystalline platinum foils and wires. The reaction was studied over a range of reactant partial pressures of 10 V Torr to 1 Torr and catalyst temperatures of 500 to 1500K. The steady-state kinetics results could not be fit by a simple Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model over all experimental conditions studied. The kinetics at high coverage were most consistent with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics assuming a bimolecular reaction between NO and CO as the rate-limiting step. At high temperature, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood assumption of fast adsorption-desorption equilibrium relative to the surface reaction rate was no longer appropriate and the mechanism of adsorption of NO had to be considered explicitly.

Klein, R.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Dissociation and oxidation of carbon monoxide over Rh/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activity of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for CO oxidation was investigated by transient isotopic pulse experiments using packed-bed reactor. This transient experimental scheme revealed significant CO dissociation activity during CO oxidation over Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Results indicate that the oxidation of CO proceeds via dissociative oxidation by its own oxygen as well as via direct oxidation by gas-phase oxygen on well-dispersed Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. The rate of CO dissociation is on the same order of magnitude as the rate of CO oxidation; under steady-state conditions at 300{degree}C, the rate of CO dissociation is approximately half that of direct oxidation. Differences in CO dissociation activity between single-crystal Rh surfaces and well-dispersed supported Rh particles are explained in terms of the molecular bonding and adsorption characteristics on these two different surfaces. The importance of CO dissociation kinetics in the overall CO oxidation activity of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts is further discussed in view of the reaction lightoff behavior.

Cho, Byong K.; Stock, C.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on ZSM-5 zeolites. Infrared spectroscopic study and quantum-chemical calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature adsorption of CO was studied on H-ZSM-5 zeolites modified by dehydroxylation, ionic exchange with Al/sup 3 +/, and impregnation with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and on Na-ZSM-5 and CaH-ZSM-5 zeolites. It was found that interaction of CO with framework OH groups results in the formation of a hydrogen-bonded CO complex whose OH bond frequency is decreased by 310-320 cm/sup -1/ compared with that of free hydroxyls. For the less acidic framework hydroxyls in large cavities of H/sub 70/Na/sub 30/-Y zeolite the observed shift is 275 cm/sup -1/. With ZSM-5 zeolites, at least six types of electron-accepting sites are observed originating from nonframework Al species (band of CO in the interaction complex: 2132, 2222, 2202, 2195, and 2198 cm/sup -1/) and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ microcrystalline phase (CO band at 2153 cm/sup -1/). The CO bond orders calculated by the CNDO/2 method for the CO interaction complexes with models of surface sites increase in the following order: > O-CO < > OH-CO approx. ..-->.. Al-CO approx. = Na-CO < alumina-CO approx. = Ca-CO < ..-->.. Si-CO < Al(cationic)-CO. A correlation between the calculated bond orders of CO and the observed vibrational frequencies of CO-forming interaction complexes is drawn.

Kustov, L.M.; Kazansky, V.B.; Beran, S.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

1987-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

254

Sulfur adsorption on nickel(100) and its effect on carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and deuterium chemisorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of CO, NO, and D/sub 2/ was studied on clean and sulfided Ni(100) near 100K using Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, and work function change measurements. The evidence suggests that sulfur's effects are predominantly steric in nature. Weak, short-range (approx.4 angstrom) electrostatic effects are also present, due to charge transfer of about 0.04 of an electron from nickel to sulfur. The blocking effect of S on the adsorption of each gas at various temperatures is discussed.

Hardegree, E.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Free-radical reactions in glow and explosion of carbon monoxide-oxygen mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examination of published compilations of rate coefficients of free-radical reactions yields reactions that are associated with chain branching in mixtures of CO and O/sub 2/ and small quantities of hydrogen or water vapor. The complete mechanism included diffusion of HO/sub 2/ radicals to the vessel wall and their adsorption and reaction at the surface. This mechanism is applied to the data of E.J. Buckler and R.G.W. Norrish on the branched-chain explosion of CO-O/sub 2/ mixtures containing H/sub 2/ in the order of 1 mm Hg. Substantial agreement is found between theory and experiment. Further, the mechanism is applied to experiments of Bond, Gray, and Griffiths with an H/sub 2/ content of 0.01-0.05 mm Hg. By specifying details of the adsorption and surface reaction of HO/sub 2/ on the basis of Langmuir's adsorption the phenomenon of flow is explained and the regions of slow reaction, glow, and explosion are described in accord with the experimental data. It is confirmed that the reaction between CO and O/sub 2/ requires the presence of a hydrogenous compound such as H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CH/sub 4/, etc., and that ''dry'' homogenous reaction is not possible except at very high temperatures.

Von Elbe, G.; Lewis, B.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Homologation and functionalization of carbon monoxide by a recyclable uranium complex  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...C-5b (R = Ph) were confirmed by CHN combustion analyses, FTIR spectroscopy, and the...SiOCCOSiPh 3 , and 4 to estimate the heats of formation ({delta}H for ) for...resource from which to produce industrial hydrocarbon feedstocks as alternatives to crude oil...

Benedict M. Gardner; John C. Stewart; Adrienne L. Davis; Jonathan McMaster; William Lewis; Alexander J. Blake; Stephen T. Liddle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide hydrogen-steam mixtures, unusual product distributions and mechanistic implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over recent years, considerable interest has developed in hydrocarbon synthesis via direct processing of H/sub 2/-lean synthesis gases which are produced by the ''second generation'' of thermally efficient coal gasifiers. To directly process gases with a H/sub 2//CO ratio less than 0.5, requires that water be mixed with the reactor feed gas so that additional H/sub 2/ is generated in-situ via the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction. This obviously requires the use of catalysts which are active for both the synthesis and WGS reactions. The fact that most Group VIII metals are active for both reactions is well demonstrated by the development of the Kolbel-Engelhardt (KE) synthesis in which all the H/sub 2/ is formed in-situ. The authors previously examined the effect of H/sub 2//CO/H/sub 2/2O feed ratios on CO conversion rates (4); the present report concerns its effect upon hydrocarbon product distributions. In the experiments described, as the H/sub 2//CO ratio was reduced from 2.0 (Typical Fischer-Tropsch (FT) conditions), sufficient H/sub 2/O was added to compensate for the H/sub 2/ deficiency based on the assumption that all added H/sub 2/O was converted to H/sub 2/ via the WGS reaction.

Chaffee, A.L.; Ekstrom; Lapszewica, J.; Loeh, H.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke in the development of cardiorespiratory disease in smokers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Rep 1983). This could be due to indoor air pollution but respiratory disease in childhood may affect later respiratory function ( Burrows, Knudson and Lebvitz 1977). Similarly the decline in bronchitis mortality i n the U.K . in re c ent years which... anteceded the decline in cigarette cons umption might, in addition, suggest an effect of outdoor pollution Air Acts". The marked internat ional differences in mortality and the high figures for the British I sles...

Borland, Colin David Ross

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

259

TEXIN2: a model for predicting carbon monoxide concentrations near intersections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association emitted along straight roadways, where traffic is wel 1-def ined and flows uniformly at constant speeds. This scenario is extremely inap- propriate for intersections. A simple conversion from straight... are presented in Chapter V. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The task of modeling pollutant concentrations near intersections has traditionally been approached by first enlisting an emissions model to estimate a composite emission rate for vehicular traffic...

Korpics, J. J

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... were used without further purification. Electrolyte solutions were prepared with deionized water (Ricca Chemical, ASTM Type I). Preparation of oxide-derived Cu 1

Christina W. Li; Jim Ciston; Matthew W. Kanan

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

263

Isotope effect in the formation of carbon monoxide by radiative association  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......levels of the final electronic state. 3 COMPUTATIONAL...parameters needed for calculation of according to...through reaction (2) does not vary much at...1sigma+ transition does not go above 2...curve of the A 1pi electronic state leads to the...M. Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and......

Sergey V. Antipov; Magnus Gustafsson; Gunnar Nyman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases and Acetyl-CoA Synthases: Light at the End of the Tunnel?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Metalloenzymes seem to ''come of age'' when their structures are known at atomic resolution, spectroscopic and catalytic properties are basically understood, and genetic expression systems are available. Such foundations allow detailed mechanistic and spectroscopic properties to be probed and correlated to structure. The objective of this article is to summarize what is known about the title group of enzymes, and show that, to a large degree, they have come of age.

Paul A. Lindahl

2002-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

265

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultravioletmeasurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition ofwavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in

Chakraborty, Subrata

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

worldwide by outdoor air pollution caused by vehicles and industrial emissions (http://www.who.int; http:// www.infoforhealth.org). Notably, air pollution increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular investigating the effects of urban air pollution in humans are mainly restricted to epide- miological studies

Boyer, Edmond

267

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

excess noise from the thermometer element and the digitizingXBL 78/2-6334 Fig. 14. Noise spectra of sample thermometer.noise spectrum of the thermometer signal for two different

Bailey, Robert Brian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Title Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5889E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Max H. Sherman Journal Building and Environment Volume 59 Start Page 456 Pagination 456-465 Date Published 01/2013 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, filtration, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, ozone, simulation Abstract Elevated outdoor ozone levels are associated with adverse health effects. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone of outdoor origin would lower population exposures and might also lead to a reduction in ozone---associated adverse health effects. In most buildings, indoor ozone levels are diminished with respect to outdoor levels to an extent that depends on surface reactions and on the degree to which ozone penetrates the building envelope. Ozone enters buildings from outdoors together with the airflows that are driven by natural and mechanical means, including deliberate ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor---generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only the positive effects on removing pollutants of indoor origin but also the possibility that enhanced ventilation might increase indoor levels of pollutants originating outdoors. This study considers how changes in residential ventilation that are designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 might influence indoor levels of ozone. Simulation results show that the building envelope can contribute significantly to filtration of ozone. Consequently, the use of exhaust ventilation systems is predicted to produce lower indoor ozone concentrations than would occur with balanced ventilation systems operating at the same air---exchange rate. We also investigated a strategy for reducing exposure to ozone that would deliberately reduce ventilation rates during times of high outdoor ozone concentration while still meeting daily average ventilation requirements.

270

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Reaction of titanium polonides with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been ascertained that heating titanium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to temperatures of 500 or 800/sup 0/C alters the composition of the gas phase, causing the advent of carbon monoxide and lowering the oxygen content. Investigation of the thermal stability of titanium polonides in a carbon dioxide medium has shown that titanium mono- and hemipolonides are decomposed at temperatures below 350/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of polonium produced in the decomposition of these polonides in a carbon dioxide medium have been determined by a radiotensimetric method. The enthalpy of the process, calculated from this relationship, is close to the enthalpy of vaporization of elementary polonium in vacuo.

Abakumov, A.S.; Malyshev, M.L.; Reznikova, N.F.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Bacterial Growth in Distribution Systems:? Effect of Assimilable Organic Carbon and Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the distribution systems fed by ozonated water, HPCs were correlated (R2 = 0.96) using an exponential model with the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) at each sampling site. ... Also, it was observed that ozonation caused a significant increase in the AOC concentration of the distribution system (over 100% increase) as well as a significant increase in the bacterial counts of the distribution system (average increase over 100%). ... The HPCs from the distribution systems fed by nanofiltration in parallel with lime-softening water also displayed an exponential correlation (R2 = 0.73) with an exponential model based on AOC. ...

Isabel C. Escobar; Andrew A. Randall; James S. Taylor

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

NASA reports drop in stratospheric ozone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NASA reports drop in stratospheric ozone ... "I believe I have that evidence," asserts NASA's Heath, adding: "It's not the proof—that will take much more work. ... Public release of the NASA data analysis is somewhat premature, he says, because the paper has not yet been published. ...

