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1

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

2

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable Oxygenate Blending Effects on Gasoline Properties ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Energy Fuels, 2011, 25 (10), ...

Earl Christensen; Janet Yanowitz; Matthew Ratcliff; Robert L. McCormick

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

3

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

4

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

5

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

- - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

6

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

7

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

of Environmental Quality Washington (Seattle- Tacoma) PSAPCA Regulation 2.09 Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency Washington (Spokane) WAC 173-492 Washington State Dept. of...

8

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Determination of Hydrocarbons Types and Oxygenates in Motor Gasoline: A Comparative Study by Different Analytical Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various standard and published methods based on chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques are routinely used for hydrocarbon types (aromatics, olefins, oxygenates, etc.) in gasoline range fuel products for the assessment of product quality monitoring (...

V. Bansal; G. J. Krishna; A. P. Singh; A. K. Gupta; A. S. Sarpal

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

10

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to achieve cost-effective compliance * minimize precious metal content while maximizing fuel economy * Relevance: - U.S. passenger car fleet is dominated by gasoline-fueled...

11

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SCR Urea TankInjector Cost Customer Acceptance Not in Project Scope Specific Key Issues: Cost, Durability, Fuel Penalty, Operating Temp.,+... Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection...

12

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline G. R. Hadder Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee August 2000 Prepared for Office of Fuels Development Office of Transportation Technologies U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

15

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve Timing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve engine efficiency. Fuel-flexible engines permit the increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends. Ethanol points across the engine operating range for four blends of gasoline and ethanol. I. INTRODUCTION Fuel

16

BWR oxygen control demonstration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of cracks have occurred recently in certain BWR piping systems. The operating environment associated with oxidizing species such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide is considered one of the factors in the mechanism of cracking. In April 1976, NWT Corporation was contracted to perform a BWR oxygen control demonstration program. Means for reducing reactor water oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations during startup and shutdown transients were defined and demonstrated at Vermont Yankee and Browns Ferry Unit 3. Results of the demonstrations and an analytical review of impacts of major system variables on oxygen transients are discussed herein.

Pearl, W.L.; Kassen, W.R.; Sawochka, S.G.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reformulated Gasoline Program Reformulated Gasoline Program Contents * Introduction * Mandated RFG Program Areas o Table 1. Mandated RFG Program Areas * RFG Program Opt-In Areas o Table 2. RFG Program Opt-In Areas * RFG Program Opt-Out Procedures and Areas o Table 3. History of EPA Rulemaking on Opt-Out Procedures o Table 4. RFG Program Opt-Out Areas * State Programs o Table 5. State Reformulated Gasoline Programs * Endnotes Spreadsheets Referenced in this Article * Reformulated Gasoline Control Area Populations Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Areas Participating in Oxygenated Gasoline Program

18

A Comparison of Ten Different Methods for the Analysis of Saturates, Olefins, Benzene, Total Aromatics, and Oxygenates in Finished Gasolines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......overview of the changing European gasoline specifications with time...combined. These reformulated gasolines may now contain straight run naphtha, fluid catalytically...analysis of hydrocarbon types in gasoline is the fluorescent indi- cator......

Jan Beens; Hans Thomas Feuerhelm; Jörg-Christian Fröhling; Jerry Watt; Gertjan Schaatsbergen

19

Comparison of Gas Chromatographic and Pyrolytic Methods for the Determination of Total Oxygen in Gasolines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......gasoline; and low water solubility. A number of...inert carrier gas, and the products...used in the nitrogen gas delivery line...LECO FP-428 nitrogen analyzer. Figure...place to avoid gas leaks. All...remove traces of water. ETBE and TAME......

R.E. Pauls; J.D. Northing; G.J. Weight

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Response to Comment on “Environmental Implications on the Oxygenation of Gasoline with Ethanol in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motor vehicle population in the MAMC has a model-year distribution typical of developing countries:? Old cars (unequipped with any emissions control technology) make up a great portion of the total population. ... Recently, Mexico's economic stability and lower inflation rates have prompted motor vehicle dealers to lower their down payments and interest rates, thus making it feasible for low income people (e.g., those that own an old car) to buy a new one. ... We have reported recently that TWC performance in brand new vehicles deteriorates considerably after 60?000 km, either because of defective TWC materials or because of the high sulfur content of Mexican gasoline (8). ...

I. Schifter; M. Vera; L. Díaz; E. Guzmán; F. Ramos; E. López-Salinas

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Effects of Some Oxygenated Substitutes on Gasoline Properties, Spark Ignition Engine Performance, and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is worthwhile to mention that eucalyptol which can be steam-extracted from eucalyptus leaves has been tested as a co-solvent that prevents alcohol?gasoline blended fuels from phase separation. ... In this table, the compound along with the concentration in the respective base fuel, BRON, and its accuracy as well as relative effectiveness on a molar (RE-M) and a weight (RE-W) basis in comparison with MTBE are shown. ... All the compounds studied exhibited enhanced ignition quality, expressed with their capability to suppress engine knock, performance that can be confirmed from the BRON values of Table 3. From the data in the table, and given the accuracy of the BRON values, which is ±10/x, where x is the w/v % concentration of the compound in the fuel, a decrease of BRON values with the increase of the RON of the base fuel is observed. ...

S. Gouli; E. Lois; S. Stournas

1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

22

Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Refiners Switch to Reformulated Refiners Switch to Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model Contents * Summary * Introduction o Table 1. Comparison of Simple Model and Complex Model RFG Per Gallon Requirements * Statutory, Individual Refinery, and Compliance Baselines o Table 2. Statutory Baseline Fuel Compositions * Simple Model * Complex Model o Table 3. Complex Model Variables * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * RFG Simple and Complex Model Spreadsheets * Areas Particpating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline, 1995 , (Adobe

23

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules Contents * Introduction o Table 1. History of Foreign Refiner Regulations * Foreign Refinery Baseline * Monitoring Imported Conventional Gasoline * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Refiners Switch to Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline, 1995 Introduction On August 27, 1997, the EPA promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an

24

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

26

Gasolin n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasolin n, Gasbenzin n ? natural gasoline, condensate, distillate [Liquid hydrocarbons, generally clear or pale straw-colo(u)red and of high API gravity (above 60°), that are produced wit...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

natural gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

natural gasoline, condensate, distillate [Liquid hydrocarbons, generally clear or pale straw-coloured and of high API gravity (above 6o°), that are produced with wet gas] ? Gasbenzin n, Gasolin n ...

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

The potential for low petroleum gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Oxygen control in makeup water for PWRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes the oxygen control program and improvements to the make-up water system components of PWR nuclear plants with the ultimate goal of reducing corrosion related problems in the steam generators and other secondary system components. A PWR plant that has a vacuum degasifier has been selected to establish the basis for the program. Following the investigation of the make-up water system components, the report presents instrumentation developed for the program. Recommendations are provided for improvements to the various make-up water system components to lower the dissolved oxygen levels. 5 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Silaghy, F. (Burns and Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Electric car Gasoline car  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENAC/ Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares of an electric vehicle? Electric car (Renault) Gasoline car (competitors) Gasoline car (Renault) Market shares preference survey with choice situation contexts involving gasoline cars (Renault and competitors

34

The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline...

35

Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

36

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

37

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

38

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Motor Gasoline Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Oxygenated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Product: Motor Gasoline Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Oxygenated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Sales to End Users, Total 28,179.6 24,384.0 24,143.9 23,567.1 24,120.5 23,282.9 1983-2013 Through Retail Outlets 26,507.1 22,632.7 22,641.3 22,038.2 22,474.5 21,660.0 1983-2013 Sales for Resale, Total NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2013 DTW 24,954.1 29,704.3 30,138.3 29,222.8 30,011.9 28,880.3 1994-2013 Rack 236,373.7 242,166.6 243,892.5 243,789.7 248,761.4 237,431.5 1994-2013

43

Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Leslie Eudy ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a U.S. government agency. As such, this information is in the public domain, may be copied and otherwise accessed freely, and is not subject to copyright laws. These papers were previously published in hard copy form by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

44

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Effect of feedwater oxygen control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of a test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen injection on the release and transport of iron, nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in the feedwater system at the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR) are presented. Design and operation of the oxygen injection system are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations relative to generic application of oxygen injection for corrosion product control in BWRs during normal operation are presented. Application of oxygen injection to assist in feedwater system materials passivation after an extended outage also is discussed. 12 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Hobart, R.L.; Palino, G.F.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Microfluidic advantage : novel techniques for protein folding and oxygen control in cell cultures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control inTemperature Jump System to Study Fast Protein FoldingNovel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control in

Polinkovsky, Mark E.; Polinkovsky, Mark E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

Reiter, Clifford A.

54

Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Data Series: Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline (less Adj.) Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blenede w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & Ed55 Other Conventional Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline Adjustment Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Jet, Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet, Military Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil > 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil > 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Propane/Propylene Period: Weekly 4-Week Average

55

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

02/22/2006 02/22/2006 Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 Summary In 2005, a number of petroleum companies announced their intent to remove methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from their gasoline in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline, and perceived potential for increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EIA's informal discussions with a number of suppliers indicate that most of the industry is trying to move away from MTBE before the 2006 summer driving season. Currently, the largest use of MTBE is in RFG consumed on the East Coast outside of

56

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

57

Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook for Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Reduction o Summary of RFG Production Options * Costs of Reformulated Gasoline o Phase 1 RFG Price Premium o California Clean Gasoline Price Premium o Phase 2 RFG Price Premium o Reduced Fuel Economy

58

Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy A. J. Ptak, L. J-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy to study the dependence of oxygen incorporation on polarity and oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen incorporates at a rate ten times faster on nitrogen-polar GaN than on the Ga polarity

Myers, Tom

59

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

60

gasoline | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

gasoline gasoline Dataset Summary Description These data files contain volume, mass, and hardness changes of elastomers and plastics representative exposed to gasoline containing various levels of ethanol. These materials are representative of those used in gasoline fuel storage and dispensing hardware. All values are compared to the original untreated condition. The data sets include results from specimens exposed directly to the fuel liquid and also a set of specimens exposed only to the fuel vapors. Source Mike Kass, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Date Released August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated August 16th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords compatibility elastomers ethanol gasoline plastics polymers Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon plastics_dma_results_san.xlsx (xlsx, 4.9 MiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Motor gasolines, summer 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 2401 samples of motor gasoline, from service stations throughout the country, were collected and analyzed under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and the American Petroleum Institute. The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing areas and districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasoline sold in this country were 88.6, 89.3, and 93.7 unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasolines, respectively.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS HUMANISTIC STUDIES Vol. III March 15, 192S No. 4 State Gasoline Taxes BY KDMUNI) IV LKAENKI), A. B., A, M. Instructor in Economics and Commerce The Unlvmity of Kansas PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY l... vast sums of money, Oregon was the first state to adopt a tax on gasoline to provide revenue for building and maintaining roads. Since this adoption in 1919, many states have passed laws provid ing for gasoline taxes until now forty-four states...

