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1

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

6

The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

Hadder, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McNutt, B.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas containing oxygen gas considering of biomass gasfication gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis from syngas. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity with long ... Keywords: DME, biomass, catalyst, clean fuel, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, gasification gas, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Akane Arase

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

11

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, R.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

15

PURIFICATION OF ETHER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process for removing peroxides from ethers by sorption on a strong- base anion exchange resin in its hydroxyl form is described. Incorporation of the resin for storage is also covered. (AEC)

Feinstein, R.N.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2  

SciTech Connect

Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

22

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

23

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

24

Alcohol fuels program technical review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

Not Available

25

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

26

Alcohol fired alcohol fuel still  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The best method for using alcohol as the base for alcohol fuel distillation would be in the conservation of the initial heat input. In other words, the 20 gallon system would, at the end of a load, in effect waste a full gallon of alcohol fuel with each batch. Therefore either a continual feed system needs to be developed which would serve the 20 gallon heater or heat exchangers of some type should be designed to salvage a great portion of the heat. If, on the other hand, large amounts of fuel are not required, a large single batch still fired by alcohol would not be too wasteful. It would be adviseable that some form of alcohol fuel research both small and large scale be continued. While not necessarily an important part of the energy picture now, it may well be in the future. It could also open up overseas markets where fuels in liquid form are scarce, yet raw materials are not. Lastly, this project, while accomplishing muon, needs further study to make the system more efficient in fuel economy.

Johnson, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Acceptorless Photocatalytic Dehydrogenation for Alcohol Decarbonylation and Imine Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H2 (see scheme). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H2.

Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D.

2012-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

30

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx}1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.

Peizheng Zhou

2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

32

CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx} 1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.

Peizheng Zhou

2000-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

33

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of oxygenated hydrocarbons as additives to diesel fuels on ignition, NOx emissions and soot production has been examined using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. N-heptane was used as a representative diesel fuel, and methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether and dimethoxymethane were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced NOx levels and reduced the production of soot precursors. When the overall oxygen content in the fuel reached approximately 25% by mass, production of soot precursors fell effectively to zero, in agreement with experimental studies. The kinetic factors responsible for these observations are discussed.

Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Fisher, E; Glaude, P A; Marinov, N M; Westbrook, C K

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

38

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

39

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

40

Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Furfuryl alcohol cellular product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon and surfactants are contacted with a solution of alcohol and water to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon-surfactant mixture.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means for containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchange means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchange means; a heat source for heating the primary heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means for releasing heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means including the expansion chamber in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; fuel injection means in fluid communication with the converter means for injecting vaporized alcohol into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine for mixing with air within the cylinders for proper combustion; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the 23 fuel storage means to the primary heat exchanger means, converter means, fuel injector means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

44

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

Alcohol | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alcohol Alcohol Dataset Summary Description The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary; conventional and non-conventional; and new and renewable sources of energy. The Energy Statistics dataset, covering the period from 1990 on, is available at UNdata. This dataset relates to the consumption of alcohol by the transportation industry. Source United Nations (UN) Date Released December 09th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Agriculture Alcohol consumption transportation industry UN Data application/xml icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XML (xml, 95 KiB) text/csv icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XLS (csv, 21.6 KiB)

47

Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroteratology: an examination of the roles of fetal cerebral blood flow and hypoxia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hypoxia (decreased tissue oxygen levels) has long been considered as a possible mechanism of alcohol-induced developmental deficits, yet research has not conclusively disproved this hypothesis, nor has it provided substantial evidence for a mechanism of developmental alcohol insults involving hypoxia. Previous research has shown that moderate acute doses of alcohol does not induce hypoxemia (decreased arterial oxygen levels), yet these same studies have shown that this same alcohol exposure does transiently decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF). This is significant because although developmental alcohol exposure did not result in hypoxemia, the decreases in CBF seen in these previous studies may induce hypoxia within the brain. Unfortunately, these experiments were only performed after acute doses of alcohol, so it is unknown if a more chronic or repeated alcohol exposure paradigm would have similar effects. The present study examined blood flow in the sheep fetus after repeated alcohol exposure in a bingelike paradigm throughout the third trimester. Additionally, this study examined the fetal neurovascular response to a subsequent infusion of alcohol after the repeated alcohol exposure. This latter experiment was designed to examine the hypothesis that alcohol exposure throughout the third trimester affects the normal responsiveness of the neurovasculature to alcohol (compared to previous research demonstrating acute alcohol-induced decreases in CBF). The results from the present experiments indicate that although few regions were significant, the majority of the regions (especially the brain regions) exhibited a trend for increases in blood flows after alcohol exposure. This phenomenon was especially prominent in the group receiving the lower dose of alcohol. Additionally, the data from this study demonstrated that after repeated alcohol exposures the near-term sheep fetus did not respond to a subsequent dose of alcohol in a similar manner seen in previous experiments when the acute alcohol exposure was administered in alcohol naïve animals. After the final alcohol exposure the subjects in this study had either no effect in terms of blood flow or an increase in CBF. This is opposite to previous observations which demonstrated reduced blood flow in numerous brain regions. The present experiments suggest that alcohol does not induce fetal hypoxia, but does negatively affect the normal neurovascular response to alcohol. This latter phenomenon could have negative consequences on future development of the brain.

Parnell, Scott Edward

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Research Article Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a New Biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Jiang Dayong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is developed. This fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel. The fuel was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR and P 1P H NMR analyses. Engine test results show that when a tested diesel engine is fueled with this biodiesel in place of 0 # diesel fuel, engine-out smoke emissions can be decreased by 25.0%–75.0%, CO emissions can be reduced by 50.0%, and unburned HC emissions are lessened significantly. However, NOx emissions generally do not change noticeably. In the area of combustion performance, both engine in-cylinder pressure and its changing rate with crankshaft angle are increased to some extent. Rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has a much higher cetane number and shorter ignition delay, leading to autoignition 1.1 ? CA earlier than diesel fuel during engine operation. Because of certain amount of oxygen contained in the new biodiesel, the engine thermal efficiency is improved 13.5%–20.4 % when fueled with the biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. 1.

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Liu Shuguang; Guo Hejun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Production of hydrogen from alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fermentative alcohol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH 4 + : A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18–crown–6)-2

Paola Hurtado; Francisco Gámez; Said Hamad; Bruno Martínez–Haya; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Information Center

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity under milder reaction ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Yoshimi Akaike

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura Albiex | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura (Albiex) Place Spain Product Spanish bioethanol producer building a plant in Extremadura. References Alcoholes Biocarburantes de...

58

Gene therapy in alcoholic rats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

70 70 Sept. 9, 2001 Gene Therapy Reduces Drinking in "Alcoholic" Rats UPTON, NY - Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have shown that increasing the level of a brain protein important for transmitting pleasure signals can turn rats that prefer alcohol into light drinkers, and those with no preference into near teetotalers. The findings, published in the first September 2001 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry (Vol. 78, No. 5), may have implications for the prevention and treatment of alcoholism in humans. "This is a preliminary study, but when you see a rat that chooses to drink 80 to 90 percent of its daily fluid as alcohol, and then three days later it's down to 20 percent, that's a dramatic drop in alcohol intake - a very clear change in behavior," said Panayotis Thanos, the lead researcher. "This gives us great hope that we can refine this treatment for future clinical use."

59

Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

McCutchen, M.S.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

60

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This booklet provides an introduction to technical, marketing, and regulatory issues involved in on-farm alcohol fuel production. Discussed are ethanol production provcesses, investment, potential returns, regulations and permits, and sources of financial and technical assistance. 2 figures. (DMC)

Jones, J.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

63

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

Information Center

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Alcohol consumption, medical conditions and health behavior in older adults  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption In press, American JournalHealth Behavior Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions andin the association of alcohol consumption with health and

Satre, Derek; Gordon, Nancy P.; Weisner, Constance

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Dimethyl ether (DME): a clean fuel of the 21st century and catalysts for it  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a substitute of LNG and light oil. DME burns without particulate matters and SOx, so DME is a clean fuel. DME is a storage and carrier of hydrogen. For these usages, useful catalysts such as DME steam reforming catalysts and DME ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by a sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. The reason was ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

72

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov PON-13-006 August 2013 Opportunity This technology provides an advantageous means to convert syngas into a class of chemicals known as higher oxygenates as well as other long-chain hydrocarbons. Research is currently active on this patent-pending technology "Method of CO and/or CO2 Hydrogenation Using Doped Mixed Metal Oxides." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Significance * Improves the conversion of syngas from natural gas, coal, or biomass * Enhances the potential use of oxygenates as

73

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

74

Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols  

Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol and Alcohols into Syngas Ethanol and alcohols can be converted into syngas using a robust autothermal reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used to synthesize other ...

75

Alcohol Fuels Program. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities and accomplishments of the alcohol fuels program are reviewed briefly. Educational and promotional activities are described. (MHR)

Weiss, G.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hydride transfer made easy in the oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by choline oxidase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Choline oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.17) catalyzes the two-step, four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as enzyme-associated intermediate and molecular oxygen as final electron acceptor (Scheme 1). The gem-diol, hydrated species of the aldehyde intermediate of the reaction acts as substrate for aldehyde oxidation, suggesting that the enzyme may use similar strategies for the oxidation of the alcohol substrate and aldehyde intermediate. The determination of the chemical mechanism for alcohol oxidation has emerged from biochemical, mechanistic, mutagenetic, and structural studies. As illustrated in the mechanism of Scheme 2, the alcohol substrate is initially activated in the active site of the enzyme by removal of the hydroxyl proton. The resulting alkoxide intermediate is then stabilized in the enzyme-substrate complex via electrostatic interactions with active site amino acid residues. Alcohol oxidation then occurs quantum mechanically via the transfer of the hydride ion from the activated substrate to the N(5) flavin locus. An essential requisite for this mechanism of alcohol oxidation is the high degree of preorganization of the activated enzyme-substrate complex, which is achieved through an internal equilibrium of the Michaelis complex occurring prior to, and independently from, the subsequent hydride transfer reaction. The experimental evidence that support the mechanism for alcohol oxidation shown in Scheme 2 is briefly summarized in the Results and Discussion section.

Gadda, G.; Orville, A.; Pennati, A.; Francis, K.; Quaye, O.; Yuan, H.; Rungsrisuriyachai, K.; Finnegan, S.; Mijatovic, S.; Nguyen, T.

2008-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

77

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

78

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

79

Quantum ether: photons and electrons from a rotor model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an example of a purely bosonic model -- a rotor model on the 3D cubic lattice -- whose low energy excitations behave like massless U(1) gauge bosons and massless Dirac fermions. This model can be viewed as a ``quantum ether'': a medium that gives rise to both photons and electrons. It illustrates a general mechanism for the emergence of gauge bosons and fermions known as ``string-net condensation.'' Other, more complex, string-net condensed models can have excitations that behave like gluons, quarks and other particles in the standard model. This suggests that photons, electrons and other elementary particles may have a unified origin: string-net condensation in our vacuum.

Michael Levin; Xiao-Gang Wen

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

80

Refinery Net Input of All Other Oxygenates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Oxygen detection in biological systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

kinetics of flash induced oxygen evolution of algae through measuring ...... (1999) Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses.