1981-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

274

Estimation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide at Sub-ppm Level Concentrations in Ammonia Synthesis Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......can be handled per analysis. The ammonia synthesis...conditioning of I2O5 reactors or to marginal flow...20%. Thus, the reliability of the method depends...practice for the analysis of trace impurities...estimated from a single analysis the method of converting...to CO2 using I2O5 reactor (11) after its......

K. Annaji Rao; K.K. Pushpa; Hari Mohan; R.M. Iyer

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Effect of potassium carbonate on char gasification by carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A differential packed-bed reactor has been employed to study the gasification of 7.5 wt% K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-catalyzed Saran char in carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide mixtures at a total pressure near 1 atm (101.3 kPa) and temperatures between 922 and 1046 K. The rate data were tested with a model which involves two-site adsorption and subsequent dissociation of CO/sub 2/ on the char surface. The results indicate that this model adequately explains the catalyzed gasification data. Moreover, the activation energy for desorption of carbon-oxygen complex is lower for the catalyzed case than for the uncatalyzed case. Adsorption of CO and CO/sub 2/ on both catalyzed and uncatalyzed chars was also followed with a volumetric adsorption apparatus at pressures between 1 and 100 kPa and temperatures from 273 to 725 K. The catalyzed char adsorbed an order of magnitude more CO/sub 2/ at 560 K than the uncatalyzed char. Subsequent dissociation of CO/sub 2/ on the carbon surface does not appear to be catalyzed by potassium. Thus, the catalyst's role is to enhance CO/sub 2/ adsorption, thereby creating more oxygen on the surface, and lowering the activation energy for desorption of the resultant carbon-oxygen species.

Koenig, P.C.; Squires, R.G.; Laurendeau, N.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The excitation coefficient ?{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}?{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

278

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

279

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

280

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates #12 Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission es- timates / by Bas Subject headings: satellite retrieval / nitrogen dioxide / ozone / air pollution / emis- sion estimates

Haak, Hein

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats, WenhaoOzone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats 1,3,* ,Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats 1,3,* ,

Destaillats, Hugo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

McDonald, S.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ozone chemistry in the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ozone depletion occurred in the core of the plume of smoke from the Kuwait oil fires within 100 km of the fires, primarily in regions where NO{sub x} concentrations were high and ultraviolet flux was near zero. Rapid conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} can explain almost all of the ozone loss. Ozone was produced in diffuse regions of the plume, where the ultraviolet flux was higher than in the core. However, due to the relatively high ratio of nonmethane hydrocarbons to NO{sub x}, ozone production was slow. Since ozone was produced in a much larger volume than it was depleted, the plume as a whole was a source of ozone on a regional scale. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Herring, J.A.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

285

Ozone heating and the destabilization of traveling waves during summer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of ozone heating on the linear stability of lower stratospheric traveling waves of the summertime, extratropical circulation are examined. Based on coupled equations for the quasigeostrophic potential vorticity and ozone volume mixing ratio, it is shown that the diabatic heating arising from ozone advection can offset the damping due to Newtonian cooling, leading to wave amplification and significant changes in the structure and zonally rectified fluxes of the wave fields in both the lower stratosphere and troposphere. The vertical profile of the zonal mean wind plays a crucial role in determining whether the ozone heating destabilizes eastward and/or westward traveling disturbances.

Nathan, T.R.; Cordero, E.C.; Li, L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

provided  by  HVAC  system  filters,  it  was  assumed  filtration  from  the  HVAC  system  filters  brings  down  HVAC  system  air  leakage   and  ozone  deposition  on  HAVC  system  filters.      

Walker, Iain S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

E-Print Network 3.0 - arctic ozone depletion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 Introduction Stratospheric ozone depletion has been one... (Chubachi, 1984; Farman et al., 1985), winter ozone ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - antarctic ozone experiment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the 1980s of anomalously low ozone column abundances over the Antarctic by Farman et al. (1985... ), ozone abundances in the Antarctic ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne antarctic ozone Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the 1980s of anomalously low ozone column abundances over the Antarctic by Farman et al. (1985... ), ozone abundances in the Antarctic ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient ozone levels Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

level ozone. Lesson 2: Ozone Formation... , power plants and industry all emit air pollution that forms ... Source: Royer, Dana - Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences,...

291

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Title Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6062E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Chelsea Preble, Odelle L. Hadley, and Ashok J. Gadgil Keywords aethalometer, Berkeley Darfur Stove, black carbon, carbon monoxide, climate change, DustTrak, global warming, improved cookstoves, indoor air quality, LBNL Stove Testing Facility, particulate matter, photoacoustic absorption spectrometer, pollutant emission factor, three-stone fire Abstract Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that

292

Quantifying Denitrification and Its Effect on Ozone Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect on Ozone Recovery 10.1126...USA. 3 Atmospheric and Environmental...effects on ozone recovery in a colder and possibly...below the condensation point of...37) [or water vapor (38...5 ppm for water vapor. The atmospheric concentrations...

A. Tabazadeh; M. L. Santee; M. Y. Danilin; H. C. Pumphrey; P. A. Newman; P. J. Hamill; J. L. Mergenthaler

2000-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

293

Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...particles, which in turn heat the ambient air, causing...Heterogeneous reaction of ozone with hydrocarbon flame soot . Phys Chem Chem Phys...and nonreactive uptake on hydrocarbon soot: HNO 3 , O 3 , and N 2...the reaction of ozone with combustion soot: Implications for reactivity...

Michael J. Mills; Owen B. Toon; Richard P. Turco; Douglas E. Kinnison; Rolando R. Garcia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 31513160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 3151­3160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters P. Zhao, J.A. Siegel�, R May 2006; accepted 14 June 2006 Abstract Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial

Siegel, Jeffrey

295

URBAN OZONE CONCENTRATION FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CORSICA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perceptron; Ozone concentration. 1. Introduction Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollution problem, both, Ajaccio, France, e-mail: balu@univ-corse.fr Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants concentration forecasting is an important issue in air quality monitoring. Qualitair Corse, the organization responsible for monitoring air

Boyer, Edmond

296

Vacancies in ordered and disordered titanium monoxide: Mechanism of B1 structure stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure and stability of three phases of titanium monoxide TiO{sub y} with B1 type of the basic structure have been studied. Cubic phase without structural vacancies, TiO, and two phases with structural vacancies, monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} and cubic disordered TiO{sub 1.0}, was treated by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory with pseudo-potential approach based on the plane wave's basis. The ordered monoclinic phase Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} was found to be the most stable and the cubic TiO without vacancies the less stable one. The role of structural vacancies in the titanium sublattice is to decrease the Fermi energy, the role of vacancies in the oxygen sublattice is to contribute to the appearance of Ti–Ti bonding interactions through these vacancies and to reinforce the Ti–Ti interactions close to them. Listed effects are significantly pronounced if the vacancies in the titanium and oxygen sublattices are associated in the so called “vacancy channels” which determine the formation of vacancy ordered structure of monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5}-type. - Graphical abstract: Changes in total DOS of titanium monoxide when going from vacancy-free TiO to TiO with disordered structural vacancies and to TiO with ordered structural vacancies. Highlights: • Ordered monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} is the most stable phase of titanium monoxide. • Vacancy-free TiO is the less stable phase of the titanium monoxide. • Ordering of oxygen vacancies leads to the appearance of Ti–Ti bonding interactions. • Titanium vacancies contribute significantly to the decreasing of the Fermi energy.

Kostenko, M.G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Lukoyanov, A.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, S. Kovalevskoy 18, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University named after First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Zhukov, V.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Rempel, A.A., E-mail: rempel@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, The Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University named after First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

298

Effects of 20002050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) project major changes in anthro- pogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precur- sors over the 2Effects of 2000­2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy; published 27 September 2008. [1] We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by a general

Mickley, Loretta J.

299

Studying the feedback effects of aerosols on ozone and temperatures in Los Angeles with an Eulerian air pollution model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Eulerian air pollution model (GATOR/MMTD) was used to study the effects of aerosols on surface solar radiation, surface air temperatures, and ozone mixing ratios. Model results were also compared to data from the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) period of August 27-29, 1987. Gross errors for sulfate, sodium, light absorption, temperature, surface solar radiation, sulfur dioxide gas, formaldehyde gas, and ozone were lowest among parameters compared (1-40%). Gross errors for elemental carbon, organic carbon, total particulate mass, ammonium, ammonia gas, nitric acid gas, and light scattering, were larger (40-61%). Gross errors for particulate nitrate were largest (65-70%). Doubling of the land-based particulate emissions inventory caused gross errors of total particulate mass and elemental carbon to increase by factors of more than two. Also, setting lateral boundary inflow concentrations of particles to zero caused slight (< 1%) erosion of results for most species, large erosion (10%) for sodium and chloride, but slight improvement (< 1%) for a few species. Spinning up the meteorological model 24 hours in advance caused most gross errors to increase. Finally, model predictions for several parameters, with and without the inclusion of aerosols, were compared to data. The presence of aerosols reduced peak daytime surface solar radiation by approximately 6.4% (55 W m-2), increased night-time temperatures by about 0.77 K, decreased daytime temperatures by about 0.08 K, and increased overall temperatures (day plus night during the two day simulation period) by 0.43 K. The relatively small cooling during the day was due to heat trapping by elemental carbon-containing aerosols. The presence of aerosols also caused ozone mixing ratios to decrease by 2%.

Jacobson, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2118 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON PRIMARY of reactions of ozone on building products and on their emissions in indoor air. For this purpose, 12 building products were exposed to ozone in a dedicated experimental setup. The measured ozone removal rate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Title Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2009 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Jianshun Zheng, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference Conference Location Syracuse, NY Keywords building-related symptoms, hvac filter, ozone, ptr-ms, secondary pollutants Abstract We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

302

INDOOR AIR QUALITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, radon, andcarbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (N0 ), formaldehyde (

Hollowell, C.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central California Air Pollution Episode Title Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central California Air Pollution Episode Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Jin, Ling, Shaheen R. Tonse, Daniel S. Cohan, Xianglei Mao, Robert A. Harley, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 42 Start Page 3683 Issue 10 Pagination 3683-3689 Date Published 05/2008 Abstract We developed a first- and second-order sensitivity analysis approach with the decoupled direct method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a 5 day ozone episode (Jul 29th to Aug 3rd, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8 h ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1 h ozone standard. Interbasin source contributions of NOx emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NOx and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO2 termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NOx emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

304

Carbon sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Leaver and Howard Dalton Carbon sequestration Rattan Lal * * ( lal.1...and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric...and biomass burning. 3. Carbon sequestration Emission rates from fossil...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration” refers to a portfolio of activities for ... capture, separation and storage or reuse of carbon or CO2. Carbon sequestration technologies encompass both the prevention of CO2 emissions into ...

Robert L. Kane MS; Daniel E. Klein MBA

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Modification of Y Zeolite with Alkaline Treatment: Textural Properties and Catalytic Activity for Diethyl Carbonate Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Compared to dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol, DEC has been proposed as a potential fuel oxygenate additive to replace methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because of its high oxygen content (40.6 wt %) and favorable fuel/water partition coefficient. ... For CuY using untreated zeolite as a support, there were only two H2-comsumption peaks at 473 and 681 K, ascribed to the Cu+ located on sites III? and II. ... Dunn, B. C.; Guenneau, C.; Hilton, S. A.; Pahnke, J.; Eyring, E. M.Production of diethyl carbonate from ethanol and carbon monoxide over a heterogeneous catalyst Energy Fuels 2002, 16, 177– 181 ...