Learned, Edmund Philip

1925-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Retail Motor Gasoline Prices*  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Gasoline pump prices have backed down from the high prices experienced last summer and fall. The retail price for regular motor gasoline fell 11 cents per gallon from September to December. However, with crude oil prices rebounding somewhat from their December lows combined with lower than normal stock levels, we project that prices at the pump will rise modestly as the 2001 driving season begins this spring. For the summer of 2001, we expect only a little difference from the average price of $1.50 per gallon seen during the previous driving season, as motor gasoline stocks going into the driving season are projected to be slightly less than they were last year. The situation of relatively low inventories for gasoline could set the stage for some regional imbalances in supply that could once again

64

Integrated process offers lower gas-to-gasoline investment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many natural gas fields are in remote locations and of a size which cannot justify construction of a pipeline or liquified natural gas (LNG) plant. In these situations, the natural gas price can be low and the manufacture of gasoline an attractive alternative to producing ammonia or other petro-chemicals. Haldor Topsoe A/S has developed an integrated process scheme to convert natural-gas-derived synthesis gas to gasoline in a single loop. The process, Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (Tigas), incorporates Mobil's methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. The first step is a synthesis of oxygenates. The second step is the MTG process run at conditions selected to achieve optimum operation of the integrated loop. An industrial pilot plant has been in operation since January 1984. The plant has been running successfully, with long catalyst life, producing high-octane gasoline.

Topp-Jorgensen, J.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R.

1986-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

66

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

67

Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

vs Gasoline Production Diesel vs Gasoline Production A look at refinery decisions that decide "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf More Documents &...

68

ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING in turbocharged gasoline engines with variable valve timing requires knowledge of exhaust mani- fold pressure, Pe control systems for gasoline engines rely heavily on feedforward air-fuel ratio (A/F) control to meet

Grizzle, Jessy W.

69

Motor gasolines, summer 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 2062 samples of motor gasoline were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The anitknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasolines sold in this country were 87.8 for the unleaded below 90.0, 91.6 for the unleaded 90.0 and above, 88.9 for the regular, and 92.8 for the premium grades of gasoline.

Shelton, E.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Motor gasolines, Summer 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 796 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 22 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

Shelton, E.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Regional Retail Gasoline Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Retail gasoline prices, like those for distillate fuels, have hit record prices nationally and in several regions this year. The national average regular gasoline price peaked at $1.68 per gallon in mid-June, but quickly declined, and now stands at $1.45, 17 cents higher than a year ago. Two regions, in particular, experienced sharp gasoline price runups this year. California, which often has some of the highest prices in the nation, saw prices peak near $1.85 in mid-September, while the Midwest had average prices over $1.87 in mid-June. Local prices at some stations in both areas hit levels well over $2.00 per gallon. The reasons for the regional price runups differed significantly. In the Midwest, the introduction of Phase 2 RFG was hampered by low stocks,

72

El Paso Gasoline Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Notes: Good morning. IÂ’m glad to be here in El Paso to share some of my agencyÂ’s insights on crude oil and gasoline prices. I represent the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. My division has the responsibility to monitor petroleum supplies and prices in the United States. As part of that work, we operate a number of surveys on a weekly, monthly, and annual basis. One of these is a weekly survey of retail gasoline prices at about 800 stations nationwide. This survey in particular allows us to observe the differences between local gasoline markets in the United States. While we track relatively few stations in the El Paso area, we have compared our price data with that collected by the El Paso City-County Health and Environmental District and

73

Is the gasoline tax regressive?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

Poterba, James M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Gasoline Jet Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C4n= Diesel Gasoline Jet Fuels C O C5: Xylose C6 Fermentation of sugars Biofuel "Nanobowls" are inorganic catalysts that could provide the selectivity for converting sugars to fuels IACT Proposes Synthetic, Inorganic Catalysts to Produce Biofuels Current Process

Kemner, Ken

75

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

76

Motor gasolines, summer 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 715 samples of motor gasoline were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 33 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing included in this report shows marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.3 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

Shelton, E.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gasoline Sampling Methodology Gasoline Sampling Methodology The sample for the Motor Gasoline Price Survey was drawn from a frame of approximately 115,000 retail gasoline outlets. The gasoline outlet frame was constructed by combining information purchased from a private commercial source with information contained on existing EIA petroleum product frames and surveys. Outlet names, and zip codes were obtained from the private commercial data source. Additional information was obtained directly from companies selling retail gasoline to supplement information on the frame. The individual frame outlets were mapped to counties using their zip codes. The outlets were then assigned to the published geographic areas as defined by the EPA program area, or for conventional gasoline areas, as defined by the Census Bureau's Standard Metropolitan

78

Gasoline Prices: What is Happening?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gasoline Prices: What is Happening? Gasoline Prices: What is Happening? 5/10/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Gasoline Prices: What is Happening? Retail Motor Gasoline Price* Forecast Doesn't Reflect Potential Volatility Midwest Looking Like Last Year RFG Responding More Strongly Gasoline Prices Vary Among Locations.Retail Regular Gasoline Price, Cents per Gallon May 8, 2001 Crude Oil Affects Gasoline Prices WTI Crude Oil Prices Are Expected To Remain Relatively High Through At Least 2001 Low Total OECD Oil Stocks* Keep Market Balance Tight Low U.S. Stocks Indicate Tight U.S. Market Regional Inventories Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude Price) "New Factor" Contributing to Volatility: Excess Capacity is Gone Regional Refinery Utilization Shows Gulf Coast Pressure

79

Fuel excise taxes and consumer gasoline demand: comparing average retail price effects and gasoline tax effects .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Interest in using gasoline taxes as a gasoline consumption reduction policy has increased. This study asks three questions to help determine how consumer gasoline consumption… (more)

Sauer, William

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxygen-Based PC Boiler Project No.: FC26-04NT42207 & FC26-03NT41736 Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Foster Wheeler North America Corporation will conduct to two projects to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology by developing a conceptual pulverized coal-fired boiler system design using oxygen as the combustion medium. Using oxygen instead of air produces a flue gas with a high CO2 concentration, which will facilitate CO2 capture for subsequent sequestration. The first project will develop modeling simulations that will lead to a conceptual design that addresses costs, performance, and emissions, and

83

EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

84

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology For Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Pump Components Methodology For Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Pump Components The components for the gasoline and diesel fuel pumps are calculated in the following manner in cents per gallon and then converted into a percentage: Crude Oil - the monthly average of the composite refiner acquisition cost, which is the average price of crude oil purchased by refiners. Refining Costs & Profits - the difference between the monthly average of the spot price of gasoline or diesel fuel (used as a proxy for the value of gasoline or diesel fuel as it exits the refinery) and the average price of crude oil purchased by refiners (the crude oil component). Distribution & Marketing Costs & Profits - the difference between the average retail price of gasoline or diesel fuel as computed from EIA's

85

Gasoline Price Pass-through  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gasoline Price Pass-through Gasoline Price Pass-through January 2003 by Michael Burdette and John Zyren* The single most visible energy statistic to American consumers is the retail price of gasoline. While the average consumer probably has a general notion that gasoline prices are related to those for crude oil, he or she likely has little idea that gasoline, like most other goods, is priced at many different levels in the marketing chain, and that changes ripple through the system as prices rise and fall. When substantial price changes occur, especially upward, there are often allegations of impropriety, even price gouging, on the part of petroleum refiners and/or marketers. In order to understand the movement of gasoline prices over time, it is necessary to examine the relationship between prices at retail and various wholesale levels.

86

Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Principal Investigator 13MY11 2011 DOE Vehicle Technologies Review Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle ACE064 "This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

87

Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

Hadder, G.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Learn more... Learn more... Price trends and regional differences What causes fluctuations in motor gasoline prices? Retail gasoline prices are mainly affected by crude oil prices and the level of gasoline supply relative to demand. Strong and increasing demand for gasoline and other petroleum products in the United States and the rest of the world at times places intense pressure on available supplies. Even when crude oil prices are stable... read more in Gasoline Explained What causes fluctuations in diesel fuel oil prices? The retail price of a gallon of diesel fuel reflects the underlying costs and profits (or losses) of producing and delivering the product to customers. The price of diesel at the pump reflects the costs and profits of the entire production and distribution chain, including... read more in

90

California Gasoline Price Study  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

DIRECTOR, PETROLEUM DIVISION DIRECTOR, PETROLEUM DIVISION ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND RESOURCES COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT REFORM U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MAY 9, 2005 Mr. Chairman, I appreciate this opportunity to testify today on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) insights into factors affecting recent gasoline prices. EIA is the statutorily chartered statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. We are charged with providing objective, timely, and relevant data, analysis, and projections for the use of the Department of Energy, other Government agencies, the U.S. Congress, and the public. We produce data and analysis reports that are meant to assist policy makers in determining energy policy. Because we have an element of

91

Gasoline Prices Also Influenced by Regional Gasoline Product Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Notes: Next we examine the wholesale market's added contribution to gasoline price variation and analyze the factors that impact the gasoline balance. There are two points to take away from this chart: The U.S. market moves with the world market, as can be seen with the high inventories in 1998, being drawn down to low levels during 1999. Crude and product markets are not independent. Crude oil and product markets move together fairly closely, with some lead/lag effects during transitions. The relationship between international crude oil markets and domestic product markets raises another issue. A subtle, but very important point, lost in recent discussions of gasoline price increases: The statement has been made that crude markets are not a factor in this past spring's high gasoline prices, since crude prices were

92

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline outlets. The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. ET Monday, except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). The reported price includes all taxes and is the pump price paid by a consumer as of 8:00 A.M. Monday. This price represents the self-serve price except in areas having only full-serve. The price data are used to calculate weighted average price estimates at the city, state, regional and national levels using sales and delivery volume data from other EIA surveys and population estimates from the Bureau of Census.

93

Gasoline Prices at Historical Lows  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Notes: Before looking at El Paso gasoline prices, letÂ’s take a minute to look at the U.S. average price for context. Gasoline prices this year, adjusted for inflation, are the lowest ever. Back in March, before prices began to rise ahead of the traditional high-demand season, the U.S. average retail price fell to $1.00 per gallon. Prices rose an average of 7.5 cents, less than the typical seasonal runup, to peak in early June. Since then, prices have fallen back to $1.013. Given recent declines in crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices, we expect retail prices to continue to ease over at least the next few weeks. Since their sharp runup during the energy crises of the 1970Â’s, gasoline prices have actually been non-inflationary. Adjusting the historical prices by the Consumer Price Index, we can see that todayÂ’s

94

Gasoline Price Pass-through  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

differences, whereas stationary series can be estimated in level form. The unit root test could not reject the hypothesis that the retail and spot gasoline price series have a...

