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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

Gray, Joshua P. [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Mishin, Vladimir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

Campbell, Andrew T.

3

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

Poinsot, Laurent

4

EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de 170 High Purity Ethyl Acetate Production with a Batch Reactive Distillation Column using Dynamic Optimization Strategy CiteSeer Summary: AbstractEthyl acetate with the...

6

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

Senkan, Selim M.

8

Oxygen enriched fireflooding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both pure oxygen and enriched air have been considered in fireflooding for enhanced oil recovery. Laboratory and field testing have conclusively shown that oxygen is practical and cost effective for this application. For reservoirs that require a large volume of high pressure gas, oxygen is cheaper than air simply based on compression costs. Additional process benefits with oxygen include: Faster Oil Production; Lower Injection Pressure; Greater Well Spacing; Increased Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure; Lower Gas-to-Oil Ratios; and Purer Produced Gas. These features provide a compelling case for oxygen, once the safety and materials compatibility issues are properly addressed.

Shahani, G.H.; Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

Dees, D.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

10

Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

11

arrhizus ethyl esters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1. Introduction Biodiesel, consisting of the methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids with biodiesel. To the extent that these deal with biodiesel from virgin vegetable fatty acids,...

12

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

14

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

15

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

17

Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of liquid-phase ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE) synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is now the second largest volume organic chemical, only behind ethylene, produced in the U.S. This is remarkable since its commercial production began barely two decades ago. Although MTBE is currently the industry standard, it has been proposed that ethanol and other renewable additives make up to 30% of the oxygenate market. As a result, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, or 2-ethyoxy 2-methyl propane), derived from renewable ethanol and isobutylene, has emerged as a promising new oxygenate. ETBE also has a somewhat lower blending Reid vapor pressure as well as a higher octane number than MTBE. This paper describes the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the production of ETBE.

Jensen, K.L.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Wheeler G.S. 2009. Silicate Consolidants for Stone. 4 2.2. Ethyl Silicate: Chemistry and6 2.2.1. Ethyl Silicates for Stone

Dolph, Brittany Helen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

Wolfe, R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl-phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl- phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium chloride Andrew Hempel,a * Norman Research, 8515C 35 Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA Correspondence e-mail: andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

22

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Fusion Curve of Ammonia and Ethyl Alcohol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Kansas for partial completion of Master of Arts. THE FUSION CURVE OF AMMONIA AND ETHYL ALCOHOL H. J. BRODERSON THE 2?03IOH CUHVB OP... AMMOHIA AND ETHXL ALCOHOL. A part of the requirement for the lh A. 2)egree. By K. J. Brodereon, University of Kangaa, May 1911, THE PUSIOB CURVS OP AliKOHlA AHD ETHYL ALCOHOL* Only within tho last fow ycara has any worlc boon done on tho fusion...

Broderson, H.J.

1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electrochemical studies of quinone oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Asphaltenes are a chemically complex mixture of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. This material contains oxygen in various functional groups. The distribution includes esters, carboxylic acids, phenolic and most probably quinone type oxygen functionalities. The present work details the complete electrochemical behaviour of quinone type oxygen. The method is quinone specific. A condensed aromatic quinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, was selected as representative of complex quinones. By this method quinones can be determined in the presence of other oxygen functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, and other carbonyls.

Deanhardt, M.L. (Lander College, Greenwood, SC (US)); Mushrush, G.W.; Stalick, W.M. (Chemistry Dept., George mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (US)); Watkins, J.M. Jr. (Naval Research Lab., Fuels Section, Code 6180, Washington, DC (US))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

27

Conversion of Biomass-Derived Small Oxygenates over HZSM-5 and its Deactivation Mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HZSM-5 catalyst deactivation was studied using aqueous feed mixtures containing ethanol, ethanol+ acetic acid, ethanol+ethyl acetate, or ethanol+acetaldehyde in a fixed bed reactor at 360C and 300psig. Compared to ethanol alone experiment, addition of other oxygenates reduced catalyst life in the order of: ethyl acetateethyl acetate feed, the presence of acetaldehyde appears to produce high molecular weight aromatic compounds which deactivate the catalyst through a pore-blocking mechanism. Acetic acid deactivates the catalyst through an active site poisoning mechanism or strong adsorption of acetate intermediates on the active sites (hydroxyl groups). Ethanol deactivates the catalyst primarily through its pore-blocking mechanism, but the rate of ethanol deactivation is orders of magnitude slower than that of acetaldehyde. Ethyl acetate hydrolyzes to form acetic acid and ethanol which deactivate the catalyst through its respective mechanisms. In addition, each functional group of oxygenates requires different active sites/catalysts and different operating conditions due to competitive adsorptions on active sites for their conversion to the desired products. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-treat the mixture of oxygenates to produce a feed stream containing the same or similar functional group compounds before converting the feed stream to hydrocarbon compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Flake, Matthew D.; Zhang, He; Wang, Yong

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

28

Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters transportation fuel dedicated to the diesel engine, biodiesel, with an emphasis on ethyl esters because of biodiesel and related components, the main gaps in the field are highlighted to facilitate the convergence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity peak oxygen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Yttria-stabilized zirconia, a well known oxygen ion... including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and chemical gas sensors because of a number of superior properties... such as heat...

32

Pd-Catalyzed O-Arylation of Ethyl Acetohydroximate: Synthesis of O-Arylhydroxylamines and Substituted Benzofurans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An efficient Pd catalyst for the O-arylation of ethyl acetohydroximate with aryl chlorides, bromides, and iodides has been developed. Ethyl acetohydroximate serves as an efficient hydroxylamine equivalent for C?O cross-coupling, ...

Maimone, Thomas

33

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using...

34

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

35

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

40

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Electron-impact excitation of neutral oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims: To calculate transition rates from ground and excited states in neutral oxygen atoms due to electron collisions for non-LTE modelling of oxygen in late-type stellar atmospheres, thus enabling reliable interpretation of oxygen lines in stellar spectra. Methods: A 38-state R-matrix calculation in LS-coupling has been performed. Basis orbitals from the literature (Thomas et al.) are adopted, and a large set of configurations are included to obtain good representations of the target wavefunctions. Rate coefficients are calculated by averaging over a Maxwellian velocity distribution. Results: Estimates for the cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for transitions between the seven lowest LS states of neutral oxygen. The cross sections for excitation from the ground state compare well with existing experimental and recent theoretical results.

P. S. Barklem

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

Thermochemistry of Ethyl 3-Oxobutanoate Revisited: Observance of a Non-Zero Enthalpy of Mixing between Tautomers and Its Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Equation 1 was used for this purpose. The term Cp(l)m represents the heat capacity of the liquid that was estimated by group additivity.6 Since the heat capacity of the liquid enol-ester and keto-ester estimate The enthalpies of formation of pure liquid and gas-phase ethyl 3-oxobutanoate and ethyl Z-3-hydroxy- 2-butenoate

Chickos, James S.

45

Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small angle neutron scattering study of deuterated sodium dodecylsulfate micellization in dilute 2010 Keywords: Poly((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) Micelle Small angle neutron scattering a b angle neutron scattering. We found three transitions of the poly ((2edimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate

Kofinas, Peter

46

Detection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase-Peroxidase Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioassay may be suitable for field monitoring of BTEX to identify and track contaminated water and follow in contaminated water because of their accuracy and sensitivity. Although very sensitive, the cost associatedDetection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase

Chen, Wilfred

47

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

51

Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

55

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria, J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Oxygen abundance of open cluster dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present oxygen abundances of dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665 deduced from the OI $\\lambda$7774 triplet lines and of dwarfs in the open cluster Pleiades derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line. Stellar parameters and oxygen abundances were derived using the spectroscopic synthesis tool SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). We find a dramatic increase in the upper boundary of the OI triplet abundances with decreasing temperature in the dwarfs of IC 4665, consistent with the trend found by Schuler et al. in the open clusters Pleiades and M 34, and to a less extent in the cool dwarfs of Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006a) and UMa (King & Schuler 2005). By contrast, oxygen abundances derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line for stars in Pleiades and Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006b) are constant within the errors. Possible mechanisms that may lead a varying oxygen triplet line abundance are examined, including systematic errors in the stellar parameter determinations, the NLTE effects, surface activities and granulation. The age-related effects stellar surface activities (especially the chromospheric activities) are suggested by our analysis to blame for the large spreads of oxygen triplet line abundances.

Z. -X. Shen; X. -W. Liu; H. -W. Zhang; B. Jones; D. N. C. Lin

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Association Behavior of Biotinylated and Non-Biotinylated PolyEthylene Oxide-b-Poly(2-(Diethylamino)Ethyl Methacrylate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biotinylated and non-biotinylated copolymers of ethylene oxide (EO) and 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) were synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization technique (ATRP). The chemical compositions ...

Tan, J. F.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Distribution and origin of ethyl-branched alkanes in a Cenomanian transgressive shale of the Western Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note Distribution and origin of ethyl-branched alkanes in a Cenomanian transgressive shale hydrocarbon fraction of the basal Graneros Shale (Cenomanian, Western Interior Seaway, USA). On the basis rights reserved. Keywords: Monoethylalkanes; Branched alkanes; Black shales; Cenomanian; Graneros Shale

Kenig, Fabien

62

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

64

Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

65

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

66

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

72

Ionizing radiation induced degradation of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy) -1,4-phenylene vinylene) in solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate the causes of the chromatic alteration observed in chloroform solutions of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) after gamma ray irradiation. Structural and chemical changes were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and complemented by electronic structure calculations. The results indicate chlorine incorporation in the polymer structure and main chain scission after irradiation. Based on our findings we propose that the main mechanism for the blue-shifts, observed in the UV-Vis absorption spectra of MEH-PPV after irradiation, is the result of a radical attack on the polymer main chain. Gamma rays generate radicals, Cl and CHCl{sub 2} from chloroform radiolysis that attack preferentially the vinyl double bonds of the polymer backbone, breaking the electronic conjugation and eventually the chain. Our results indicate that oxygen does not play a major role in the effect. Electronic spectra simulations were performed based on these assumptions reproducing the UV-Vis experimental results.

Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Batagin-Neto, A.; Lavarda, F. C.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Oxygen detection using evanescent fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

77

Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

Boynton, Walter R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

82

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

83

Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

Oxygen transfer in the implant environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

Goor, Jared Braden

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

Kim, K.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

Mallin, Michael

90

Increased intrapulmonary retention of radiolabeled neutrophils in early oxygen toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequential lung injuries, such as oxygen toxicity followed by septicemia, are common during the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As these forms of vascular injury may be mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), aberrant interactions between PMN and previously injured pulmonary endothelium are of both theoretical interest and clinical importance. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early oxygen toxicity at a dose that injuries pulmonary endothelium relatively selectively alters intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics. Unanesthetized rats breathing 1.0 atmospheres oxygen for 36 h showed ultrastructural endothelial damage but no edema, injury, or neutrophilic inflammation by histologic criteria. However, in these oxygen-toxic animals, whereas initial accumulation of radiolabeled PMN in lungs was normal, washout of PMN was abnormal at 120 min after infusion, at which point the pulmonary retention of radiolabeled PMN in the lungs of oxygen-treated animals was significantly higher than in control animals (139% of control, p less than 0.0096). Features of our methodology, including avoidance of osmotic stress and use of paired control animals, appear to have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of radiolabeled neutrophils for detecting a subtle abnormality of neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Our studies in the oxygen toxicity model provide the first demonstration in vivo of abnormal intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics in early oxygen toxicity prior to the onset of histologic evidence of lung injury or inflammation.