Shouying Huang; Pengzhen Chen; Bing Yan; Shengping Wang; Yongli Shen; Xinbin Ma

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Solubility of Oxygen and Ozone in Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review covers the solubility of oxygen and ozone in liquids as a function of temperature and pressure. Solubility data for individual systems were critically evaluated and recommended or tentative values presented in many cases. The trend of solubilities in homologous series or related solvents is discussed. Liquids include water;seawater; aqueous salt solutions; mixed solvents; hydrocarbons; organic compounds containing oxygen halogen sulfur nitrogen or silicon; olive oil; and human blood. For ozone only its solubility in water is presented. Key words: aqueous solutions; biological fluids; gas solubility; hydrocarbons; mixed solvents; organic solvents; oxygen; ozone;seawater;water.

Rubin Battino; Timothy R. Rettich; Toshihiro Tominaga

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification processes a feedstock (such as coal) is partially oxidized in steam and oxygen/air under high temperature and pressure to form synthesis gas. This synthesis gas, or syngas, is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, and smaller amounts of other gaseous components, such as methane. The syngas can then undergo the water-gas shift reaction to convert CO and water (H2O) to H2 and CO2, producing a H2 and CO2-rich gas mixture. The concentration of CO2 in this mixture can range from 15-50%. The CO2 can then be captured and separated, transported, and ultimately sequestered, and the H2-rich fuel combusted.

310

Ozone concentrations in El Paso, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

El Paso, Texas may have a problem in meeting ambient air standards due to influx of pollutants from foreign sources. Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, and Fort Bliss abut the city and are areas over which the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) has little or no jurisdiction. The Board maintains two Continuous Air Monitoring Stations (CAM) in El Paso. Ozone, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide data were obtained from these stations. If the EPA Empirical Kinetic Model is used for El Paso, reducing NMHC concentrations may increase rather than decrease O/sub 3/ concentrations. The Texas State Implementation Plan, while not based on Empirical Kinetic Modeling, calls for a reduction of 18% in NMHC. However, 31% of all NMHC in El Paso arise from sources over which Texas had little (a federal military reservation) or no (Cd. Juarez) jurisdiction. It appears the TACB is correct in believing the SIP for O/sub 3/ may not bring El Paso into compliance. (JMT)

Crocker, J.E. (Texas Air Control Board, Austin); Applegate, H.G.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Ozone Dilemma: a reference handbook (Contemporary World Issues Series)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilemma: a reference handbook By David E. Newton Reviewed byDilemma: a reference handbook (Contemporary World IssuesThe Ozone Dilemma: a reference handbook is targeted at both

Li, Haipeng

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The role of ozone in tracheal cell transformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examined the potential role of ozone as a respiratory carcinogen by characterizing its ability to induce or modulate the preneoplastic transformation of rat tracheal epithelial cells. The chemical reactivity of ozone and the types of damage it can cause suggest that it may have a role in environmental carcinogenesis. Few other studies have examined the direct cytotoxic or transforming effects of ozone after in vivo or in vitro exposure of cells, and no studies have been reported on the comparative effects of ozone on respiratory cells exposed in vivo or in vitro. The induction of early preneoplastic changes in populations of rat tracheal epithelial cells by carcinogens can be detected and quantified in vitro after exposures in vivo or in vitro of tracheal epithelial cells. This cell culture and transformation system was used to characterize the transforming potency of ozone. Tracheal epithelial cells were isolated from Fischer-344/N rats that had been exposed for six hours per day, five days per week for one, two, or four weeks to 0, 0.12, 0.5, or 1.0 parts per million (ppm)* ozone (sea-level equivalents). Cell populations were examined in culture for increases in the frequency of preneoplastic variants. Rats exposed to ozone did not exhibit an increase in the frequency of preneoplastic tracheal cells, although exposed tracheas did exhibit dose-dependent morphological changes. Rat tracheal epithelial cells were given single, 40-minute in vitro exposures to concentrations of ozone that did not result in any detectable decrease in colony-forming efficiency.

Thomassen, D.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Sun, J.D.; Stephens, N.D.; Griffith, W.C. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Fluorine-Doped Carbon Blacks: Highly Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a result of the energy crisis in the world, fuel cells are attractive as clean and sustainable energy conversion devices because they can help address the ever increasing global energy demand. ... (2, 3) To date, Pt-based materials are the most widely used electrocatalysts for ORR;(4-6) however, Pt-based catalysts suffer from problems, such as sluggish oxygen reduction at any pH, durability, very limited reserves, high cost, and inactivation by carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. ...

Xiujuan Sun; Yuwei Zhang; Ping Song; Jing Pan; Lin Zhuang; Weilin Xu; Wei Xing

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

315

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

316

Study to determine the nature and extent of ozone and ozone precursor transport in selected areas of California. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project was designed to assess the contribution of transported pollutants to violations of the state ozone standard within the air basins covered by the report using existing data and advanced data analysis techniques. The objectives of the project were to determine the characteristics of ozone and ozone precursor transport within the California air basins covered by the report and to identify whether the contribution of transported pollutants to ozone violations in each downwind area was inconsequential, significant, or overwhelming, relative to locally-emitted pollutants. The precursor pollutants of interest were nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gases. The project evaluated transport to the following areas: The Broader Sacramento Area and the Upper Sacramento Valley; The North Central Coast Air Basin; The Southeast Desert Air Basin (SEDAB); and the Imperial County portion of the SEDAB.

Roberts, P.T.; Musarra, S.; Smith, T.B.; Lurmann, F.W.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Catalytic ozonation of phenol in water with natural brucite and magnesia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural brucite and magnesia were applied as catalysts in catalytic ozonation of phenol in this work. It was found that both brucite and magnesia had remarkable accelerations on degradation of phenol and removal of COD in water. On this basis, effective and feasible routes for catalytic ozonation of phenol in water were proposed. The influence of initial pH value, radical scavengers and reaction temperature were investigated. The results revealed that there were different ozonation mechanisms in two systems: molecular ozone direct oxidation mechanism was proved in catalytic ozonation with brucite, and hydroxyl radical mechanism was demonstrated to play a main role in catalytic ozonation with magnesia.

Kun He; Yu Ming Dong; Zhen Li; Lin Yin; Ai Min Zhang; Yi Chun Zheng

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removal of Indoor Ozone with Reactive Materials: Preliminary Results and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removal of Indoor Ozone with Reactive Materials air quality. #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removing ozone from indoor

Siegel, Jeffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Sensitivity of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon to aerosol size and altitude of injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively. Engineered particles, such as resonant scatterers or self-levitating particles, have been proposed

322

ON IRON MONOXIDE NANOPARTICLES AS A CARRIER OF THE MYSTERIOUS 21 ?m EMISSION FEATURE IN POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prominent mysterious emission feature peaking at ?20.1 ?m—historically known as the '21 ?m' feature—is seen in over two dozen Galactic and Magellanic Cloud carbon-rich, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The nature of its carrier remains unknown since the first detection of the 21 ?m feature in 1989. Over a dozen materials have been suggested as possible carrier candidates. However, none of them has been accepted: they either require too much material (compared to what is available in the circumstellar shells around these post-AGB stars), or exhibit additional emission features that are not seen in these 21 ?m sources. Recently, iron monoxide (FeO) nanoparticles seem to be a promising carrier candidate as Fe is an abundant element and FeO emits exclusively at ?21 ?m. In this work, using the proto-typical protoplanetary nebula HD 56126 as a test case, we examine FeO nanoparticles as a carrier for the 21 ?m feature by modeling their infrared emission, with FeO being stochastically heated by single stellar photons. We find that FeO emits too broad a 21 ?m feature to explain that observed and the Fe abundance required to be locked up in FeO exceeds what is available in HD 56126. We therefore conclude that FeO nanoparticles are not likely to be responsible for the 21 ?m feature.

Li, Aigen; Jiang, B. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Liu, J. M., E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric ozone depletion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

H. U., The ozone distributionin the atmosphere,Can. J. Chem., 52, 1491-1504, 1974. Farman, J. C... , Quasi-biennial modulation of the Antarctic ozone ... Source: Bowman,...

324

E-Print Network 3.0 - arctic ozone hole Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The discovery of the ozone hole in the Southern Hemi- sphere... (Chubachi, 1984; Farman et al., 1985), winter ozone losses over the Arctic (e.g. Brune et al., 1991... .,...

325

E-Print Network 3.0 - antarctic ozone depletion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-B and Biosphere." Oecologia 128(1-2): 1-296. (1997). Ozone depletion FAQ Part IV: UV radiation and its effects... -B radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion on global...

326

Interannual Variations of Total Ozone at Northern Midlatitudes Correlated with Stratospheric EP Flux and Potential Vorticity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At northern midlatitudes over the 1979–2002 time period, column ozone trends are observed to have maximum negative amplitudes in February and March. Here, the portion of the observed ozone interannual variability and trends during these months ...

L. L. Hood; B. E. Soukharev

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated

Barthelat, Francois

328

Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend...

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid regulates ozone-induced Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ozone-induced Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acid regulates ozone-induced Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Plant Molecular Biology 51:...

330

A delayed effect of ozone fumigation on photosynthesis of Norway spruce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A delayed effect of ozone fumigation on photosynthesis of Norway spruce D. Eamus1 A.W. Davis J into the long-lastincl effects of ozone fumiga- tion upon photosynthesis of Norway spruce. Measurements were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

A comparison of biologically active filters for the removal of ozone by-products, turbidity, and particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biofiltration tests were performed at the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California`s 5.5-mgd (21,000 m{sup 3}d) demonstration plant using two 400 ft{sup 2} (37 m{sup 2}) anthracite/sand filters and a 6 ft{sup 2} (0.56 m{sup 2}) granular activated carbon (GAC)/sand filter operated in parallel. The empty-bed contact time (EBCT) within the GAC and anthracite ranged from 2.1-3.1 min. The filters were evaluated based on (1) conventional filtration performance (turbidity, particle removal, and headloss); (2) removal of biodegradable ozone by-products (assimilable organic carbon [AOC], aldehydes, and aldoketoacids) after startup; (3) removal of biodegradable ozone by-products at steady state; and (4) resistance to short-term process upsets such as intermittent chlorination or filter out-of-service time. Approximately 80 percent formaldehyde removal was achieved by the anthracite/sand filter operated at a 2.1-min EBCT (6 gpm/ft{sup 2} [15 m/h]) within 8 days of ozone operation. The GAC/sand filter operated at the same rate achieved 80 percent removal within 1 day, possibly as an additive effect of adsorption and biological removal. In-depth aldehyde monitoring at four depths (0.5-min EBCT intervals) provided additional insight into the removal kinetics. During periods of warmer water temperature, from 20 to 48 percent of the AOC was removed in the flocculation/sedimentation basins by 40-75 percent. This percentage removal typically resulted in AOC concentrations within 40 {mu}g C/L of the raw, unozonated water levels.

Coffey, B.M.; Krasner, S.W.; Sclimenti, M.J.; Hacker, P.A.; Gramith, J.T. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Carbon Conference  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Conference ... The Fourth Hienninl Conference on Carbon will be held at the University of Buffalo, June 15 to 19. ... The Pittsburgh Section's coal technology group will meet in the conference room at Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, June ... ...

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14251436 A development of ozone abatement strategies for the Grenoble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the time evolution of the ozone isopleths at the maximums locations (south and north west valleys). r 2003

334

Formation of ozone and oxidation of methane in a direct current corona discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than in the positive corona when using air, while the reverse was observed with oxygen. At low currents and high gas flow rates, the ozone production rate increased linearly with corona current independent of gas flow rate. At high currents... humidity) and positive corona. Their results show: (1) a linear relation between ozone concentration and corona current; (2) an (non- linear) inverse relation between the ozone concentration and air flow; and (3) for a given corona current, the ozone...