83

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2009 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting research for the United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). This research has involved the screening of potential catalysts, and optimization of the more promising ones, using laboratory scale reactors. During 2009, the main goal of the testing program focused on optimizing selected supported catalysts containing rhodium (Rh) and manganese (Mn). Optimization involved examining different total concentrations and atomic ratios of Rh and Mn as well as that of the more promising promoters (Ir and Li) identified in the earlier screening studies. Evaluation of catalyst performance focused on attaining improvements with respect to the space-time-yield and converted carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates, with additional consideration given to the fraction of the oxygenates that were C2+ alcohols.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Effect Of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure On Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (~1 X 10 19 atoms/cm 2 ). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, th...

John Connell National; John W. Connell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

88

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

90

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

93

South Dakota alcohol fuel production handbook: permits, regulations, and assistance  

SciTech Connect

This handbook contains information on South Dakota alcohol legislation, and information on the various types of additional government program assistance available to the alcohol producer. It was prepared to assist potential alcohol producers with federal and state permit prerequisites. (DMC)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: • The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). • The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. • The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300°C and 325°C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. • When catalysts were heated to between 300°C and 325°C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

Chopade, Shubham P. (East Lansing, MI); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI); Jackson, James E. (Haslett, MI); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

2012-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

98

Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol Availability and Crime: Evidence From Census Tractand Ontkush, M. J. Violent Crime and Alcohol Availability:Neighborhoods and Urban Crimes. Social Forces. 1996;75:619-

Franklin, F. Abron; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Webster, Daniel W.; Pan, William K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Solid alcohol fuel with hydration inhibiting coating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for preparing a solid alcohol fuel. It comprises: mixing an alcohol solution with a cellulose derivative having a hydration inhibiting coating thereby forming a slurry and then adding an effective amount sufficient to increase the pH level above 8, of a caustic material so as to effect hydration and solidification.

Gartner, S.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

Alcohol fuel research in Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

105

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fuel cell oxygen electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

110

Selectivity of the reactions of oxygenates on transition metal surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this research has been to understand, by means of surface science studies, the elementary processes involved in the synthesis of higher oxygenates on transition metals, and the dependence of these processes upon the nature of the surface. We have completed a considerable body of work (Ph.D. thesis of J. Lynn Davis, 1988) on the reactions of alcohols, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids on clean and oxygen-containing Pd(111) surfaces. Work during the past year has focused on the surface chemistry of rhodium. We find both interesting similarities and differences between rhodium and palladium. Comparison of the two sheds light on common reaction networks among the transition metals, and on the differences between them which permit control of selectivities in catalytic reactions.

Barteau, M.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Plasma Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Activity in Type I and II Alcoholics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) which catalysis the deamination of primary amines is involved in vascular endothelial or tissue damage through the formation of reactive aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia from endogenous substrates. In the present study, plasma SSAO activity, plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation status, glutathione levels and the correlation between the plasma SSAO activity and lipid peroxidation were determined to clarify the mechanism of liver injury related to the oxidative stress in early- and late-onset (Type I and II) alcoholic subtypes. Plasma SSAO activity and, plasma and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as the indicators of lipid peroxidation status of alcoholics were found to be significantly higher than those of the control group. Increased plasma SSAO activity was strongly correlated with the elevated plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in alcoholics suggesting that enhanced plasma SSAO activity might contribute to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected in the liver of the alcoholics.

Gülberk Uçar; Ba?aran Demir; Yaz??ma Adresi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Small-scale alcohol fuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of a project to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale alcohol fuel production. A list of equipment and costs incurred in contracting the still are included. No experimental results are presented. (DMC)

Evans, J.; McQueary, J.

1983-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

117

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

118

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

none,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

122

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

124

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

126

Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

Not Available

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

129

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

section 23007, is presumed to contain 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume derived from flavors or other ingredients containing alcohol obtained from the distillation of fermented agricultural products, unless this

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

131

Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

  This technology provides an advantageous means to convert syngas into a class of chemicals known as higher oxygenates as well as other long-chain ...

132

Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

Ross, David S. (Palo Alto, CA); Blessing, James E. (Menlo Park, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Refinery Net Input of Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

134

Alkali/TX sub 2 catalysts for CO/H sub 2 conversion to C sub 1 -C sub 4 alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X is a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. The alkali component A, which is essential for C-O and C-C bond forming reactions leading to alcohols, will be highly dispersed on the TX{sub 2} surfaces by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical complexation/anchoring (CCA) methods. Catalysts that have been prepared during this quarter include RuS{sub 2}, NbS{sub 2}, K/MoS{sub 2}, and K/Crown either/MoS{sub 2}. Catalysts tested include KOH/MoS{sub 2} and K/Crown ether/MoS{sub 2}. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Brimer, A.; Richards, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

136

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

137

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

139

Regional imaging with oxygen-14  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic significance of the distribution of labeled oxygen was studied in the dog by inhalation of gas mixtures labeled with oxygen-14 (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 71 seconds) maintained at a constant level of activity. Under steady-state conditions, whole-body images were developed by detection of the positron annihilation emissions with a dual head rectilinear scanner in the coincidence mode. (auth)

Russ, G.A.; Bigler, R.E.; Dahl, J.R.; Kostick, J.; McDonald, J.M.; Tilbury, R.S.; Laughlin, J.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

Burke, J.

1982-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

144

EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

145

Developing alternative feedstocks for fuel alcohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper briefly reviews recent research to examine the viability of energy sorghum as a feedstock for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum is the name given to any sweet sorghum shown to be feasible for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum can grow on a variety of soils, in 90 day cycles, with up to three crops a year. Crop rotation is rarely needed; most of the nitrogen and potassium returns to the soil. Harmon Engineering and Testing initiated an inhouse program to research sweet sorghum development. Equipment specifications and preliminary results are given. An ''energy farm'' process is explained step by step. Stalk juice, grain, and stalk fiber yields are listed. The use of bagasse and carbon dioxide is also considered.

Verma, V.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

147

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

The Search for Genes Related to a Low-Level Response to Alcohol Determined by Alcohol Challenges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: A low level of response (LR) to alcohol seems to relate to a substantial proportion of the risk for alcoholism and to have significant heritability. Methods: This report describes the results of a genome-wide segregation analysis for the first 139 pairs of full siblings by using an alcohol challenge protocol as a direct measure of LR. Subjects from 18 to 29 years old were selected if the original screen indicated they had an alcohol-dependent parent, reported a personal history of drinking but had no evidence of alcohol dependence, and had a full sibling with similar characteristics. Body sway and Subjective High Assessment Scale scores were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the administration of a measured dose of alcohol. Participants and available parents were genotyped for 811 microsatellite markers, and resulting data were analyzed with a variance component method. Results: Nine chromosome regions with logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD) between 2.2 and 3.2 were identified; several had previously been implicated regarding phenotypes relevant to alcoholism and the LR to alcohol. Several regions identified in the previous linkage study by using a retrospective self-report questionnaire were potentially confirmed by this study. The strongest evidence was on chromosomes 10, 11, and 22. Conclusions: Several chromosomal areas seem to relate to the low LR to alcohol as a risk factor for alcohol dependence.

Kirk C. Wilhelmsen; Marc Schuckit; Tom L. Smith; James V. Lee; Samantha K. Segall; Heidi S. Feiler; Jelger Kalmijn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

The Relationship Between Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Teenagers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among teenagers. This study examined three research questions: (1)… (more)

Rose, John Donald

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes - Energy ...  

Ethanol and other alcohols are nearly ideal reactants for fuel cells. Unfortunately they are difficult to oxidize, requiring breaking of carbon-carbon bonds. This ...

154

Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1981-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

The effects of alcohol use on zinc status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption has been shown to have adverse affects on bone growth and maintenance, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. The objective of this research was to look at the relationship between zinc and alcohol as a possible mechanism for the negative effects of ethanol consumption on bone health. Five studies were performed in order to analyze the effects of different types of alcohol consumption on female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages. The animals were fed one of three diets (alcohol, pair-fed or chow). The rats were sacrificed at varying time intervals according to the specific study. Zinc analysis of the serum, femur and tibia was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The alcohol eventually affected the serum zinc status of the rats in the adolescent project. The zinc status of the animals in the moderate alcohol, 2-day binge, 5-day binge and short-term adult alcohol projects was not significantly altered due to the alcohol. A longer duration and/or a higher amount of ethanol was needed to consistently detect changes in the serum and bone zinc concentrations of all the animals. Although zinc status is altered by ethanol consumption, this relationship is not likely to be the sole mechanism behind the effects of alcohol on bone health.

Chapman, Lisa Louise

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

158

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

159

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Oxygen Sensitivity of Krypton and Lyman-? Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-? hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert–...

Arjan van Dijk; Wim Kohsiek; Henk A. R. de Bruin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Innovative oxygen separation membrane prototype  

SciTech Connect

Improvements are still needed to gas separation processes to gain industry acceptance of coal gasification systems. The Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology, being developed by the US Department of Energy and its partners, offers an opportunity to lower overall plant cost and improve efficiency compared to cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption methods. The technology is based on a novel class of perovskite ceramic oxides which can selectively separate oxygen ions from a stream of air at high temperature and pressure. Those ions are transported across the ITM leaving non-permeate air which can be integrated with a fuel-fired gas system, enabling co-production of power and steam along with the concentrated, high-purity oxygen. The project is at the second phase, to scale up the ITM Oxygen ceramic devices to demonstrate the technology at the 1-5 tpd capability in the Subscale Engineering Prototype. A third phase to demonstrate commercial viability extends to the end of the decade. 2 figs.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

Adzic, Radoslav R. (Setauket, NY); Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. (Coram, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Agricultural scientists cut alcohol fuel costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scientists at the US Department of Agriculture have succeeded in lowering the cost of making alcohol from corn by 15 cents to $1.64 per gallon. The cost of drying distillers' solubles dropped because at the end of each cooking/fermenting/distilling run, the solubles are used for cooking, cooling and fermenting in the next run. One evaporation of solubles is required after 10 runs, so energy cost is cut from 17 cents to 1.7 cents. The protein by-products recovered, can be used as swine and poultry feeds and as human food.

Not Available

1981-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

164

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

Dombek, B.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

167

Alcohol and Other Drugs Office of Student Life  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to, buy alcohol for, or furnish alcohol to anyone under 21, even if you are the parent, legal or furnishing beer or intoxicating liquor to an person under 21 years of age, or buying it for any person under,Valium) Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) GHB Methaqualone (Quaalude) Fatigue; confusion; impaired coordination, memory, judgment

Jones, Michelle

168

Alcohol Fuel Flexibility -- Progress And Prospects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was prepared as the result of work by a member of the staff of the California Energy Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees, or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors and subcontractors make no warrant, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this paper; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This paper has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this paper. SEPTEMBER 2005 CEC-600-2005-038 2 Alcohol Fuel Flexibility -- Progress and Prospects Thomas MacDonald California Energy Commission 1516 Ninth St. Sacramento, California 95814 Phone (916) 654-4120 FAX (916) 654-4753 e-mail: tmacdona@energy.state.ca.us Fifteenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels San Diego, CA September 26-28, 2005

Transportation Fuels Division; Thomas Macdonald; Thomas Macdonald

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. [ed.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Performances of Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a Novel Biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has been developed, which has one more ester group than traditional biodiesel. It was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR analyses. ... Keywords: component, rapeseed oil monoester, synthesis, exhaust emissions, combustion performances

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Wang Wenguo; Han Qilong

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen plant to provide oxygen for industrial combustion applications. PSA oxygen plants utilize a molecular sieve material to separate air into an oxygen rich product stream and a nitrogen rich exhaust stream. These plants typically produce 90-95% purity oxygen and are located in close proximity to the point of use. In contrast, high purity (99.999%) oxygen is produced by the distillation of liquid air at a remote plant and is usually transported to the point of use either as a cryogenic liquid in a tank trailer or as a high pressure gas via pipeline. In this study, experiments were performed to the test PSA system used in conjunction with an A'' burner and comparisons were made with the results of the previous study which utilized high purity liquid oxygen. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Delano, M.A. (Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA)); Kwan, Y. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

U.S. Oxygenate Production - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History; Fuel Ethanol: 855: 877: 891: 868: 849: 852: 1981-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 48: 55: 54: 51 ...