Rinaldo, J.E.; English, D.; Levine, J.; Stiller, R.; Henson, J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

92

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

93

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

94

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

96

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradientstechnology is the ability to rapidly generate and alter oxygentechnology should enable numerous studies in the field of biology where oxygen

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

DME-to-oxygenates process studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

99

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

102

Enhanced Intersystem Crossing Rate in Polymethine-Like Molecules: Sulfur-Containing Squaraines versus Oxygen-Containing Analogues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characterization includes absorption, fluorescence, quantum yield, anisotropy, and singlet oxygen generation versus Oxygen-Containing Analogues Davorin Peceli, Honghua Hu, Dmitry A. Fishman, Scott Webster, Olga V of new squaraine molecules, where one or two oxygen atoms in a squaraine bridge are replaced with sulfur

Van Stryland, Eric

103

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Oxygen uptake of benthic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

Priebe, William Franklin

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Stabilizing contributions of sulfur-modified nucleotides: crystal structure of a DNA duplex with 2'-O-[2-(methoxy)ethyl]-2-thiothymidines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Substitution of oxygen atoms by sulfur at various locations in the nucleic acid framework has led to analogs such as the DNA phosphorothioates and 4'-thio RNA. The phosphorothioates are excellent mimics of DNA, exhibit increased resistance to nuclease degradation compared with the natural counterpart, and have been widely used as first-generation antisense nucleic acid analogs for applications in vitro and in vivo. The 4'-thio RNA analog exhibits significantly enhanced RNA affinity compared with RNA, and shows potential for incorporation into siRNAs. 2-Thiouridine (s{sup 2}U) and 5-methyl-2-thiouridine (m{sup 5}s{sup 2}U) are natural nucleotide analogs. s{sup 2}U in tRNA confers greater specificity of codon-anticodon interactions by discriminating more strongly between A and G compared with U. 2-Thio modification preorganizes the ribose and 2'-deoxyribose sugars for a C3'-endo conformation, and stabilizes heteroduplexes composed of modified DNA and complementary RNA. Combination of the 2-thio and sugar 2'-O-modifications has been demonstrated to boost both thermodynamic stability and nuclease resistance. Using the 2'-O-[2-(methoxy)ethyl]-2-thiothymidine (m{sup 5}s{sup 2}Umoe) analog, we have investigated the consequences of the replacement of the 2-oxygen by sulfur for base-pair geometry and duplex conformation. The crystal structure of the A-form DNA duplex with sequence GCGTAT*ACGC (T* = m{sup 5}s{sup 2}Umoe) was determined at high resolution and compared with the structure of the corresponding duplex with T* = m{sup 5}Umoe. Notable changes as a result of the incorporation of sulfur concern the base-pair parameter 'opening', an improvement of stacking in the vicinity of modified nucleotides as measured by base overlap, and a van der Waals interaction between sulfur atoms from adjacent m{sup 5}s{sup 2}Umoe residues in the minor groove. The structural data indicate only minor adjustments in the water structure as a result of the presence of sulfur. The observed small structural perturbations combined with the favorable consequences for pairing stability and nuclease resistance (when combined with 2'-O-modification) render 2-thiouracil-modified RNA a promising candidate for applications in RNAi.

Diop-Frimpong, Benjamin; Prakash, Thazha P.; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G.; Manoharan, Muthiah; Egli, Martin (Isis Pharm.); (Alnylam Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

106

Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Hormetic effect of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on bacteria  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The biological effect of ionic liquids (ILs) is one of the highly debated topics as they are being contemplated for various industrial applications. 1-ethyl-2-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]) showed remarkable hormesis on anaerobic Clostridium sp. and aerobic Psueudomonas putida. Bacterial growth was stimulated at up to 2.5 g L-1 and inhibited at > 2.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). The growth of Clostridium sp. and P. putida were higher by 0.4 and 4-fold respectively, in the presense of 0.5 g L-1 of ([EMIM][Ac]). Assessment of the effect of [EMIM][Ac] under different growth conditions showed that the hormesis of [EMIM][Ac] was mediated via regulation of medium pH. Hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] was evident only in medium with poor buffering capacity and in the presence of a fermentable substrate as the carbon source. The hormetic effect of [EMIM][Ac] on bacterial growth is most likely associated with the buffering capacity of acetate anion. These observations have implications in ILs toxicity studies and ecological risk assessment.

Nancharaiah, Y. V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Kalpakkam (India). Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Sect.; Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Rep. of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Physical insight into switchgrass dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering was used to characterize solutions of switchgrass and the constituent biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a physical mixture of them mimicking the composition of switchgrass, dissolved in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. The results demonstrate that the IL dissolves the cellulose fibrils of switchgrass, although a supramolecular biopolymer network remains that is not present in solutions of the individual biopolymers and that does not self-assemble in a solution containing the physical mixture of the individual biopolymers. The persistence of a network-like structure indicates that dissolving switchgrass in the IL does not disrupt all of the physical entanglements and covalent linkages between the biopolymers created during plant growth. Reconstitution of the IL-dissolved switchgrass yields carbohydrate-rich material containing cellulose with a low degree of crystallinity, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction, which impacts potential down-stream uses of the biopolymers produced by the process. The data suggests that the use of chemical additives which would break bonds that exist between the lignin and hemicellulose might improve the purity of the resulting product, but may not be able to disrupt the highly physically-entangled biopolymer network sufficiently to facilitate their separation.

Wang, Hui [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Gurau, Gabriela [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; O'Neil, Hugh [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, Robin D [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Several lines of evidence indicate that the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis preceded the oxygenation of the atmosphereperhaps by as much as 300 million years. The (more)

Olson, Stephanie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

Golfinopoulos, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

114

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

115

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

426 AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS SEP 2 1196: vuUiJo HIM. . SPECIAL and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS -temperature meter 11 Maintenance and trouble -shooting 12 #12;AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER

117

Effects of oxygen on fracturing fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of polysaccharide gels at high temperature is limited by such factors as pH, mechanical degradation, and oxidants. Oxygen is unavoidably placed in fracturing fluids through dissolution of air. To prevent premature degradation of the fracturing fluid by this oxidant, oxygen scavengers are commonly used. In this paper, the effects of oxygen and various oxygen scavengers on gel stability will be presented. Mechanical removal of oxygen resulted in surprisingly stable fracturing gels at 275 F. However, chemical removal of oxygen gave mixed results. Test data from sodium thiosulfate, sodium sulfite, and sodium erythorbate used as oxygen scavengers/gel stabilizers showed that the efficiency of oxygen removal from gels did not directly coincide with the viscosity retention of the gel, and large excesses of additives were necessary to provide optimum gel stabilization. The inability of some oxygen scavengers to stabilize the gel was the result of products created from the interaction of oxygen with the oxygen scavenger, which in turn, produced species that degraded the gel. The ideal oxygen scavenger should provide superior gel stabilization without creating detrimental side reaction products. Of the materials tested, sodium thiosulfate appeared to be the most beneficial.

Walker, M.L.; Shuchart, C.E.; Yaritz, J.G.; Norman, L.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

Ghosh, Ruby N.

119

8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 2225­2248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Oxygen consumption of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells is considered to be a key determinant of oocyte oxygenation in follicles. The oxygen status of the oocyte (more)

Li, Dongxing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

Wurtzel, Eleanore

123

Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

Carroll, David L.

124

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

125

Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Refinery fuel oxygenates in view of the complex model for reformulated gasline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final version of the Complex Model for reformulated gasoline (RFG) has now been issued with some surprising features that will significantly affect refinery fuel oxygenates planning. These include the following: (1) The only oxygenates included in the model are MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and Ethanol. (2) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME are significantly more effective for reduction of air toxics emissions than Ethanol and ETBE. (3) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME typically produce about equal reduction in air toxics emissions at the same RFG oxygen content. Although gasoline certification by the Complex Model is optional prior to 1998, after 1998 it will be mandatory for both reformulated and conventional gasolines. This paper considers refinery oxygenates production in view of these features of the Complex Model for RFG, basing the discussion on 2.0 weight percent oxygen content for RFG.

Crawford, C.D.; Haelsig, C.P. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

California at Davis, University of

131

Oxygen vacancy clusters on ceria: Decisive role of cerium f electrons Changjun Zhang,1 Angelos Michaelides,2 David A. King,1 and Stephen J. Jenkins1,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen vacancy clusters on ceria: Decisive role of cerium f electrons Changjun Zhang,1 Angelos November 2008; published 20 February 2009 Defects such as oxygen vacancies dominate the electronic to investigate various oxygen vacancies, including the vacancy monomer, dimer, trimer, and tetramer, in which

Alavi, Ali

132

atural aquatic habitats include ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from small (ten surface acres) to large (the Great Lakes: Erie, Michigan, Huron, Ontario, and SuperiorN atural aquatic habitats include ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays little oxygen. Aquatic habitats can be classified as: · non-flowing waters like lakes and ponds, · slowly

Liskiewicz, Maciej

133

Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

Riding, Dr Robert E [University of Tennessee (UT); Fralick, Dr Philip [Lakehead University, Canada; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Protein Synthesis. Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after...

135

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There is a growing need for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradients onto a tissue or culture sample in vitro. This dissertation introduces the (more)

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Catalytic ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum wire is experimentally studied by using microcalorimetry and by restricting the flow to the low Reynolds number range so that axisymmetry prevails. The fuels studied are propane, butane, propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Parameters investigated include flow velocity, fuel type and concentration, and oxygen concentration. The catalytic ignition temperatures of the various fuels are accurately determined over extensive ranges of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen concentrations. Results show two distinctly opposite ignition trends depending on the nature of the fuel. That is, the ignition temperature of lean propane/air and butane/air mixtures decreases as their fuel concentration is increased, while the reverse trend is observed for lean mixtures of propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with air. Furthermore, the ignition of propane depends primarily on fuel concentration, while the ignition of carbon monoxide depends on fuel and oxygen concentrations to a comparable extent. These results are explained on the basis of hierarchical surface adsorption strengths of the different reactants in effecting catalytic ignition. Additional phenomena of interest are observed and discussed.

Cho, P.; Law, C.K.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

140

Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

Low, Clarke Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

142

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

143

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

Eagar, Thomas W.

144

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plants for methanol and higher alcohols production, and ethers such as MTBE. Research and development work has concentrated on elucidating the fundamental transport and kinetic limitations governing various reactor configurations. But of equal or greater importance has been investigations into the optimal catalyst composition and process conditions for the production of various oxygenates.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Device and method for determining oxygen concentration and pressure in gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are oxygen concentration and/or pressure sensing devices and methods which incorporate photoluminescent silica aerogels. Disclosed sensors include a light proof housing for holding the photoluminescent aerogel, a source of excitation radiation (e.g., a UV source), a detector for detecting radiation emitted by the aerogel, a system for delivering a sample gas to the aerogel, and a thermocouple. Also disclosed are water resistant oxygen sensors having a photoluminescent aerogel coated with a hydrophobic material. 6 figs.

Ayers, M.R.; Hunt, A.J.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

Device and method for determining oxygen concentration and pressure in gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are oxygen concentration and/or pressure sensing devices and methods which incorporate photoluminescent silica aerogels. Disclosed sensors include a light proof housing for holding the photoluminescent aerogel, a source of excitation radiation (e.g., a UV source), a detector for detecting radiation emitted by the aerogel, a system for delivering a sample gas to the aerogel, and a thermocouple. Also disclosed are water resistant oxygen sensors having a photoluminescent aerogel coated with a hydrophobic material.

Ayers, Michael R. (El Cerrito, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Kensington, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

154

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

Levin, Lisa

156

Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels

Carroll, David L.

157

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Complete oxidation of CO, ethanol, and ethyl acetate over copper oxide supported on titania and ceria modified titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titania and titania modified with 3 and 12 {mu}mol Ce/m{sup 2} surface area of the titania were prepared and were used as supports for copper oxide. Preparations with 3 and 12 {mu}mol CuO{sub x}/m{sup 2} surface area of the support were tested for the combustion of CO, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The results show that the Ce-doped titania surface is good as support for CuO{sub x} and that the cerium not only enhances the activity of the copper species, but also stabilizes the surface area of the TiO{sub 2} support in the presence of copper oxide. Additions of Al, K, and La are also found to stabilize the TiO{sub 2} support but, compared with Ce, these elements do not to the same extent enhance the activity of the copper species. Acetaldehyde is observed to ban an intermediate in the combustion of both ethanol and ethyl acetate over Cu-Ce-Ti-O catalysts. Since acetaldehyde is more harmful than any of the reactants and also is photochemically active, it is in applications important to assure that the combustion is complete. Cu-Ce-Ti-O catalysts show good performance not only for feeds without water vapor, but also for humid feeds. Although the concentrations of intermediates are affected by the addition of water, there is little effect on the temperature required for obtaining complete conversion to carbon dioxide and water. Characterization with XRD, FT-Raman, TPR, and XPS indicates that the dispersed copper species are in the form of patches or a bidimensional layer which interacts with the surface of the support. When the content of cerium and copper is low, other types of dispersed copper species are present, which possibly are monomers or dimers. The copper species are predominantly Cu{sup 2+} species.

Larsson, P.O. [Perstorp AB (Sweden)] [Perstorp AB (Sweden); Andersson, A. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II] [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

160

Characterization of an oxygen suspension used for intravenous infusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygenated fluid mixture can be used to treat critically ill patients suffering from asphyxia, lung injury, and cardiac arrest. This oxygenated fluid delivered intravenously re-oxygenates the bloodstream, allowing for more ...

Pea, Kristen Helen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Blood oxygen transport and depletion : the key of consummate divers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Dill, D. B. (1935). Oxygen dissociation curves of birdE. (1964). A venous blood oxygen reservoir in the divingand Torrance, J. D. (1977). Oxygen-Affinity of Avian Blood.

Meir, Jessica Ulrika

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Imaging Intrinsic Diffusion of Bridge-Bonded Oxygen Vacancies on TiO2(110). Abstract: Since oxygen atom...