Tangirala, Umashanker

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Yields of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Reactions between Ozone and Surface-Adsorbed d-Limonene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yields of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Reactions between Ozone and Surface-Adsorbed d, terpenes can adsorb onto building materials, and Springs et al. (2011) determined that ozone did, in fact, react with terpenes adsorbed to surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the yield of ozone

Siegel, Jeffrey

337

PPPL-3281, Preprint: January 1998, UC-426 Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up1 PPPL-3281, Preprint: January 1998, UC-426 Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch B.C. Stratton1, R. Knight2, and D.R. Mikkelsen1, A. Blutke3, and J

338

1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herve Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contents 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1;1 Ozone pollution forecasting using conditional mean and conditional quantiles with functional covariates Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1.1 Introduction Prediction of Ozone pollution

Crambes, Christophe

339

Multi-phase Multi-dimensional Analysis of PEM Fuel Cells with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Oxygen Bleeding.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising alternative green power source for mobile, portable and stationary applications. However, their cost, durability, and performance are… (more)

Li, Yaqun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Daily and 3-hourly variability in global fire emissions and consequences for atmospheric model predictions of carbon monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of biomass burning in South?America, Int. J. Remote Sens. ,D24303 fire season in South America, J. Geophys. Res. , 103(across North, South and Central America, Remote Sens.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

System. • B. Procedures. Catalyst Preparation Infrared DiskPreparation. Catalyst Characterization. PreliminaryReduction by CO Over a Pt Catalyst," M.S. thesis, Department

Lorimer, D.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Thermodesorption studies of catalytic systems. 16. The carbon monoxide-water vapor conversion on copper-containing catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodesorption studies have shown the presence of several types of centers: centers for the firm irreversible adsorption of CO, centers for the adsorption of H/sub 2/O, centers for the competitive adsorption of CO and H/sub 2/O, and centers for the CO-H/sub 2/O conversion, on the surface of the skeletal copper catalyst. It is suggested that CO adsorbs in bridged form on the competitive adsorption centers, and in linear form on the reaction centers. The conversion reaction involves CO and H/sub 2/O molecules adsorbed on a small fraction (approx. 1%) of centers, the H/sub 2/O molecules in question being in the associative adsorbed form.

Gel'man, V.N.; Varlamova, A.M.; Sobolevskii, V.S.; Golosman, E.Z.; Yakerson, V.I.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

An infrared spectroscopy study of carbon monoxide adsorption on. alpha. -chromia surfaces: Probing oxidation states of coordinatively unsaturated surface cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO adsorption on thermoevacuated, H{sub 2}-reduced and O{sub 2}-treated {alpha}-chromia surfaces was studied by IR spectroscopy in the temperature range 77-298 K. Coordinatively unsaturated (cus) Cr{sup 3+} cation sites, probably in 3-coordinate and to a much lesser extent 5-coordinate states, are the adsorption sites on H{sub 2}-reduced {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The surface containing excess oxygen also exposes cus Cr{sup 4+} and Cr{sup 5+} sites. An empirical procedure is described which permits the determination of oxidation state and coordination number of the cus surface sites. This procedure is based on a correlation between C-O stretching frequency and electric field strength exerted by the cation. The latter is calculated from Pauling's strength of the electrostatic bond and effective ionic radii, both of which take the cation coordination into account.

Zaki, M.I.; Knoezinger, H. (Universitaet Muenchen (West Germany))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over Ir/SiO/sub 2/. An in situ infrared and kinetic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of CO on a highly dispersed Ir/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst has been studied both in a Pyrex microreactor and by using an in situ infrared cell-reactor. Multiple steady states obtained under conditions of increasing and decreasing CO partial pressure were observed to lead to reaction rate hysteresis. The area under the hysteresis loop is strongly dependent on reaction temperature. This is explained by invoking competitive adsorption between CO and O/sub 2/ as a function of temperature. Self-sustained oscillations were obtained when certain conditions of partial pressure and temperature were met. Quantitative estimates of fluctuations in surface coverage and temperature during these oscillations were 10% and 3K, respectively. CO islands of reactivity were not observed under the conditions of this study. The presence of higher oxidation states of IR could not be unequivocally determined by using infrared spectroscopy. 29 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

Saymeh, R.A.; Gonzalez, R.D.

1986-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

345

The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide1 since 1950; implications for the CO budget Supplementary Material2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), the mass balance calculation can be performed with the following equation:54 13 C= i=1 7 [COi ]/[CO]Ã? 13

Meskhidze, Nicholas

346

Spectroscopic study of a Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalyst subjected to redox treatments in carbon monoxide and oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox processes induced by interaction of a calcined Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalyst with CO and reoxidation with O{sub 2} have been investigated by CO-TPR, EPR, FTIR of adsorbed CO, and XPS. The initial calcined samples shows the presence of dispersed Cu{sup 2+} species, which give rise in the EPR spectrum to signals due to isolated entities, a somewhat more aggregated Cu{sup 2+}-containing phase, and copper ionic pairs, in coexistence with an EPR-silent CuO-type phase, revealed by XPS. A significant reduction of copper is produced already by contact with CO at room temperature, EPR results suggesting that reducibility of Cu{sup 2+} species decreases with their aggregation degree. Simultaneously, the ceria surface is also reduced by this interaction, copper acting as a strong promoter of this process. A singular consequence of the synergistic reduction of both components is observed by subjecting the catalyst to CO at T{sub r} {ge} 473 K, at which the CO adsorption capability of copper is apparently suppressed, in view of the absence of copper carbonyls in the FTIR spectrum. This is attributed to the establishment of electronic interactions between reduced ceria and small metallic copper particles generated by the reduction process. Contact of the CO-reduced sample with O{sub 2} at room or higher temperature produces an important reoxidation of both copper and ceria, revealed by FTIR and EPR. The synergetic effects between copper and ceria in the reduction process and the easy reoxidation of deeply reduced ceria are thought to be crucial to explaining the high catalytic activity shown by this system for CO oxidation.

Martinez-Arias, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Soria, J.; Conesa, J.C. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica] [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica

1999-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Seasonal variation of carbon monoxide in northern Japan: Fourier transform IR measurements and source-labeled model calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

doi:10.1029/2002JD003093. Stricker, N. C. M. , A. Hahne, D.satellite measurements [ Stricker et al . , 1995] are shown

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Seasonal variation of carbon monoxide in northern Japan: Fourier transform IR measurements and source-labeled model calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, fossil and bio- fuel burning and biomass burningof contributions from fossil and bio- fuel burning (FF) and

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Broadband carbon monoxide laser system operating in the wavelength range of 2.5 - 8.3 {mu}m  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-cascade frequency conversion of CO-laser radiation is demonstrated in a single sample of a nonlinear ZnGeP{sub 2} crystal. The crystal is pumped by a repetitively pulsed cryogenic lowpressure CO laser operating on {approx}150 vibration - rotational transitions in the wavelength range 5.0 - 7.5 {mu}m, which corresponds to the frequency range of a half octave. In the first conversion cascade, generation of second harmonic and sum frequencies of various pairs of CO-laser radiation give {approx}350 emission lines in the wavelength range 2.5 - 3.7 {mu}m. In the second cascade, by mixing the radiation converted in the first cascade with the residual radiation of the CO laser we have obtained {approx}90 lines in the range 4.3 - 5.0 {mu}m and more than 80 lines in the range 7.5 - 8.3 {mu}m. Thus, using a single sample of the nonlinear ZnGeP{sub 2} crystal pumped by the radiation of a single CO laser we have produced a source of broadband (more than one and a half octaves) laser radiation, simultaneously operating at {approx}670 lines in the wavelength range 2.5 - 8.3 {mu}m. (lasers)

Andreev, Yu M; Ionin, Andrei A; Kinyaevsky, I O; Klimachev, Yu M; Kozlov, A Yu; Kotkov, A A; Lanskii, G V; Shaiduko, A V

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

Isolation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Acetobacterium woodii and comparison of its properties with those of the Clostridium thermoaceticum enzyme.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to be the primary natural electron carrier...to be the primary natural electron carrier...to be the primary natural electron carrier...Chemical Co., Inc., Corpus Christi, Tex.). A. woodii...H2-CO2 (66/33) gas mixture or on fructose...

S W Ragsdale; L G Ljungdahl; D V DerVartanian

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Analysis of mid-tropospheric carbon monoxide data using a three- dimensional Global atmospheric Chemistry numerical Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GChM atmospheric chemistry and transport model has been used to analyze the mid-tropospheric CO dataset obtained from NASA`s Measurement of Air Pollution by Satellites (MAPS) program. Fourteen simulations with a 3.75 horizontal resolution have been performed, including a base case and 13 sensitivity runs. The model reproduces many, but not all, of the major features of the MAPS dataset. Locations of peak CO mixing ratios associated with biomass burning as observed in the MAPS experiment are slightly farther south than the model result, indicating either greater horizontal transport than present in the model representation or a spatial difference between the location of modeled biomass fires and actual fires. The current version of GChM was shown to be relatively insensitive to the magnitude of the prescribed NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} global distributions and very insensitive to the depth of the mixed layer as parameterized in the model. Cloud convective transport was shown to play an important role in venting boundary layer CO to the free troposphere. This result agrees with prior meteorological analyses of the MAPS dataset that have-indirectly inferred the presence of convective activity through satellite-based information. Work is continuing to analyze the results of these simulations further and to perform more detailed comparisons between model results and MAPS data.

Easter, R.C.; Saylor, R.D.; Chapman, E.G.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz-10%) of transition metals such as copper, silver, and chromium (Feinstein et al 1997 and Pyke 1993). High temperature. Introduction Gas sensing and analysis based on gas adsorption on a catalytic metal surface has been extensively

353

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

354

Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the structure of the organic capping layers of platinum colloid nanoparticles and their removal by UV-ozone exposure. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) studies identify the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and tetradecyl tributylammonium bromide (TTAB)-capped platinum nanoparticles. We found that the UV-ozone treatment technique effectively removes the capping layer on the basis of several analytical measurements including SFGVS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The overall shape of the nanoparticles was preserved after the removal of capping layers, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SFGVS of ethylene hydrogenation on the clean platinum nanoparticles demonstrates the existence of ethylidyne and di-{sigma}-bonded species, indicating the similarity between single-crystal and nanoparticle systems.

Aliaga, Cesar; Park, Jeong Y.; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Hyun Sook; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Title Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Gregory Brunner, Jianshun(Jensen) Zhang, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 45 Start Page 3561 Issue 21 Pagination 3561-3568 Keywords commercial building ventilation & indoor environmental quality group, commercial building ventilation and indoor environmental quality group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, indoor environment department, indoor environment group

356

Carbon Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

357

Carbon Isotopes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

358

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Title Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Mullen, Nasim A., Marion L. Russell, Melissa M. Lunden, and Brett C. Singer Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 80 Pagination 184-189 Date Published 12/2013 Keywords aldehyde; exposure; indoor air quality; passive sampler; residential Abstract This study investigated formaldehyde and acetaldehyde passive sampling rates and ozone interference for the DNPH-based Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure sampler. Previous studies have shown that ozone interferes with active sampling by this cartridge. Our study included one laboratory and six field experiments conducted in Northern California homes. Passive sampling rates of 1.10 ± 0.09 and 0.86 ± 0.10 mL/min determined for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are lower than previously reported. In a controlled laboratory experiment there were small, statistically insignificant impacts of subsequent ozone exposure on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde mass passively collected on the samplers. This sampler is inexpensive, easy to deploy and to transport by mail, and has a high sampling capacity when used passively; it is suitable for a wide-range of monitoring applications. However, the passive sampling rate remains in question given the internally consistent, but different results obtained in our study and the previous study.