174

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Among our previous best catalysts was the family consisting of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. We have now examined the effect of potassium promotion on (1) a Zn/Cr/O spinel and (2) on ZnO; these two individual components are used together to make our best support. The presence of excess zinc oxide has a beneficial effect on the performance of Zn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts (1) promoted with cesium and (2) promoted with both cesium and palladium. The presence of the excess zinc oxide results in a more active and selective catalyst to total alcohols and increased isobutanol rates, demonstrating the effectiveness of zinc oxide addition to the spinel support. Potassium addition promotes higher alcohol synthesis on a commercial Zn/Cr spinel oxide methanol synthesis catalyst. Incremental potassium levels (1, 3 and 5 wt%) result in an increase in total alcohol selectivity, while isobutanol. rates are maximized at 1 wt% potassium. The commercial catalyst promoted with potassium is slightly less active for isobutanol synthesis and less selective to total alcohols when compared with our spinel formulation promoted with potassium and containing excess ZnO. Surface science studies have shown that the surface of these catalysts is predominately ZnO and alkali. With use, the ZnO is reduced to Zn metal, and Cr migrates to the surface giving increased surface acidity. In addition tends to lower the overall acidity. Hydrogen can be observed on the catalyst surface by surface science studies. Hydrogen on the active catalyst is associated with the palladium.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, October--December 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Our current targets for isobutanol-producing catalysts are to produce an equimolar mixture of methanol and isobutanol with a productivity for isobutanol of > 50 g/Kg-hr. Reactor system modifications, undertaken to improve data quality, have been completed. The changes should help eliminate differences between the two reactors and allow for more accurate determination of higher molecular weight products. To calibrate our new reactor system, we have retested our ``best`` isobutanol catalyst, 10-DAN-54 (a promoted Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide). Under standard test conditions (400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, 12000 GHSV and syngas ratio = 1:1), this catalyst produces 200--252 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivities of 57--68%) with an isobutanol rate of 94--130 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3. These results compare with a productivity of 112 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivity of 86%) with an isobutanol rate of 38 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3 observed in the original microreactor system configuration. It should be remembered that the test apparatus is designed for screening only. Detailed, more reliable data for kinetic modeling must be generated using larger catalyst charges (> 10g) and in larger scale test equipment.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corporation Place Schiller Park, Illinois Zip 60176 Product Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber  

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

182

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook ... is a colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas ... oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that ...

183

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum ...  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts ...

184

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

185

Proceedings of the alcohol fuel production and utilization conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conference was held to provide farmers, businesses, industries, and specialty groups with the best available information on current and projected activities related to the production and utilization of biomass for alcohol fuels. All aspects of the alcohol fuel production and utilization process were discussed. From biomass sources, through conversion processes to end-use products and applications were topics discussed by numerous experts. Other experts took this basic information and put it together into total systems. Speakers presented overviews on alcohol fuel related activities on state, regional, and national levels. Finally, commercialization incentives, funding sources, environmental considerations, research developments, safety considerations, and regulatory requirements were discussed as factors which must be addressed when considering the production and utilization of alcohol fuels. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

New diversification strategies for the Japanese alcohol industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Japanese major alcoholic beverage companies, whose businesses are mainly the production and sale of beer products, stand at a strategic crossroads. There are several reasons: a slow decrease in the Japanese population, ...

Yoshimura, Toru, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

Meshbesher, Thomas M. (4507 Weldin Rd., Wilmington, DE 19803)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

DOE supported research in alcohol fuel technology development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy sponsored research in alcohol fuel technology development under the direction of Congress and Public Law 96-126. Twenty-seven research grants of about $50,000 each were funded to develop lower cost methods for alcohol fuel production. This paper discusses the objectives of the program and relates the accomplishments achieved by the research. A discussion of the highlights of several selected projects is included.

Dodds, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Oxygen Control in PWR Makeup Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three fixed-bed processes can accelerate hydrazine-oxygen reactions in PWR makeup water and reduce oxygen levels to below 5 ppb. In this comparative-test project, activated carbon based systems offered the best combination of low cost, effectiveness, and commercial availability. A second process, employing palladium-coated anion resin, is also commercially available.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

193

Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites  

SciTech Connect

Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH{sub i}in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH{sub i} of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH{sub i} in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH{sub i} may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

Louisse, Jochem, E-mail: jochem.louisse@wur.n [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bai Yanqing [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de [TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Blaauboer, Bas J. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Use of alcohol in farming applications: alternative fuels utilization program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of alcohol with diesel fuel has been investigated as a means of extending diesel fuel supplies. The ability to use ethanol in diesel-powered farm equipment could provide the means for increasing the near-term fuels self-sufficiency of the American farmer. In the longer term, the potential availability of methanol (from coal) in large quantities could serve to further decrease the dependency on diesel fuel. This document gives two separate overviews of the use of alcohols in farm equipment. Part I of this document compares alcohol with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels and describes several techniques for using alcohol in farm diesels. Part II of this document discusses the use of aqueous ethanol in diesel engines, spark ignition engines and provides some information on safety and fuel handling of both methanol and ethanol. This document is not intended as a guide for converting equipment to utilize alcohol, but rather to provide information such that the reader can gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol in existing engines currently used in farming applications.

Borman, G.L.; Foster, D.E.; Uyehara, O.A.; McCallum, P.W.; Timbario, T.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

200

Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

Holladay, Johnathan E. (Kennewick, WA); Hu, Jianli (Kennewick, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Zhang, Xinjie (Burlington, MA)

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fundamentals, development and scaleup of the air=oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1979 the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels, asked the Solar Energy Research Institute to develop a process for manufacturing methanol from biomass. This can be achieved by gasification of the biomass to a ''synthesis gas'' (syn-gas) (composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by catalytic conversion of the gas to methanol. The catalytic conversion of syn-gas is a well developed commercial process. There are a number of gasifiers for wood, but most of them make either a producer gas, high on nitrogen or a pyrolysis gas high in hydrocarbons. None were developed to make syn-gas. Thus the principal technical problem was to develop a gasifier to make synthesis gas from biomass. Work was performed at SERI from 1980--1985 which resulted in the development of a prototype 1 ton/day oxygen-biomass gasifier. In 1985 a program was undertaken for Congress by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to build a commercial scale (50--200 tons/day) medium energy gasifier, based on DOE or other research. A new company, Syn-Gas Inc. (SGI), research. A contract was awarded to SGI to modify the air gasifier for oxygen operation for this project. This modification allowed extended tests of the gasifier with oxygen to determine the possibility of scaling up the SERI-SGI gasifier to 50--200 tons/day.

Reed, T.B.; Levie, B.; Graboski, M.S.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being drawn towards bioderived fuels, the most common of which is bioethanol. Bioethanol. %; however, bioethanol is produced primarily from food sources (corn, sugarcane, etc.) and its energy output to allow a sufficient flow of oxygen through the burner plate. Bronkhorst conversion coefficient factors

204

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project objectives are: (1) To discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. In particular, novel heterogeneous catalysts will be studied and optimized for the production of: (a) C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} alcohols using conventional methanol synthesis conditions, and (b) methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. (2) To explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (3) To develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for the conversion of syngas to liquid products. The authors have prepared a comparative Zn/Cr spinel oxide support that contains excess ZnO and have looked at the catalytic performance of (a) the bare support, (b) a potassium traverse on the bare support to determine the effect of alkali addition in the absence of Pd and (c) a potassium traverse on the support impregnated with 6 wt% Pd. The bare support is an inefficient methanol catalyst. Alkali addition results in an increase in selectivity to total alcohols vs. the bare support and a dramatic increase higher alcohol synthesis. Pd addition results in further improvements in performance. Selectivities increase with K loading. The 5 wt% K, 5.9 wt% Pd catalyst produces > 100 g/kg-hr of isobutanol at 440 C and 1,000 psi, with 85% selectivity to total alcohols and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of <2. The authors intend to continue formulation screening using K/Pd formulations on ZnO and ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared conventionally and via controlled pH precipitation. They will also examine the effect of Cs in place of K as the alkali promoter and the use of Rh instead of Pd as a promoter.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

Dees, D.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INP Toulouse) cole doctorale et discipline ou spcialit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

A Study of EndtoEnd Web Access Failures Venkata N. Padmanabhan + Sriram Ramabhadran Sharad Agarwal + Jitendra Padhye +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Padmanabhan, Venkata N.

209

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

210

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

211

Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

Austin, J.C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

214

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

THE PATH OF OXYGEN IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment is described in which an attempt is made to follow the path of oxygen in photosynthesis by the use of O{sup 18} as a tracer.

Dorough, G.D.; Calvin, M.

1950-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants  

SciTech Connect

The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

218

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

220

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

223

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Generation of electricity with fuel cell using alcohol fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method for generating electricity in a fuel cell, the fuel cell comprising a cathode, an electrolyte, an anode comprising a first, fluid-permeable face and a second face in contact with the electrolyte, and an external circuit connecting the cathode and the anode. It comprises bringing a lower primary alcohol into contact with the first fluid-permeable face of the anode, thereby permitting the lower primary alcohol to penetrate into the cross-section of the anode toward the second face; oxidizing the lower primary alcohol essentially to carbon dioxide and water at the second face of the anode, reducing a reducible gas at the cathode, and obtaining electricity from the fuel cell.

Reddy, N.R.K.V.; Taylor, E.J.