95

Organic carbon burial efficiency in lake sediments controlled by oxygen exposure time and sediment source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic carbon burial efficiency in lake sediments controlled by oxygen exposure time and sediment : deposited OC) in a diverse set of 27 different sediments from 11 lakes, focusing on the potential effects burial efficiency was high (mean 48%), and it was particularly high in sediments receiving high input

Wehrli, Bernhard

96

U.S. Sales to End Users Prices for Motor Gasoline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Gasoline, Average - - - - - - 1983-2013 Regular Gasoline - - - - - - 1983-2013 Midgrade Gasoline - - - - - - 1988-2013 Premium Gasoline - - - - - - 1983-2013 Conventional, Average - - - - - - 1994-2013 Conventional Regular - - - - - - 1994-2013 Conventional Midgrade - - - - - - 1994-2013 Conventional Premium - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated, Average 1994-2006 Oxygenated Regular

97

Refiner Prices of Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline - DTW (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Rack (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Bulk (U.S. only) Midgrade Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Midgrade Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Midgrade Gasoline - Other End Users Midgrade Gasoline - Sales for Resale Midgrade Gasoline - DTW (U.S. only) Midgrade Gasoline - Rack (U.S. only) Midgrade Gasoline - Bulk (U.S. only) Premium - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Premium Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Premium Gasoline - Other End Users Premium Gasoline - Sales for Resale Premium Gasoline - DTW (U.S. only) Premium Gasoline - Rack (U.S. only) Premium Gasoline - Bulk (U.S. only) Period: Monthly Annual

98

Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from among existing gasoline station locations in Sacra-VOC emitted at gasoline service stations, because these arethe gasoline terminal storage and refueling stations, it is

Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine deer10johansson.pdf More Documents & Publications Partially...

100

The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices, Sales Volumes & Stocks by State Prices, Sales Volumes & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price - Premium Gasoline Retail Price - Aviation Gasoline Retail Price - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Retail Price - Propane Retail Price - Kerosene Retail Price - No. 1 Distillate Retail Price - No. 2 Distillate Retail Price - No. 2 Fuel Oil Retail Price - No. 2 Diesel Fuel Retail Price - No. 4 Fuel Oil Prime Supplier Sales - Motor Gasoline Prime Supplier Sales - Regular Gasoline Prime Supplier Sales - Midgrade Gasoline Prime Supplier Sales - Premium Gasoline Prime Supplier Sales - Aviation Gasoline Prime Supplier Sales - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Prime Supplier Sales - Propane (Consumer Grade) Prime Supplier Sales - Kerosene Prime Supplier Sales - No. 1 Distillate Prime Supplier Sales - No. 2 Distillate Prime Supplier Sales - No. 2 Fuel Oil Prime Supplier Sales - No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prime Supplier Sales - No. 4 Fuel Oil Prime Supplier Sales - Residual Fuel Oil Stocks - Finished Motor Gasoline Stocks - Reformulated Gasoline Stocks - Conventional Gasoline Stocks - Motor Gasoline Blending Components Stocks - Kerosene Stocks - Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks - Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Sulfur Stocks - Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks - Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks - Residual Fuel Oil Stocks - Propane/Propylene Period: Monthly Annual

102

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline outlets. The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. ET Monday, except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). The reported price includes all taxes and is the pump price paid by a consumer as of 8:00 A.M. Monday. This price represents the self-serve price except in areas having only full-serve. The price data are used to calculate weighted average price estimates at the city, state, regional and national levels using sales and delivery volume data from other EIA surveys and population estimates from the Bureau of Census.

103

Gasoline Prices Vary Among Locations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The public is probably more knowledgeable about what they pay for gasoline than about anything else they use regularly. Most Americans are bombarded several times a day with the price of gasoline. Many people who phone our office don't only want to know why prices have risen, but why their prices are different than prices in some other area - the gasoline station two blocks away, the average price quoted on the news, the price their uncle is paying in a different region of the country. This chart shows some of the different state averages for a specific month. Besides taxes, these differences are due to factors such as distance from refining sources, and mix of reformulated versus conventional fuels. What this snapshot does not show,is that all of these prices can

104

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Outlook Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year. Three impending State bans on MTBE blending could significantly affect gasoline

105

STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was 3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall...

106

Household gasoline demand in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI)...

108

Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

109

What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

weekly gasoline spot price 2011-14 ... 15 Table 3. Dickey-Fuller test and autocorrelogram results ......

110

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Controlled oxygen vacancy induced p-type conductivity in HfO{sub 2-x} thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have synthesized highly oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2-x} thin films by controlled oxygen engineering using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Above a threshold value of oxygen vacancies, p-type conductivity sets in with up to 6 times 10{sup 21} charge carriers per cm{sup 3}. At the same time, the band-gap is reduced continuously by more than 1 eV. We suggest an oxygen vacancy induced p-type defect band as origin of the observed behavior.

Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Mueller, Mathis M.; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, 15236 Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

112

Microsoft Word - Gasoline_2008 Supplement.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 1 April 2008 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 A Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections 1 Highlights * Income growth rates have less of an impact on recent trends in gasoline consumption than in the past, but short-run effects are still significant. * High gasoline prices are once again motivating drivers to conserve by driving less and purchasing more fuel-efficient transportation. * The increasing share of lower-Btu-content ethanol has contributed to a growing divergence between volume-based and energy-content-based measures of trends in gasoline consumption. * Consumer sensitivity to gasoline price changes increases during periods when

113

The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy Bliss E. O’Bryhim,1,2 Jeff Radel,1,2,3 Stuart J. Macdonald,4 R.C. Andrew Symons1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS; 2... exposure to hyperoxia, as well as quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 7 and 9 that modify susceptibility to OIR. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of vision loss in children in both developed and developing countries [1–3]. ROP is a...

O'Bryhim, Bliss; Radel, Jeff; Macdonald, Stuart J.; Symons, R. C. Andrew

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

114

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

118

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Gasoline Gallon Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition

119

Interaction blending equations enhance reformulated gasoline profitability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction approach to gasoline blending gives refiners an accurate, simple means of re-evaluating blending equations and increasing profitability. With reformulated gasoline specifications drawing near, a detailed description of this approach, in the context of reformulated gasoline is in order. Simple mathematics compute blending values from interaction equations and interaction coefficients between mixtures. A timely example of such interactions is: blending a mixture of catalytically cracked gasoline plus light straight run (LSR) from one tank with alkylate plus reformate from another. This paper discusses blending equations, using interactions, mixture interactions, other blending problems, and obtaining equations.

Snee, R.D. (Joiner Associates, Madison, WI (United States)); Morris, W.E.; Smith, W.E.

1994-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

120

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine technology in the near term as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gasoline Pump Components History Gasoline Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF REGULAR GASOLINE Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) Jan-00 1.289 7.8 13.0 32.1 47.1 Feb-00 1.377 17.9 7.5 30.1 44.6 Mar-00 1.517 15.4 12.8 27.3 44.6 Apr-00 1.465 10.1 20.2 28.3 41.4 May-00 1.485 20.2 9.2 27.9 42.7 Jun-00 1.633 22.2 8.8 25.8 43.1 Jul-00 1.551 13.2 15.8 27.2 43.8 Aug-00 1.465 15.8 7.5 28.8 47.8 Sep-00 1.550 15.4 9.0 27.2 48.3 Oct-00 1.532 13.7 10.1 27.5 48.6 Nov-00 1.517 10.4 11.8 27.8 50.0 Dec-00 1.443 8.0 17.9 29.2 44.8 Jan-01 1.447 17.8 10.4 29.2 42.7 Feb-01 1.450 17.3 11.0 29.1 42.6 Mar-01 1.409 18.8 9.7 30.0 41.5

122

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices EIA released a new analytical report entitled Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008. It includes a discussion of scheduled refinery outages in 2008 prepared in accordance with Section 804 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, which requires EIA to review and analyze information on such outages from commercial reporting services and assess to their expected effects on the price and supply of gasoline. Changes in wholesale gasoline prices relative to crude oil are determined by the tightness between gasoline supply (production and net imports) and demand. Expectations for U.S. gasoline supply relative to demand are for a more favorable situation in January through May 2008 than was the case in the comparable 2007 period. Demand growth, which varies seasonally and depends on economic factors, is expected to slow. New gasoline supply is affected by refinery outages, refinery run decisions, and import variations. Planned refinery outages for January through May 2008 are lower than for the same period in 2007. Given lower planned outages and assuming the return of unplanned outages to more typical levels, including the return of BP's Texas City refinery to full operation, gasoline production could increase between 100 and 200 thousand barrels per day over last year's level, depending on the market incentives. In addition, ethanol use, which adds to gasoline supply, is expected to continue to increase. Considering the uncertainty in all the gasoline supply components, there is little likelihood of events combining in 2008 to lead to the kind of tight supply downstream from crude oil markets seen in spring 2007. In summary, refinery outage and import impacts should contribute less to gasoline price increases in 2008 than in 2007. If all of the low-range estimates for supply occurred, total gasoline supply would increase about 200 thousand barrels per day (Figure S1). However, record crude oil prices are nonetheless pushing current and expected gasoline prices to record levels.

123

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We consumer preferences for fuel efficiency. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

124

EIA-878 Motor Gasoline Price Survey ? Reference Guide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 Motor Gasoline Price Survey - Reference Guide For the purposes of the Motor Gasoline Price Survey (EIA-878), we collect prices for the following gasoline grades as defined by...

125

From Gasoline Alleys to Electric Avenues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...From Gasoline Alleys to Electric Avenues 10.1126...for next-generation electric cars could help make...next-generation hybrid vehicle. Like today's hybrids...have dual gasoline and electric engines. But whereas...authorizing $1 million for rebates for future plug-in hybrid...

Eli Kintisch

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

127

What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis provides context for considering the impact of rising domestic light crude oil production on the price that U.S. consumers pay for gasoline, and provides a framework to consider how changes to existing U.S. crude oil export restrictions might affect gasoline prices.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from...

129

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

130

Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

131

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th...

132

DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

GasolineDiesel PM Split Study DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerfujita.pdf More...

133

Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

134

Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

135

In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Materials In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate...