359

Biofouling control with ozone at the Bergen Generating Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone as an alternative to chlorine for condenser biofouling control in a once-through cooling system are reported. Tests were conducted at PSE and G's Bergen Generating Station using a pilot-scale condenser system to simulate plant condenser operations. Three model condensers were operated under identical conditions with only the biocide treatment differing. Comparisons of ozone and chlorine were made and the minimum effective levels of each were determined by daily measurements of the heat transfer coefficient across the model condenser tubes and/or the water side pressure drop. Final evaluation was based on the mass of biofouling material collected from the tubewalls. Test results indicate that chlorine is capable of effective biofouling control when applied for 2 hours/day at a level as low as 0.1 mg/l. Ozone, applied on the same schedule, requires 0.5 mg/l for effective control. The results of this study are representative of only the Bergen site. Water quality at each particular site will influence the development of the biofouling organisms, the chemical reactions of the biocides, and therefore, the effectiveness of the treatment methodology. The results suggest that further examination of ozonation for biofouling control is warranted. Although much more costly than chlorine, its effects on indigenous ecosystems may prove ozone to be better suited for application at selected power plants. It must be emphasized, however, that much more information is necessary before ozone can be recommended as an environmentally acceptable alternative to chlorine.

Sugam, R.; Guerra, C.R.; DelMonaco, J.L.; Singletary, J.H.; Sandvik, W.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation`s carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Meyers, S.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Hauserman, W.B. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Integration of carbonate fuel cells with advanced coal gasification systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonate fuel cells have attributes which make them ideally suited to operate on coal-derived fuel gas; they can convert the methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide present in coal derived fuel gas directly to electricity, are not subject to thermodynamic cycle limits as are heat engines, and operate at temperatures compatible with coal gasifiers. Some new opportunities for improved efficiency have been identified in integrated coal gasification/carbonate fuel cells which take advantage of low temperature catalytic coal gasification producing a methane-rich fuel gas, and the internal methane reforming capabilities of Energy Research Corporation's carbonate fuel cells. By selecting the appropriate operating conditions and catalyst in the gasifier, methane formation is maximized to improve gasification efficiency and to take advantage of the heat management aspects of the internal reforming carbonate fuel cell. These advanced integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems are projected to have better efficiencies than gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems employing conventional gasification, and also competing non-fuel cell systems. These improved efficiencies would be accompanied by a corresponding reduction in impact on the environment as well.

Steinfeld, G. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Meyers, S.J. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)); Hauserman, W.B. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.

A. Blutke; B.C. Stratton; D.R. Mikkelsen; J. Vavruska; R. Knight

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by new ozone generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Presence of phenol in river water occasionally disturbs the production of drinking water. Phenol often originated from coal power plants or pesticides. New ozone generator [Kuraica et al., Vacuum, 73 (2004) 705] was used for removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water. The ozone generator was based on coaxial dielectricbarrier-discharge and operated in the air at an atmospheric pressure. Flowing water was one of dielectric layers. Ozone and ozonized water were generated in the same volume of the discharge. This type of ozone generator has considerable advantages in comparison with the classical ones. In this paper five experiments were described, three with bidistilled water and two with different water samples from river Danube. In all cases, 5L of water containing 6mg/L of corresponding phenol was passed once through the ozonizer. The concentration of dissolved ozone in water was 7–40mg/L. The ozonization lasted 1 h, but the total contact time was up to 94 h. In all cases, before and after the treatment of water with ozone, the concentration of corresponding phenol [Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, method 510 B, Chloroform Extraction Method, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1985, p. 558], dissolved and residual ozone [Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, Methods 2-41, 2-42 (dissolved ozone) Iodometric Method; method 4-104 (ozone residual) Indigo Colorimetric Method, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1995] were determined by standard methods. In experiments with distilled water most of the phenol was removed during ozonization (89.5%). After 24 and 96 h the percentage of removed phenol increased to 93.3 and 98.9%, respectively. With 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 99.8 and 98.9% of corresponding phenols were removed. In experiments with two different water samples from Danube, the phenol was also mostly removed during ozonization, 76.7 and 80.0%, respectively.

D. Manojlovic; D.R. Ostojic; B.M. Obradovic; M.M. Kuraica; V.D. Krsmanovic; J. Puric

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can also… (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Capturing carbon | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capturing carbon Capturing carbon New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

367

Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 Mainz, Germany M. Oppenheimer (*) Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA e-mail: omichael@princeton.edu M. Oppenheimer Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International

Oppenheimer, Michael

368

556 2010 ASHRAE Chemical reactions between ozone and terpenoids can  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This investigation models the influence of HVAC systems on SOA influential HVAC parameters are the flow rates through the system,particlefiltrationefficiency,andindoortemperature for the residential and commercial models, as well as ozone removal on used filters for the commercial model

Siegel, Jeffrey

369

International Gathering Plans Ways To Safeguard Atmospheric Ozone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

International Gathering Plans Ways To Safeguard Atmospheric Ozone ... Everyone's for it, as was evidenced in Helsinki recently where senior government officials from more than 80 countries, together with delegates representing many interested groups and organizations, attended a week-long meeting to seek ways of safeguarding it. ...

DERMOT A. O'SULLIVAN

1989-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

370

Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, has made it a useful agent for seawater disin fection (Blogoslawski et aI., 1975; Blogoslawski, 1977 to extend the storage life of many perishable foods by slowing decomposi tion caused by microorganisms. These studies were reviewed by Farquhar and Rice (1982). Storage life extension of fish using ozone was first

371

Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The magnitude and duration of the predicted ozone reductions are greater than those calculated in the 1980's for global thermonuclear war scenarios involving yields that exceed the ones we considered by factors of >1000. At the time, global models had...

Michael J. Mills; Owen B. Toon; Richard P. Turco; Douglas E. Kinnison; Rolando R. Garcia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Carbon dioxide adsorption and methanation on ruthenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and methanation of carbon dioxide on a ruthenium-silica catalyst were studied using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed reaction (TPR). Carbon dioxide adsorption was found to be activated; CO/sub 2/ adsorption increased significantly as the temperature increased from 298 to 435 K. During adsorption, some of the CO/sub 2/ dissociated to carbon monoxide and oxygen; upon hydrogen exposure at room temperature, the oxygen reacted to water. Methanation of adsorbed CO and of adsorbed CO/sub 2/, using TPR in flowing hydrogen, yielded a CH/sub 4/ peak with a peak temperature of 459 K for both adsorbates, indicating that both reactions follow the same mechanism after adsorption. This peak temperature did not change with initial surface coverage of CO, indicating that methanation is first order in CO coverage. The desorption and reaction spectra for Ru/SiO/sub 2/ were similar to those previously obtained for Ni/SiO/sub 2/, but both CO/sub 2/ formation and CH/sub 4/ formation proceeded faster on Ru. Also, the details of CO desorption and the changes in CO/sub 2/ and CO desorptions with initial coverage were different on the two metals. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Zagli, E.; Falconer, J.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

374

Modeling Air Quality Near Freeways Using a Three Dimensional Eulerian Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experiment, conducted at Michigan in 1976. Sensitivity of the model to meteorology and traffic-related parameters are studied in detail. In the second case, the spatial distribution of ozone, carbon monoxide, NOx and 1,3-Butadiene near a simulated 8-lane...

Kota, Sri Harsha

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

375

Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitored and regu lated a number of pollutants: lead, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, ozone and PM-lO. The Clean Air Act Amendments increased the focus on these pollutants, mandating the reductions to specified limits. Title I...

Mincy, J. E.

376

CitiSense Adaptive Services for Community-Driven Behavioral and Environmental Monitoring to Induce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

times nor at equal risk for asthma or other harmful consequences of air pollution. What if everyday RI³FLWL]HQ LQIUDVWUXFWXUH´ for the monitoring of pollution and environmental conditions that users by users, data about pollutants such as ozone and carbon monoxide is collected and used to provide real

Simunic, Tajana

377

WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

Mankoff, Jennifer

378

Page 2 of 4 TREE Cookies Etc. Trees & Air-continued  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Page 2 of 4 TREE Cookies Etc. Trees & Air- continued pollutants include ozone, sulfur dioxide of trees on air pollution. The research on trees and air pollution is rather new and still ongoing, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. These are taken out of the air by trees primarily through leaf

Liskiewicz, Maciej

379

Maps depicting nonattainment areas pursuant to Section 107 of the Clean Air Act - 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report is a detailed mapping of the United States depicting those areas nonattaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and total suspended particulates. It includes nonattainment area maps and supporting lists from Federal Register publications for final actions through September 1, 1985.

Yarn, J.; Beal, W.; Tate, C.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Maps depicting nonattainment areas pursuant to Section 107 of the Clean Air Act - 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a detailed mapping of the United States depicting those areas not attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates. It includes nonattainment area maps and supporting lists from Federal Register publications for final actions through February 1, 1982.

Pearson, J.; Beal, W.; Duggan, G.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Maps depicting nonattainment areas pursuant to Section 107 of the Clean Air Act - 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a detailed mapping of the United States Depicting those areas not attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates. It includes nonattainment area maps and supporting lists from Federal Register publications for final actions through February 1, 1983.

Duggan, G.; Pearson, J.; Beal, W.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Maps depicting nonattainment areas pursuant to Section 107 of the Clean Air Act - 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a detailed mapping of the United States depicting those areas not attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates. It includes non-attainment area maps and supporting lists from Federal Register publications for final actions through July 1, 1984.

Yarn, J.; Beal, W.; Tate, C.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Tropospheric ozone and its precursors over the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-back · impacts carbon sequestration · Secondary organic aerosol formation · Impacts GHG lifetimes through its

Cohen, Ronald C.

384

Ozonized water generator based on coaxial dielectric-barrier-discharge in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coaxial dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) as an ozonized water reactor system has been developed and described. It operates in the air at an atmospheric pressure. In the reactor one of the dielectric layers is flowing water. Ozone and ozonized water are generated in the same volume of the discharge. The ozone production and its dissolution in the water simultaneously occur leading to increases of the reactor efficiency. Filamentary 50 Hz DBD has been performed using up to 20 kV applied voltage. The obtained ozone concentrations correspond to the values typically suggested for the treatment of potable and wastewater. The efficiency can be further increased by addition of small amount of the oxygen in the DBD device. The periodical time dependence of the dissolved ozone concentration in Danube water is found and discussed.

Milorad M. Kuraica; Bratislav M. Obradovi?; Dragan Manojlovi?; Daliborka R. Ostoji?; Jagoš Puri?

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Catalytic ozonation of azo dye active brilliant red X-3B in water with natural mineral brucite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural mineral brucite was used directly in catalytic ozonation of dye wastewater of active brilliant red X-3B. Compared with single ozonation, degradation of X-3B increased from 47% to 89%, and removal rate of COD increased from 9% to 32.5% in catalytic ozonation for 15 min. The catalytic ozonation of X-3B followed a direct oxidization mechanism by ozone molecule, and this was actually a homogeneous catalysis of OH? due to dissolution of Mg(OH)2 from natural brucite. As a natural mineral catalyst, brucite has supplied an economical and feasible choice for catalytic ozonation of X-3B in industrial wastewater.

Yuming Dong; Kun He; Bo Zhao; Ying Yin; Lin Yin; Aimin Zhang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

387

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A broad review of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to ... dimensional density of states predicted for single-wall nanotubes of small diameter. The eviden...

M. S. Dresselhaus; G. Dresselhaus…

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC):: complementary measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the necessity of measuring both assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) as indicators of bacterial regrowth potential. AOC and BDOC have often been measured separately as indicators of bacterial regrowth, or together as indicators of bacterial regrowth and disinfection by-product formation potential, respectively. However, this study proposes that both AOC and BDOC should be used as complementary measurements of bacterial regrowth potential. In monitoring of full-scale membrane filtration, it was determined that nanofiltration (NF) removed over 90% of the BDOC while allowing the majority of the AOC through. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) remained low during the entire period of monitoring due to high additions of disinfectant residual. In a two-year monitoring of a water treatment plant that switched its treatment process from chlorination to chlorination and ozonation, it was observed that the plant effluent AOC increased by 127% while BDOC increased by 49% after the introduction of ozone. Even though AOC is a fraction of BDOC, measuring only one of these parameters can potentially under- or over-estimate the bacterial regrowth potential of the water.