164

Oxygen Tension Modulates Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Through A Mechanism Involving HIF and VEGF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neural repair. Keywords Oxygen tension . Neurite extension .respective physiological oxygen microenvironments (Chen etet al. 2008). For example, oxygen tension differentially

Genetos, Damian C.; Cheung, Whitney K.; Decaris, Martin L.; Leach, J. Kent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Long-term oxygen sensor implantation in the porcine subcutaneous environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane-?Covered Oxygen Electrode. Analytical Microvascular and tissue oxygen distribution. vitro stability of an oxygen sensor. Anal Chem,

Kumosa, Lucas Stefan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

167

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

168

On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

171

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies. Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies....

172

Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Abstract: The...

173

Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

174

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

175

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

176

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

177

Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance. Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD)...

178

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

179

Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer Reaction, and the Determination of the Bond Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer...

180

Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

182

Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

183

Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: The low-energy, electron-stimulated production of molecular oxygen from pure amorphous...

184

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

185

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

186

Reactive Gliosis Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. By sensing the electric signals generated by other 3368 Reactive Gliosis #12;individuals, mormyrids are alsoReactive Gliosis Glial Scar Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide Anions Neuroinflammation motor output. Reafferent Control in Electric Communication Reafferent Control in Electric Communication

187

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Injectable polymer for in vivo oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis documents the synthesis and characterization of an elastomeric polymer that is oxygen sensitive and can be interrogated using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Magnetic Resonance (MR) technology to report the ...

Imaad, Syed M. (Syed Muhammad)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Oxygen Enriched Combustion System Performance Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

}ched combustlon systems are technically, envlronmentally and economically feasible and offer significant energy savings and/or productivity improvement, and then to verify the performance of selected systems in research furnaces. Tests of several commercial... for 35 - 100 percent oxygen. The absolute levels of the NO x emissions also depended on the furnace temperature. INTRODUCTION Oxygen enriched combustion has been found to have significant energy saving potential in industrial furnace applications...

Chen, S. L.; Kwan, Y.; Abele, A. R.; Silver, L. S.; Kobayashi, H.

191

Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

195

Atomic Oxygen in the Comae of Comets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the detection of atomic oxygen lines in the spectra of 8 comets. These forbidden lines are a result of the photodissociation of the parent oxygen-bearing species directly into an excited state. We used high resolution spectra obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope to resolve the cometary oxygen lines from the telluric oxygen lines and from other cometary emissions. We find that the relative intensities of the two red lines (6300.304 and 6363.776A) are consistent with theory. The green line (5577.339A) has an intensity which is about 10% of the sum of the intensities of the two red lines. We show that collisional quenching may be important in the inner coma. If we assume the relative excitation rates of potential parents which have appeared in the literature, then H2O would be the parent of the cometary green oxygen line. However, those rates have been questioned. We measured the width of the three oxygen lines and find that the green line is wider than either of the two red lines. The finding of a wider line could imply a different parent for the green and red lines. However, the constancy of the green to red line flux ratio suggests the parent is the same for these lines but that the exciting photons have different energies.

Anita L. Cochran

2008-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

196

Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

Not Available

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

197

Oxygen abundance methods in the SDSS: view from modern statistics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring. We will analyze a sample of $\\sim$6000 $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release four. All methods that we used drew the same conclusion that the $T_e$ method is a more reliable oxygen abundance determination methods than the Bayesian metallcity method under the existing telescope ability. The ratios of the likelihoods between the different kinds of methods tell us that the $T_e$, $P$, and $O3N2$ methods are consistent with each other because the $P$ and $O3N2$ method are calibrated by $T_e$-method. The Bayesian and $R_{23}$ method are consistent with each other because both are calibrated by a galaxy model. In either case, the $N2$ method is an {\\it unreliable} method.

F. Shi; G. Zhao; James Wicker

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

198

The solar oxygen crisis: Probably not the last word  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we present support for recent claims that advocate a downward revision of the solar oxygen abundance. Our analysis employs spatially-resolved spectro-polarimetric observations including the \\FeI lines at 6302 \\AA and the \\OI infrared triplet around 7774 \\AA in the quiet Sun. We used the \\FeI lines to reconstruct the three-dimensional thermal and magnetic structure of the atmosphere. The simultaneous \\OI observations were then employed to determine the abundance of oxygen at each pixel, using both LTE and non-LTE (NLTE) approaches to the radiative transfer. In this manner, we obtain values of \\lgEO=8.63 (NLTE) and 8.93 (LTE) dex. We find an unsettling fluctuation of the oxygen abundance over the field of view. This is likely an artifact indicating that, even with this relatively refined strategy, important physical ingredients are still missing in the picture. By examining the spatial distribution of the abundance, we estimate realistic confidence limits of approximately 0.1 dex.

H. Socas-Navarro A. A. Norton

2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

199

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Liquefaction of cellulosic wastes. 6: Oxygen compounds in pyrolytic oil and water fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid hydrocarbon oil and water have been produced from the liquefaction of cellulosic matter present in municipal solid wastes. The produced pyrolytic oil and water fraction seemed to be contaminated with considerable amounts of oxygen compounds as compared with fuels derived from a petroleum origin. The oxygen compounds included organic acids (fatty and naphthenic acids), phenols, and carbonyl compounds. These classes of oxygen compounds were extracted selectively from the pyrolytic oils and water using chemical extraction methods. Methyl esters of fatty acids and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds were identified by gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography, respectively. It was suggested that the identified oxygen compounds could be produced from the pyrolysis of volatiles (e.g., levoglucosane, which is the primary product of cellulose depolymerization) via different mechanistic pathways.

Gharieb, H.K.; Faramawy, S.; El-Amrousi, F.A.; El-Sabagh, S.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

Namboodiri, Vinod

202

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

Antsaklis, Panos

203

A review of the environmental behavior and fate of fuel oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ways in which fuel oxygenate compounds behave in water, soil, and air are determined by how they partition among the different media. The behavior of a gasoline oxygenate in water is affected by the oxygenate`s (1) solubility in water from gasoline: (2) partitioning between water and soil materials; and (3) partitioning between air and water. Water in equilibrium with oxygenated gasoline can contain high concentrations of the oxygenate. For example, at room temperature water solubility of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) will be about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight. In contrast, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L for nonoxygenated gasoline. Fuel oxygenates sorb only weakly to soil and aquifer materials. Therefore, sorption to these materials will not significantly retard their transport by ground water. Fuel oxygenates tend to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. For example, washout of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation would not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, the partitioning of MTBE to precipitation is strong enough to allow for submicrogram per liter to 3 pg/L or more inputs of MTBE to ground water and surface water. Occurrence data for MTBE in water and air supports partition theoretical calculations. MTBE and other alkyl ether oxygenates have half lives in the atmosphere that range from about 1 to 14 days. These compounds are generally considered recalcitrant in ground water; whereas ethanol and methanol will readily undergo microbial degradation except where present in concentrations toxic to microorganisms.

Squillace, P.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Subterranean barriers including at least one weld  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

206

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

207

Power generation method including membrane separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

Not Available

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

211

Dissecting Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Evolution of the "Z"-Scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the "period four oxygen clock" and the structure of the oxygen-evolving center. After a brief mention the maximum quantum yield, i.e., the number of oxygen molecules evolved per photon of light absorbed11CHAPTER Dissecting Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Evolution of the "Z"-Scheme for Thylakoid

Govindjee

212

Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

Read, Charles

213

Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energetic neutral atoms at Mars 4. Imaging of planetary oxygen S. Barabash and M. Holmstro of the Martian oxygen exosphere/corona results in the production of planetary oxygen ions. The newborn ions start. The oxygen ions can then charge exchange with the neutral gases (H, H2, and O) of the Martian exosphere

Lukyanov, Alex

214

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells Xue Xia, Justin C. Tokash, Fang Zhang, Peng Liang, Xia Huang,*, and Bruce E. Logan*,, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P

217

Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully influence organisms living in near  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully to the winter of 2014. Their scholarly work is presented in this collection. #12;1 Oxygen: From Environment", 2013, 2014 Table of contents Page 2. Laura Lilly - Low-oxygen formation along the California current. 6

218

Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen "breathing," oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen "breathing," oxygen vacancies donation of oxygen vacancies. Our findings suggest that the observed decomposition of the ZnO lattice may. The formation of oxygen-vacancy rich surface is suggested to induce surface delta doping, causing accumulation

Shalish, Ilan

219

Photochemical Escape of Oxygen from Early Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photochemical escape is an important process for oxygen escape from present Mars. In this work, a 1-D Monte-Carlo Model is developed to calculate escape rates of energetic oxygen atoms produced from O2+ dissociative recombination reactions (DR) under 1, 3, 10, and 20 times present solar XUV fluxes. We found that although the overall DR rates increase with solar XUV flux almost linearly, oxygen escape rate increases from 1 to 10 times present solar XUV conditions but decreases when increasing solar XUV flux further. Analysis shows that atomic species in the upper thermosphere of early Mars increases more rapidly than O2+ when increasing XUV fluxes. While the latter is the source of energetic O atoms, the former increases the collision probability and thus decreases the escape probability of energetic O. Our results suggest that photochemical escape be a less important escape mechanism than previously thought for the loss of water and/or CO2 from early Mars.

Zhao, Jinjin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

225

Evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a sampling device for ethyl acrylate and the effect of discontinued exposure on vapor retention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sampling Theories of Adsorption Forces of Adsorption Activation Procedures Surface Structure Statement of Hypotheses METHODOLOGV Test Atmosphere Generation Exposure Chamber MIRAN Calibration and Use Monitor Exposure to EA Analytical Procedures...EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 53500 AS A SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ETHYL ACRYLATE AND THE EFFECT OF DISCONTINUED EXPOSURE ON VAPOP, RETENTION A Thesis by ROBERT WAYNE BARR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al!M University...

Barr, Robert Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

226

Models of Procyon A including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed models of Procyon A based on new asteroseismic measurements by Eggenberger et al (2004) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including shellular rotation and atomic diffusion. By combining all non-asteroseismic observables now available for Procyon A with these seismological data, we find that the observed mean large spacing of 55.5 +- 0.5 uHz favours a mass of 1.497 M_sol for Procyon A. We also determine the following global parameters of Procyon A: an age of t=1.72 +- 0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.290 +- 0.010, a nearly solar initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0234 +- 0.0015 and a mixing-length parameter alpha=1.75 +- 0.40. Moreover, we show that the effects of rotation on the inner structure of the star may be revealed by asteroseismic observations if frequencies can be determined with a high precision. Existing seismological data of Procyon A are unfortunately not accurate enough to really test these differences in the input physics of our models.

P. Eggenberger; F. Carrier; F. Bouchy

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disasterreadiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just thathelp strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

HCTT-CHE

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

228

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Reaction rates in Ion 21 Transport Membranes using Isotope Tracer and Transient Kinetic Techniques CONCLUSIONS 30Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes Quarterly Report January 2003 ­ March 2003 Principal Authors on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane

Eagar, Thomas W.

229

Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

Soma, Takako

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

230

Oxygen isotope exchange between water and semiquinones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reaction is described that can be utilized to produce /sup 17/O-labeled anion radicals that yield strong well resolved ESR signals exhibiting splitting from the /sup 17/O nucleus. The oxygen anthraquinone has been studied, and the results are reported herein. 7 references, 1 figure.

Stevenson, G.R.; Wang, Z.Y.; Reiter, R.C.; Peters, S.J.

1988-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

231

Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

Nabi, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Hypolimnetic oxygen consumption by sediment-based reduced substances in former eutrophic lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypolimnetic oxygen consumption by sediment-based reduced substances in former eutrophic lakes) in two formerly eutrophic lakes based on 20 yr of water-column data collected during oligotrophication, including the eutrophic past, accounted for , 15% of AHM. This ``old'' contribution corresponds to a 20

Wehrli, Bernhard

234

Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen enriched air combustion is a recognized approach to energy conservation. Conventional methods of producing oxygen enriched air: Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cryogenics, are energy-intensive and expensive. In this paper the economics of using...

Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

237

OXYGEN TRANSFER IN TRICKLING FILTERS By BruceE. Logan~  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN TRANSFER IN TRICKLING FILTERS By BruceE. Logan~ ABSTRACT: Insufficientoxygen transfer can result in anaerobic biofilmsand odor generation during biochemicaloxygen demand (BOD) removal plastic media trickling filters occurs by diffusion of oxygen through thin fluid films, previous models

238

Design, measurement, and analysis of oxygenated fluid pump system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The author sought out the opportunity to design and implement a system for pumping oxygenated fluid and mixing it with saline, for the purpose of providing sufficient levels of oxygen for patients undergoing forms of ...