136

High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

137

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

Yan, Wei; He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

139

Gasoline Price Differences Caused by:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Notes: While my agency cannot be expert in every local gasoline market in the United States, we are familiar with a number of factors that can account for significant differences in prices between markets: Proximity of supply - distance from the refineries supplying the local market. Additionally, the proximity of those refineries to crude oil supplies can be a factor, as well as shipping logistics, including pipeline or waterborne, from refinery to market. Cost of supply - including crude oil, refinery operating, and transportation costs. Supply/demand balance - some regions are typically in excess or short supply, while others may vary seasonally, or when supply interruptions (such as refinery shutdowns) occur. Competitive environment - including the number of suppliers, and the

140

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

91.0 91.0 91.0 80.1 77.2 - 78.5 100.2 100.0 84.9 80.2 - 82.6 February ............................. 93.1 92.9 83.8 77.7 - 80.4 101.1 100.8 88.1 80.2 - 84.1 March .................................. 91.7 91.5 85.2 75.1 - 79.8 96.8 96.8 90.1 NA - 84.4 April .................................... 88.3 88.1 79.3 69.6 - NA 94.0 93.9 83.7 70.7 - NA May ..................................... 89.4 89.3 81.7 75.8 - 78.1 95.8 95.7 88.0 76.9 - 81.6 June .................................... 88.5 88.4 79.4 71.7 - 74.6 95.5 95.5 84.5 72.9 - 77.2 July ..................................... 86.2 86.1 75.4 71.2 - 72.8 93.0 93.0 81.2 72.8 - 75.9 August ................................ 89.3 89.2 79.6 77.7 - 78.4 96.6 96.5 85.0 79.2 - 81.3 September .......................... 91.3 91.0 84.4 74.8 - 78.3 97.9 97.7 88.2 77.7 - 81.5 October

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 68.7 60.7 56.0 64.5 85.1 84.6 73.7 64.3 - 70.0 February ............................. 76.3 76.1 67.3 62.9 55.2 65.1 84.6 83.9 70.0 65.5 - 68.2 March .................................. 78.1 77.9 72.0 65.0 W 68.5 84.1 83.8 75.1 66.1 - 70.1 April .................................... 82.6 82.5 76.1 67.9 - 71.4 89.7 89.6 80.0 69.7 - 73.8 May ..................................... 87.9 87.9 79.9 71.8 - 75.1 94.3 94.2 84.6 73.5 - 77.7 June .................................... 90.2 90.2 80.0 66.5 - 72.0 96.4 96.3 84.0 68.7 - 75.0 July ..................................... 86.3 86.4 77.3 62.6 - 68.5 92.5 92.5 78.3 63.9 - 69.6 August ................................ 82.8 82.8 76.3 63.7 - 68.7 87.9 87.8 77.6 65.3 - 69.8 September .......................... 82.4 81.9 73.9 66.4 NA 69.4 NA NA 75.7 68.9 - 72.4 October ...............................

142

Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 69.7 61.6 W 65.5 84.2 83.9 75.4 65.0 - 71.8 February ............................. 78.1 77.6 71.3 64.5 - 68.0 85.6 85.1 77.4 67.6 - 73.8 March .................................. 83.3 83.0 79.0 72.2 W 75.7 89.7 89.4 85.1 74.4 - 81.1 April .................................... 92.1 91.9 86.0 76.1 - 79.5 100.6 100.1 93.3 77.6 - 84.9 May ..................................... 96.8 96.4 92.4 76.5 - 81.5 105.4 104.6 99.0 77.5 - 86.2 June .................................... 95.6 95.3 NA 76.7 - 81.6 103.7 103.2 98.0 77.5 - 85.8 July ..................................... 93.8 93.5 NA 75.3 - 80.2 101.5 101.1 96.1 76.2 - 84.7 August ................................ 95.2 95.0 NA 78.5 - 82.7 102.2 102.0 NA 80.0 - 86.7 September .......................... 97.1 96.7 88.1 79.7 - 82.9 104.7 104.4 93.7 82.0 - 87.4 October

143

U.S. Oxygenated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- - - - - 1994-2013 Through Retail Outlets - - - - - - 1994-2013 Sales for Resale, Total - - - - - - 1994-2013 DTW - - - - - - 1994-2013 Rack - - - - - - 1994-2013 Bulk - - - - - -...

144

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number, in particular lead-free gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing gasoline of high octane number from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts, such as those obtained by fractional distillation of a C/sub 3/ / C/sub 4/ catalytic cracking cut. It includes the steps of: (A) oligomerizing propylene of the C/sub 3/ cut to obtain a first gasoline fraction, (B) reacting the isobutene of the C/sub 4/ cut with methanol to produce methyl tert.-butyl ether which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to form a second gasoline fraction, (C) alkylating said unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons with isobutane in the presence of an alkylation catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid, to form a third gasoline fraction, and (D) admixing, at least partially, said first, second and third gasoline fractions, so as to obtain gasoline of high octane number.

Chauvin, Y.; Gaillard, J.; Hellin, M.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q.D.

1981-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaluation Meeting June 7-10, 2010 Gurpreet Singh and Ken Howden Advanced Combustion Engine Program U.S. Department of Energy 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of...

146

Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at 400C Desulfated to 700C 23 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 CO Conversion...

147

Summer 2002 Motor Gasoline Outlook2.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summer 2002 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September 2002), rising average crude oil costs are expected to yield above -average seasonal gasoline price increases at the pump. However, year-over-year comparisons for pump prices are still likely to be lower this summer. Inventories are at higher levels than last year in April, so some cushion against early-season price spikes is in place and price levels are expected to range below last year's averages, assuming no unanticipated disruptions. Still, OPEC production restraint and tightening world oil markets now probably mark the end of the brief respite (since last fall) from two years of relatively high gasoline prices. * Retail gasoline prices (regular grade) are expected to average $1.46 per gallon, 5

148

Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly? Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly? As of October 29, 2001, the national average retail price of regular gasoline was $1.235 per gallon, its lowest level since November 8, 1999 (Figure 1). The average price has fallen 29 cents in 6 weeks since September 17, with further declines perhaps to come. The sharpest decline has been in the Midwest (Petroleum Administration for Defense District 2), where the average has dropped 57 cents in 8 weeks since Labor Day (September 3). Additionally, this decline comes on the heels of a 33-cent drop in the national average in 10 weeks from Memorial Day through August 6, interrupted only by a brief 17-cent rise in August. In total, the national average retail gasoline price has fallen nearly 48 cents from its peak on May 14. This is already the widest one-year range in retail prices

149

Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Less Than 0.31 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel Greater Than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Special Naphthas Lubricants Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

150

U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

151

Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

Noel, Michael David, 1971-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria,” J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9: August 4, 9: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations on AddThis.com... Fact #279: August 4, 2003 Gasoline Stations The number of retail outlets that sell gasoline to the public has declined by 17.7% from 1993 to 2002 - from 207,416 in 1993, to 170,678 in 2002.

155

Low Gasoline Stocks Indicate Increased Odds of Spring Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

We cannot just focus on distillate. Gasoline will likely be our next We cannot just focus on distillate. Gasoline will likely be our next major concern. Gasoline stock levels have fallen well below the typical band for this time of year, primarily for the same reason distillate stocks fell to low levels -- namely relatively low production due to low margins. At the end of January, total gasoline inventories were almost 13 million barrels (6%) below the low end of the normal band. While gasoline stocks are generally not as important a supply source to the gasoline market this time of year as are distillate stocks to the distillate market, gasoline stocks still are needed. Gasoline stocks are usually used to help meet gasoline demand during February and March as refiners go through maintenance and turnarounds, but we do not have the

156

Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

Shelton, E M

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Motor gasolines, winter 1982-83  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 1330 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 28 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.5 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.1 for leaded below 93.0, and no data was reported in this report for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above. 21 figures, 5 tables.

Shelton, E.M.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Gasoline marketing: Octane mislabeling in New York City  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of octane mislabeling at gasoline stations in New York City has grown - from 46 or fewer citations in 1981 to 171 citations in 1986. No single source of octane mislabeling exists but the city has found both gasoline station operators and fuel distributors to blame. The problem does not seem to be unique to any one type of gasoline station but 57 percent of the 171 citations issued involved gasoline sold under the name of a major refiner; the rest involved unbranded gasoline. Octane cheating can be lucrative in New York City. A station intentionally mislabeling its gasoline could realize amounts many times the city's maximum $500 fine for cheating.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Motor gasolines, winter 1979-1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 1857 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report shows marketing areas districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas, 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index ((R+M)/2) averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.9, 92.1, 89.0, and 93.3 unleaded below 90.0, unleaded 90.0 and above, regular, and premium grades of gasolines, respectively.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Motor gasolines, Winter 1980-81  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical data for 546 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 23 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.6 unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.1 leaded below 93.0, and 93.3 leaded 93.0 and above grades of gasoline.

Shelton, E.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September 2003), high crude oil costs and other factors are expected to yield average retail motor gasoline prices higher than those of last year. Current crude oil prices reflect a substantial uncertainty premium due to concerns about the current conflict in the Persian Gulf, lingering questions about whether Venezuelan oil production will recover to near pre-strike levels in time for the peak driving season, and the impact of recent disruptions in Nigerian oil output. Moreover, unusually low crude oil and gasoline inventory levels at the outset of the driving season are expected to keep prices high throughout much of the

162

1995 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected 5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently by John Zyren, Charles Dale and Charles Riner Introduction The United States has completed its first summer driving season using reformulated gasoline (RFG). Motorists noticed price increases at the retail level, resulting from the increased cost to produce and deliver the product, as well as from the tight sup- ply/demand balance during the summer. This arti- cle focuses on the costs of producing RFG as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate. RFG Regulatory Requirements The use of RFG is a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The CAAA cover a wide range of programs aimed at improving air qual-

163

Effects of Gasoline Formulation on Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Contamination in Private Wells near Gasoline Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation, 547 River Street, Room 300, Troy, New York 12180, and New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, P.O. ... Wells with contamination of ?20 ?g/L were scheduled for periodic or follow-up sampling by local county health departments or scheduled for remedial action, as appropriate. ... (13)?Delzer, G. C.; Zogorski, J. S.; Lopes, T. J.; Bosshart, R. L. Occurrence of the gasoline Oxygenate MTBE and BTEX compounds in urban stormwater in the United States, 1991?1995; U.S. Geologic Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, WRIR 96-4145, Rapid City, SD, 1996. ...