1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

225

Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Samples and donations of alcoholic beverages shall be reported as sales. Each transfer of samples between licensees authorized to possess alcoholic beverages on which the California state alcoholic beverages taxes have not been paid (manufacturers, manufacturers ’ agents, distilled spirits wholesalers and rectifiers) shall be on an ex-tax basis, and shall be recorded on an invoice marked: “Samples.” Distilled spirits taxpayers receiving samples from other licensees in California shall record the receipt in form BOE-241-A. Samples received by direct importation shall be recorded in form BOE-242-A. Distilled spirits picked up at the licensed premises of a distilled spirits rectifier or wholesaler by a representative of a manufacturer or of a manufacturer’s agent to be used by him for sampling purposes, shall not be considered to be a transfer of samples between the licensees referred to in the second paragraph of this rule. Such deliveries of distilled

Regulation Treated; As Sales

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Twelfth quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have prepared an improved version of 10-DAN-54, a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide promoted with Pd and K. This material (16-DMM-68) has acceptable elemental analysis for the expected composition and possesses the desired high surface area of >80 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst has extra added potassium vs. the standard catalyst, 10-DAN-54, as previous work had indicated that more potassium is required for optimal performance. In tests under standard conditions (400 C, 1,000 psi, GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1), this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 84% and produces > 100 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 4.7. The authors have tested 16-DMM-68 at temperatures above 400 C and pressures up to 1,500 psi (GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1). At 440 C and 1500 psi, this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 64% and produces 179 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 2.2. This is their best overall performance to data. The catalyst operates at syngas conversions up to 28% with good selectivity to total alcohols due to the extra added alkali. This performance can be compared with 10-DAN-54, which could only operate up to 20% conversion before hydrocarbon formation became a serious inefficiency.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Alcohol Use among Restaurant Workers: An Examination of the Impact of Work-related Stress and Workplace Culture.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite reports indicating high levels of alcohol use in the restaurant industry, little research has examined alcohol use among restaurant workers in an in depth… (more)

Rocheleau, Gregory Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form (Instructions for completing this form are attached.) STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN A. Employee Name __________________________________________________________________ (Print) First M.I. Last B. Employee ID No. __________________________________________________________ C. Employer Name __________________________________________________________ _____________________________________(____)________________ HRP Supervisor Phone Number D. Reason for Test: Random Reasonable Susp. Post-Accident Return to Duty Follow-up Pre-employment

232

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

gas, coal, or biomass • Enhances the potential use of oxygenates as neat fuels or fuel additives • Develops a catalyst with high selectivity for ...

233

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Continuous Flow Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes Utilizing Bleach and Catalytic Tetrabutylammonium Bromide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a method for the oxidation of a range of alcohols and aldehydes utilizing a simple flow system of alcohols in EtOAc with a stream of 12.5% NaOCl and catalytic Bu[subscript 4]NBr. Secondary alcohols are oxidized ...

Leduc, Andrew B.

236

Synthesis of Cyclic Aza-Ether Compounds and Studies of Their Use as Anion Receptors in Non-Aqueous Lithium Halide Salt Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of new anion receptors, based on cyclic aza-ether compounds, have been synthesized. In all of these cyclic aza-ether compounds, the electron-withdrawing group CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} was attached to each of the nitrogen atoms. When used as additives, all of them can significantly increase the ionic conductivity of lithium halide salts in THF solutions. This is due to the complexation between these compounds and halide anions. Ionic conductivity studies show that the complexation behavior is related to both the ring structure of the cyclic compounds and the characteristics of the halide anions. X-ray diffraction data show that the diffraction patterns of the complex crystals are different from the pure cyclic aza-ether compounds. New Bragg peaks representing a large d-spacing ({approx}15 {angstrom}) are observed for the complex crystals which provides a clear evidence for complexation.

Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.; Callahan, J. H.; Choi, L. S.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

Cotton, I.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Direct Observation of Oxygen Superstructures in Manganites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of superstructures associated with the oxygen 2p states in two prototypical manganites using x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K edge. In the stripe order system Bi{sub 0.31}Ca{sub 0.69}MnO{sub 3}, hole-doped O states are orbitally ordered, at the same propagation vector as the Mn orbital ordering, but no oxygen charge stripes are found at this periodicity. In La{sub 7/8}Sr{sub 1/8}MnO{sub 3}, we observe a 2p charge ordering described by alternating hole-poor and hole-rich MnO planes that is consistent with some of the recent predictions.

Grenier, S.; Tonnerre, J. M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Thomas, K. J.; Hill, J. P. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Staub, U.; Bodenthin, Y.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Sherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Scagnoli, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, S-W.; Kim, B. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

240

Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective October 1, 2008, for purposes of tax reporting, a taxpayer will be deemed to have correctly classified an alcoholic beverage as not being a distilled spirit, as defined by Business and Professions Code section 23005, if at the time taxes are imposed, as set forth in the Revenue and Taxation Code, division 2, part 14, chapters 4, 5, and

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Plasma Concentrations of/3-Endorphin, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, and Cortisol in Drinking and Abstinent Chronic Alcoholics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrations of l~-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in drinking and abstinent chronic alcoholics. ALCOHOL 12(6) 525-529, 1995.-Previous studies of the relationship between the endogenous opioid system and alcohol consumption have reported contradictory results. To shed light on this connection, we compared plasma concentrations of B-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in 70 alcoholic persons after different periods of abstinence and a group of 80 control subjects. Plasma B-endorphin was decreased in alcoholics (18.61 _+ 1.38 vs. 39.31 + 3.44 pg/ml), even after more than 10 years ' abstinence. This effect may be mediated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline system, and may thus result from chronic alcohol consumption. On the other hand, lowered circulating concentrations of/3-endorphin may be a cause, rather than an effect, of alcoholism. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol did not differ in alcoholics and controls (19.29 ± 1.66 vs. 13.27 _+ 1.85 pg/ml for ACTH, 20.37 ~ 0.78 vs. 17.22 _ 0.64 ng/ml for cortisol), and thus appear to have no relation with chronic alcohol consumption. Adrenocorticotropic hormone Alcoholism /3-Endorphins Cortisol Tetrahydroisoquinolines THE RELATIONSHIP between alcohol consumption, abuse, and dependence, and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) has been investigated frequently (7,8,10,24,28,34). Although the findings have been contradictory, it nonetheless appears clear

J. L. Del Arbol; L J. C. Aguirre; J. Raya; J. Rico; M. E. Ruiz-requenat; M. T. Miranda

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

CenterLineBowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism--is designed for middle-school and high-school scienceCenterLineBowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, University of North Carolina grant to develop a second science-based curriculum. Designed for high-school students,Fetal Alcohol

Crews, Stephen

244

Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrolytic cell produces a mixture of highly ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases by a method combining electrolysis and radiolysis of an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte, which may be 25 percent of potassium hydroxide, is introduced into the cell and is simultaneously subjected to an electrolyting current and intense irradiation by electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 10/sup -10/ meters.

Horvath, S.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m{sup 2}/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

Widayat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia); Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

248

Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Probing Oxygen Activation Sites in Two Flavoprotein Oxidases Using Chloride as an Oxygen Surrogate  

SciTech Connect

A single basic residue above the si-face of the flavin ring is the site of oxygen activation in glucose oxidase (GOX) (His516) and monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) (Lys265). Crystal structures of both flavoenzymes exhibit a small pocket at the oxygen activation site that might provide a preorganized binding site for superoxide anion, an obligatory intermediate in the two-electron reduction of oxygen. Chloride binds at these polar oxygen activation sites, as judged by solution and structural studies. First, chloride forms spectrally detectable complexes with GOX and MSOX. The protonated form of His516 is required for tight binding of chloride to oxidized GOX and for rapid reaction of reduced GOX with oxygen. Formation of a binary MSOX-chloride complex requires Lys265 and is not observed with Lys265Met. Binding of chloride to MSOX does not affect the binding of a sarcosine analogue (MTA, methylthioactetate) above the re-face of the flavin ring. Definitive evidence is provided by crystal structures determined for a binary MSOX-chloride complex and a ternary MSOX-chloride-MTA complex. Chloride binds in the small pocket at a position otherwise occupied by a water molecule and forms hydrogen bonds to four ligands that are arranged in approximate tetrahedral geometry: Lys265:NZ, Arg49:NH1, and two water molecules, one of which is hydrogen bonded to FAD:N5. The results show that chloride (i) acts as an oxygen surrogate, (ii) is an effective probe of polar oxygen activation sites, and (iii) provides a valuable complementary tool to the xenon gas method that is used to map nonpolar oxygen-binding cavities.

Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Chen, Zhi-wei; Bruckner, Robert C.; Mathews, F. Scott; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman (Drexel-MED); (St. Louis-MED); (WU-MED)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

250

Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Group Meeting Working Group Meeting 11/06/2007 Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols Sugars and Sugar Alcohols * * Problem: Problem: Need Need to develop renewable to develop renewable hydrogen production technologies using hydrogen production technologies using diverse diverse feedstocks feedstocks 10 15 20 CH 4 : C 6 H 14 ln(P) * * Description: Description: The BioForming The BioForming TM TM process uses process uses aqueous phase reforming to cost effectively aqueous phase reforming to cost effectively produce hydrogen from a range of feedstocks, produce hydrogen from a range of feedstocks, including glycerol and sugars. The key including glycerol and sugars. The key breakthrough is a proprietary catalyst that breakthrough is a proprietary catalyst that

252

Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

Fitzcharles, H.M. III

253

Report to the Congress: strategic alcohol fuel reserve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of developing a Strategic Alcohol Fuel Reserve (SAFURE) is examined in this report. The analysis compares each of three different ethanol storage program options to that portion of the currently-planned Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) which could be replaced by a particular SAFURE program. These options are: Ethanol Spare Production Capacity Utilization using essentially uneconomical, existing production capacity; Market Diversion through government purchases of ethanol for SAFURE storage, and Dedicated Plants using federal contracts to procure the entire output of five new plants. Based on this most recent analysis and other information currently available, it was concluded that the costs of acquiring, storing and managing an alcohol fuel reserve are substantially higher than the costs of the current SPR program. The net economic and security benefits of the current SPR program are also higher, and the budget costs of the SPR program are lower.

Not Available

1982-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

255

Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

Pope, James M. (Monroeville, PA); Lahoda, Edward J. (Edgewood, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

258

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A person may be relieved from the liability for the payment of alcoholic beverage taxes, including any penalties and interest added to those taxes, when that liability resulted from the failure to make a timely return or a payment and such failure was found by the board to be due to reasonable reliance on written advice given by the board as described in California Code of Regulations, Title 18, Section 4902.

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Energy-efficient alcohol-fuel production. Technical final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proposed utilization schedule for the alcohol fuel plant and methane generator is to produce 180 proof ethanol during the spring, summer, and fall (April to October). The ethanol will be used in the farm tractors and trucks during the planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. Some alcohol can be stored for use during the winter. The still will not be operated during the winter (November to March) when the methane from the digester will be used to replace fuel oil for heating a swine farrowing building. There are tentative plans to develop a larger methane generator, which will utilize all of the manure (dairy, beef, horses, and swine) produced on the ISU farm. If this project is completed, there will be enough methane to produce all of the alcohol fuel needed to operate all of the farm equipment, heat the buildings, and possibly generate electricity for the farm. The methane generating system developed is working so well that there is a great deal of interest in expanding the project to where it could utilize all of the livestock waste on the farm for methane production.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers  

SciTech Connect

Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction on a gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt was investigated to determine the influence of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature on electrode kinetics and oxygen solubility by using cyclic Voltammetry and impedance analysis techniques. During this quarter, the impedance data were analyzed by a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) Parameter estimation program to determine the kinetic and the mass transfer related parameters such as charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance, solution resistance, and Warburg coefficient. The estimated parameters were used to obtain the C0{sub 2} reaction orders and apparent activation energies for the exchange current density and the mass transfer parameter (D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*).

Dave, B.B.; Srinivasan, S.; White, R.E.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Application of Oxygen Eddy Correlation in Aquatic Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The eddy correlation technique is rapidly becoming an established method for resolving dissolved oxygen fluxes in natural aquatic systems. This direct and noninvasive determination of oxygen fluxes close to the sediment by simultaneously ...