Mason, Alexander M., IV (Alexander Martin)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tomography (PET) using radioactively labeled oxy- gen. Many other pathological and physiological functions of oxygen consumption instead of the static oxygen concentration.11 If the region of interest has well

Wang, Lihong

240

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Optical Perfusion and Oxygenation Characterization in a Liver Phantom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuous monitoring of blood perfusion and oxygenation is essential in assessing the health of a transplanted organ. Particularly, monitoring the perfusion and oxygenation of the organ during the two-week period after the transplant procedure...

King, Travis J.

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

242

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen Adsorption and Reaction with CO on Pd Nanoparticles on MgO(100) and on Pd(111). Methane Adsorption and Dissociation and Oxygen...

243

Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Inhibitive Influence of Oxygen Vacancies for Photoactivity on TiO2(110). Abstract: Scanning tunneling...

244

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Abstract: In this paper, ab initio...

245

Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...

246

On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 ?C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

250

A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

Arenz, R.W.

1991-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

251

Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MRSEC Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films NSF Grant # 1121262 A. U. Adler of varying oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen exchange was confirmed by 18O tracer diffusion (time of carrier content vs. pO2) analysis should be applicable for studying the underlying carrier generation

Shahriar, Selim

254

Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264 Dramatic Increase in the Oxygen Reduction Reaction solvation) is used to predict how the energies and barriers for the mechanistic steps of the oxygen. In these electro- chemical devices, H2 (generated e.g. from solar energy conversion) reacts with O2 to produce

Goddard III, William A.

255

IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe for dissolved oxygen. KEYWORDS Activated sludge; dispersion; dissolved oxygen dynamics; mass transfer

Wells, Scott A.

256

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change Term paper in Biogeochemistry@ethz.ch] Tutor: Prof. Dr. Nicholas Gruber [nicholas.gruber@env.ethz.ch] Abstract The response of oceanic oxygen of climate change. Recent publications indicate that the oceanic oxygen outgassing is substaintially larger

Fischlin, Andreas

257

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L on a reflection-mode fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the 3 O2 quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Measurements of the probe operating in a 0%­21% gaseous oxygen environment have

Ghosh, Ruby N.

258

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH By Philip H. Mitchell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH ~ By Philip H. Mitchell 2°7 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;THE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHELLFISH. By PHILIP H. MITCHELL. J1, The respiratory exchanges to temperature changes, a smaller utili- zation of oxygen in proportion to the body weight with increase in size

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorating reactive oxygen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

structure and surface relaxation Summary: reactivity of each type of oxygen the adsorption of hydrogen over different oxygen sites is studied. Full... oxygen is the reactive...

260

Green fluorescent protein based indicators of dynamic redox changes and reactive oxygen species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

attached a singlet oxygen generator to the C-terminal ofencoded singlet oxygen generators, which is currentlyassays. A. Singlet oxygen generator and sensor are tethered;

Dooley, Colette

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute oxygen sensing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dissolved oxygen with global warming. In coastal regimes oxygen deficits represent acute ecosystem... Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts Lothar Stramma...

262

Oxygen-driven relaxation processes in pre-irradiated Ar cryocrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excitations of Solid Oxygen ?in Russian?, B. I. Verkin andNUMBER 11 NOVEMBER 2006 Oxygen-driven relaxation processes? Relaxation processes in oxygen-containing Ar cryocrystals

Savchenko, E. V; Belov, A. G; Gumenchuk, G. B; Ponomaryov, A. N; Bondybey, V. E

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be published in the Proceedings OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBONof California. LBL-11891 Oxygen Reduction with Carbonof Pt interacts with both oxygen and water more strongly

Ross Jr., Philip N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultravioletmeasurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition ofwavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in

Chakraborty, Subrata

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - active oxygen control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: active oxygen control Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen...

266

Ethyl Alcohol Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+------.-----.------.------.-----.------.-- o 2 3 4 5 6 Time (hrs.) Batch 29 Cooking and Fermenting Log Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 pounds (12.2 bushels) Natural gas used Meter measures in increments of 100 cubic feet. Cooking.... The following general production steps are the ones presently used and may change with future production experience. 1. The grain is ground in a hammermill with a 1/8- inch screen. Each of the 350 gallon cooker fermenter tanks normally handles a 12...

O'Neal, Henry

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An exploded view of the monitor is illustrated in Figure 1. The theory of diffusive sampling considers a concentration gra- dient between the ambient air and the adsorbent to be the driving force for sampling. For the adsorption to be controlled by diffu...AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters the water by diffusion from air, as a by-product of photosynthesis and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters and rapids. There is an inverse relationship between temperature and DO, i.e. colder water holds more oxygen it supplies oxygen to aquatic organisms. Higher DO levels also give the water a better taste. Figure 2. During

Tyler, Christy

271

FORMATION OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN AND OZONE ON AMORPHOUS SILICATES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen in the interstellar medium is seen in the gas phase, in ices (incorporated in H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}), and in grains such as (Mg{sub x} Fe{sub 1-x} )SiO{sub 3} or (Mg{sub x} Fe{sub 1-x} ){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, 0 < x < 1. In this investigation, we study the diffusion of oxygen atoms and the formation of oxygen molecules and ozone on the surface of an amorphous silicate film. We find that ozone is formed at low temperature (<30 K), and molecular oxygen forms when the diffusion of oxygen atoms becomes significant, at around 60 K. This experiment, besides being the first determination of the diffusion energy barrier (1785 {+-} 35 K) for oxygen atoms on a silicate surface, suggests bare silicates as a possible storage place for oxygen atoms in low-A{sub v} environments.

Jing Dapeng; He Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Brucato, John Robert; Tozzetti, Lorenzo [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, I-50125 Florence (Italy); De Sio, Antonio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50125 Florence (Italy)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

How Plants Do It: Light, Oxygen, Action!  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plants have been doing it with ease for millions of years, and yet science has yet to fully comprehend how: Photosynthesis. It's a fundamental process of all plant life on Earth, using the simple and abundant ingredients of water and light to create food and enrich the planet's atmosphere with life-giving oxygen. In this talk, Professor Yachandra discusses how understanding the process of photosynthesis holds the key to a whole new level of mastery of how energy is produced, with enormous implications for the economy and the environment.

Yachandra, Vittal (University of California, Berkeley) [University of California, Berkeley

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

276

SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting membranes have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, which makes them an extremely attractive alternative for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. The ability to reliably fabricate these membranes in thin or thick films would enable solid-state divisional limitations to be minimized, thus providing higher oxygen flux. Based on that motivation, the overall objective for this project is to develop and demonstrate a strategy for the fabrication of supported Wick film ceramic mixed conducting membranes, and improve the understanding of the fundamental issues associated with reliable fabrication of these membranes. The project has focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} because of its superior permeability and stability in reducing atmospheres. The fabrication strategy employed involves the deposition of SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} thick films onto porous supports of the same composition. In the second year of this project, we completed characterization of the sintering and phase behavior of the porous SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} supports, leading to a standard support fabrication methodology. Using a doctor blade method, pastes made from aerosol-derived SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder dispersed with polyethylene glycol were applied to the supports, and the sintering behavior of the thick film membranes was examined in air and nitrogen atmospheres. It has been demonstrated that the desired crystalline phase content can be produced in the membranes, and that the material in the membrane layer can be highly densified without densifying the underlying support. However, considerable cracking and opening of the film occurred when films densified to a high extent. The addition of MgO into the SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} supports was shown to inhibit support sintering so that temperatures up to 1300 C, where significant liquid formation occurs, could be used for film sintering. This successfully reduced cracking, however the films retained open porosity. The investigation of this concept will be continued in the final year of the project. Investigation of a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method for defect mending in dense membranes was also initiated. An appropriate metal organic precursor (iron tetramethylheptanedionate) was identified whose deposition can be controlled by access to oxygen at temperatures in the 280-300 C range. Initial experiments have deposited iron oxide, but only on the membrane surface; thus refinement of this method will continue.

Timothy L. Ward

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (botOpen6 Climate ZoneJeromeCounty isJupiter Oxygen Corporation

279

Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or fencepost) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the gases or vapors, liquids with volatility need sensors near the potential sources of release, nature and concentration of gas releases, natural and mechanical ventilation, detector installation locations not vulnerable to mechanical or water damage from normal operations, and locations that lend themselves to convenient maintenance and calibration. The guidance also states that sensors should be located in all areas where hazardous accumulations of gas may occur. Such areas might not be close to release points but might be areas with restricted air movement. Heavier than air gases are likely to accumulate in pits, trenches, drains, and other low areas. Lighter than air gases are more likely to accumulate in overhead spaces, above drop ceilings, etc. In general, sensors should be located close to any potential sources of major release of gas. The paper gives data on monitor sensitivity and expected lifetimes to support the monitor selection process. Proper selection of indoor and outdoor locations for monitors is described, accounting for the vapor densities of hydrogen and oxygen. The latest information on monitor alarm setpoint selection is presented. Typically, monitors require recalibration at least every six months, or more frequently for inhospitable locations, so ready access to the monitors is an important issue to consider in monitor siting. Gas monitors, depending on their type, can be susceptible to blockages of the detector element (i.e., dus

Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Oxygen Abundance Measurements of SHIELD Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have derived oxygen abundances for 8 galaxies from the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD). The SHIELD survey is an ongoing study of very low-mass galaxies, with M$_{\\rm HI}$ between 10$^{6.5}$ and 10$^{7.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$, that were detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. H$\\alpha$ images from the WIYN 3.5m telescope show that these 8 SHIELD galaxies each possess one or two active star-forming regions which were targeted with long-slit spectral observations using the Mayall 4m telescope at KPNO. We obtained a direct measurement of the electron temperature by detection of the weak [O III] $\\lambda$4363 line in 2 of the HII regions. Oxygen abundances for the other HII regions were estimated using a strong-line method. When the SHIELD galaxies are plotted on a B-band luminosity-metallicity diagram they appear to suggest a slightly shallower slope to the relationship than normally seen. However, that offset is systematically reduced when the near-infrared luminosity is used ins...

Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Marshall, Melissa V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n{sub H}). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as {approx}160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

282

Valence and ionic lowest-lying electronic states of ethyl formate as studied by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The highest resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl formate, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCHO, yet reported is presented over the wavelength range 115.0275.5 nm (10.754.5 eV) revealing several new spectral features. Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series, observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl formate and are compared with a newly recorded He(I) photoelectron spectrum (from 10.1 to 16.1 eV). New vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band. The photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of ethyl formate in the upper stratosphere (2050 km)

?mia?ek, M. A., E-mail: smialek@pg.gda.pl [Department of Control and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gda?sk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gda?sk (Poland); ?abuda, M.; Guthmuller, J. [Department of Theoretical Physic and Quantum Information, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gda?sk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gda?sk (Poland); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Dpartement de Chimie, Universit de Lige, Institut de Chimie-Bt. B6C, B-4000 Lige (Belgium); Duflot, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molcules (PhLAM), UMR CNRS 8523, Universit Lille1 Sciences et Technologies, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V.; Jones, N. C. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, Building 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Limo-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratrio de Colises Atmicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Fsica, Faculdade de Cincias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

283

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Direct observation of surface ethyl to ethane interconversion uponC2H4 hydrogenation over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-resolved FT-IR spectra of ethylene hydrogenation over alumina-supported Pt catalyst were recorded at 25 ms resolution in the temperature range 323 to 473 K using various H2 flow rates (1 atm total gas pressure). Surface ethyl species (2870 and 1200 cm-1) were detected at all temperatures along with the gas phase ethane product (2954 and 2893 cm-1). The CH3CH2Pt growth was instantaneous on the time scale of 25ms under all experimental conditions. At 323 K, the decay time of surface ethyl (122 + 10 ms) coincides with the rise time of C2H6 (144 + 14 ms).This establishes direct kinetic evidence for surface ethyl as the kinetically relevant intermediate. Such a direct link between the temporal behavior of an observed intermediate and the final product growth in a heterogeneous catalytic system has not been demonstrated before to our knowledge. A fraction (10 percent) of the asymptotic ethane growth at 323 K is prompt, indicating that there are surface ethyl species that react much faster than the majority of the CH3CH2Pt intermediates. The dispersive kinetics is attributed to the varying strength of interaction of the ethyl species with the Pt surface caused by heterogeneity of the surface environment. At 473 K, the majority of ethyl intermediates are hydrogenated prior to the recording of the first time slice (24 ms), and a correspondingly large prompt growth of ethane is observed. The yield and kinetics of the surface ethylidyne are in agreement with the known spectator nature of this species.

Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Oxygen electrodes for energy conversion and storage. Annual report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on the development of high performance, long life O/sub 2/ cathodes for both alkaline and acid electrolytes for a spectrum of applications including industrial electrolysis, fuel cells, and metal-air batteries is described. Oxygen electrocatalysts studied include platinum, silver, underpotential deposited layers and alloy metal layers on noble metal substrates, intercalated graphite, transition metal macrocyclic complexes, and transition metal oxides. Research on gas fed electrodes is also described. Results are presented and discussed in detail. An appendix on the electrodeposition of platinum crystallites on graphite substrates is included. (WHK)

None

1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

The effect of monomolecular films on oxygen transfer across an air-water interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rate 8. Effect of Aquasave Monolayer on Oxygen Uptake Rate 9. Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol on Oxygen Uptake Rate 10. Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol on Oxygen Uptake Rate 11. Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol on Oxygen Uptake Rate 12. Effect of Kerosene... on Oxygen Uptake Rate 13. Effect of Kerosene on Oxygen Uptake Rate 14. Effect of n-Pentanol on Oxygen Uptake Rate 15. Effect of n-Pentanol on Oxygen Uptake Rate 16. Effect of Hexane on Oxygen Uptake Rate 17. Effect of Hexane on Oxygen Uptake Rate 18...

Mahmoud, Tariq Ahmad

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak...

291

Palladium-Cobalt Particles As Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Palladium-Cobalt Particles As Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory...

292

Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

293

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved. Citation: Edmondson PD, WJ Weber, F Namavar, and Y Zhang.2011."Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in...

294

active oxygen probe: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CERN Preprints Summary: I present here the results of the first principles studies of the adsorption energetics of the intermediates of the oxygen electro-reduction reaction (ORR)...

295

Optical dissolved oxygen sensor utilizing molybdenum chloride cluster phosphorescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in oxygen atmospheres 0%­21% were obtained with a signal to noise ratio better than 150. Photobleaching physical principles, electrochemistry or luminescence. Electrochemical devices result in analyte

Ghosh, Ruby N.

296

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

- - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

297

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

298

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

299

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

300

Modeling Oxygen Transport in Three-Dimensional Capillary Networks.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this thesis was to examine how the use of real 3-dimensional (3D) capillary network geometries affect models of oxygen transport to tissue. (more)

Fraser, Graham M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen...

302

Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dopant Distribution, Oxygen Stoichiometry and Magnetism of Nanoscale Sn0.99Co0.01O. Abstract: In a recent work, we have shown that chemically synthesized...

303

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria...

304

Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

305

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

307

Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In view of the electrochemical nature of metallic corrosion, it is reasonable to study MIC utilizing electrochemical techniques(1 ? 6). An excellent technical review of electrochemical techniques applied to microbiologically influenced corrosion... on a metal surface will interfere with the electrochemical reactions (hydrogen and oxygen reduction) which control the corrosion rates. Most confirmed cases of microbial corrosion are localized and include: pitting, selective leaching and stress...

Popova, Snezana N.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Korean oxygenates rule sparks MTBE capacity plans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Korean government`s strict standard for gasoline sold domestically is expected to have a significant impact on the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. The mandate-requiring gasoline oxygen content of 0.5% this year, 0.75% by 1996, and 1.0% by 1998-has sparked a rush by Korean refineries to build new MTBE plants. If expansion plans are carried out, Korea`s MTBE capacity will increase from 280,000 m.t./year to 650,000 m.t./year by 1996, far surpassing predicted demand. Honam Oil, part of the Lucky Group, plans startup of a 100,000-m.t./year unit at Yeochon by early 1996. In addition, by the end of 1996 Ssangyong Oil will bring a 100,000-m.t./year unit onstream.

Kim, Hyung-Jin

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). Characterization of graphene oxidemethylene blue nanocomposite (MBGO). Examination of MBGO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). MBGO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UVvis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MBGO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

Wojtoniszak, M., E-mail: mwojtoniszak@zut.edu.pl [West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Rogi?ska, D.; Machali?ski, B. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of General Pathology, Powsta?cw Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Drozdzik, M. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Pharmacology, Powsta?cw Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Mijowska, E. [West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Oxygen Image Hypoxic Fraction Plus Radiation Dose Strongly Correlates With Tumor Cure in FSa Fibrosarcomas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has long been known to produce resistance to radiation. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging was investigated for its power to predict the success of tumor control according to tumor oxygenation level and radiation dose. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 EPR oxygen images were obtained from the legs of C3H mice bearing 0.5-cm{sup 3} FSa fibrosarcomas under both normal (air breathing) and clamped tumor conditions. Under the same conditions as those during which the images were obtained, the tumors were irradiated to a variety of doses near the FSa dose at which 50% of tumors were cured. Tumor tissue was distinguished from normal tissue using co-registration of the EPR oxygen images with spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the tumor and/or stereotactic localization. The tumor voxel statistics in the EPR oxygen image included the mean and median partial pressure of oxygen and the fraction of tumor voxels below the specified partial pressure of oxygen values of 3, 6, and 10 mm Hg. Bivariate logistic regression analysis using the radiation dose and each of the EPR oxygen image statistics to determine which best separated treatment failure from success. Results: The measurements of the dose at which 50% of tumors were cured were similar to those found in published data for this syngeneic tumor. Bivariate analysis of 34 tumors demonstrated that tumor cure correlated with dose (p = 0.004) and with a <10 mm Hg hypoxic fraction (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Our results have shown that, together, radiation dose and EPR image hypoxic fraction separate the population of FSa fibrosarcomas that are cured from those that fail, thus predicting curability.

Elas, Martyna [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Bell, Rebecca; Hleihel, Danielle; Barth, Eugene D.; McFaul, Colin [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Haney, Chad R. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Bielanska, Joanna; Pustelny, Katarzyna [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Ahn, Kang-Hyun [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)] (and others)

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

[Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and include the consumer exist. Some examples include advanced two-way metering (AMI), demand response (DR), and distributed energy resources (DER). A common misconception is...

314

Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorene (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems water + acetic acid + ethyl acetate and water + acetic acid + isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) were measured over the temperature range (283 to 313) K. The results were used to estimate the interaction parameters between each of the three compounds of the systems studied for the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The estimated interaction parameters were successfully used to predict the equilibrium compositions by the two models; experimental data were successfully reproduced. The UNIQUAC model was the most accurate in correlating the overall equilibrium composition of the studied systems. Also the NRTL model satisfactorily predicted the equilibrium composition. Isophorone experimentally resulted in a better extraction capacity for acetic acid and in a lower miscibility with water.

Colombo, A.; Battilana, P.; Ragaini, V.; Bianchi, C.L. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Carvoli, G. [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)] [Chemial S.p.A., Cavaglia (Italy)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3] Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Repair of O sup 6 -ethylguanine in DNA protects rat 208F cells from tumorigenic conversion by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

O{sup 6}-Ethylguanine (O{sup 6}-EtGua) is one of about a dozen different alkylation products formed in the DNA of cells exposed to the alkylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors have evaluated selectively the relative capacity of cells for the specific enzymatic repair of O{sup 6}-EtGua as a determinant for the probability of malignant conversion. Eleven O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-proficient (R{sup +}) variant subclones were isolated from the O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-deficient (R{sup {minus}}) clonal rat fibroblast line 208F by selection for resistance to 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Contrary to the 208F wild-type cells, all variants expressed O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity, while both kinds of cells were deficient for repair of the DNA ethylation products O{sup 2}- and O{sup 4}-ethylthymine. After exposure to EtNU cells were analyzed for the formation of piled-up foci in monolayer culture and of anchorage-independent colonies in semisolid agar medium. No significant differences in the frequencies of piled-up foci were found between wild-type and variant cells after exposure to the major reactive metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, (+)-7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9,10{alpha}-epoxy7,8,9,10{alpha}-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, for which stable binding to guanine O{sup 6} in cellular DNA has not been observed. The relative capacity of cells for repair of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine is, therefore, a critical determinant for their risk of malignant conversion by N-nitroso carcinogens.

Thomale, J.; Huh, Namho; Nehls, P.; Eberle, G.; Rajewsky, M.F. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (West Germany))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan NPJ Vogtla¨nder1 , WPM Tamboer1 open. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to degrade and depolymerize carbohydrates, and to playDa in skeletal muscle, ranging from 120 kDa in brain to 190 kDa in the Torpedo electric organ.8

Campbell, Kevin P.

319

Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypolimnetic Oxygen Depletion in Eutrophic Lakes Beat Muller,*, Lee D. Bryant,, Andreas Matzinger obtained from 11 eutrophic lakes and suggests a model describing the consumption of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the hypolimnia of eutrophic lakes as a result of only two fundamental processes: O2 is consumed (i) by settled

Wehrli, Bernhard

320

Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age D. T photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influ- enced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved

Macalady, Jenn

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321

Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-11 . Unexpected Nondissociative Binding of N2O on Oxygen Vacancies on a Rutile TiO2(110)-11 ....

322

Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single luminescence detection Fibre-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection References Superconducting Detector, is an intermediate in many biological processes. We employ a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD

Greenaway, Alan

323

Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Instructions for use Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Niobium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instructions for use #12;------ Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Niobium by External Gettering of Energy Science and Technology, Kyoto University Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-01 Japan Keywords External Gettering, Purification of Niobium, Thermodynamics of Impurities, Oxygen Diffusion, Purity

Tachizawa, Kazuya

325

HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

328

Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Relaxation behavior of oxygen deficient strontium manganite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conduction behavior of nanocrystalline oxygen deficient ceramic-SrMnO{sub 3?}(??0.14) has been studied. The structural analysis of nano-SrMnO{sub 2.86} follows hexagonal unit cell structure with P6{sub 3}/mmc (194) space group belonging to 6/mmm point group with 4H layered type hexagonal-cubic layers. The system have lattice parameters; a = 5.437(92) , c = 9.072(92) , c/a?1.66 (85) with ? =90 ?= 120 and cell volume, V= 232.35(18). The relaxation times estimated from complex impedance and modulus relaxation spectrum, show the thermally activated system with corresponding activation energies as 0.66 eV and 0.51 eV The stretching factor ? from the scaled modulus spectrum shows the poly-dispersive non-Debye nature of the system. The hopping number n shows the influence of ionic charge carriers which controls the conduction mechanism of nano-SrMnO{sub 2.86}.

Pandey, Namita, E-mail: namita205@gmail.com; Thakur, Awalendra Kumar, E-mail: namita205@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Patna, Patna- 800013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

330

Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faraday Discuss., 1997, 108, 115?130 Excited state dynamics in clusters of oxygen Runjun Li, Karl A clusters of oxygen. Oxygen clusters and liquid oxygen have a com- plicated chemistry due to numerous low) dynamics of small anionic clusters of oxygen. We Ðnd that the dynamics of the neutral DPD pathway

Continetti, Robert E.

331

Experimental test of a microwave ion beam source in oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experiments have demonstrated a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma disk ion source operating with inert gases both with and without an applied static magnetic field. Earlier results were reported using a preliminary, multicusp static magnetic field configuration produced by alternating pole, small, --2.5 kG rare earth magnets surrounding the microwave discharge zone. This electrodeless ion source has been rebuilt incorporating several improvements and has been experimentally tested with different discharge diffusion lengths. The improvements include removing the rare earth magnets from the inside of the microwave cavity and embedding them in the cavity walls. The placement and strength of the magnets allows electron cyclotron resonant surfaces (--875 G) to lie entirely within the discharge zone. Discharges with different diffusion lengths were created by varying the thickness of the disk-shaped discharge zone. The experimental performance with and without a static magnetic field is discussed at the low flow rates of 2--10 sccm and using a 2.5 cm diam double grid set. Experimental test results are compared to similar ion beam sources in oxygen that employ a dc discharge. The expected lifetime, startup, and shutdown problems and maintenance are also reviewed.

Asmussen, J.; Dahimene, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Carbon?Oxygen Bond Forming Mechanisms in Rhenium Oxo-Alkyl Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three C?X bond formation mechanisms observed in the oxidation of (HBpz{sub 3})ReO(R)(OTf) [HBpz{sub 3} = hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate; R = Me, Et, and iPr; OTf = OSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}] by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated using quantum mechanics (M06//B3LYP DFT) combined with solvation (using the PBF Poisson?Boltzmann polarizable continuum solvent model). For R = Et we find the alkyl group is activated through ?-hydrogen abstraction by external base OTf{sup ?} with a free energy barrier of only 12.0 kcal/mol, leading to formation of acetaldehyde. Alternatively, ethyl migration across the M?O bond (leading to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol) poses a free energy barrier of 22.1 kcal/mol, and the previously proposed ?-hydrogen transfer to oxo (a 2+2 forbidden reaction) poses a barrier of 44.9 kcal/mol. The rate-determining step to formation of the final product acetaldehyde is an oxygen atom transfer from DMSO to the ethylidene, with a free energy barrier of 15.3 kcal/mol. When R = iPr, the alkyl 1,2-migration pathway becomes the more favorable pathway (both kinetically and thermodynamically), with a free energy barrier (?G{sup ?} = 11.8 kcal/mol) lower than ?-hydrogen abstraction by OTf{sup ?} (?G{sup ?} = 13.5 kcal/mol). This suggests the feasibility of utilizing this type of migration to functionalize M?R to M?OR. We also considered the nucleophilic attack of water and ammonia on the Re-ethylidene ?-carbon as a means of recovering two-electron-oxidized products from an alkane oxidation. Nucleophilic attack (with internal deprotonation of the nucleophile) is exothermic. However, the subsequent protonolysis of the Re?alkyl bond (to liberate an alcohol or amine) poses a barrier of 37.0 or 42.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Where comparisons are possible, calculated free energies agree very well with experimental measurements.