Daniel P. Lince; Lloyd R. Wilson; Gordon A. Carlson; Anthony Bucciferro

2001-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

Modeling and Control of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray: A Tutorial Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vs. Fuzzy Logic: Simple Tools to Predict and Control Complexfuzzy logic (Ref 73, 74). For the HVOF thermal spray process, a feedback control

Li, Mingheng; Christofides, Panagiotis D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Michigan Fleet Reduces Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on AddThis.com... Feb. 11, 2010 Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use D iscover how the City of Ann Arbor reduced municipal fleet gas and diesel

166

Microsoft Word - Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

April 2004 April 2004 Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary * Gasoline markets are tight as the 2004 driving season begins and conditions are likely to remain volatile through the summer. High crude oil costs, strong gasoline demand growth, low gasoline inventories, uncertainty about the availability of gasoline imports, high transportation costs, and changes in gasoline specifications have added to current and expected gasoline costs and pump prices. * For the upcoming summer driving season (April to September 2004), retail gasoline prices (regular grade, all formulations) are projected to average $1.76 per gallon, about 20 cents above last summer. A 95-percent confidence range for the summer price average, excluding specific consideration of major

167

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8: February 26, 8: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations on AddThis.com... Fact #458: February 26, 2007 Gasoline Price Expectations

168

Factors Impacting Gasoline Prices and Areas for Further Study  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Factors Impacting Gasoline Prices and Areas for Further Study Factors Impacting Gasoline Prices and Areas for Further Study 8/10/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Factors Impacting Gasoline Prices and Areas for Further Study Different Factors Impact Different Aspects of Gasoline Price Correlation of Price to Inventory Levels Crude Prices Strongly Related to OECD.Crude & Product Inventories Gasoline Prices Also Influenced by Regional Gasoline Product Markets Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude Price) Retail Price Changes Lag Spot Prices Cumulative Gasoline Price Pass-through Illustration of How Lag Effect Dampens and Slows Retail Price Changes from Wholesale Recent Weekly Retail Price Changes Have Been as Expected Summary: Most Gasoline Price Movement Can Be Explained As Rational Market Behavior Author: Joanne Shore

169

FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fleet that operates more than 30,000 motorized vehicles and has hybrid electric (diesel and gasoline) vehicles currently in service. FedEx Express has deployed 20 gasoline...

170

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

U.S. gasoline price falls under $3 (short version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3, 2014 U.S. gasoline price falls under 3 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since December 2010 at 2.99 a gallon on...

172

U.S. gasoline price falls under $3 (long version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

November 3, 2014 U.S. gasoline price falls under 3 (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since December 2010 at 2.99 a gallon...

173

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The relationship between crude oil and gasoline prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates the dynamic relationship between crude oil and retail gasoline prices during the last 21 years and determines ... that date, the results show that gasoline prices include higher profit mar...

Ali T. Akarca; Dimitri Andrianacos

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fact #835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

5: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation,...

176

Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 Figure I:Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for 2001- 2006 Crudeargue that increases in oil prices may lead to recessions

Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards)....

178

DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Desert Research Institute 2003deerfujita.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study Long-Term Changes in Gas-...

179

Doped LaFeO3 as SOFC Catalysts: Control of Oxygen Mobility Oxidation Activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-{delta}} for y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and several other properties including oxidation activity and surface sites showed a similar non-linear trend. Trends are related to a possible transition in electronic structure. Activity for oxidation of methane, oxygen storage and chemical compatibility was shown to be superior to that of the La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}.

N Lakshminarayanan; J Kuhn; S Rykov; J Millet; U Ozkan; T Rao; J Smedley; E Wang; E Muller; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

Bergeron, P.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Catalytic isomerization of the overhead fractions of straight run gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The isomerization of the pentane and hexane fractions of gasoline on a platinum catalyst was studied, as...

N. R. Bursian; G. N. Maslyanskii…

1965-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel price +10% gasolinegasoline gasoline diesel... ... 2007 20081998 2009 ...2010 home work home work diesel diesel ... gasoline diesel price -7, households' decisions are affected by various other factors, from the vehicle market offer to governmental

Bierlaire, Michel

184

Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutant Emissions from Gasoline Combustion. 1. Dependence on Fuel Structural Functionalities H O fractions of gasoline fuels, the Utah Surrogate Mechanisms is extended to include submecha- nisms of gasoline surrogate compounds using a set of mechanism generation techniques. The mechanism yields very good

Utah, University of

185

Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry Marc Remer August 2, 2010 pricing in the retail gasoline industry, and also documents empirical regularities in the market. I find of asymmetric price movements in the retail gasoline industry. Yet, there is no general agreement as to whether

Niebur, Ernst

186

LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 (2014) 162-169" DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.015 #12;2 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES, Sweden Abstract The adiabatic laminar burning velocities of a commercial gasoline and of a model fuel (n

Boyer, Edmond

187

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron Smith July 12, 2012 Abstract Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of US gasoline, up from 3% in 2003 proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry

Rothman, Daniel

188

NIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NIST Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Technical Note 1666 Modeling the Effects of Outdoor Gasoline Powered Generator Use on Indoor Carbon Monoxide and Technology (NIST) conducted a study for CDC to examine the impact of distance of gasoline-powered portable

189

ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays: an Outcome of Aggressive Competition? by Ã?ystein Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Gasoline prices jump up on Mondays: An outcome, 2008 Abstract This paper examines Norwegian gasoline pump prices using daily station

Feigon, Brooke

190

What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Soren T. Anderson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Prices? Soren T. Anderson Michigan State University of consumers about their expectations of future gasoline prices. Overall, we find that consumer beliefs follow a random walk, which we deem a reasonable forecast of gasoline prices, but we find a deviation from

Silver, Whendee

191

Production of high-octane automobile gasolines by the catalytic reforming of straight-run gasoline fractions from mangyshlak crude  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-octane components for AI-93 and AI-98 automobile gasolines can be obtained in 86 and 82% ... 140, 140–180, and 85–180°C gasoline fractions from Mangyshlak crude.

V. A. Kuprianov; A. A. Timofeev; V. E. Gavrun…

1971-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Study of methanol-to-gasoline process for production of gasoline from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process is an efficient way to produce liquid ... The academic basis of the coal-to-liquid process is described and two different synthesis processes are focused on: Fixed MTG process

Tian-cai He; Xiao-han Cheng; Ling Li…

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Engines - Fuel Injection and Spray Research - Gasoline Sprays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gasoline Sprays Gasoline Sprays Animated image of fuel emerging from a gasoline injector Animated image of fuel emerging from a gasoline injector (simulated environment). Some newer automobiles in the U.S. use gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. These advanced gasoline engines inject the fuel directly into the engine cylinder rather than into the intake port. These engines can achieve higher fuel efficiency, but they depend on a precise fuel/air mixture at the spark plug to initiate ignition. This leads to more stringent requirements on spray quality and reproducibility. GDI also enables new combustion strategies for gasoline engines such as lean burn engines that use less fuel and air. Lean burn engines may achieve efficiencies near those of diesels while producing low emissions. This

195

Why Are Gasoline Prices Rising so Fast  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Statement of John Cook Statement of John Cook Before the Committee on Government Reform Subcommittee on Energy Policy, Natural Resources and Regulatory Affairs U.S. House of Representatives June 14, 2001 Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee for the opportunity to testify today. Gasoline prices have begun declining, as expected, from this spring's apparent peak price of $1.71 on May 14, with the national average for regular gasoline at $1.65 per gallon as of June 11 (Figure 1). Between late March and mid-May, retail prices rose 31 cents per gallon, with some regions experiencing even greater increases. Like last year, Midwest consumers saw some of the largest increases, and along with California, some of the highest prices. Prices in the Midwest increased 43 cents per

196

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

197

This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Regular Gasoline Retail Prices (Dollars per Gallon) Regular Gasoline Retail Prices (Dollars per Gallon) Retail Average Regular Gasoline Prices Petroleum Data Tables more data Most Recent Year Ago 11/04/13 11/11/13 11/18/13 11/25/13 12/02/13 12/09/13 12/16/13 12/17/12 U.S. 3.265 3.194 3.219 3.293 3.272 3.269 3.239 3.254 East Coast (PADD 1) 3.289 3.243 3.282 3.386 3.389 3.382 3.373 3.350 Midwest (PADD 2) 3.188 3.074 3.126 3.191 3.121 3.132 3.079 3.144 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 3.030 2.978 3.004 3.140 3.124 3.104 3.047 3.045 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 3.307 3.227 3.183 3.145 3.113 3.077 3.055 3.211 West Coast (PADD 5) 3.564 3.507 3.467 3.457 3.475 3.477 3.472 3.457 Retail Conventional Regular Gasoline Prices Petroleum Data Tables more data Most Recent Year Ago 11/04/13 11/11/13 11/18/13 11/25/13 12/02/13 12/09/13 12/16/13

198

The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the quantitative estimation of the condensable gasoline consti- tuents of so-called rtwetn natural gas» Three general lines of experimentation suggested themselves after a preliminary study of the problem. These were the separation of a liqui- fied sample... fractionation of a mixture of natural gases are, however, not available in the ordinary laboratory, so this method altho successful and accurate is hardly practical. Even after the fractionation of the gas has ^lebeau and Damiens in Chen. Abstr. 7, 1356...

Schroeder, J. P.

1914-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1: October 15, 1: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices: U.S. and Selected European Countries to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices: U.S. and Selected European Countries on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices: U.S. and Selected European Countries on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices: U.S. and Selected European Countries on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices: U.S. and Selected European Countries on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491: October 15, 2007 Gasoline Prices: U.S. and Selected European Countries on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #491:

202

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995 by Tancred Lidderdale* Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gaso- line in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. Refor- mulated motor gasoline is expected to constitute about one-third of total motor gasoline demand in 1995, and refiners will have to change plant opera- tions and modify equipment in order to meet the higher demand. The costs incurred are expected to create a wholesale price premium for reformu- lated motor gasoline of up to 4.0 cents per gallon over the price of conventional motor gasoline. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining

203

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

205

Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Ernest Moniz today announced the creation of the first federal regional refined petroleum product reserve containing gasoline. Based on the Energy Department's lessons...

206

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

207

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

208

Impacts of Ethanol in Gasoline on Subsurface Contamination.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The increasing use of ethanol as a gasoline additive has raised concerns over the potential impacts ethanol might have on groundwater contamination. In North America,… (more)

Freitas, Juliana Gardenalli de

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Microsoft Word - Summer 2006 Motor Gasoline Prices.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coast Chicago New York Harbor Sources: Ethanol spot prices through July 7, 2006 - Jim Jordan & Associates, Fuels Blendstock Report (www.jordan-associates.com); Gasoline prices -...

210

Long-term historical trends in gasoline properties are charted  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trends in motor gasolines between 1942 and 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in motor gasoline surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. They have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute since 1949. A typical report covers 2,400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots and properties obtained from a dozen different tests.

Shelton, E.M.; Whisman, M.L.; Woodward, P.W.

1982-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

211

TRUCK ROUTING PROBLEM IN DISTRIBUTION OF GASOLINE TO GAS STATIONS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis aims at finding a daily routing plan for a fleet of vehicles delivering gasoline to gas stations for an oil company, satisfying all… (more)

Janakiraman, Swagath

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace064confer2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline...