Isabel C Escobar; Andrew A Randall

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Meeting the New Ozone Standard: Challenges and Opportunities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation by Anna Garcia, executive director of the Ozone Transport Commission, was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

392

Impact of Wildfires on Ozone Exceptional Events in the Western U.S.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impact of Wildfires on Ozone Exceptional Events in the Western U.S. ... ? National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307, United States ...

Daniel A. Jaffe; Nicole Wigder; Nicole Downey; Gabriele Pfister; Anne Boynard; Stephen B. Reid

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

393

Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Ozone removal by HVAC filters. Atmospheric Environmentozone reactions on HVAC filters cannot be ignored as aof pollutants from HVAC filters may be degradation of

Destaillats, Hugo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric ozone increases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Geosciences 78 Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition of Ozone via Passive...

395

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorate ozone effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: students confuse the relationship between the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect, thus confusing... , and to suggest more effective teaching methods. 2....

396

Evaluating the Vertical Distribution of Ozone and Its Relationship to Pollution Events in Air Quality Models Using Satellite Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most regional scale models that are used for air quality forecasts and ozone source attribution do not adequately capture the distribution of ozone in the mid- and upper troposphere, but it is unclear how this...

Jessica L. Neu; Gregory Osterman…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

398

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A Comparative Study of Ozone and Ultraviolet Light/Hydrogen Peroxide for Decolorizing Textile Dyeing Waste Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generates free radicals and oxygen as shown below. (2) Figure 2 Laboratory ozone contactor OJ + HOO. ---> HO. + 2 O 2 Color Measurements (3) A Bausch and Lomb color spectrophotometer was used in conjunction with The hydroxyl radicals react with dyes... constants depend on the conditions of the experiment. Conditions affecting rate of color removal with ozone include input rate for ozone, mass transfer efficiency of ozone in the contactor, and concentration of dye. 168 ESL-IE-94-04-39 Proceedings from...

Namboodri, C. G.; Perkins, W. S.; Walsh, W. K.

400

Ground-based zenith sky abundances and in situ gas cross sections for ozone and nitrogen dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground-based zenith sky abundances and in situ gas cross sections for ozone and nitrogen dioxide, in situ ambient absorption gas cell mea- surements for ozone and nitrogen dioxide, and ground-based zenith for ozone and nitrogen dioxide that are retrieved from measured spectra of the zenith sky

Dirksen, Ruud

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ensemble forecasting with machine learning algorithms for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 on the Prev'Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ensemble forecasting with machine learning algorithms for ozone, nitrogen dioxide and PM10'Air operational platform. This platform aims at forecasting maps, on a daily basis, for ozone, nitrogen dioxide models, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, threshold exceedance 1. Introduction1 Operational

Mallet, Vivien

402

Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American and transoceanic routes Title Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American and transoceanic routes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Bhangar, Seema, Shannon Cowlin, Brett C. Singer, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 42 Issue 11 Pagination 3938-43 Abstract Ozone levels in airplane cabins, and factors that influence them, were studied on northern hemisphere commercial passenger flights on domestic U.S., transatlantic, and transpacific routes. Real-time data from 76 flights were collected in 2006-2007 with a battery-powered UV photometric monitor. Sample mean ozone level, peak-hour ozone level, and flight-integrated ozone exposures were highly variable across domestic segments (N = 68), with ranges of 100 ppbv) ozone levels on domestic flights were associated with winter-spring storms that are linked to enhanced exchange between the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere.

403

Surface ozone background in the United States: Canadian and Mexican pollution influences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of anthropogenic emissions from Canada, Mexico, and outside North America on daily maximum 8-hour average ozone Surface ozone Air quality standard Chemical transport model Global model a b s t r a c t We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with 1 Ã? 1 horizontal resolution to quantify the effects

Park, Rokjin

404

Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999) 1821--1845 The relation between ozone, NO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ozone production efficiency, and removal rates of chemically active species. Use of these methods) chemical regimes. These regimes are associated with the chemistry of odd hydrogen radicals and appear production 1. Introduction The relation between ozone and its two main precur- sors, NO V ("NO

Sillman, Sanford

405

A Laboratory Method For Measuring The Ozone Emission From In-duct Air Cleaners.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Emission rate, HVAC air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators, coronas, standard test method 1 Introduction and to ozone byproducts. Currently there are standards and regulations that limit ozone emissions from portable cleaners (i.e., Viner et al., 1992), are generally exempt from standards and regulations because

Siegel, Jeffrey

406

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

Limpasuvan, Varavut

407

Stratospheric ozone depletion: a key driver of recent precipitation trends in South Eastern South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In this paper we focus on South Eastern South America (SESA), a region that has exhibited one of the largest South America 1 Introduction The depletion of ozone in the polar Antarctic strato- sphere (i.e. `theStratospheric ozone depletion: a key driver of recent precipitation trends in South Eastern South

408

Experimental study of reactions between ozone and building products M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F. Maupetit*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ozone and building products and document their potential impact on indoor air quality. PreliminaryExperimental study of reactions between ozone and building products M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F experiments were conducted on four building products: two carpets, a gypsum board and a pine wood board

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument nitrogen dioxide columns E. A. Celarier,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument nitrogen dioxide columns E. A. Celarier,1 E. J. Brinksma the standard nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data product (Version 1.0.), which is based on measurements made), Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument nitrogen dioxide columns, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15S15, doi:10

410

Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne Ozone Monitoring; published 28 August 2008. [1] We present an approach to infer ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Ground-level nitrogen dioxide concentrations inferred from the satellite-borne Ozone Monitoring

Martin, Randall

411

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates be inferred for important trace gases such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Chemical transport models.11 to 3.79. Total nitrogen dioxide columns can be retrieved from space in the 405­465 nm window

Haak, Hein

412

Tropospheric ozone trends at Mauna Loa Observatory tied to decadal climate variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii reveal little change in tropospheric ozone levels during spring a suite of chemistry­climate model simulations. We show that the flow of ozone-rich air from Eurasia towards Hawaii during spring weakened in the 2000s as a result of La-Niña-like decadal cooling

413

Isolation and characterization of five ozone-inductible cDNA clones from Atriplax canescens (saltbush)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and water deficit were examined, and those cDNAs were sequenced. Clone 012-1, hybridized with three RNA species, is initially induced in response to both ozone and water deficit stress, but is repressed to prolonged ozone and sulfur dioxide exposure. Clone...

No, Eun-Gyu

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Measurements of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion and development of a balloon borne ultraviolet photometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research described herein consists of two parts. The first part is a description of the design of a balloon borne ultraviolet photometer to measure ozone and the results of a flight using this instrument. The second part describes modifications made on the standard commercially available electrochemical ozonesonde and the results of some experiments performed both in the laboratory and during stratospheric balloon flights. Using this modified ECC system, 33 successful balloon flights were made at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during the austral spring of 1986 to study the temporal and vertical development of the so-called Antarctic Ozone Hole. Photometric measurements of ozone in the atmosphere can be accomplished by exploiting 253.65 nanometer absorption feature of ozone. Using a single light source and beam splitting optics, matched optical paths can be generated through two absorption cells. The ozonesonde data gave a very clear picture of the development of the Ozone Hole. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) Depletion occurs between about 12 and 20 km. (2) The most efficient region of ozone depletion decreases in altitude with time. Height profiles show subregions where ozone removal is highly efficient. (3) At 18 km, the ozone mixing ratio decays with a half-life of 25 days.

Harder, J.W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Role of Material Porosity on Ozone Uptake for Metakaolin-Concrete Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a diminished environmental impact, clay may cause increased removal of ozone, an important indoor pollutant velocity, Heterogeneous Chemistry, Construction Materials 1 Introduction Metakaolin-cement systems hold ozone uptake. Cement is an essential component in the building industry used in formulating concrete

Siegel, Jeffrey

416

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

417

Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002 R. D in South Africa are reported for the period 1990 to 1994 and a more recent period, 1998 to 2002, when), Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002, J. Geophys. Res

Thompson, Anne

418

Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone Vivien Mallet1., and B. Sportisse (2006), Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone, J, the uncertainty in chem- istry transport models is a major limitation of air quality forecasting. The source

Boyer, Edmond

419

Formation of Ozone and Growth of Aerosols in Young Smoke Plumes from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics and Chemistry Abstract The combustion of biomass is a major source of atmospheric trace gasesFormation of Ozone and Growth of Aerosols in Young Smoke Plumes from Biomass Burning by Matthew and Planetary Sciences #12;Formation of Ozone and Growth of Aerosols in Young Smoke Plumes from Biomass Burning

420

Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Home Work Assignment Ozone Chemistry 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Fall 2010 Home Work Assignment Ozone Chemistry 2 and Chemistry EAS 6790 Fall 2006 Home Work Assignment No. 4, Ozone Chemistry Problems 11.8 and 11.9 (sub-part 1 and 2 only). Daniel Jacob, Atmospheric Chemistry #12;2 Problem 2: 2 2. Consider an air parcel ventilated

Weber, Rodney

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America; published 3 July 2002. [1] We examine the transatlantic transport of anthropogenic ozone and its impact Head (Ireland) and Sable Island (Canada) are used to evaluate transatlantic transport in the model

Palmer, Paul

422

Atmospheric Environment 39 (2005) 13731382 A hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate and forecast ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserved. Keywords: Statistical model; Space­time models; Air pollution; Ozone; Meteorology 1. Introduction describing the spatial­temporal behavior of ambient air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and particulate matter. Statistical space­time models are useful for illuminating relationships between different air pollutants

Irwin, Mark E.

423

Delayed carbon sequestration and rising carbon prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We set out a dynamic model to investigate optimal time paths of emissions, carbon stocks and carbon sequestration by land conversion, allowing for non-instantaneous carbon sequestration. Previous research in a dy...

Alejandro Caparrós

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal and F. J. Murcray Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiometric Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) has been in regular operation at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program site, conditions permitting, since the mid-1990s. We present here the analysis of several spectra from May 10, 1999, and demonstrate the ability to retrieve the tropospheric ozone profile at the ARM site. While the presence of ozone in the stratosphere is of vital importance for several reasons, in the troposphere, ozone is a pollutant and a powerful oxidizer. For these reasons, it is

425

Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

427

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

428

Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

429

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

430

AutoGC systems for enhanced ozone monitoring network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a requirement for an on-line, automated ozone-precursor analyzer, a Perkin-Elmer Model ATD-400 Thermal Desorption System was specially adapted for the collection of whole-air samples. The C{sub 2} to n-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons were trapped using Peltier cooling on adsorbents at {minus}30 C. Multidimensional chromatography allowed the C{sub 2} to C{sub 6} fraction to be separated using a porous layer open tubular column while a methyl silicone column separated the C{sub 6} to C{sub 10} fraction. No cryogen was used in the collection or analysis. An air generator equipped for automatic restart and special software allowed the system to recover from power failures. Ozone precursor concentrations were detected over 5000 hours of continuous operation at the 0.1 ppbV level. Area repeatability was less than 10%, with retention time precision over 100 hours of approximately 1%RSD for most compounds. Remote communications allowed chromatography to be monitored and files to be downloaded to a central office. Results were converted to EPA AIRS database format using special conversion software. Data were archived using external Bernoulli disks.