Cheng, Mu-Jeng; Nielsen, Robert J; Ahlquist, Marten; Goddard, William A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes (Ln = La, Pr and Nd)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes the rate determining step (rds) in oxygen semi-permeation of dense Ln2NiO4+ membranes (with Ln = La, Pr and Nd), a specific setup has been designed, which allowed measuring the oxygen semi-permeation flux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen is a key but under-studied metabolic variable. It influences biological phenomena as diverse as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Modulation via Microfluidic Devices Oxygen is a key but under-studied metabolic variable methods to modulate oxygen are crude and inefficient. Our lab has developed a suite of devices which can rapidly alter oxygen conditions surrounding cells in both position and time.[1-3]. Moreover, because

Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

335

Doped LaFeO3 as SOFC Catalysts: Control of Oxygen Mobility Oxidation Activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-{delta}} for y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and several other properties including oxidation activity and surface sites showed a similar non-linear trend. Trends are related to a possible transition in electronic structure. Activity for oxidation of methane, oxygen storage and chemical compatibility was shown to be superior to that of the La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}.

N Lakshminarayanan; J Kuhn; S Rykov; J Millet; U Ozkan; T Rao; J Smedley; E Wang; E Muller; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites.

Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

v3102014 Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include Kit Cost PURCHASED by INVESTIGATOR/1/2013 Page 1 of 5 #12;Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include Kit Cost PURCHASED by INVESTIGATOR

Grishok, Alla

338

Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: andrea.knecht@tanguaylab.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: goodaleb@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong.888@gmail.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: mtsimonich@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: swansoan@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: melissa.matzke@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: kim.anderson@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Flammability of selected heat resistant alloys in oxygen gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within recent years, the use of oxygen has increased in applications where elevated temperatures and corrosion may be significant factors. In such situations, traditional alloys used in oxygen systems will not be adequate. Where alternative alloys must be utilized, based upon environmental requirements, it is essential that they may be characterized with respect to their ignition and combustion resistance in oxygen. Promoted ignition and promoted ignition-combustion are terms which have been used to describe a situation where a substance with low oxygen supports the combustion of a compatibility ignites and more ignition resistant material. In this paper, data will be presented on the promoted ignition-combustion behavior of selected heat resistant engineering alloys that may be considered for gaseous oxygen applications in severe environments. In this investigation, alloys have been evaluated via both flowing and static (fixed volume) approaches using a rod configuration. Oxygen-nitrogen gas mixtures with compositions ranging from approximately 40 to 99.7% oxygen at pressures of 3.55 to 34.6 MPa were used in the comparative studies.

Zawierucha, R.; McIlroy, K.; Million, J.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Guidance document on the importance of (and steps to) including retro-commissioning in Federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs).

342

Influence of geometry on liquid oxygen magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic fluid actuators have performed well in industrial applications, but have a limited temperature range due to the freezing point of the carrier fluid. Liquid oxygen (LOX) presents a pure, paramagnetic fluid suitable for use in a cryogenic magnetic fluid system; therefore, it is a potential solution to increasing the thermal range of magnetic fluid technology without the need for magnetic particles. The current study presents experimental work regarding the influence of geometry on the dynamics of a LOX slug in a 1.9 mm quartz tube when pulsed by a solenoid in a closed volume. A numerical analysis calculated the optimal solenoid geometry and balanced the magnetic, damping, and pressure forces to determine optimal slug lengths. Three configurations comprised the experiment: (1) a 24-gauge wire solenoid with an optimized 2.7 cm length slug, (2) a 30-gauge wire solenoid with an optimized 1.3 cm length slug, and (3) a 30-gauge wire solenoid with a nonoptimized 2.5 cm length slug. Typically, the hydrodynamic breakdown limit is calculated and used to determine the system range; however the experiment showed that the hydrodynamic breakdown limit was never reached by the slug. This implied that, instead, the system range should factor in a probabilistic risk of failure calculated as a function of the induced pressure change from its oscillations. The experimental data were also used to establish a nondimensional relationship between the maximum displacement and initial magnetic pressure on the slug. The average initial velocity of the slug was found to be proportional to the initial magnetic pressure, Mason number, and slug length. The results of this study can be used in the design and optimization of a LOX fluid system for space or low-temperature applications. (author)

Boulware, Jeffrey C.; Ban, Heng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Utah State University, 4130 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-4130 (United States); Jensen, Scott; Wassom, Steve [Space Dynamics Laboratory, Utah State University Research Foundation, 1695 North Research Park Way, North Logan, UT 84341 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Reduction on synthesis gas costs by decrease of steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios in the feedstock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The costs for syngas production at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios have been analyzed for simplified process schemes of the main syngas production technologies (steam-CO{sub 2} reforming, autothermal reforming, and combined reforming) and different synthesis gas compositions. The broad analysis arises from experimental indication on the possibility of preventing carbon formation at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios in the feedstock by choosing an appropriate catalyst or by introducing small amounts of sulfur compounds in the reactant feed. The analysis is limited to the synthesis gas production step and does not include its downstream processes. The results indicate that technologies at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios would have a significant positive impact on synthesis gas costs.

Basini, L.; Piovesan, L. [Snamprogetti S.p.A. Research Labs., Milano (Italy)] [Snamprogetti S.p.A. Research Labs., Milano (Italy)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

Yi, Min [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Shen, Zhigang, E-mail: shenzhg@buaa.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao, Xiaohu [Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liang, Shuaishuai [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

351

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption is an essential process of the functioning brain. The rate at which the brain consumes oxygen is known as the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?). CMRO? is intimately related to brain health and ...

Bolar, Divya Sanam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Pe~ na (2013), Declining oxygen on the British ColumbiaE. , and L. I. Gordon (1992), Oxygen solubility in seawater:10.1002/2014JC010254 Key Points: Oxygen model presented for

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Abstract: The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a...

354

Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. ; Craig, H. Atmospheric oxygen: isotopic composition andM.H. 1986. A non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope effect in theof ozone from molecular oxygen: the role of symmetry in

Chan, Sharleen

355

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen intermediates in metalloenzymes Justine P Roth Metalloenzymes catalyze reactions of molecular oxygen and its reduced forms through the controlled formation of metal- bound, activated oxygen intermediates

Roth, Justine P.

356

Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and I. Sillanp (2009), Oxygen ion escape from Venus in aobservations of atmospheric oxygen escape during the passageI. F. Stewart (1981), Hot oxygen BIBLIOGRAPHY atoms in the

McEnulty, Tess

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy: a Numerical and Experimental Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray of Fe-Basedusing a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray processstructure. [12] High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal

Ajdelsztajn, L.; Dannenberg, J.; Lopez, J.; Yang, N.; Farmer, J.; Lavernia, E. J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

A method of determining the dissolved oxygen in the moisture of a porous medium and some oxygen diffusion studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this dissolved oxygen The sample chamber apparatus gives ocnsplcte seal of the bottle from the atmosphere The ohsabor does not require a large ameunt Of nitrogen Sb remove all the oxygen from it, It is easily portable and light in weight The proposed method... METHOD QF DETRHRIUIHO THE DISSOLVED OXmEK IE THE MOISTURE OF A POROUS ERDD% @AD SMfE QXYOEB DKFFUSIOE STUDIES ' INTRO DUO fQRF, I Oxygen, bas been known to be important in plant growth fox maay years There has been a great deal of xesearoh...

Runkles, Jack Ralph

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ph.D., Editor Summary: . Hyperbaric oxygen is the definitive treat- ment for carbon monoxide poisoning.47 However, pro- ponents... III, Putnam RW, Dean JB: Hyperbaric oxygen and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - apneic oxygenation combined Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the same day were combined for data analysis. The oxygen concentration gradient in the agar... Oxygen sensation and social feeding mediated by a C. elegans guanylate cyclase...

362

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

363

Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal...

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulate reactive oxygen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reactive oxygen Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: accumulate reactive oxygen Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 CLINICAL CONCEPTS AND...

365

Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Low-Oxygen Induction of Normally Cryptic psbA Genes in Cyanobacteria. Abstract: Microarray analysis indicated...

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen simulation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen simulation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Influence of oxygen on the interfacial...

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hyperbaric oxygen Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 TO: UMRSMAS Divers FR:...

368

Microfluidic advantage : novel techniques for protein folding and oxygen control in cell cultures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control inTemperature Jump System to Study Fast Protein FoldingNovel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control in

Polinkovsky, Mark E.; Polinkovsky, Mark E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and...

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving fast oxygen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bulletin Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 51 Oxygen diffusion in titanite: Lattice diffusion and fast-path diffusion in single crystals Summary: Oxygen...

371

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

372

In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

373

Reaction of adsorption substitution of oxygen on a cracking catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an investigation of catalysts for methanol synthesis and carbon monoxide conversion, the authors have observed, for the first time, the reaction of adsorption substitution of strongly bound oxygen on catalysts containing zeolites and compounds of lanthanum and cerium.

Vishnetskaya, M.V.; Takhtarova, G.N.; Topchieva, K.V.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon...

Gu, Zhihui

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor system ............................. 10 5.2 Types of aeration processes of fine bubble diffusers for sub-surface aeration ............ 13 5.5 Process design considerations

378

Transient Mobility of Oxygen Adatoms upon O2 Dissociation on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

only at the bridging oxygen vacancies, with one O atom healing a vacancy and other O atom bonding at the neighboring Ti site as an adatom. Majority (81%) of O adatoms are found...

379

Oxygen Vacancies and Ferromagnetism in CoxTixy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacancies and Ferromagnetism in CoxTixy. Oxygen Vacancies and Ferromagnetism in CoxTixy. Abstract: Abstract: Cobalt-doped titanium dioxide, or CTO, has...

380

Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rapid escalation in energy prices during recent years has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the energy-saving aspects of oxygen enrichment techniques available to the process and chemical industries. Important side benefits which may...

Milne, R. T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

382

Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool III, Lawrence E.

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

384

Oxygenation cost estimates for Cherokee, Douglas, and Norris reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capital and annual costs associated with reoxygenation of the turbine releases at Cherokee, Douglas and Norris Reservoirs using the small bubble injection technique developed for Ft. Patrick Henry Dam were computed. The weekly average dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits were computed for each reservoir for an average year (based on 16 years of records). The total annual cost of an oxygen supply and injection system for each reservoir is presented. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Fain, T.G.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

Roche, Neil Gerard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

Oxygen consumption by asphalt films and resulting viscosity changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY ASPHALT FILNS AND RESULTING VISCOSITY CHANGES A Thesis by FRANK LEE CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Nay 1965 Major Subject: Chemistry OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY ASPHALT FILMS AND RESULTING VISCOSITY CHANGES A Thesis by FRANK LEE CARTER, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (H o Depa ( mb ) (Membe May 1965...

Carter, Frank Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

analysis including plasma: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assembly 2010 Space Plasmas in the Solar System, including Planetary Magnetospheres (D) Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate (D21) GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY AT HIGH-LATITUDE:...

388

Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy has expanded its gas gouging reporting system to include a toll-free telephone...

389

PLOT: A UNIX PROGRAM FOR INCLUDING GRAPHICS IN DOCUMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simple, easy-to-read graphics language designed specificallyPROGRAM FOR INCLUDING GRAPHICS IN DOCUMENTS Pavel Curtismeanings as in the GRAFPAC graphics system. Definl. ~ tions

Curtis, Pavel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.

391

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Object was to understand factors controlling the activity of O{sub 2} reduction and generation electrocatalysts, in order to attain higher activity and longer-term stability. Two broad classes of catalysts were developed: transition metal macrocycles in monomeric and polymeric forms, and transition metal oxides including perovskites and pyrochlores. 20 refs., 14 figs.