213

Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace063smith2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

214

Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

215

Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oak Ridge National Laboratory VW Scholar at the University of Tennessee Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster P-09 2010 DEER Directions...

216

Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Regimes Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

217

Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

regimes Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

218

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

219

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

220

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

222

Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

223

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

224

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

225

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

- - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy Information...

226

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

227

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

228

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

229

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

230

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

231

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

232

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

233

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

234

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

235

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

236

Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

237

Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of “cold-box” heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response “blackbox” models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

McRae, R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Conversion of methanol to gasoline commercial plant study. Coal to gasoline via methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the joint sponsorship of the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology (BMFT) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), a research program was initiated concerning the ''Conversion of Methanol to Gasoline (MTG), Engineering, Construction and Operation of a Demonstration Plant''. The purpose of the 100 BPD demonstration plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of and to obtain data required for scale-up of the fluid-bed MTG process to a commercial size plant. As per requirements of Annex 3 of the Governmental Agreement, this study, in addition to the MTG plant, also includes the facilities for the production of methanol. The feedstock basis for the production of methanol shall be coal. Hence this study deals with the production of gasoline from coal (CTG-Coal to Gasoline). The basic objective of this study is to assess the technical feasibility of the conversion of methanol to gasoline in a fluid-bed system and to evaluate the process economies i.e., to evlauate the price of the product in relation to the price of the feedstock and plant capacity. In connection with technical feasibility, the scale up criteria were developed from the results obtained and experience gathered over an operational period of 8600 hours of the ''100 BPD Demonstration Plant''. The scale up philosophy is detailed in chapter 4. The conditions selected for the design of the MTG unit are detailed in chapter 5. The scope of the study covers the production of gasoline from coal, in which MTG section is dealt with in detail (refer to chapter 5). Information on other plant sections in this study are limited to that sufficient to: generate overall mass balance; generate rate of by-products and effluents; incorporate heat integration; generate consumption figures; and establish plant investment cost.

Thiagarajan, N.; Nitschke, E.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 for retail gasoline stations and May 1 – September 15 forof one if retail gasoline stations in county c are requiredseason for retail gasoline distribution stations is June 1 -

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t as determined by gasoline stations is unlikely to beshows a map of all gasoline stations i n central and easterni n Figure 5: Toronto Gasoline Stations Canadian cents per

Noel, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles composition, mass distribu- tion, and organic aerosol formation potential of emissions from gasoline

Silver, Whendee

243

Improving Accuracy in the Determination of Aromatics in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......was composed of five gasoline blendstocks: light straight run (LSR) naphtha...consisted of the 21 gasoline fuels used in various...naphtha; LSR, light straight run naphtha; reformate...Because these common gasoline blendstocks contain......

Michael D. Mathiesen; Axel J. Lubeck

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Blended Straight-Run Gasolines with Composite Additives Containing Watery Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cranking and antiknock properties of gasoline-alcohol blends based on straight-run gasoline with additives containing watery ethanol and other ... components are studied. The composition of the gasoline-alcohol b...

Yu. O. Beiko; A. P. Pavlovskii; O. A. Beiko

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

246

Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9-grade unleaded gasoline price data from the Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of EnergyAuthor's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur

Levinson, David M.

247

Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Includes gasoline, diesel, and electric. The following fourIncludes gasoline, diesel, and electric. In this study, weemissions from diesel-truck delivery and electric generation

Wang, Guihua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

8 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 Fact 858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest...

249

SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline Engines Presentation given at the...

250

Different Factors Impact Different Aspects of Gasoline Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 Notes: In order to illustrate and quantify, to a large extent, the various market forces driving gasoline prices, we begin by decomposing those factors according to their location within the supply chain, i.e., the international crude market, U.S. wholesale gasoline markets, and the retail segment. Historically, variation in gasoline prices usually stems from changes in crude oil prices. As the major feedstock in the production of gasoline, shifts in the balance between supply and demand in crude markets explain a large portion of observed movements at the retail level. But shifts in the wholesale gasoline supply/demand balance also contribute to price pressure or movements at both the wholesale and retail levels beyond that stemming from crude oil markets.

251

DOE Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline DOE Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline April 20, 2006 - 12:26pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today is reminding consumers about the Department of Energy's (DOE) gasoline price reporting system. Consumers can report activity at local gasoline filling stations that they believe may constitute "gouging" or "price fixing" by visiting gaswatch.energy.gov/. "There are many legitimate factors influencing the price consumers are paying at the pump, including growing demand, the high price of crude oil, the lingering effects of last summer's hurricanes on our refining sector and the regular transition of fuel blends as we head into the summer," said Secretary Bodman. "And while the majority of local merchants are fair and

252

Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for 132 countries for the period 1995–2008 to investigate the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport. To address the potential for simultaneity bias, we use both a country's oil reserves and the international crude oil price as instruments for a country's average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price elasticity of gasoline demand of between ? 0.2 and ? 0.5. Using newly available data for a sub-sample of 43 countries, we also find that higher gasoline prices induce consumers to substitute to vehicles that are more fuel-efficient, with an estimated elasticity of + 0.2. Despite the small size of our elasticity estimates, there is considerable scope for low-price countries to achieve gasoline savings and vehicle fuel economy improvements via reducing gasoline subsidies and/or increasing gasoline taxes.

Paul J. Burke; Shuhei Nishitateno

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

254

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Experimental study on combustion and emissions performance of a hybrid syngas–gasoline engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of syngas addition on the performance of a 1.6 L gasoline engine at lean condition was investigated in the paper. The syngas which produced by the onboard ethanol catalytic decomposition was mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A tube array reforming reactor was mounted on the engine tailpipe to produce syngas. During the test, the engine was run at 1800 rpm and a manifolds absolute pressure of 61.5 kPa. The spark timing for the maximum brake torque was adopted for all tests. The engine spark timing, injection timing and duration of the gasoline were controlled by a hybrid electronic control unit communicated with the engine original electronic control unit. The syngas volume fraction in the total intake gas was gradually increased from 0% to 1.84%. The gasoline flow rate was decreased to ensure that the global excess air ratio of the fuel–air mixture in cylinder at about 1.20. The test results confirmed that the syngas addition helped improve the indicated thermal efficiency and shorten the combustion duration. HC, \\{NOx\\} emissions and particle total number per cubic centimeter were reduced after the syngas addition at lean condition.

Changwei Ji; Xiaoxu Dai; Shuofeng Wang; Chen Liang; Bingjie Ju; Xiaolong Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

257

The First Fixed-Bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Plant: Design and Scale-Up Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first commercial application of the Mobil Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) process is now in operation for over a year in the Gas-to-Gasoline (GTG) Complex in New Zealand. The unique catalyst and reaction mechanism impose important design constraints. The paper discusses the scale-up considerations in the design of the fixed-bed reactor system. Design philosophy and selection of equipment to meet the stipulated process and operating objectives are reviewed. Such unique designs for this plant's effluent heat exchanger and the utilization of computer dynamic simulation for design control will be highlighted.

D.E. Krohn; M.G. Melconian

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

2003 California Gasoline Price Study (preliminary version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2003 California Gasoline Price Study: Preliminary Findings May 2003 Office of Oil and Gas Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Contacts and Acknowledgments This report was prepared by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under the direction of John Cook, Director, Petroleum Division. Questions concerning the report may be directed to Joanne Shore (202/586-4677),

259

Product Selectivity Control and Organic Oxygenate Pathways from Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution from organic oxygenate products to ethane, ethylene, and acetylene. This is because the energy, are located in remote areas, so that it is economically infeasible to transport the gas via pipeline. One

Mallinson, Richard

260

Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline formulations 1-4 (monoaromatic hydrocarbons being the most conspicuous components) to be the least toxic, whilst formulations 12-14 (having higher content of C9DI, C9S and naphtha) were found to be the most harmful to organisms. This study led to the identification of the most toxic WSF gasoline components (C9DI and C9S), and to the possibility of developing more eco-compatible gasoline formulations.

Paixao, J.F. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Nascimento, I.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil) and Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)]. E-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, S.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Leite, M.B.L. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Technology and Sciences Faculty, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Carvalho, G.C. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Silveira, J.S.C. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Reboucas, M. [BRASKEM, Petrochemical Complex, Camacari, Bahia (Brazil); Matias, G.R.A. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil); Rodrigues, I.L.P. [Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

Wadsley, J; Quinn, T; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Quinn, Thomas

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

James Wadsley; Joachim Stadel; Thomas Quinn

2003-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

Conversion of methanol to gasoline. Operation of the demonstration plant. Milestone report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 100 BPD fluid-bed methanol to gasoline (MTG) demonstration plant operation has exceeded the original process objectives. Specifically, the results show: stable unit operation is achieved with excellent gas/catalyst mixing resulting in complete methanol conversion; bed temperature control is readily accomplished, although the process is highly exothermic; catalyst attrition is low, which confirms the mechanical strength of the catalyst - the small make-up used for activity control at normal conditions exceeds the low attrition rate; process parameters can be varied to obtain the desired gasoline yield and quality; and engineering design parameters have been confirmed at the pilot plant stage and a scale-up to a commercial-size MTG fluid-bed system is now deemed feasible. The results obtained gave a broad basis for the conceptual design of a coal-based commercial-size plant for the production of MTG gasoline. This study is presently in preparation and will be completed by the middle of 1985. The conceptual design will be based on a 2500 tonnes/day methanol plant feeding a single MTG fluid-bed reactor. Six trains will be used for a maximum plant capacity of 15,000 tonnes/day. 43 figs., 26 tabs.

Edwards, M.; Gierlich, H.; Gould, R.; Thiagarajan, N.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

New EPA Fuel Economy and Environment Label - Gasoline Vehicles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gasoline Vehicles Gasoline Vehicles Gasoline Vehicles Fuel Economy In addition to the MPG estimates displayed on previous labels, combined city/highway fuel use is also given in terms of gallons per 100 miles. New! Fuel Economy & Greenhouse Gas Rating Use this scale to compare vehicles based on tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to climate change. New! Smog Rating You can now compare vehicles based on tailpipe emissions of smog-forming air pollutants. New! Five-Year Fuel Savings This compares the five-year fuel cost of the vehicle to that of an average gasoline vehicle. The assumptions used to calculate these costs are listed at the bottom of the label. Annual Fuel Cost This cost is based on the combined city/highway MPG estimate and assumptions about driving and fuel prices listed at the bottom of the

265

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

99.2 - 105.3 See footnotes at end of table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

266

Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

66.6 - 72.3 See footnotes at end of table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD...