Claudia Lorrai; Daniel F. McGinnis; Peter Berg; Andreas Brand; Alfred Wüest

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Molecular oxygen in the rho Ophiuchi cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen, O2 has been expected historically to be an abundant component of the chemical species in molecular clouds and, as such, an important coolant of the dense interstellar medium. However, a number of attempts from both ground and from space have failed to detect O2 emission. The work described here uses heterodyne spectroscopy from space to search for molecular oxygen in the interstellar medium. The Odin satellite carries a 1.1 m sub-millimeter dish and a dedicated 119 GHz receiver for the ground state line of O2. Starting in 2002, the star forming molecular cloud core rho Oph A was observed with Odin for 34 days during several observing runs. We detect a spectral line at v(LSR) = 3.5 km/s with dv(FWHM) = 1.5 km/s, parameters which are also common to other species associated with rho Ohp A. This feature is identified as the O2 (N_J = 1_1 - 1_0) transition at 118 750.343 MHz. The abundance of molecular oxygen, relative to H2,, is 5E-8 averaged over the Odin beam. This abundance is consistently lower than previously reported upper limits.

B. Larsson; R. Liseau; L. Pagani; P. Bergman; P. Bernath; N. Biver; J. H. Black; R. S. Booth; V. Buat; J. Crovisier; C. L. Curry; M. Dahlgren; P. J. Encrenaz; E. Falgarone; P. A. Feldman; M. Fich; H. G. Flore'n; M. Fredrixon; U. Frisk; G. F. Gahm; M. Gerin; M. Hagstroem; J. Harju; T. Hasegawa; Aa. Hjalmarson; C. Horellou; L. E. B. Johansson; K. Justtanont; A. Klotz; E. Kyroelae; S. Kwok; A. Lecacheux; T. Liljestroem; E. J. Llewellyn; S. Lundin; G. Me'gie; G. F. Mitchell; D. Murtagh; L. H. Nordh; L. -Aa. Nyman; M. Olberg; A. O. H. Olofsson; G. Olofsson; H. Olofsson; G. Persson; R. Plume; H. Rickman; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rydbeck; Aa. Sandqvist; F. v. Sche'ele; G. Serra; S. Torchinsky; N. F. Tothill; K. Volk; T. Wiklind; C. D. Wilson; A. Winnberg; G. Witt

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

267

Probing brain oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. This technique allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Only in the NIR light region of 650-1000 nm, the overall absorption is sufficiently low, and the NIR light can be detected across a thick layer of tissues, among them the skin, the scull and the brain. In this region, there are many absorbing light chromophores, but only three are important as far as the oxygenation is concerned. They are the hemoglobin (HbO2), the deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and cytochrome oxidase (CtOx). In the last 20 years there was an enormous growth in the instrumentation and applications of NIRS. . The devices that were used in our experiments were : Somanetics's INVOS Brain Oximeter (IBO) and Toomim's HEG spectrophotometer. The performances of both devices were compared including their merits and draw...

Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ... Electronic Materials Science Challenges in Renewable Energy.

269

E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the mineral and water respectively. Oxygen isotopic ratios are The Geologic Time Scale 2012. DOI: 10.1016/B978E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios for global correlation. Relying on previous compilations and new data, this chapter presents oxygen isotope

Grossman, Ethan L.

270

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

272

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Thirteenth quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have tested a number of K/Pd promoted Zn/Mn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts within an experimental design to determine the effect of K, Pd, temperature and pressure on catalyst performance. High temperature operation (at 440 C) results in drastic loss in selectivities to total alcohols (down to 18--30%), and this obscures the effect of the catalyst formulation variables. It appears that at higher temperatures, the tube walls can also catalyze syngas conversion with a more hydrogen-rich syngas mix. Comparison with tests in a copper-lined tube with 1:1 syngas confirm this hypothesis. The design suggested that higher Pd loadings would be beneficial for isobutanol synthesis. The 6 wt% and a 9 wt% Pd formulation were tested with 1:2 syngas in copper-lined tubes. The 6 wt% Pd catalyst, at 440 C and 1,500 psi, produced 71 g/kg-hr of isobutanol with a methanol/isobutanol product mole ratio < 1. Under the same conditions, the 9 wt% Pd catalyst is again inferior, producing 52 g/kg-hr of isobutanol with a methanol/isobutanol product mole ratio = 1.7. Of particular interest here is that the 6 wt% Pd catalyst produces more higher alcohols than methanol on a molar basis at good rates using a syngas mix that could be derived from a Shell gasifier.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Ligand Rearrangement Reactions of Cr(CO)6 in Alcohol Solutions:Experiment and Theory  

SciTech Connect

The ligand rearrangement reaction of Cr(CO)6 is studied in a series of alcohol solutions using ultrafast, infrared spectroscopy and Brownian dynamics simulations.

Shanoski, Jennifer E.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Charles B.

2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

274

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells  

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells. BNL Reference Number: BSA 99-05. Summary. ... Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in ...

275

Biomass-based alcohol fuels: the near-term potential for use with gasoline  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report serves as an introduction to the requirements and prospects for a nationwide alcohol-gasoline fuel system based on alcohols derived from biomass resources. Technological and economic factors of the production and use of biomass-based methanol and ethanol fuels are evaluated relative to achieving 5 or 10 percent alcohol-gasoline blends by 1990. It is concluded the maximum attainable is a nationwide 5 percent methanol or ethanol-gasoline system replacing gasoline by 1990. Relative to existing gasoline systems, costs of alcohol-gasoline systems will be substantial.

Park, W.; Price, G.; Salo, D.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

REVIEW ARTICLE Alcohol and injury in Poland: review and training recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background Alcohol plays a significant role in accidents, injuries, and their outcomes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide; in 2000, 1.8 million deaths and loss of 58.3 million disability-adjusted life years were attributed to alcohol. Methods Although the association between alcohol consumption and trauma-related morbidity and mortality is well-documented, particularly in the US, there is much less At the time this paper was written, Dr. Wozniak was a Fogarty

Piotr Wozniak; Rebecca Cunningham; Sonia Kamat; Kristen L. Barry; Frederic C. Blow; Andrzej S. Zawadzki; P. Wozniak; R. Cunningham; S. Kamat; A. S. Zawadzki; R. Cunningham

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock  

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

278

Alcohol and Marijuana Use Across the Transition to Marriage: Group Differences and Psychosocial Factors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It has been well-established that alcohol and marijuana use levels tend to decline during the transition to marriage, or the transition from single to married… (more)

Auerbach, Karen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Electron and hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms for the photoreduction of o-quinones. Visible light induced photoreactions of. beta. -lapachone with amines, alcohols, and amino alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

{beta}-Lapachone (1), a substituted o-naphthoquinone absorbing into the visible ({lambda}{sub max} = 424 nm in benzene), is cleanly and efficiently reduced to the corresponding semiquinone radical upon photolysis in degassed solutions with alcohols, amines, and {beta}-amino alcohols. The course and products of these photoreactions have been followed by NMR, ESR, fluorescence, and absorption spectroscopy. For all three types of reductant the overall reaction involves 2e{sup {minus}} oxidation of the donor, and the quantum efficiencies show a dependence upon quinone concentration indicative of the role of a second dark reduction of 1 by products of the primary photolysis. For amines and amino alcohols the reaction is initiated by single electron transfer quenching of triplet 1. For triethylamine the mechanism is indicated to be a sequence of two electron transfer-proton transfer steps culminating in two semiquinone radicals and the enamine Et{sub 2}NCH{double bond}CH{sub 2}. For amino alcohols a C-C cleavage concurrent with deprotonation of the alcohol (oxidative photofragmentation) occurs, in competition with reverse electron transfer, following the quenching step. For both amines and amino alcohols, limiting efficiencies of reaction approach 2 (for QH{sup {sm bullet}} formation). In contrast, both 2-propanol and benzyl alcohol are oxidized by excited states of 1 with much lower efficiency. The probable mechanism for photooxidation of the alcohols involves a H atom abstraction quenching of the excited state followed by an electron transfer-proton transfer sequence in which a ground-state 1 is reduced. Lower limiting efficiencies for photoreduction of 1 by the alcohols are attributed to inefficiencies of net H-atom transfer in the quenching step. 54 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Xiaohong Ci; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (USA)); Silveira da Silva, R.; Nicodem, D. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1989-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations, Papers, and Publications Presentations, Papers, and Publications ITM Oxygen Development for Advanced Oxygen Supply (Oct 2011) Ted Foster, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. presented at the Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA Oct 9-12, 2011. ASU/IGCC Integration Strategies (Oct 2009), David McCarthy, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Taking the Next Step (Oct 2009), VanEric Stein, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Scaling Up a Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Technology (Oct 2006) Philip Armstrong, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2006 Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington, D.C. ITM Oxygen: The New Oxygen Supply for the New IGCC Market (Oct 2005)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

(Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts)  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

[Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

Novel reactor configuration for synthesis gas conversion to alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the conversion of synthesis gas to alcohols and reactor configuration. Objectives for this quarter: the project stated on October 1, 1989 and according to the Task Schedule provided in the original work breakdown schedule, Task I was to be completed in the first quarter and Task II to be started. Task I consisted of construction of the slurry reactor set-up to be used in Task IV for determination of the reactor kinetics and procurement of the parts for automation equipment, separators, computer activated parts etc. for automation of the trickle bed rector and GC equipment. Task II consisted of standardization and automation of GC analysis protocols. 1 fig.

Akgerman, A.; Anthony, R.G. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple rat peritoneal model where enhanced peritoneal fluid neutrophil infiltration was noted in rats injected OPN intraperitoneally. Taken together these data indicate that OPN expression induced during ASH may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ASH by stimulating neutrophil transmigration.

Apte, Udayan M. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Banerjee, Atrayee [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); McRee, Rachel [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Wellberg, Elizabeth [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Ramaiah, Shashi K. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States)]. E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

2005-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

Level of osteopenia and bone recovery in alcohol-fed adolescent rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adolescence is a period in human growth and development that is a time of rapid and drastic change. It is also known to be an age of widespread alcohol abuse. Studies addressing the reversibility of the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption on young, actively growing adolescent bones have not been done. The objective of this study was to determine the level of bone recovery, if any, once an adolescent ceases alcohol consumption. Fifty, 4-week old, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were individually housed and maintained in an American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care-accredited facility at Texas A&M. The rats (n = 6 or 7 per group) were fed either alcohol (35% ethanol-derived calories), isocaloric liquid diet, or chow for 2 or 4 weeks, depending on the experimental group. The weekly blood alcohol concentrations averaged 309 [] 9 mg/dl. The rats were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after the experimental feeding began. The BioQuant Morphometric System was used to perform the histomorphometric analyses of the proximal tibia. Tibia bone volume per trabecular volume (BV/TV) in both age groups of alcohol and pair-fed animals was significantly less when compared to the chow 4 week animals. BV/TV was increased in the alcohol recovery group when compared to the alcohol 2 and 4 week groups, but the level of growth never reached the chow-fed 4 week group. Femur length, diameter and volume measurements increased in the alcohol recovery group when compared to both the alcohol 2 and 4 week groups. However, the length and volume parameters did not fully recover to equal those of the control chow 4 week animals, or even the some-age pair-fed animals. Femur diameter of the alcohol recovery animals was comparable to the alcohol 4 week animals, but less than the chow-fed. Alcohol also suppressed IGF-I levels. Full bone recovery did not occur within two weeks after removal of alcohol from the diet, suggesting the detrimental effects due to alcohol were not completely reversible during this time frame.