Seeley, I. [Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effect of ozonation on fungal resistance of bamboo and oak flooring materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignocellulosic materials are gaining increased interest as renewable sources of building materials. However, chemical and microbiological degradation can occur when lignocellulosic materials are exposed to environmental stressors such as ozone and elevated humidity. In this study, the effects of ozone treatment and solvent extraction on fungal growth rates of bamboo and oak flooring materials were investigated. One set of samples was extracted with a mixture of cyclohexane and ethanol solvents for 72 h to remove extractable compounds. Another set of materials was exposed continuously to ozone (2000 ?L m?3 or 2000 ppbv) for one to five weeks. Solvent-extracted and ozone-treated samples were incubated in closed chambers at 85% or 55% RH and 30 °C. Incubated samples were removed at regular time intervals for fungal growth evaluation. Ozone treatment caused chemical changes in bamboo and oak, which appeared to reduce bamboo's resistance to fungal attack. Longer ozone exposure led to higher susceptibility to fungal growth. Untreated and ozone-treated oak showed no evidence of fungal growth, suggesting that this material may contain fungi-inhibitory compounds that are not removed by these treatments. Also, a delay in fungal growth on cyclohexane/ethanol-extracted bamboo was observed, probably due to the extraction process removing substances that enhanced fungal growth.

Chi Hoang; Tinh Nguyen; Deborah Stanley; Andrew Persily; Richard L. Corsi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Effect of ozone and granular activated coal (GAC) on the bioactivity of drinking water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this research, the appearance of easily biodegradable organic material in ozonation and granular activated coal (GAC) filtration was studied. The amount of bioactivity was measured by conventional AOC analyses used in two different modes and also using quite a new growth potential (GP) method. GAC filtration without ozone doubled the amount of AOC of the chemically treated surface water, whereas by ozonation with GAC filtration it was possible to halve the amount of the AOC. The measurement of GP was noticeably simpler than measuring AOC, but for wider use more parallel studies are needed for the comparability of the results of the analysis.

Sallanko, J.; Iivari, P.; Heiska, E. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Supplement of "Inversion of and emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' $ 9 -pinene @ ¤ ¦ other hydrocarbons ¦§ carbon monoxide ¦ ¤ % ¤ methanol ¦ ¤ ¡¥ formaldehyde¦ ¤ ¥¨ ¦ ¤ `$ dimethyl sulfide ¦§¨ ¡ carbon disulfide ¤ ¡¥¨ hydrogen sulfide 7 E $ oxygen atom (excited state ppbv hydrogen £ ¡¥ : 311 ppbv nitrous oxide ¦§ ©¨ : 0.5 ppbv carbonyl sulfide ozone ¤ ¡¥ ©¡ hydrogen

Meskhidze, Nicholas

436

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

437

OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER (FEAC307)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil production is shifting from ''shallow'' wells (0-650 ft water depth) to off-shore, deep-water operations (>2,600 ft.). Production from these operations is now approaching 20%. By 2007, it is projected that as much as 70% of the U.S. oil production will be from deep-water operations. The crude oil from these deep wells is more polar, thus increasing the amount of dissolved hydrocarbons in the produced water. Early data from Gulf of Mexico (GOM) wells indicate that the problem with soluble organics will increase significantly as deep-water production increases. Existing physical/chemical treatment technologies used to remove dispersed oil from produced water will not remove dissolved organics. GOM operations are rapidly moving toward design of high-capacity platforms that will require compact, low-cost, efficient treatment processes to comply with current and future water quality regulations. This project is an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum industry-wide problem of treating water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project is to maximize oxidation of water-soluble organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigates: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Industrial collaborators include Chevron, Shell, Phillips, BP Amoco, Statoil, and Marathon Oil through a joint project with the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF). The research and demonstration program consists of three phases: (1) Laboratory testing in batch reactors to compare effectiveness of organics destruction using corona discharge ozone generation methods with hydrogen peroxide generated sonochemically and to evaluate the enhancement of destruction by UV light and micro-bubble spraying. (2) Continuous-flow studies to determine the efficacy of various contactors, the dependency of organics destruction on process variables, and scale-up issues. (3) Field testing of a prototype system in close collaboration with an industrial partner to generate performance data suitable for scale-up and economic evaluation.

Klasson, KT

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

438

Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

439

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Climatology and Trends in the Forcing of the Stratospheric Ozone Transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer transport equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re- Analysis (ERA-40). In ...

Monier, Erwan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The impact of traffic emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH: results from QUANTIFY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the boundary layer. The effect of ship emissions does notfor road. Globally the effect of ship emissions on ozone insouthern hemisphere the effect of ship emissions is among

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Three-dimensional simulations of wintertime ozone variability in the lower stratosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of ozone has been calculated for the winters of 1979 and 1989 using winds derived from the authors stratospheric data assimilation system (STRATAN). The ozone fields calculated using this technique are found to compare well with satellite-measured fields for simulations of 2-3 months. Here the authors present comparisons of model fields with both satellite and sonde measurements to verify that stratospheric transport processes are properly represented by this modeling technique. Attention is focussed on the northern hemisphere middle and high latitudes at the 10-hPa level and below, where transport processes are most important to the ozone distribution. First-order quantities and derived budgets from both the model and satellite data are presented. By sampling the model with a limb-viewing satellite and then Kalman filtering the observations of the model, it is shown that transient subplanetary-scale features that are essential to the ozone budget are missed by the satellite system.

Rood, R.B.; Douglass, A.R.; Kaye, J.A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Geller, M.A.; Yuechen, Chi (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA)); Allen, D.J.; Larson, E.M.; Nash, E.R.; Nielsen, J.E. (Applied Research Corp., Landover, MD (USA))

1991-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

443

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer for organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)was used as the anode buffer layer in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene-based solar cells. The power conversion e...

Zisheng Su; Lidan Wang; Yantao Li; Haifeng Zhao; Bei Chu…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

Nam, Junsang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

An Approach to the Detection of Long-Term Trends in Upper Stratospheric Ozone from Space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A central problem in the detection of long-term trends in upper stratospheric ozone from orbiting remote sensors involves the separation of instrument drifts from true geophysical changes. Periodic flights of a Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet ...

John E. Frederick; Xufeng Niu; Ernest Hilsenrath

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Ozonation of Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Polyaromatic Amines and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Notre Dame...Present address: Department of Microbiology, Harvard School of Public...titration method of Saltzman and Gilbert (25). The effective ozone...Saitzman, B. E., and Gilbert, N. lodometric microdetermination...

Gary R. Burleson; Michael J. Caulfield; and Morris Pollard

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Evaluation of a novel ozone generation technique for disinfection of poultry hatchers and processed broiler carcasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When comparing electrochemically generated ozone(03)(2.94.2 wt % inside the (hatcher) and formaldehyde (16 n-A formalin + 7.5 g potassium pertnanganate) for disinfection of Salmonella enteiltidis (SE) contaminated agar plates and typical hatchery...

Ramirez, Gerardo Arturo

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

-- Washington D.C. ace29lawson.pdf More Documents & Publications Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Health Impacts Program DOE's...

449

Verification of the WRF model during a high ozone event over Houston, TX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High ozone values were observed in Houston, TX during August 25 - September 1, 2000. A comparison of WRF data with observations and MM5 data was conducted to determine the WRF model's performance in simulating the meteorological conditions...

Ames, Douglas Seeley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

451

CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

452

Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M. [Department of Chemistry and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

453

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

455

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

456

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Interplay of air pollution and asthma immunopathogenesis: A focused review of diesel exhaust and ozone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Controlled human exposure experiments with diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and ozone serve to illustrate the important role pollutants play in modulating both allergic mechanisms and immune responses to affect the immunopathogenesis of airway diseases such as asthma. For DEP, evidence is stronger for the exacerbation of existing asthma rather than for the development of new disease. To the extent that this enhancement occurs, the augmentation of Th2-type immunity seems to be a common element. For ozone, neutrophilic inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype and function and oxidative stress are all marked responses that likely contribute to underlying immune-inflammatory features of asthma. Evidence is also emerging that unique gene signatures and epigenetic control of immune and inflammatory-based genes are playing important roles in the magnitude of the impact ozone is having on respiratory health. Indeed, the interplay between air pollutants such as DEP and ozone and asthma immunopathogenesis is an ongoing concern in terms of understanding how exposure to these agents can lead to worsening of disease. To this end, asthmatics may be pre-disposed to the deleterious effects of pollutants like ozone, having constitutively modified host defense functions and gene signatures. Although this review has utilized DEP and ozone as example pollutants, more research is needed to better understand the interplay between air pollution in general and asthma immumopathogenesis.

Neil E. Alexis; Chris Carlsten

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Ozone response of foliage and cells of sensitive and tolerant potato cultivars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ozone response was contrasted between Cherokee' and Norchip', relatively ozone-sensitive and -tolerant potato cultivars, respectively. Leaf conductance of the two cultivars was determined with a diffusive resistance porometer before, during and after a 3-hour exposure to 0.25 ppm ozone (490 ..mu..g m3). While Cherokee foliage had a higher leaf conductance at the onset of the ozone exposure, conductance of Norchip foliage was too high throughout the experiment to account for relative tolerance of the latter cultivar. Norchip and Cherokee both exhibited abaxial and bifacial necrosis with more numerous lesions on the abaxial surface. Abaxial and bifacial necrosis were characterized by injured spongy, and spongy plus palisade cells, respectively. The percent of injured cell types were the same in both cultivars, but the absolute number of cells injured was greater in Cherokee than Norchip. Two types of cell injury were observed in necrotic lesions. One type of injury was characterized by collapsed, basophilic cells and the other by intact, basophilic cells. The ozone response of isolated leaf protoplasts of the two cultivars was similar. Two types of protoplast injury were observed, one characterized by lysis and the other by reduced staining with fluorescein diacetate. Maximum protoplast response to ozone was observed within the first 5 minutes of a 15 minute exposure. Little additional protoplast response occurred after 10 minutes.

Illman, B.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

460

Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors Title Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Gundel, Lara A., Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Michael Spears, and Douglas P. Sullivan Keywords carbon monoxide, ozone Abstract Identification of aircraft cabin environmental quality concerns for which sensors may be useful The highest priority environmental indicators identified are ozone and cabin air pressure, followed by carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with moderate priority, and then relative humidity, airborne particles, and organic contaminants, including engine oil byproducts and pesticides. This list is based on the Congressional requirements and recent scientific literature, starting with information from recent studies (NAS/NRC, ASHRAE/Battelle), and continuing by seeking input from a variety of stakeholders.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The evolution of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the ozone layer during the last three decades.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In 1985 Joseph Farman and his colleagues of the British Antarctic Survey published a paper [Farman et al. 1985] showing that the total ozone content… (more)

Ossó Castillón, Albert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ozone Measurements at Geesthacht (53.4° N, 10.4° E) with an Advanced Raman Lidar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An advanced Raman lidar, which measures ozone, water vapor, aerosol backscatter, and extinction profiles simoultaneously and independently, has been in routine operation at Geesthacht since February 1995. Results...

Marcus Seiwazi; Jens Reichardt…

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

465

Mesoporous carbon materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

466

A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75?ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir–C and Ir–Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

Erikat, I. A., E-mail: ihsanas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Jerash University, Jerash-26150 (Jordan); Hamad, B. A. [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

467

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallic nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical and ElectronicStructure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical andElectronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .Photophysics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

On the temperature dependence of organic reactivity, nitrogen oxides, ozone production, and the impact of emission controls in San Joaquin Valley, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) experiences some of the worst ozone air quality in the US, frequently exceeding the California 8 h standard of 70.4 ppb. To improve our understanding of trends in the number of ozone violations ...

Pusede, S. E.

470

Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

Whitfield, R. G.