267

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

133.6 - 276.4 See footnotes at end of table. 220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

268

Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

201.3 - 453.3 See footnotes at end of table. 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

269

Fact #639: September 6, 2010 Gasoline Tax Rates by State  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Excise Tax on motor gasoline is 18.4 cents per gallon for all states. Each state applies additional taxes which vary from state to state. As of July 2010, Alaska had the lowest overall...

270

Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: ATP-LD; Cummins Next Generation Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engine...

271

FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

vehicles currently in service. FedEx Express has deployed 20 gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (gHEVs) on parcel delivery routes in the Sacramento and Los Angeles areas. This...

272

U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

273

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4 12 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

274

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.61 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 5.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

275

U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (long version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

276

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's down a penny from a week ago and down 13 cents from a month ago, based on the weekly...

277

U.S. average gasoline price up slightly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

278

U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

279

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4 12 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

280

U.S. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.61 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 5.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

Wozny, Nathan

283

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

284

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

285

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

286

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

466.1 466.1 See footnotes at end of table. 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State 356 Energy Information Administration...

287

Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

288

Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

532.1 532.1 See footnotes at end of table. 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State 356 Energy Information Administration...

289

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

Jentsch, Donald George

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

CO2 Emission Benefit of Diesel (versus Gasoline) Powered Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. ... We report herein a quantitative analysis of the CO2 emission benefits of diesel vehicles versus their gasoline equivalents for 2001 MY and 2015 MY in European and North American markets. ... However, more stringent tailpipe NOx emissions standards are likely to have a greater negative impact on diesel engines, further reducing the advantages of future diesels relative to gasoline engines. ...

J. L. Sullivan; R. E. Baker; B. A. Boyer; R. H. Hammerle; T. E. Kenney; L. Muniz; T. J. Wallington

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

293

Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure has been developed for the direct determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This procedure is rapid, does not require expensive equipment, is remarkably free from interference by other trace elements present, and allows considerable variation in the sulfur and nitrogen content of the gasoline. It compares favorably with other existing procedures for this determination, such as X-ray fluorescence, wet chemical methods, and flame photometry.

J.W. Robinson

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONVERSION OF METHANE AND ACETYLENE INTO GASOLINE RANGE HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by AMMAR ALKHAWALDEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CONVERSION OF METHANE AND ACETYLENE INTO GASOLINE RANGE HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by AMMAR ALKHAWALDEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

Gasoline Engine Economy as Affected by the Time of Ignition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Gasoline Engine Economy as Affected by the Time of Ignition 1907 by George Jay Hopkins This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff... in the KU Libraries’ Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science GASOLINE ENCUNE ECONOMY as Affected W the Time...

Hopkins, George Jay

1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Gas-chromatographic analysis of straight-run gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for the gas chromatographic determination of the individual hydrocarbons in a wide fraction of straight-run gasoline, using a simple chromatograph equipped with two capillary columns coated with stationary phases of differing polarity in conjunction with a system for the automated treatment of the data. About 150 hydrocarbons present in straight-run gasolines were identified; their retention indices were calculated for a linear temperature programmed regime.

Kvasova, V.A.; Leont'eva, S.A.; Grinberg, A.A.; Rabinovich, A.B.; Shurygina, N.N.

1986-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel from nonpetroleum resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In late 1985, the New Zealand Gas-to-Gasoline Complex was successfully streamed producing high octane gasoline from natural gas. The heart of this complex is the Mobil fixed-bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) section which represents one of several newly developed technologies for production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuels. All of these technologies are based on production of methanol by conventional technology, followed by conversion of the methanol to transportation fuel. The fixed-bed (MTG) process has been developed and commercialized. The fluid-bed version of the MTG process, which is now also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane number advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant in Wesseling, Federal Republic of Germany. The project was funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and by the industrial participants: Mobil, Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. This fluid-bed MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid-bed process for selective conversion of methanol to olefins (MTO). The MTO process can be combined with Mobil's commercially available olefins conversion process (Mobil-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate, MOGD) for coproduction of high quality gasoline and distillate via methanol. This MTO process was also successfully demonstrated at the Wesseling semiworks with this project being completed in late 1985.

Tabak, S.A.; Avidan, A.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Conversion of gas-condensate straight-run gasolines to high-octane gasolines over zeolite catalysts modified with metal nanopowders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acid and catalytic properties of zeolite catalysts modified with metal nanopowders (Cu, Zn, and W) were studied in the conversion of gas-condensate straight-run gasolines to high-liquid high-octane gasolines ...

V. I. Erofeev; A. S. Medvedev; I. S. Khomyakov…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Combustion behavior of gasoline and gasoline/ethanol blends in a modern direct-injection 4-cylinder engine.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range.

Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A. (Energy Systems)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary technology for converting solar thermal en- ergy (the sun's heat) to fuel (e.g., gasoline, diesel, hydrogen

Jawitz, James W.

304

8 Modern refining concepts-an update on naphtha-isomerization to modern gasoline manufacture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses several major refinery processes to improve RON. These include naphtha-isomerization, reforming, addition of FCC-Naphtha, alkylation, addition of oxygenates or polygas or butanes. Naphtha isomerization is a simple and very cost effective technology for octane replacement. Isomerization of light naphtha streams rich in C5's and C6's typically results in an increase of 10 to 20 octane numbers. The octane increase depends upon the feed composition and the octane need of the refiner. Proper selection of the isomerization technology is an assurance against lack of octane and surplus of benzene in the gasoline pool. Normal C5's and C6's typically are abundant in streams from gas condensate units, light raffinate from aromatics extraction units, and light straight-run naphtha from atmospheric distillation. Even benzene containing feedstocks became potential sources for isomerization as modern catalysts help to manage the benzene surplus through saturation and ring opening reactions to high octane product. This conversion of benzene is an added benefit of isomerization to refiners' economics, especially in those countries where extra credit is given for benzene reduction in the gasoline pool. The isomerization reaction takes place over a catalyst under relatively mild conditions in the presence of hydrogen.

Hartmut Weyda; Ernst Köhler

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7: April 26, 7: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates on AddThis.com... Fact #317: April 26, 2004 State Gasoline Tax Rates At 7.5 cents per gallon, Georgia had the lowest state gasoline tax in the

306

Use of ethers as high-octane components of gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on a study of the possible utilization of methyl tert-amyl ether (MTAE) as an automotive gasoline component, both by itself and in combination with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The naphtha used in these studies consisted of 80% reformer naphtha produced under severe conditions and 20% straight-run IBP-62/sup 0/C cut. The physicochemical properties of the MTAE, the MTBE, and the naphtha base stock are given. It is determined that MTAE, which has a slightly poorer knock resistance than MTBE, is fully equal to MTBE in all other respects and can be used as an automotive gasoline component; that a gasoline blend prepared from 89% naphtha base stock, 5.5% MTAE, and 5.5% MTBE meets all of the requirements of the standard GOST 2084-77 for Grade AI-93 gasoline; and that the use of MTAE offers a means for expanding the resources of high-octane components, lowering the toxicity of the gasolines and the exhaust gas (in comparison with organometallic antiknock agents), and bringing non-petroleum raw materials into the fuel production picture.

Gureev, A.A.; Baranova, G.N.; Korotkov, I.V.; Levinson, G.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline TaxAn Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax byAn Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax by

Martin, Elliot William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

New Vehicle Choice, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline TaxAn Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax byAn Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax by

Martin, Elliott William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Estimation of Individual C8 to C10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Naphthas and Motor Gasolines by Capillary Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......naphthas and motor gasolines is o f great importance...C10 aromatics in straight run, processed naphtha...reformed, and motor gasolines), or i n aromatic...analysis in any straight run, reformed naphthas, and gasolines with final boiling......

Basant Kumar; R.K. Kuchhal; Pradeep Kumar; P.L. Gupta

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Gasoline Price Volatility Is a Concern This Summer  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 of 5 5 of 5 Notes: March began with gasoline spot prices showing large increases over crude oil. Spot prices were nearly 20 cents per gallon over the already high crude oil prices, when normally the spread would be half that size. This spread was comparable to the spread seen in August 1997 when high demand, low stocks, and some refinery problems cause prices to surge. By the end of March the spread had fallen to about 16 cents per gallon, and by mid April was at about 11 cents per gallon as the inventory situation improved. Crude oil prices have also been falling, pulling gasoline spot prices down. Retail prices, which lag behind changes in the spot market, are turning down also. Regular gasoline prices peaked the week of March 20 at $1.53 and fell to $1.48 the week of April 10.

312

Short-Term Energy Outlook April 1999-Summer Gasoline Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook Summer Motor Gasoline Outlook This year's base case outlook for summer (April-September) motor gasoline markets may be summarized as follows: * Pump Prices: (average regular) projected to average about $1.13 per gallon this summer, up 9-10 cents from last year. The increase, while substantial, still leaves average prices low compared to pre-1998 history, especially in inflation-adjusted terms. * Supplies: expected to be adequate, overall. Beginning-of-season inventories were even with the 1998 level, which was at the high end of the normal range. However, some refinery problems on the West Coast have tightened things up, at least temporarily. * Demand: up 2.0 percent from last summer due to solid economic growth and low (albeit rising) fuel prices; highway travel may reach 1.4 trillion miles for the

313

Gasoline Price Volatility Is a Concern This Summer  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Last summer's low stocks and transition to Phase 2 RFG added price pressure over and above the already high crude price pressure on gasoline. As we ended last winter, gasoline inventories were low, and the spread between spot prices and crude oil were higher than typical as a result. Inventories did not recover and the spread remained higher than average through most of the summer. In November and December, as gasoline demand eased, prices relaxed and spreads returned to average levels -- only to rebound again in January and February as refineries began to undergo maintenance and the market watched the already low stock cushion erode further. This February, spreads are higher than last year -- averaging 14 cents so far. This is about twice what we would typically see this time of

314

Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and rubisco oxygenase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and high temperatures and high...a strong control of Mehler...inorganic carbon supply. A part...and high temperatures and high...a strong control of Mehler...inorganic carbon supply. A part...and high temperatures and high...a strong control of Mehler...inorganic carbon supply. A part...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Tier 2 Vehicle and Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program

316

Overview of sSupply of Chicago/Milwaukee Gasoline This Spring:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supply of Chicago/Milwaukee Gasoline Spring 20001 Supply of Chicago/Milwaukee Gasoline Spring 20001 Joanne Shore, Petroleum Division Tight Supply at the Beginning of Summer Gasoline Season This summer's run-up in Midwest gasoline prices, like other recent price spikes, stemmed from a number of factors. The stage was set for gasoline volatility as a result of tight crude oil supplies, which led to low crude oil and low product stocks and relatively high crude oil prices. With little stock cushion to absorb unexpected events, Midwest gasoline prices surged when a number of supply problems developed, including pipeline and refinery supply problems, and an unexpectedly difficult transition to summer-grade Phase II reformulated gasoline (RFG). Prior to the current summer driving season, gasoline stocks were low

317

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9: May 4, 2009 9: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World on AddThis.com... Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World

318

Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

319

UNIT NUMBER C-7S0A Gasoline UST UNIT NAME REGULATORY STATUS:...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 UNIT NUMBER C-7S0A Gasoline UST UNIT NAME REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Southeast corner C-750 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 10,000 gallon FUNCTION: Gasoline storage OPERATIONAL...