Spears, Heather Lynae

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Economics of producing fuel-grade alcohol from corn in western Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of significant quantities of alcohol fuel will have important effects on the use of agricultural resources, including increased food prices. The two major objectives of this research were to determine (1) the potential effects of alcohol-fuel production on agriculture, and (2) the increase in energy prices needed for alcohol-fuel production to become economic. Western Ohio (the Corn Belt part of the state) was chosen for study. A quadratic-programming model with crop, livestock, and alcohol-fuel-production activities was used for analysis. Four alcohol-fuel-production levels were analyzed: 100, 200, 300 and 400 million gallons. The 400-million-gallon level represents western Ohio's share of alcohol-fuel production for a national gasohol program. The production of alcohol results in a high protein by-product feed that can substitute for soybean meal. Efficient use of this by-product is a crucial factor affecting resource use and food prices. At low alcohol-fuel production levels, 80% of the additional cropland required for increased corn production comes from the cropland released through by-product feeding. However, as alcohol-fuel production increases, livestock's ability to use efficiently this by-product feed decreases. This in turn, reduces greatly the cropland that can be released for increased corn production. Consequently, food prices increase substantially. The quantity of land released through by-product feeding, at high alcohol-fuel-production levels, can be increased if the corn is first wet milled. Wet milling produces high-protein feeds that can be used more efficiently by livestock. For alcohol-fuel production to become economic, crude oil prices must increase by ten cents per gallon for the wet-milling process and 22 cents per gallon for the conventional distillery process (1981 $).

Ott, S.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

Bomelburg, H.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Results of Reference List Query  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1991) (54-1333 keV: acetophenone, acetylacetone, bakelite, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, cellulose-triacetate, ethanol, ether, ethylacetoacetate ...

297

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301

Electrochemical Investigation of Li–Al Anodes in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 500 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of 0.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 30.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 100 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 280 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Zhou, Y.N.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.J.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Haas, O.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Electrochemical Investigation of Li-Al Anodes in Oligo (ethylene glycol) Dimethyl ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Y Zhou; X Wang; H Lee; K Nam; X Yang; O Haas

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Alcoholic fermentation of raw sweet potato by a nonconventional method using Endomycopsis fibuligera glucoamylase preparation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, alcoholic fermentation has received much attention as an alternative energy source. In conventional alcoholic fermentation from starchy materials, precooking is necessary for liquefaction and saccharification of the broth, which requires a large amount of heat energy - about 30-40% of all energy spent for alcohol production. Ueda and his co-workers have attempted to produce ethanol from raw starch in a single-step process, which combines liquefaction, saccharification, and yeast fermentation without cooking and autoclaving by using glucoamylase preparation from Aspergillus niger in order to save the cost of energy consumption by cooking. Ueda has also reported alcoholic fermentation of sweet potato without cooking by using Rhizopus glucoamylase preparation. In the present communication, we report the effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation of sweet potato without cooking by using Endomycopsis fibuligers glucoamylase preparation. (Refs. 5).

Saha, B.C.; Ueda, S.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

306

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

307

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

308

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

309

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

310

METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

McBride, J.P.

1962-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

311

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

312

Modeling the Oxygen - Hydrazine Reaction in PWR Secondary Feedwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proper control of oxygen in primary water reactor (PWR) secondary feedwater, using hydrazine, has been an enduring issue. The requirements on the oxygen concentration are partly opposing. Fully deoxygenated conditions in the steam generators are essential to minimize corrosion. On the other hand, some oxygen in the feedwater counteracts corrosion of carbon steel surfaces and the transport of corrosion products to the steam generators. Optimization is, therefore, essential. This work applies the frame...

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

313

Dense ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with partial oxidation of methane to syngas is that of the oxygen plant. In this paper, the authors offer a technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required and if the driving potential of transport is sufficient, the partial oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen anions, not oxygen molecules. In principle, the dense ceramic materials can be shaped into a hollow-tube reactor, with air passed over the outside of the membrane and methane through the inside. The membrane is permeable to oxygen at high temperatures, but not to nitrogen or any other gas. Long tubes of La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) membrane were fabricated by plastic extrusion, and thermal stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be acceptable for a reactor material. Fracture of certain SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. However, tubes made with a particular stoichiometry (SFC-2) provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. Some of the reactor tubes have operated for up to {approx} 1,000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Sweeney, S.M.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Pei, S.; Kobylinski, T.P. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oxygen isotope compositions of cores and cuttings from Long Valley exploration wells show that the Bishop Tuff has been an important reservoir for both fossil and active...

317

Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Sr3YCo4O10+d and the Ultrafast Redox ...

318

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and Arlon J. Hunt Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 343-347 Keywords aerogel, air pressure, oxygen concentration, oxygen molecules, photoluminescence Abstract Photoluminescent silica aerogel acts as the active element of an optical sensor for molecular oxygen. The luminescent aerogel is prepared by the action of energized reducing gases on a standard silica aerogel. Intensity of aerogel photoluminescence decreases as the collision frequency between oxygen molecules and the luminescent carriers in the aerogel matrix increases. This behavior is a characteristic of many photoluminescent materials and arises from a transfer of energy from the aerogel to surrounding oxygen molecules. A sensor for oxygen concentration or air pressure can therefore be simply constructed utilizing an ultraviolet source for excitation and a suitable detector for the emitted visible signal. Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the aerogel sensing element are 1.55×10-2 Torr-1 for hydrophilic aerogel and 2.4×10-3 Torr-1 for hydrophobic aerogel.

319

Development of Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National...

320

Calorimetric Investigation of the Lithium–Manganese–Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Calorimetric Investigation of the Lithium–Manganese–Oxygen Cathode Material System for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Damian M. Cupid, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

323

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

324

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

325

First-Principles Study of the Oxygen Evolution Reaction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this talk, we present our study of the mechanisms of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

326

Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers. Author(s), Elizabeth Hoffman, T. Eric Skidmore, Donald L Fisher, William L ...

327

ORNL-grown oxygen 'sponge' presents path to better catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presents path to better catalysts, energy materials This schematic depicts a new ORNL-developed material that can easily absorb or shed oxygen atoms. This schematic depicts...

328

Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance of Ionic and Electronic Carriers. Author(s), Rotraut Merkle, Lei Wang,

329

NETL: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Looping Combustion Project No.: DE-FE0001808 NETL has partnered with Western Kentucky University to develop a series of advanced oxygen carriers for coal-fueled...

330

Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon substrate and their catalytic function takes place in acid medium. This harsh environment causes an undesired reaction, which is the dissolution of the metal atoms into the acid medium; thus affecting the catalyst life. This dissertation aims to investigate the dissolution mechanism of fuel cell cathode catalysts at the atomic level starting from the oxygen reaction intermediates on the cathode catalyst surface and propose guidelines to improve cathode catalysts durability based on our proposed mechanism. Density functional theory is employed to study various possible scenarios with the goals of understanding the mechanism of the metal atom dissolution process and establishing some guidelines that permit a rational design of catalysts with better stability against dissolution. A thermodynamic analysis of potential metal dissolution reactions in acid medium is presented first, using density functional theory calculations to explore the relative stabilities of transition metals in relation to that of Pt. The study is performed by comparing the change in reaction Gibbs free energies for different metals in a given dissolution reaction. Then, a series of density functional theory studies, tending to investigate the adsorbed atomic oxygen absorption process from cathode catalyst surface into its subsurface, includes: 1) the oxygen adsorption on various catalyst surfaces and oxygen absorption in subsurface sites to figure out the minimum energy pathway and energy barrier of on-surface oxygen migration and absorption into subsurface; 2) the oxygen coverage, the other oxygen reduction reaction intermediates, and water effects on the oxygen absorption process according to reaction pathways, energy barriers, and thermodynamic analysis; 3) the oxygen absorption process on several Pt-based alloys with various compositions and components to find out the best alloy to inhibit atomic oxygen absorption including both kinetic and thermodynamic analyses, and the effects of such alloyed species on the inhibition process.

Gu, Zhihui

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Electrocatalysis: A Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell and Surface Science Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have enabled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis. More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation of C-1 and C-2 alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the influence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis. Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Braunchweig, B [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hibbitts, David D [ORNL; Neurock, Matthew [University of Virginia; Wieckowski, A. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Electrocatalysis: A direct alcohol fuel cell and surface science perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have ena bled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis.More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation ofC1 and Cz alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the innuence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis.Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields.

Braunchweig, B [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Neurock, Matthew [University of Virginia; Wieckowski, A. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hibbitts, David D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Atmospheric Pressure Low Current Plasma for Syngas Production from Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract – Atmospheric pressure low current arc discharge between graphite electrodes with conical geometry in liquid ethanol/water mixture was investigated. Syngas production was demonstrated over large experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on discharge aspects. It is shown from pictures that the behavior of low current arc discharge with consumable electrodes represents non-stationary plasma. The energetic properties of plasmas can be used to carry out many applications, particularly in discharge based systems. Recently, research interest focuses on the Non Thermal Plasma (NTP) treatment of hydrocarbons, alcohol, or biomass aimed to improve the yield of synthetic gas (syngas: H2+CO) production at low cost [1, 4]. Experiments were performed on a plasma reactor consisting of two graphite electrodes with conical shape

Ahmed Khacef; Khadija Arabi; Olivier Aubry; Jean Marie Cormier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

335

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

Isaacs, Hugh S. (Shoreham, NY); Romano, Anthony J. (Kings Park, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Effect of Feedwater Oxygen Control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests in an operating BWR show that routine injection of oxygen into the feedwater to control radiation buildup is not warranted under normal operating conditions. However, since oxygen injection reduces the nickel release rate, it might be considered on a plant-by-plant basis for BWRs experiencing high nickel corrosion levels.

1985-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

339

Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an update of EPRI's 1990 report, "Assessment and Guide for Meeting Dissolved Oxygen Water Quality Standards for Hydroelectric Plant Discharges" (GS-7001). The report provides an updated review of technologies and techniques for enhancing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in reservoirs and releases from hydroelectric projects and state-of-the-art methods, equipment, and techniques for monitoring DO.

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

340

Photolithographic patterning of polymer-encapsulated optical oxygen sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we show a novel fabrication process capable of yielding arbitrarily-shaped optical oxygen sensor patterns at micron resolution. The wafer-level process uses a thin-film sacrificial metal layer as intermediate mask, protecting the sensor ... Keywords: Optical oxygen sensor, Photolithography, PtOEPK/PS, Sensor patterning

Volker Nock; Maan Alkaisi; Richard J. Blaikie

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

342

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÃ?1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Levin, Lisa

343

Design and development of eco-friendly alcohol engine fitted with waste heat recovery system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper discusses the design and development of an eco-friendly alcohol engine fitted with the waste heat recovery system as a remedial alternative to the existing commonly used internal combustion engine. With the present trends in Internal ...