Yeager, E. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

CRC fuel rating program: road octane performance of oxygenates in 1982 model cars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the widespread interest in the use of alcohols and ethers as gasoline blending components, this program was conducted to evaluate the effects of several oxygenates on gasoline octane performance and to evaluate the effects of car design features such as engine and transmission type. Five oxygenates were evaluated at two nominal concentrations, 5 and 10 volume%, at both regular- and premium-grade octane levels: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (ETOH), isopropanol (IPA), tertiary butanol (TBA), and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). A blend of 5% MeOH and 5 percent TBA was also tested at both octane levels. Twenty-eight unleaded fuels, including four hydrocarbon fuels, two hydrocarbon fuels plus toluene, and twenty-two oxygenated fuels, were rated in duplicate in thirty-eight cars using the Modified Uniontown Technique (CRC Designation F-28-75 described in Appendix C), plus some additional instructions. All testing was done on chassis dynamometers. Ratings were obtained at full throttle with all thirty-eight cars, and at the most critical part-throttle condition (occurring with manifold vacuum of 4 in. Hg (13.5 kPa) or greater above the full-throttle vacuum) with nine cars.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

394

Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

Oxygen Chemistry in the Circumstellar Envelope of the Carbon-Rich Star IRC+10216  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we study the oxygen chemistry in the C-rich circumstellar shells of IRC+10216. The recent discoveries of oxygen bearing species (water, hydroxyl radical and formaldehyde) toward this source challenge our current understanding of the chemistry in C-rich circumstellar envelopes. The presence of icy comets surrounding the star or catalysis on iron grain surfaces have been invoked to explain the presence of such unexpected species. This detailed study aims at evaluating the chances of producing O-bearing species in the C-rich circumstellar envelope only by gas phase chemical reactions. For the inner hot envelope, it is shown that although most of the oxygen is locked in CO near the photosphere (as expected for a C/O ratio greater than 1), some stellar radii far away species such as H2O and CO2 have large abundances under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium. It is also shown how non-LTE chemistry makes very difficult the CO-->H2O,CO2 transformation predicted in LTE. Concerning the chemistry in the outer and colder envelope, we show that formaldehyde can be formed through gas phase reactions. However, in order to form water vapor it is necessary to include a radiative association between atomic oxygen and molecular hydrogen with a quite high rate constant. The chemical models explain the presence of HCO+ and predict the existence of SO and H2CS (which has been detected in a 3 mm line survey to be published). We have modeled the line profiles of H2CO, H2O, HCO+, SO and H2CS using a non-local radiative transfer model and the abundance profiles predicted by our chemical model. The results have been compared to the observations and discussed.

Marcelino Agundez; Jose Cernicharo

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

396

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br???????¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Frequency effects on the production of reactive oxygen species in atmospheric radio frequency helium-oxygen discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several experimental and computational studies have shown that increasing frequency can effectively enhance the discharge stability in atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) discharges, but the frequency effects on the reactivity of rf discharges, represented by the densities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are still far from fully understood. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model with 17 species and 65 reactions taken into account is used to explore the influences of the driving frequency on the production and destruction of ROS in atmospheric rf helium-oxygen discharges. From the computational results, with an increase in the frequency the densities of ROS decrease always at a constant power density, however, in the relatively higher frequency discharges the densities of ROS can be effectively improved by increasing the input power density with an expanded oxygen admixture range, while the discharges operate in the {alpha} mode, and the numerical data also show the optimal oxygen admixture for ground state atomic oxygen, at which the peak atomic oxygen density can be obtained, increases with the driving frequency.

Zhang, Yuantao T.; He Jin [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The degradation of TPX components by oxygen, elevated temperature, and ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TPX is PMP or poly(4-methyl-1-pentene). It has several commercially important characteristics such as high optical transparency, high crystalline melting point, etc., leading to numerous applications including infrared windows, lenses, membranes, food packaging. The life components fabricated from this material may be limited by thermal oxidative and radiation-induced degradation. A preliminary review of the scientific literature was conducted to obtain relevant information on the effects of oxygen, moisture elevated temperature, and radiation on the chemical, thermodynamic, mechanical, and electrical properties of this material. Refs, figs, tabs.

Farmer, J.C.

1996-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...

Jain, Avani

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STEEL WELDED COVERPLATE INCLUDING COMPOSITE DOUBLERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the increasing focus on welded bridge members resulting in crack initiation and propagation, there is a large demand for creative solutions. One of these solutions includes the application of composite doublers over the critical weld. In order...

Petri, Brad

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

atlantic region including: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R: L. Tossey, T. Beeson, Parks, B. TruittTNC, UD MPEO staff 2 Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a study including the effects of ocean...

405

T-603: Mac OS X Includes Some Invalid Comodo Certificates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The operating system includes some invalid certificates. The vulnerability is due to the invalid certificates and not the operating system itself. Other browsers, applications, and operating systems are affected.

406

Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.

2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

408

A mathematical simulation of oxygen and lactic acid transport in skeletal muscle subject to periodic ischemia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxidative processes . However, as Jobis and Chance point out, the 21 22 23 oxygen utilization of respiring cells w111 become oxygen dependent at some critical partial pressure of oxygen (p02) such that as the p02 falls so will the oxygen consumpt1on rate...

Artigue, Ronald Stephen

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen beams Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

beams Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen beams...

410

Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators Reza Loloee1@msu.edu Abstract--Dissolved oxygen concentration is considered the most important water quality variable in fish culture. Reliable and continuous (24/7) oxygen monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the 1 ­ 11 mg

Ghosh, Ruby N.

411

Oxygen Consumption by Germinating Seeds Advisor: Dr. Neil Budko (n.v.budko@tudelft.nl)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Consumption by Germinating Seeds Advisor: Dr. Neil Budko (n.v.budko@tudelft.nl) Problem) by the Fytagoras B.V. (Leiden): "Seed germination in most seeds depends on the availability of oxygen. Living seeds commences. The availability of oxygen to the embryo in the seed depends on the oxygen concentration around

Vuik, Kees

412

Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy A. J. Ptak, L. J-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy to study the dependence of oxygen incorporation on polarity and oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen incorporates at a rate ten times faster on nitrogen-polar GaN than on the Ga polarity

Myers, Tom

413

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen beam Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

beam Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen beam...

414

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen interactions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

interactions Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen interactions...

415

Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts Lothar Stramma a,, Sunke Schmidtko a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts Lothar Stramma a,?, Sunke Schmidtko a Keywords: Deoxygenation Oxygen minimum zones Ecosystem changes Hypoxia Tropical ocean Tropical Atlantic dissolved oxygen with global warming. In coastal regimes oxygen deficits represent acute ecosystem

Levin, Lisa

416

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen densities Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

densities Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen densities...

417

Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1 , J. B. Bell1 , and S. E. Woosley2 oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen interaction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

interaction Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen interaction...

419

Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization and thermodynamic processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

643 Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization of oxygen defects in CoO using classical simulations. The charge localization in the oxygen vacancy has]. The defect concentration in the oxygen sublattice is several orders of magnitude smaller, but never- theless

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Deep-Sea Research II 47 (2000) 227}257 Variations in bioturbation across the oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep-Sea Research II 47 (2000) 227}257 Variations in bioturbation across the oxygen minimum zone 1999; received in revised form 25 March 1999; accepted 30 March 1999 Abstract Oxygen minimum zones) along a transect across the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Oman margin. Bottom-water oxygen

Levin, Lisa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen density Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

density Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen density...

422

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oxygen abundance in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present two samples of $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release 3. The electron temperatures($T_e$) of 225 galaxies are calculated with the photoionized $\\hii$ model and $T_e$ of 3997 galaxies are calculated with an empirical method. The oxygen abundances from the $T_e$ methods of the two samples are determined reliably. The oxygen abundances from a strong line metallicity indicator, such as $R_{23}$, $P$, $N2$, and $O3N2$, are also calculated. We compared oxygen abundances of $\\hii$ galaxies obtained with the $T_e$ method, $R_{23}$ method, $P$ method, $N2$ method, and $O3N2$method. The oxygen abundances derived with the $T_e$ method are systematically lower by $\\sim$0.2 dex than those derived with the $R_{23}$ method, consistent with previous studies based on $\\hii$ region samples. No clear offset for oxygen abundance was found between $T_e$ metallicity and $P$, $N2$ and $O3N2$ metallicity. When we studied the relation between N/O and O/H, we found that in the metallicity regime of $\\zoh > 7.95$, the large scatter of the relation can be explained by the contribution of small mass stars to the production of nitrogen. In the high metallicity regime, $\\zoh > 8.2$, nitrogen is primarily a secondary element produced by stars of all masses.

F. Shi; X. Kong; F. Z. Cheng

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

The effect of an evaporation suppressant upon the liquid film oxygen transfer coefficient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" ? By Winkler Method 32 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Distilled Water Without "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 33 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 36'C Using Distilled Water With "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 34 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 36'C... Using Distilled Water Without "Aquasave" ? By Winkler Method 35 Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Blended Water With "Aquasave" ? By D. O. Meter 37 10. Oxygen Transfer Coefficient At 21'C Using Blended Water Without "Aquasave" ? By D. 0...

Amad, Mohamad Towfic

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of CdZn Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms. Surface effects are important in the performance of CdZnTe room-temperature radiation detectors used as spectrometers since the dark current is often dominated by surface leakage. A process using high-kinetic-energy, neutral oxygen atoms (.about.3 eV) to treat the surface of CdZnTe detectors at or near ambient temperatures is described. Improvements in detector performance include significantly reduced leakage current which results in lower detector noise and greater energy resolution for radiation measurements of gamma- and X-rays, thereby increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements of radionuclides having complex gamma-ray spectra, including special nuclear materials.

Hoffbauer, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prettyman, Thomas H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

CRADA Final Report: Ionically Conductive Membranes Oxygen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in a collaborative effort with Praxair Corporation developed a bench-top oxygen separation unit capable of producing ultra-high purity oxygen from air. The device is based on thin-film electrolyte technology developed at LBNL as part of a solid oxide fuel cell program. The two teams first demonstrated the concept using planar ceramic disks followed by the development of tubular ceramic structures for the bench-top unit. The highly successful CRADA met all technical milestones on time and on budget. Due to the success of this program the industrial partner and the team at LBNL submitted a grant proposal for further development of the unit to the Advanced Technology Program administered by the National Institute of Standar~s. This proposal was selected for funding, and now the two teams are developing a precommercial oxygen separation unit under a 3-year, $6 million dollar program.

Visco, Steven J.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

429

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

432

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

434

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

New oxygen radical source using selective sputtering of oxygen atoms for high rate deposition of TiO{sub 2} films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a new oxygen radical source based on the reactive sputtering phenomena of a titanium target for high rate deposition of TiO{sub 2} films. In this oxygen radical source, oxygen radicals are mainly produced by two mechanisms: selective sputter-emission of oxygen atoms from the target surface covered with a titanium oxide layer, and production of high-density oxygen plasma in the space near the magnetron-sputtering cathode. Compared with molecular oxygen ions, the amount of atomic oxygen radicals increased significantly with an increase in discharge current so that atomic oxygen radicals were mainly produced by this radical source. It should be noted that oxygen atoms were selectively sputtered from the target surface, and titanium atoms sputter-emitted from the target cathode were negligibly small. The amount of oxygen radicals supplied from this radical source increased linearly with increasing discharge current, and oxygen radicals of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} atoms/s/cm{sup 2} were supplied to the substrate surface at a discharge current of 1.2 A. We conclude that our newly developed oxygen radical source can be a good tool to achieve high rate deposition and to control the structure of TiO{sub 2} films for many industrial design applications.

Yasuda, Yoji; Lei, Hao; Hoshi, Yoichi [Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Surface Engineering of Materials Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as $N^3-N^4$, where $N$ is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

Andrea Zen; Bernhardt L. Trout; Leonardo Guidoni

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

438

Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

Zen, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, La Sapienza - Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Trout, Bernhardt L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Guidoni, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universit degli studi de L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L'Aquila (Italy)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Broensted superacidity of HCl in a liquid chloroaluminate. AlCl sub 3 -1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The system HCl (0.1-1 atm)/AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC (55.0 mol % AlCl{sub 3}) (EMIC = 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride) at 23{degree}C is a Broensted superacid capable of protonating arenes to a degree similar to that of liquid HF at 0{degree}C (H{sub 0} = {minus}15.1). Arenes used in this investigation were biphenyl (I), naphthalene (II), 9H-fluorene (III), chrysene (IV), 2-methylnaphthalene (V), mesitylene (VI), pentamethylbenzene (VII), hexamethylbenzene (VIII), anthracene (IX), and 9,10-dimethylanthracene (X). In both the chloroaluminate melt and HF I is a weak base while VIII-X are strong bases. In between these extremes the order of basicities in both media is II < III and IV < V < VI < VII < VIII. A study of the effect of HCl partial pressure showed, for example that V is 50% protonated at 0.3 atm HCl. The overall reaction is arene + HCl + Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}} {r reversible} arene {times} H{sup +} + 2AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and is reversible. The degree of protonation was measured by optical absorption spectrophotometry. The arenes are stable in the liquid chloroaluminate for many hours, and their protonated forms (arenium ions) are stable for 1 h or more. A new procedure for the preparation of EMIC was developed that yields exceptionally clean AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC melts with very low concentrations of protic and oxidizing impurities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Smith, G.P.; Dworkin, A.S.; Zingg, S.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Pagni, R.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1989-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel Reduction Potentials-04-004 February 2005 Revised: October 2005 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor, State of California #12;Biomass Tiangco, CEC Bryan M. Jenkins, University of California #12;Biomass Potentials from California Forest

442

Project Management Business Process Project Delivery Processes Includes VE Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Management Business Process Project Delivery Processes Includes VE Budget Schedule Activities that do/could feed into PMBP LEGEND VE Cost Avoidance Program Coverage Document Results (Before, could use the value methodology to facilitate after action review. The project manager is responsible

US Army Corps of Engineers

443

DISTINCTIONS The unique combination of factors which distinguish Berea includes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

throughout Appala- chia. SUSTAINABLE CAMPUS FEATURES The College environment demonstrates sustainable living and enhances student learning. Recently renovated historical buildings and residence halls include sustain, Washington Monthly ranked Berea the #1 liberal arts college in the nation Listed as a "Best Buy" college

Baltisberger, Jay H.