1999-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

471

Auto GC system for enhanced ozone monitoring network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Perkin-Elmer Model ATD-400 Thermal Desorption System was specially adapted for the collection of whole-air samples. The C{sub 2} to n-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons were trapped using Peltier cooling on Carbotrap/Carbosieve adsorbents at {minus}30 C. A Deans switch allowed the C{sub 2} to C{sub 6} fraction to be separated using a porous layer open tubular column while a methyl silicone column separated the C{sub 6} to C{sub 10} fraction. No cryogen was used in the collection or analysis. Ozone precursor concentrations were detected at the 0.1 ppbV level. Area repeatability was less than 10%, with retention time precision over 100 hours of approximately 1% RSD for most compounds. Remote communications allowed chromatography to be monitored and files to be downloaded to a central office. Data in .CSV format was directly assimilated by spreadsheet software for diurnal inspection and customized reporting. Data were achieved using external Bernoulli disks.

Seeley, I.; Tipler, A. [Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States); Broadway, G. [Perkin-Elmer Ltd., Beaconsfield (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 106, NO. D22, PAGES28,481-28,495, NOVEMBER 27, 2001 Source analysis of carbon monoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and agricultural waste burning in India are major CO sources for the Indian Ocean north of the ITCZ, with minor the globe where biofuel use and biomass burning contribute so much to the CO mixing ratios. In general, most is the dominant CO source at middle and high northern latitudes, whereas biofuel use and biomass burning are major

Laat, Jos de

473

Potentiometric CO titrations of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and CO-inhibition of the NI-removing reaction with 1,10--phenanthroline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the slope and intercept of that plot. Kco was found to be 840 atm ' 30 2400 1900 1 400 ss 0 900 400 ? 100 O. OEO 5. 0E-3 1. 0E-2 1. 5E-2 2. 0E-2 Pco 0. 1 O V -0. 1 ai Z -0. 3 C l -0. 5 tn 4. Z -0. 7 t: ~ I no CO 2. 0 X 10-& otm 4 5.... 1 X 10-3otm 9. 9 X10- otm -0. 9 0 5000 1 0000 1 5000 20000 25000 30000 Time (min) Figure 7. Inhibition of the Reaction of I, IO-Phenanthroline and CODH by CO. See Erperimenral Procedures for details. Upper Panel: Plot of NiFeC signai intensity...

Russell, William Kent

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Method of making a catalytic metal oxide selective for the conversion of a gas and a coating system for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described of making a catalytic metal oxide selective to catalyzing the conversion of given gas species, comprising: intimately supporting a solid film of catalytic metal oxide on an electrically conducting material, said film having an exposed outer surface spaced no greater than 1,000 angstroms from said conducting material and said conducting material being matched to the composition of said oxide to change the electron state of the exposed outer surface to promote a reaction between given gas species and said oxide, said metal oxide being selected from the group consisting of TiO[sub 2], SnO[sub 2], FeO, SrTiO[sub 3], and CoO, and said conducting material being selected from the group consisting of Au, Pt, TiN, Pd, Rh, Ni, and Co.

Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

475

Surface structure of coadsorbed benzene and carbon monoxide on the rhodium(111) single crystal analyzed with low-energy electron diffraction intensities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first structural analysis of a molecular coadsorbate system is presented. Mutual reordering and site shifting are found to occur for benzene and CO coadsorbed in a (/sub 13//sup 31/) lattice on Rh(111). This low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensity analysis yields the first confirmed hollow-site adsorption of CO on a single-crystal metal surface, with a C-O bond length expanded by 0.06 +/- 0.05 A from the gas phase. The flat-lying benzene is found centered over hcp-type hollow sites with a strong Kekule-type distortion: C-C bond lengths alternate between 1.33 +/- 0.15 A (hydrogen positions were not determined). This suggests the possibility of a 1,3,5-cyclohexatriene species being formed. The Rh-C bond length is 2.35 +/- 0.05 A for benzene and 2.16 +/- 0.04 A for CO.

Van Hove, M.A.; Lin, R.F.; Somorjai, G.A.

1986-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

476

Reductive coupling of carbon monoxide to C{sub 2} products. Progress report for the period, May 1, 1990--November 15, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report covers the two broad areas of research addressed during the period since May 1, 1990. As proposed in 1989, studies of carbyne transformations have been pursued with a variety of carbyne substituents. Perhaps the most noteworthy carbyne results are also the simplest: preparation and properties of the parent M{triple_bond}CH unit. The other topic addressed with DOE support has metal nitrene chemistry as the cornerstone. Publications with iron, tungsten and copper complexes reflect our efforts to access intermediate oxidation state metal nitrene monomers. This new thrust was a central theme of the proposal submitted in 1989, and progress to date is sufficiently encouraging that detailed plans for expanding our nitrene project are an integral part of the accompanying proposal. References in this progress report are kept to a minimum; extensive references in the papers cited here place the work in perspective relative to the literature landscape.

Templeton, J.L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

THE IMPACT OF REDUCED VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide fron gas appliances;quality, infiltration, nitrogen dioxide, radon, ventilation.carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (N02)• formaldehyde (

Berk, James V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical Analysis of Nitrogen Dioxide Air Quality Standards.22 Gaseous Emissions: Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide,3- 4 GASEOUS EMISSIONS: NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE,

Cairns, Elton J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2 3 emissions of ozone precursors. The climate and16 emission effect in combination will increase afternoon mean increases18 in global (excluding China) anthropogenic emissions, 37% to Chinese emission19 increases

Wu, Shiliang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ozone carbon monoxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

A numerical study of mass transfer of ozone dissolution in bubble plumes with an Euler-Lagrange Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as a model problem for a water purification system. The effect of bubble diameter and plume structure on mass are widely observed and exploited in engineering applications, with water purification using ozone bubble the mass transfer process of ozone dissolution in a bubble plume inside a rectangular water tank

Huang, Huaxiong

482

Impact of ozone on indoor air quality: a preliminary field study M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F. Maupetit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indoor air quality (IAQ) since they produce secondary pollutants, mainly aldehydes which are known to document the impact on IAQ of outdoor ozone during summer air pollution episodes. For this purpose, a oneImpact of ozone on indoor air quality: a preliminary field study M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F

Boyer, Edmond

483

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change. References: Carbon...

484

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

486

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

488

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

490

Thermochemical Kinetics for Multireference Systems: Addition Reactions of Ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of ozone to ethyne and ethene provide extreme examples of multireference singlet-state chemistry, and they are examined here to test the applicability of several approaches to thermochemical kinetics of systems with large static correlation. Four different multireference diagnostics are applied to measure the multireference characters of the reactants, products, and transition states; all diagnostics indicate significant multireference character in the reactant portion of the potential energy surfaces. We make a more complete estimation of the effect of quadruple excitations than was previously available, and we use this with CCSDT/CBS estimation of Wheeler et al. (Wheeler, S. E.; Ess, D. H.; Houk, K. N. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 1798.) to make new best estimates of the van der Waals association energy, the barrier height, and the reaction energy to form the cycloadduct for both reactions. Comparing with these best estimates, we present comprehensive mean unsigned errors for a variety of coupled cluster, multilevel, and density functional methods. Several computational aspects of multireference reactions are considered: (i) the applicability of multilevel theory, (ii) the convergence of coupled cluster theory for reaction barrier heights, (iii) the applicability of completely renormalized coupled cluster methods to multireference systems, (iv) the treatment by density functional theory, (v) the multireference perturbation theory for multireference reactions, and (vi) the relative accuracy of scaling-type multilevel methods as compared with additive ones. It is found that scaling-type multilevel methods do not perform better than the additive-type multilevel methods. Among the 48 tested density functionals, only M05 reproduces the best estimates within their uncertainty. Multireference perturbation theory based on the complete-active-space reference wave functions constructed using a small number of reaction-specific active orbitals gives accurate forward barrier heights; however, it significantly underestimates reaction energies.

Zhao, Yan; Tishchenko, Oksana; Gour, Jeffrey R.; Li, Wei; Lutz, Jesse; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.

2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

491

Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives, rather than ozonolysis, is the main formaldehyde source in those filters. Emission rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not found to be large enough to substantially increase indoor concentrations in typical building scenarios. Nevertheless, ozone reactions on HVAC filters cannot be ignored as a source of low levels of indoor irritants.

Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun (Jensen); Fisk, William J.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Supernova: Carbon detonation redux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A DECADE ago carbon detonation was all the rage among supernova theorists. The idea was that the characteristic burst ... wind.

J. Craig Wheeler

1983-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

493

Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon Capital1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon...

494

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification ... The steam–carbon reaction, which is the essential reaction of the gasification processes of carbon-based feed stocks (e.g., coal and biomass), produces synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a synthetically flexible, environmentally benign energy source. ... Coal Gasification in CO2 and Steam:? Development of a Steam Injection Facility for High-Pressure Wire-Mesh Reactors ...

C. W. Zielke; Everett. Gorin

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

How Carbon Capture Works  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Carbon capture, utilization and storage is a process that captures carbon dioxide emissions from sources like coal-fired power plants and either reuses or stores it so it will not enter the atmosphere. We'll break down the process step by step so you can learn how this technology can help us lower our carbon pollution.

496

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

497

Attributes of Indoor Environmental Quality to Earth-sheltered Building Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and ozone depletion. The concern having the highest potential negative health impact was indoor air pollution, while the second ranking was indoor radon (Huelman, 2004, pp. 10-21). Indoor environmental quality problems in earth sheltered buildings... selections. Some common pollutants found in homes are VOCs, mold, dust (pollen, dust mites, insulation fibers, etc.), carbon monoxide and other combustion products, radon, pesticides, and household chemicals (Barcik, 2005, pp. 30-1). There are three...

Sheta, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: Carbon Connections links partner universities with industry encouraging knowledge exchange and developing innovative ideas. References: Carbon Connections1 This...

499

Carbon in detonations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review three principal results from a five year study of carbon and its properties in detonations and discuss the implications of these results to the behavior of explosives. We first present a new determination of the carbon melt line from release wave velocity measurements in the shocked state. We then outline a colloidal theory of carbon clustering which from diffusion limited coagulation predicts a slow energy release rate for the carbon chemistry. Finally, we show the results from the examination of recovered soot. Here we see support for the colloid theory and find the diamond phase of carbon. The main theme of this paper is that the carbon in detonation products is in the form of a colloidal suspension of carbon clusters which grow through diffusion limited collisions. Even the final state is not bulk graphite or diamond, but is a collection of small, less than 100 /angstrom/A, diamond and graphitic clusters. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Johnson, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Investigation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in flemish drinking water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the study was to investigate the drinking water supplied to majority of residents of Flanders in Belgium. Over 500 water samples were collected from different locations, after particular and complete treatment procedure to evaluate the efficiency of each treatment step in production of biologically stable drinking water. In this study assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was of our interest and was assumed as a parameter responsible for water biostability. The influence of seasons and temperature changes on AOC content was also taken into account. The AOC in most of the non-chlorinated product water of the studied treatment plants could not meet the biostability criteria of 10 ?g/l, resulting in the mean AOC concentration of 50 ?g/l. However, majority of the examined chlorinated water samples were consistent with proposed criteria of 50–100 ?g/l for systems maintaining disinfectant residual. Here, mean AOC concentration of 72 ?g/l was obtained. Granular activated carbon filtration was helpful in diminishing AOC content of drinking water; however, the nutrient removal was enhanced by biological process incorporated into water treatment (biological activated carbon filtration). Disinfection by means of chlorination and ozonation increased the water AOC concentration while the ultraviolet irradiation showed no impact on the AOC content. Examination of seasonal AOC variations showed similar fluctuations in six units with the highest values in summer and lowest in winter.

Monika Polanska; Koen Huysman; Chris van Keer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z