G. Vijayan Iyer; Nikos E. Mastorakis

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Conway, Tyrrell (Gainesville, FL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Use of plastic construction materials in small-scale fuel alcohol production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several general designs for small-scale fuel alcohol plants that have been published primarily use conventional materials of construction (steel, copper, etc.). A fuel alcohol plant owned by Dixie Fuels, Inc. Valley Park, Mississippi, and a farm-scale alcohol plant being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority have incorporated plastic materials in several areas of their plants; results have been excellent in terms of reduced materials, labor, and operating costs. However, plastics were not used in the distillation step. This work investigated the suitability of small-scale distillation equipment made entirely or partially from plastics. A low-cost alcohol distillation system can be constructed using chlorinated poly(viny chloride) (CPVC) pipe or poly(vinly chloride) (PVC) plastic pipe for the column and heat-exchanger shells. Although pipe made from CPVC is preferred, schedule 80 PVC pipe can be used if external supports are used to provide rigidity. 3 figures, 1 table. (DP)

Lightsey, G.R.; Kadir, O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Some economic implications of the utilization of alcohol for the production of energy  

SciTech Connect

The production rate of ethanol per unit of land was examined for different crops and the order of magnitude of the costs was calculated. Alcohol production programs in Brazil, Thailand and Sudan are described.

Bennett, M.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas

Song-bai Qiu; Wei-wei Huang; Yong Xu; Lu Liu; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coadsorption and interactions of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. In the absence of hydrogen oxygen forms a (2 x 2) ordered structure. Coadsorption of hydrogen leads to a structural transformation from (2 x 2) to a ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree structure. In addition to this transformation, hydrogen enhances the mobility of oxygen. To explain these observations, the interaction of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied within the density functional theory. In agreement with the experiment the calculations find a total energy minimum for the oxygen (2 x 2) structure. The interaction between H and O atoms was found to be repulsive and short ranged, leading to a compression of the O islands from (2 x 2) to ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree ordered structure at high H coverage. The computed energy barriers for the oxygen diffusion were found to be reduced due to the coadsorption of hydrogen, in agreement with the experimentally observed enhancement of oxygen mobility. The calculations also support the finding that at low temperatures the water formation reaction does not occur on Pd(1 1 1).

Demchenko, D.O.; Sacha, G.M.; Salmeron, M.; Wang, L.-W.

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

350

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

351

Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

352

Partial oxidation for improved cold starts in alcohol-fueled engines: Phase 2 topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alcohol fuels exhibit poor cold-start performance because of their low volatility. Neat alcohol engines become difficult, if not impossible, to start at temperatures close to or below freezing. Improvements in the cold-start performance (both time to start and emissions) are essential to capture the full benefits of alcohols as an alternative transportation fuel. The objective of this project was to develop a neat alcohol partial oxidation (POX) reforming technology to improve an alcohol engine`s ability to start at low temperatures (as low as {minus}30 C) and to reduce its cold-start emissions. The project emphasis was on fuel-grade ethanol (E95) but the technology can be easily extended to other alcohol fuels. Ultimately a compact, on-vehicle, ethanol POX reactor was developed as a fuel system component to produce a hydrogen-rich, fuel-gas mixture for cold starts. The POX reactor is an easily controllable combustion device that allows flexibility during engine startup even in the most extreme conditions. It is a small device that is mounted directly onto the engine intake manifold. The gaseous fuel products (or reformate) from the POX reactor exit the chamber and enter the intake manifold, either replacing or supplementing the standard ethanol fuel consumed during an engine start. The combustion of the reformate during startup can reduce engine start time and tail-pipe emissions.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen consumption is an essential process of the functioning brain. The rate at which the brain consumes oxygen is known as the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?). CMRO? is intimately related to brain health and ...

Bolar, Divya Sanam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the analytical protocols that were developed during the last two years to analyze ''spent'' THQ (tetrahydroquinoline) slurry liquid. Identification of the components of the ''spent'' THQ should help to understand the influence of the slurry medium on the methanol synthesis reaction, and on other reactions with THQ as the slurry liquid. Silica gel liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the major compounds in the ''spent'' slurry liquid. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to identify the major compounds. Methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-THQ were found to comprise more than 80% of the ''spent'' liquid. The balance was various methylated indoles. A methyl group always is attached to the N atom in the ring structure. Speculative mechanisms are presented that may help to understand the interaction between the catalyst and the alkylated THQ slurry liquid, and the effect of liquid composition on the methanol synthesis reaction. A poster entitled ''Promoted Zinc Chromite Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor-2. Spent Liquid Analysis'' was presented at the AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 12-17, 2000.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Seabird SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ocean for ...

Eric A. D’Asaro; Craig McNeil

362

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above

363

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

364

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability… (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

SciTech Connect

These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

An additional benefit from the oxygen in-situ combustion process or fireflooding is the generation of produced gases containing a high concentration of CO/sub 2/ (>90 mole %). This CO/sub 2/ could be recovered and utilized for miscible and immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding for EOR. This paper investigates the feasibility of recovering and marketing CO/sub 2/ from oxygen firefloods for this purpose. The expected compositions and volumes of associated gas produced from commercial oxygen in-situ combustion projects based on literature data and actual field tests are presented. In addition, the market prospects based on the transportation requirements and the costs associated with the recovery of CO/sub 2/ from an oxygen in-situ combustion project are discussed. 12 references, 2 figures, 4 tables. (JMT)

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Sea-Bird Electronics SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ...

Eric A. D'Asaro; Craig McNeil

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

371

Effect of Oxygen Potential on Crack Growth in Alloy 617  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static crack growth rate increases from 4 x 10-9 m/sec to 4 x 10-8 m/sec when the oxygen concentration decreases from .001 to .0000001 atm. Proceedings ...

372

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

The use of high purity oxygen in a fireflood project prevents the introduction of nonreactive nitrogen into the oil reservoir, and thus will significantly increase the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the produced gas. The increased CO/sub 2/ concentration would greatly simplify the recovery and processing required to utilize this CO/sub 2/ in a CO/sub 2/ flooding EOR project. The basic products produced by the reaction of oxygen with hydrocarbon fuel in the in situ combustion process are CO/sub 2/, carbon monoxide, and water. Oxygen fireflooding has technical and economic advantages over conventional fireflooding for EOR. Gas produced in an oxygen fireflood represents a major new source of high concentration CO/sub 2/ for EOR. 12 references.

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Reactive Air Brazing of Nicrofer-6025HT to BSCF for Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Oxygen separation membranes can be used to provide oxygen for ... with an oxide component that promotes wetting of ceramic materials.

375

Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

Austin, J.C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

377

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

378

Impact of timing of alcohol use initiation and depressed mood on risky substance use among urban minority adolescents.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current study involved the investigation of two research areas: (1) the effect of timing of alcohol use initiation on risky substance use in mid-adolescence,… (more)

Boohar, Ellen Moore

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Help! I need somebody (not just anybody) - the folktale's helper in personal experience narratives of recovering alcoholics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis explores the personal experience narratives of nine recovering alcoholics through the lens of folktale scholarship. Using Propp's structuralist model developed for folktales, I… (more)

Baker, Jedediah, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Alcoholic fermentation of raw cassava starch by Rhizopus koji without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using only wheat bran koji from the Rhizopus strain, raw cassava starch and cassava pellets converted reasonably well to alcohol (ethanol) without cooking at 35 degrees C and pH 4.5-5.0. When the initial broth contained 30 g raw cassava starch, 10 g Rhizopus species koji, and 100 mL tap water, 12.1 g of alcohol was recovered by final distillation from fermented broth. In this case, 12.1 g alcohol corresponds to an 85.5% conversion rate based on the theoretical value of the starch content. When the initial broth contained 40 g cassava starch, 14.1 g of alcohol was recovered, where 14.1 g corresponds to a 74.5% conversion rate. The alcoholic fermentation process described in the present work is considered more effective and reasonable than the process using raw starch without cooking reported until now, since the new process makes it unnecessary to add yeast cells and glucoamylase preparation. (Refs. 15).

Fuijo, Y.; Suyanadona, P.; Attasampunna, P.; Ueda, S.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Alcoholic fermentation of raw cassava starch by Rhizopus koji without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using only wheat bran koji from the Rhizopus strain, raw cassava starch and casava pellets converted reasonably well to alcohol (ethanol) without cooking at 35/sup 0/C and pH 4.5-5.0. When the initial broth contained 30 g raw cassava starch, 10 g Rhizopus sp. koji, and 100 mL tap water, 12.1 g of alcohol was recovered by final distillation from fermented broth. In this case, 12.1 g alcohol corresponds to an 85.5% conversion rate based on the theoretical value of the starch content. When the initial broth contained 40 g cassava starch, 14.1 g of alcohol was recovered, where 14.1 g corresponds to a 74.5% conversion rate. The alcoholic fermentation process described in the present work is considered more effective and reasonable than the process using raw starch without cooking reported until now, since the new process makes it unnecessary to add yeast cells and glucoamylase preparation.

Fujio, Y.; Suyanadona, P.; Attasampunna, P.; Ueda, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Oxygen electrode reaction in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell system is a leading candidate for the utility power generation because of its high efficiency for fuel to AC power conversion, capability for an internal reforming, and a very low environmental impact. However, the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction and the cell life time is limited by the stability of the cathode material. An elucidation of oxygen reduction reaction in molten alkali carbonate is essential because overpotential losses in the molten carbonate fuel cell are considerably greater at the oxygen cathode than at the fuel anode. Oxygen reduction on a fully-immersed gold electrode in a lithium carbonate melt was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to determine electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters. The dependences of electrode kinetic and mass transfer parameters on gas composition and temperature were examined to determine the reaction orders and the activation energies. The results showed that oxygen reduction in a pure lithium carbonate melt occurs via the peroxide mechanism. A mass transfer parameter, D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O}, estimated by the cyclic voltammetry concurred with that calculated by the EIS technique. The temperature dependence of the exchange current density and the product D{sub O}{sup 1/2}C{sub O} were examined and the apparent activation energies were determined to be about 122 and 175 kJ/ mol, respectively.

Appleby, A.J.; White, R.E.

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

384

Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

386

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Evaluation of oxygen-enrichment system for alternative fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results on the reduction in exhaust emissions achieved by using oxygen-enriched intake air on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that used Indolene and M85 as test fuels. The standard federal test procedure (FTP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) off-cycle (REP05) test were followed. The report also provides a review of literature on the oxygen membrane device and design considerations. It presents information on the sources and contributions of cold-phase emissions to the overall exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and on the various emission standards and present-day control technologies under consideration. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FTP and off-cycle emissions are discussed on the basis of test results. Conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and different approaches for the practical application of this technology in LDVs are recommended.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Ng, H.K.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Blender Net Inputs and Blender Net Inputs Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline.

389

Epitaxial oxygen sponges as low temperature catalysts | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Functional Materials for Energy Functional Materials for Energy Epitaxial oxygen sponges as low temperature catalysts September 10, 2013 Crystal structure of SrCoO2.5 superimposed on a scanning transmission electron microscopy image of an epitaxially stabilized oxygen sponge. Fast and reversible redox reactions at considerably reduced temperatures are achieved by epitaxial stabilization of multivalent transition metal oxides. This illustrates the unprecedented potential of complex oxides for oxide-ionics, where oxidation state changes are used for energy generation, storage and electrochemical sensing. Thermomechanical degradation reduces the overall performance and lifetime of many perovskite oxides undergoing reversible redox reactions, such as those found in solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable batteries,

390

Homogeneously catalyzed synthesis gas transformations to oxygenate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the ongoing oxygenates synthesis program is addressing the catalytic synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels and fuel additives. The major thrust of this effort is to enhance carbon conversion, reaction rates, product selectivity and overall process efficiency. To this effect, a series of liquid phase homogeneous catalysts have been developed and successfully utilized in the synthesis of methanol and other oxygenates. This paper identifies advantages and uncertainties associated with these newly developed catalysts. The effect of system parameters on the overall process scheme is discussed.