444

Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W

Rose, Annkatrin

445

Area of cooperation includes: Joint research and development on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies August 2, 2006: HCL Technologies Ltd (HCL), India's leading global IT services company, has signed projects that are using this technology currently such as BioGrid in Japan, National Grid Service in UKArea of cooperation includes: · Joint research and development on Grid computing technologies

Buyya, Rajkumar

446

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Engineering) W. VA #12;Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach August 2011 version Page 2 Energy Transitions sources globally, some very strong short-term drivers of energy transitions reflect rising concerns over

Walter, M.Todd

447

Procedures in Modules (1) Including all procedures within modules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Procedures in Modules (1) Including all procedures within modules works very well in almost all designing these if possible #12;Procedures in Modules (2) These are very much like internal procedures Works very well in almost all programs Everything accessible in the module can also be used in the procedure

448

FORUMA Hamilton Spectator Town Hall Event SPEAKERS INCLUDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R001990104 OPEN FORUMA Hamilton Spectator Town Hall Event SPEAKERS INCLUDE: STEVE BUIST, Spectator, former chairman of Hamilton-Wentworth region and now president and CEO of the Hamilton Community Foundation. DR. CHRIS MACKIE, Hamilton's associate medical officer of health. MARK CHAMBERLAIN, president

Thompson, Michael

449

DO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ bottles Metal items other than cans/foil Napkins Paper towels Plastic bags Plastic films Plastic utensilsDO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok Aerosol cans Books Bottle, PDAs, inkjet cartridges, CFL bulbs (cushioned, sealed in plastic) computers, printers, printer

Wolfe, Patrick J.

450

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

451

ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector characteristics Woong-Seob Jeong a,*, Soojong instruments, the far-infrared surveyor (FIS) will map the entire sky in four bands using short wavelength (SW- oped a suite of software with an aim to simulate the FIS observations (Jeong et al., 2000, 2003, 2004

Pak, Soojong

452

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation Including Detector Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation Including Detector Characteristics Woong-Seob Jeong1, Soojong Pak1 simulations to examined the detector characteristics on the FIS instrument (Far- Infrared Surveyor) images narrow and wide bands using a short wavelength (SW) and long wavelength (LW) detector array. The FIS (Far

Lee, Hyung Mok

453

Methods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" purchases must be reviewed and approved by the Controller's Office. This may result in the end user beingMethods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different processes of ordering goods and/or services, and encumbering funds. #12;Method of Purchase Field Purchase Orders (FPO) Accepted

454

Including Blind Students in Computer Science Through Access to Graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Including Blind Students in Computer Science Through Access to Graphs Suzanne Balik, Sean Mealin SKetching tool, GSK, to provide blind and sighted people with a means to create, examine, and share graphs (node-link diagrams) in real-time. GSK proved very effective for one blind computer science student

Young, R. Michael

455

HTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/background · Stability and protection are crucial issues for HTS tapes and coils applied to electric power devices. ­Both for the economic argument for HTS AC applications like cables and transformers. · Conductor design is importantHTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability, AC Losses, and Fault Currents M. J

456

Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction of protein profiles including a digestion model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction of protein profiles including a digestion model Pierre to recover the protein biomarkers content in a robust way. We will focus on the digestion step since and each branch to a molecular processing such as digestion, ionisation and LC-MS separation

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

457

GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-growing economies in other parts of the world, there is a growing demand for practical, sustainable building designs as the broader architectural design and construction processes. Likely careers of graduates are in the building1 GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING DEPARTMENT

Reif, Rafael

458

Requirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

» Three other 2000-3000-level PSYC courses (any area) No more than 3 credits of PSYC 3889 or 3999 canRequirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including: » One Area I course » One Area II course) ___2100 (Principles of Research in Psychology) Area I. Social, Developmental, Clinical, & Industrial

Alpay, S. Pamir

459

Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Paul E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

462

ChemicalChemical StratigraphyStratigraphy Oxygen, Carbon, Strontium,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2/25/2009 1 ChemicalChemical StratigraphyStratigraphy Oxygen, Carbon, Strontium, Sulphur Isotopes Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department evolves over time, with the geological time line running from right to left in this graph. The increased

Miami, University of

463

Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

464

High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor operations improvement (i.e., operators training, cleaning frequency and methods, process upgrade, etc audits specialist ­ Henryk Melcer Brown & Caldwell, process designer ­ Rod Reardon Camp, Dresser, and Mc

466

Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma needle is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

Kelly, Sen; Turner, Miles M. [School of Physical Science and National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)] [School of Physical Science and National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

467

Oxygen and nitrogen diffusion in ?-hafnium from first principles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use a combination of density functional theory and multistate diffusion formalism to analyze the diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen in technologically important hafnium metal. Comparing the local density approximation and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof version of the generalized gradient approximation, we find that a better description of the hafnium lattice in the latter results in the correct sequence of stable and transition states for oxygen interstitials leading to essentially quantitative agreement with experiment. For oxygen diffusion, we find an isotropic temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient of D=0.082e{sup ?2.04/k{sub B}T}cm{sup 2}s{sup ?1} utilizing interstitial sites with hexahedral and octahedral coordination. For the diffusivity of nitrogen, we find that an additional stable interstitial site, the crowdion site, exists and that the diffusion coefficient is D=0.15e{sup ?2.68/k{sub B}T}cm{sup 2}s{sup ?1}. Our results also reproduce the experimental observation that nitrogen diffusivity is lower than that of oxygen in hafnium.

O'Hara, Andrew; Demkov, Alexander A., E-mail: demkov@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

468

An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotubegraphene complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as platinum or its alloys are routinely used in fuel cells because of their high activity. Carbon alloys) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells1, and designing catalysts with both optimal activity and stability for ORR in acidic solutions all remain

Pennycook, Steve

469

ORIGINAL PAPER Electrochemical reduction of oxygen with iron phthalocyanine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bio- fuel cells) has been increasing [1­6]. The common point for all the biological systems is need Recent interest in electricity production using microbial fuel cells makes it important to better applications in neutral media. Keywords Microbial fuel cells Á Oxygen reduction Á Iron phthalocyanine Á Redox

470

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

471

ORIGINAL PAPER Sex differences in circulatory oxygen transport parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerobic energy demands, and suggests that the higher [Hb] of female fish may com- pensate for the smaller has commenced, and so their stored energy reserves must satisfy the energetic demands of the migra rMV. These findings reject the hypothesis that all aspects of the circulatory oxygen trans- port

Hinch, Scott G.

472

Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands Jason M. Gonzales, Jonas, California 90089 ReceiVed July 31, 2006 Trends in methane activation have been explored for rhenium complexes proceeds with methane activation through a barrier of less than 35 kcal mol-1 . Study

Goddard III, William A.

473

RESPONSE TO OXYGEN DEFICIENCY SENSING EQUIPMENT IN LABORATORIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/or lights to warn both the room occupants and those outside the room of the hazard within. 2. Equipment: Vacuum flask that holds liquid air or helium for scientific experiments. Hazardous Atmosphere. Type and location of oxygen deficiency monitoring equipment. When New York Fire Department (FDNY

Jia, Songtao

474

Subtask 3.12 - Oxygen-Fired CFBC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traditionally, air is used as the source of oxygen for firing a combustion system. A fully oxygen-fired circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system would result in the production of a flue gas stream consisting of mostly carbon dioxide and water. The concentrated carbon dioxide stream would be available for sequestering or other purposes. Temperatures in an oxygen-blown CFBC system would be controlled by a combination of flue gas recycle, solids recirculation, and by appropriately sizing and locating the amount of heat-transfer surface required. Flue gas recycle provides the additional gas required for adequate fluidization and circulation of solids replacing the nitrogen that would be present in an air-blown system. The amount of flue gas recycle will determine how much of the remaining heat from the coal combustion will have to be removed. If the amount of flue gas recycle required by increasing solids recirculation and oxygen staging is limited, introducing the pure oxygen at multiple locations in the combustor to result in a more even temperature profile should result in a more compact system, thus reducing initial capital costs for construction. The overall efficiency of the process should be greater than that of an air-blown system since less fuel is required for the creation of the same amount of energy. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is in a unique position to advance this technology. It has a world-class CFBC pilot plant, has experience with firing a wide range of fuels in our air-fired CFBC pilot plant, has prior experience with oxygen-firing a slagging furnace system in a pulverized coal-fired mode with a bituminous coal, and has all of the components required for oxygen-firing right next to the CFBC pilot plant already in place. An engineering study was performed to identify methods, an overall appropriate configuration, and an operating strategy for a fully oxygen-fired CFBC pilot plant by: (1) developing a plan to optimize the amount of flue gas recycle required to control bed temperature; (2) determining how to best utilize the heat-transfer surfaces in a CFBC pilot plant, such as increased external bed surface, to more beneficially use increased solids recycle; (3) identifying appropriate methods for staged addition of the oxygen/recycled flue gas streams to maintain a good temperature profile in the combustor; and (4) determining the level of effort required to convert the EERC CFBC pilot plant to one that is oxygen-blown. The EERC additionally used its experience to consider what would be required for firing a wide range of fuels from biomass to low-rank coals to high-rank coals and petroleum cokes. These proposed modifications will be performed based upon obtaining the required funding.

Douglas Hajicek; Mark Musich; Ann Henderson

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

475

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

476

Oxygen and Nitrogen in Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present long slit optical spectroscopy of 67 HII regions in 21 dwarf irregular galaxies to investigate the enrichment of oxygen, nitrogen, neon, sulfur, and argon in low mass galaxies. Oxygen abundances are obtained via direct detection of the temperature sensitive emission lines for 25 HII regions; for the remainder of the sample, oxygen abundances are estimated from strong line calibrations. The direct abundance determinations are compared to the strong-line abundance calibrations of both McGaugh (1991) and Pilyugin (2000). Global oxygen and nitrogen abundances for this sample of dwarf irregular galaxies are examined in the context of open and closed box chemical evolution models. While several galaxies are consistent with closed box chemical evolution, the majority of this sample have an effective yield ~1/4 of the expected yield for a constant star formation rate and Salpeter IMF, indicating that either outflow of enriched gas or inflow of pristine gas has occurred. The effective yield strongly correlates with M_H/L_B in the sense that gas-rich galaxies are more likely to be closed systems. However, the effective yield does not appear to correlate with other global parameters such as dynamical mass, absolute magnitude, star formation rate or surface brightness. A correlation is found between the observed nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio and the color of the underlying stellar population; redder dwarf irregular galaxies have higher N/O ratios than blue dwarf irregular galaxies. The relative abundance ratios are interpreted in the context of delayed release of nitrogen and varied star formation histories.

L. van Zee; M. P. Haynes

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

477

A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

478

Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

480

Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams J O H N T . C R A W F O R D 1 , 2 , E are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emis- sions from streams could also contribute methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble

Stanley, Emily

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates includes ethyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Normal muscle oxygen consumption and fatigability in sickle cell patients despite reduced microvascular oxygenation and hemorheological abnormalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Normal muscle oxygen consumption and fatigability in sickle cell patients despite reduced hypothesized that muscle metabolism and fatigability could be impaired in sickle cell patients, no study has profile at rest between 16 healthy subjects (AA), 20 sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease (SC) patients and 16

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Handbook deals only with industrial cogeneration, that is, simultaneous production of both heat and electricity at the industrial plant site. The cogenerator has the option of either selling all cogenerated power to the utility while simultaneously purchasing power to satisfy his plant demand, or directly supplying the plant demand with cogenerated power, thus displacing utility-supplied power. This Handbook provides the refinery plant manager or company energy coordinator with a framework for making a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and viability of cogeneration at a particular plant. The handbook is intended to provide an understanding of the potential of several standardized cogeneration systems, as well as their limitations. However, because the decision to cogenerate is very site specific, the handbook cannot provide all of the answers. It does attempt, however, to bring to light the major issues that should be addressed in the decision-making process. The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. 39 figures, 37 tables.

Not Available

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Simulations using the model show that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning...

Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

484