Mahajan, D.; Mattas, L.; Sanchez, J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Homogeneously catalyzed synthesis gas transformations to oxygenate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the ongoing oxygenates synthesis program is addressing the catalytic synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels and fuel additives. The major thrust of this effort is to enhance carbon conversion, reaction rates, product selectivity and overall process efficiency. To this effect, a series of liquid phase homogeneous catalysts have been developed and successfully utilized in the synthesis of methanol and other oxygenates. This paper identifies advantages and uncertainties associated with these newly developed catalysts. The effect of system parameters on the overall process scheme is discussed.

Mahajan, D.; Mattas, L.; Sanchez, J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Operational safety report for the cleaning of non-radioactive, sodium-wetted reactor components with ethyl alcohol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety aspects of the removal of sodium from nonradioactive reactor components by the alcohol process are described in detail. Pertinent properties of alcohol and hydrogen are presented. Relevant excerpts from the Occupational Safety and Health Act safety codes are presented, and a conceptual system is shown illustrating the application of these safety measures.

Humphrey, L.; Felton, L.; Goodman, L.; Pilicy, G.; Welch, F.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Stability and Lifetime of K-CoMoSx Mixed Alcohol Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have studied sulfide-type catalysts for the production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas for several decades. Despite many advances in the art, these processes are not yet commercial, due in large part to mediocre economics and the added risk associated with uncertainty in catalyst lifetime. This talk will outline some recent studies in the lifetime and stability of K-CoMoSx-type mixed alcohol catalysts. Specifically, studies of long term operation (> 3000h), sulfiding agents, simulated methanol recycle, and morphology (probed via XRD and XPS) will be discussed, with the conclusion that these materials are likely to exhibit acceptable lifetimes in continuous operation.

Hensley, J. E.; Ruddy, D.; Schaidle, J.; Ferrell, J.; Thibodeaux, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Peculiar points in the phase diagram of the water-alcohol solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work is devoted to the investigation of nontrivial behavior of dilute water-alcohol solutions. The temperature and concentration dependencies of the contraction for aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol are analyzed. The existence of a specific point, the so-called peculiar point, was established. It is shown that water-alcohol solutions of different types obey the principle of corresponding states if temperature and volume fraction are used as principal coordinates. In this case, the concentration of the peculiar point for different solutions is close to x_{\

Chechko, V E; Malomuzh, M P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae  

SciTech Connect

An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1999-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

398

Direct observation of oxygen superstructures in manganites S. Grenier,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct observation of oxygen superstructures in manganites S. Grenier,1 K. J. Thomas,2 J. P. Hill,2). [9] D. Volja, et al., cond-mat:0704.1834v1 (2007). [10] S. Grenier, et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 085101 (Materlik, Sparks and Fisher, 1994). [14] H. L. Ju, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3230 (1997). [15] J. Garc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Waban, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the migration kinetics of radiation-induced point defects and defect clusters is a key to predicting the microstructural evolution and mass transport in nuclear fuels. Although the diffusion kinetics of point defects in UO2 is well explored both experimentally and theoretically, the kinetics of defect clusters is not well understood. In this work the migration mechanisms of oxygen interstitial clusters of size one to five atoms (1Oi – 5Oi) in UO2 are investigated by temperature-accelerated dynamics simulations without any a priori assumptions of migration mechanisms. It is found that the migration paths of oxygen interstitial clusters are complex and non-intuitive and that multiple migration paths and barriers exist for some clusters. It is also found that the cluster migration barrier does not increase with increasing cluster size and its magnitude has the following order: 2Oi < 3Oi < 1Oi < 5Oi < 4Oi. Possible finite-size effects are checked with three different sized systems. The results show good agreement with other available experimental and theoretical data. In particular, the relatively large migration barriers of cuboctahedral clusters (4Oi and 5Oi) are in good agreement with the experimentally measured oxygen diffusion activation energy in U4O9, which is thought to contain many such clusters. The cluster migration sequence may explain the interesting relationship between the oxygen diffusivity and stoichiometry in UO2+x.

Xian-Ming Bai; Anter El-Azab; Jianguo Yu; Todd R. Allen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Supercritical Burning of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Droplet with Detailed Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercritical Burning of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Droplet with Detailed Chemistry J. DAOU,* P with diameter less than I pm vaporize before burning. A quasi-steady-like diffusion flame is then established is considered; temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber have a weak influence on the burning time

Heil, Matthias

403

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

404

Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of this study are to identify an appropriate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidative mineralization technique, perform compatibility and evaporation fate tests for neat and mineralized PVA, and determine potential for PVA chemical interferences which may affect ion exchange utilization for radioactive wastewater processing in the nuclear industry.

Oji, L.N.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Lightweight methods to estimate influenza rates and alcohol sales volume from Twitter messages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze over 570 million Twitter messages from an eight month period and find that tracking a small number of keywords allows us to estimate influenza rates and alcohol sales volume with high accuracy. We validate our approach against government statistics ... Keywords: Classification, Regression, Social media

Aron Culotta

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

SciTech Connect

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

407

Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design Allaying Structural-Alloy Corrosion Putting the Pressure on MOFs Newly Described "Dragon" Protein Could Be Key to Bird Flu Cure Hearing the Highest Pitches Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure AUGUST 8, 2008 Bookmark and Share Schematic shows the topology of π* orbital interactions in the (O2)4 cluster. (Image copyright National Academy of Sciences, PNAS.) Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the cosmos and essential to life on Earth, changes its forms dramatically under pressure, transforming to a solid with spectacular colors. Eventually it becomes metallic and a

408

U.S. Oxygenate Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Oxygenate Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ... Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production;

409

Calibration, Response, and Hysteresis in Deep-Sea Dissolved Oxygen Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately measuring the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ocean has been the subject of considerable research. Traditionally, the calibration and correction of profiling oxygen measurements has centered on static, steady-state errors, ...

Bradley Edwards; David Murphy; Carol Janzen; Nordeen Larson

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Fundamental studies of heterostructured oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction at high temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Searching for active and cost-effective catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis is essential for the development of efficient clean electrochemical energy technologies. Perovskite oxides are active for surface oxygen exchange ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of Lithium-Oxygen Redox Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lack of fundamental understanding of the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in nonaqueous electrolytes significantly hinders the development of rechargeable lithium-air batteries. Here we employ a solid-state ...

Lu, Yi-chun

412

Computational Studies on Oxygen-ionic Conduction in Rare-earth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of oxygen-ionic conductors which have low activation energies in ... for reducing the lower limit of operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells. ... electronic densities of states, oxygen migration paths and activation energies in ...

413

A Tracer Study with Oxygen-18 in Photosynthesis by Activation Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

r e e n algae. t e r m photosynthesis products containing 0WITH OXYGEN - I8 IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY ACTIVATION ANALYSISWITH OXYGEN-18 IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY ACTIVATION ANALYSIS I n

Fogelstrom-Fineman, Ingrid; Holm-Hansen, Osmund; Tolbert, Bert M.; Calvin, Melvin

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

A DCS supervisory control of a centrifugal compessor for oxygen consumption optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a supervisory control system for oxygen consumption optimization on a Syngas Manufacturing Process Plant is proposed. A grey-box multivariable parametric identification of the oxygen compressor system is first performed. Consequently, ...

Silvia Maria Zanoli; Luca Barboni

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Practical aspects of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is quite sensitive to the details of the three phase interface at which the reaction occurs. We describe here studies of the ORR at a well-defined recast Nafion/Pt microelectrode interface, emphasizing the effects of temperature and humidification on the reaction rate. We compare our results to those obtained in thin film composite electrodes used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

Uribe, F.A.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Input Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include:

417

Mixed-conducting ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with the conventional partial oxidation of methane is that of an oxygen plant. Our new technology offers a way to lower this cost, and in this paper we explore the technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide systems of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be adequate for a reactor in the case of SFC-2: Electronic and ionic conductivities were measured; SFC-2 is unique in the sense that the ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. These tubes have operated for >1000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold O + OH reaction  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the formation of molecular oxygen in ultracold collisions between hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. A time-independent quantum formalism based on hyperspherical coordinates is employed for the calculations. Elastic, inelastic and reactive cross sections as well as the vibrational and rotational populations of the product O{sub 2} molecules are reported. A J-shifting approximation is used to compute the rate coefficients. At temperatures T = 10--100 mK for which the OH molecules have been cooled and trapped experimentally, the elastic and reactive rate coefficients are of comparable magnitude, while at colder temperatures, T < 1 mK, the formation of molecular oxygen becomes the dominant pathway. The validity of a classical capture model to describe cold collisions of OH and O is also discussed. While very good agreement is found between classical and quantum results at T = 0.3 K, at higher temperatures, the quantum calculations predict a higher rate coefficient than the classical model, in agreement with experimental data for the O + OH reaction. The zero-temperature limiting value of the rate coefficient is predicted to be about 6 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup 01}, a value comparable to that of barrierless alkali metal atom-dimer systems and about a factor of five larger than that of the tunneling dominated F + H{sub 2} reaction.

Kendrick, Brian Kent [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quemener, Goulven [UNLV; Balakrishman, Naduvalath [UNLV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Oxygen scavenger/metal passivator reduces corrosion, toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Haverhill Paper board, a Haverhill, MA manufacturer of recycled paperboard, generates about 120,000 lb/hr of 650 psi, 650/sup 0/F (superheated) steam. Boiler deposition and condensate return corrosion problems were always high on the list of things to avoid. A water treatment firm provided the solution with a recently developed oxygen scavenger. The new scavenger, a Chemical Processing Vaaler Award winner (Mid-November, 1986, p. 130), is a patented formulation containing methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO). The formulation is designed to provide protection comparable to hydrazine but without the toxicity concerns. Used in conjunction with the mechanical deaerator, MEKO scavenges the remaining 5-7 ppb of oxygen from the feed water, producing methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), N/sub 2/O, and water. High volatility gives it the ability to leave the boiler with the steam, protecting the entire generating system. MEKO also acts as a metal surface passivator, protecting iron surfaces from corrosion by forming passivated oxide films. In use since December, 1985, the MEKO-based oxygen scavenger has coupled with the other chemical and mechanical water treatment methods to maintain the boiler in operating condition. The MEKO is performing as well or better than the hydrazine at about the same cost - while avoiding the toxicity problem.

Barry, J.; Toy, D.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenates alcohols ethers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, ...

422

U.S. Product Supplied of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Product Supplied for Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons ; U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

423

U.S. Exports of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Supply and Disposition; U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

424

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

Cassano, A.A.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

426

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan

Levin, Lisa

427

An efficient deconvolution algorithm for estimating oxygen consumption during muscle activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reconstruction of an unknown input function from noisy measurements in a biological system is an ill-posed inverse problem. Any computational algorithm for its solution must use some kind of regularization technique to neutralize the disastrous effects ... Keywords: Bayesian inversion, Deconvolution, Mitochondrial oxygen consumption, Monte Carlo simulation, Muscle oxygen uptake, Oxygen transport and metabolism

Ranjan K. Dash; Erkki Somersalo; Marco E. Cabrera; Daniela Calvetti

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z