320

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships Abstract Many consumers are keenly aware, by contrast, we investigate how gasoline prices affect the automobile industry: manufacturers and dealerships

Rothman, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

U.S. gasoline price falls below $2.90 (short version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline price falls below 2.90 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.89 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.7 cents from a week ago, based...

322

,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

for Refiner Gasoline Volumes" "Sourcekey","A103700001" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline WholesaleResale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)" 30331,217871.4 30362,217946.8...

323

Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The West Coast region paid the highest prices for gasoline averaging $4.14 for a gallon of regular gasoline while the Rocky Mountain region paid the least at $3.70 per gallon. The southern states,...

324

Rapid determination of trace concentrations of lead in gasoline by anodic stripping voltammetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry can be used for the determination of ?g/l concentrations of lead in gasoline. A gasoline sample is extracted with iodine monochloride reagent solution. An aliquot of the aqueous ph...

Pentti Laukkanen

325

Remediation of Releases Containing MTBE at Gasoline Station Sites—ENSR International’s Experience  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter summarizes ENSR’s national and international experience remediating MTBE and other gasoline constituents in soil and ground water at retail gasoline station sites. ENSR has extensive experience in...

Robert M. Cataldo P.G.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A short and simple explanation of how oil is converted into gasoline and then brought to you the products produced from this petroleum, gasoline represents about half of the total product volume

327

U.S. gasoline prices decreases for 16th week in a row; breaking...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

18, 2015 U.S. gasoline prices decreases for 16th week in a row; breaking previous record set in 2008 (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell 7.3...

328

U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline price expected to drop further below 3 per gallon The national average pump price of gasoline dropped below 3 per gallon last week for the first time in nearly four...

329

U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Declining fuel prices to push U.S. gasoline demand to an 8-year high In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said domestic gasoline consumption this year...

330

U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease at lowest level since...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2015 U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease at lowest level since May 2009; 2 states with sub 2 prices (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline...

331

U.S. gasoline prices decreases for 16th week in a row; breaking...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline prices decreases for 16th week in a row; breaking previous record set in 2008 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell 7.3 cents from a week...

332

U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease; 2 states with sub...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2015 U.S. gasoline prices continues to decrease; 2 states with sub 2 prices (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.21 a gallon on Monday....

333

U.S. gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (short version...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the 17th week in a row to 2.04 a gallon on Monday....

334

Destructive hydroisomerization – A new method of reducing benzine content in commercial gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A destructive process of hydroisomerization of straight-run 85–185°C gasoline fraction followed by close fractionation of the ... submitted to catalytic reforming under mild conditions. Gasoline with octane numbe...

Kh. I. Abad-Zade; Z. A. Gasymova…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demand shocks. Since gasoline demand and oil price areto gasoline demand shocks. In Venezuela, a strike by oildemand is likely correlated with the prices of other refinery outputs via the price of oil.

Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

337

Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasoline/diesel RCCI in a medium-duty diesel engine.

338

Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

339

Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

heat recovery and friction reduction controls HATCI low friction technologies HATCI heat recovery system Slide 8 October 16, 2012 Phase 1, Vehicle 1 (Reduced Parasitic Loss)...

340

Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices Ahmed distributed lags (NARDL) mod- el to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas the possibility to quantify the respective responses of gasoline and natural gas prices to positive and negative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Protozoa in Subsurface Sediments from Sites Contaminated with Aviation Gasoline or Jet Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with Aviation Gasoline or Jet Fuel James L. Sinclair 1 * Don H...of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard...aerobic bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungae in deep subsurface...aviation gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel in subsurface core samples...

James L. Sinclair; Don H. Kampbell; Mike L. Cook; John T. Wilson

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 � 108 cm�3

Yu, Fangqun

343

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 11331143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 1133­1143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline cost of lead additives and of gasoline, and the falling cost of ethanol and sugarcane, have created sugarcane is produced in Africa to replace all the lead used in African gasoline; this would require Africa

Thomas, Valerie

344

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

Levinson, David M.

345

CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY Maximilian Auffhammer and Ryan Kellogg* January 2009 Abstract This paper examines the effects of U.S. gasoline content gasoline markets and raise prices paid by consumers. We provide the first comprehensive empirical estimates

Edwards, Paul N.

346

The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The producer surplus associated with gasoline fuel use in the United States1 Yongling Sun, Mark A. This paper estimates the producer surplus associated with changes in gasoline fuel use in the United States that affect oil use and oil imports to the US, and (2) comparing the actual average cost of gasoline

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

347

The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Time geography Gasoline prices Traffic safety Traffic crashes Fatal crashes Space­time path a b s t r a c t The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic

Levinson, David M.

348

Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious and Aaron Smith attack the paper "The Impact of Ethanol Production on US and Regional Gasoline Markets

Rothman, Daniel

349

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARS, GAS, AND POLLUTION POLICIES Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Gasoline Taxes, reduc- ing automobile-related gasoline consumption has become a major U.S. public policy issue. Recently, many analysts have called for new or more stringent policies to discourage gasoline consumption

Boyer, Edmond

350

Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future investigators have developed mathematical models for predicting the effect of ethanol (added to gasoline at 10 these models provide valuable insight into the potential ground water impacts of ethanol in gasoline

Alvarez, Pedro J.

351

Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply Chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply address the design and planning of an integrated ethanol and gasoline supply chain. We assume, distribution centers where blending takes place, and the retail gas stations where different blends of gasoline

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

352

forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes Hayley Chouinarda, Berkeley, and member of the Giannini Foundation. Abstract The federal specific gasoline tax falls equally incidence of state taxes is greater in states that use relatively little gasoline. Author Keywords: Taxes

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

353

Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DS-06-1351 Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network Tomás dynamics of gasoline engines during transient operation. With a collection of input-output data measured;Modeling of Air-Fuel Ratio Dynamics of Gasoline Combustion Engine with ARX Network I. INTRODUCTION

Johansen, Tor Arne

354

Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its price is the most visible among these products. As such, changes in gasoline prices are always under public scrutiny. Many claim to observe an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices -- specifically

355

Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We estimate a selection-corrected regression equation and exploit operating costs between vehicles. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental policy JEL

Edwards, Paul N.

356

Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets Meghan Busse pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Argu- ments against energy taxes, and gasoline taxes more incidence of the tax. We study the effect of a gasoline tax using changes in vehicle values. We construct

Rothman, Daniel

357

Study of Brazilian Gasoline Quality Using Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of Brazilian Gasoline Quality Using Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy The identification of gasoline adulteration by organic solvents is not an easy task, because compounds that constitute the solvents are already in gasoline composition. In this work, the use of hydrogen nuclear

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

358

The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes? Christopher R consumption. Missing from these policies were taxes on either oil or gasoline, prompting a long economics press. In doing so, I pay particular attention to whether gasoline taxes were "on the table," as well

Rothman, Daniel

359

ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass Answers will be posted Thursday, September 18, 2014 Gasoline is composed of a variety of hydrocarbons with 4 to 12 carbon atoms (e for the complete combustion of gasoline: _C8H18 + _O2 _CO2 + _H2O 1. Balance the equation (i.e., find

Toohey, Darin W.

360

Proton NMR characterization of gasoline–ethanol blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be conveniently used for accurate measurement of water and ethanol concentrations in gasoline–ethanol fuel blends. The spectra also contain information on proton exchange rates. In addition, NMR pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurement allows estimation of ethanol–water clusters and viscosity of the fuel blends.

A. Turanov; A.K. Khitrin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Investigation of Fatalities Due to Acute Gasoline Poisoning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......may be absent in some northern winter markets (4). In accor- dance with European...The GC-FID patterns of gasoline, diesel-fuel, kerosene, 645 turpentine, etc...and 6, 1-methylnaphtalene (A). Diesel fuel (425 mg/L) peak identification......

María A. Martínez; Salomé Ballesteros

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.27 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

363

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

364

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.35 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

365

U.S. gasoline prices conotinue to increase (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

366

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.82 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

367

U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

368

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.27 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

369

U.S. gasoline prices continue decrease (long version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

370

U.S. gasoline prices continue decrease (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.56 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

371

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.35 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

372

U.S. gasoline prices decrease (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.46 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S....

373

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

374

U.S. gasoline prices continue decrease (long version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

375

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.56 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

376

U.S. gasoline prices decrease (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

377

U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

378

U.S. gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

379

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.78 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

380

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.40 a gallon on Monday. That's down 15.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Conversion of coal to gasoline in one single synthesis loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process scheme for the conversion of syngas to gasoline via methanol (MeOH) developed by Mobil consists in essence of two independent synthesis loops, a MeOH and a gasoline loop. The first is a conventional MeOH-plant which produces raw MeOH. The raw MeOH is evaporated into a second synthesis loop, the methanol to gasoline (MTG) synthesis. This scheme is already in commercial operation in New Zealand. The syngas is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. A further development of this technology based on integration of the two syntheses is demonstrated in the Topsoe-Integrated-Gasoline-Synthesis, TIGAS. The main difference between the two schemes is that in the TIGAS process, the two loops, the MeOH synthesis and the Mobil MTG-process, are integrated into one single synthesis loop without isolation of MeOH as an intermediate. This results in a simple flow scheme and, hence, in substantial savings in investments and energy consumption.

Topp-Jorgensen, J.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

383

Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

384

Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Successful scale-up of the fluid-bed methanol to gasoline (MTG) process to 100 BPD demonstration plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 100 BPD fluid-bed methanol to gasoline (MTG) demonstration plant operation has exceeded the original process objectives. Specifically, the results show: stable unit operation is achieved with excellent gas/catalyst mixing resulting in complete methanol conversion; bed temperature control is readily accomplished although the process is highly exothemic; catalyst attrition is low, which confirms the mechanical strength of the catalyst; the small make-up used for activity control at normal conditions exceeds the low attrition rate; process parameters can be varied to obtain the desired gasoline yield and quality; and engineering design parameters have been confirmed at the pilot plant stage and scale-up to a commercial-size MTG fluid-bed system is now deemed feasible. The results obtained gave a broad basis for the conceptual design of a coal based commercial size plant for the production of MTG gasoline. This study is presently in preparation and will be completed by the middle of 1985. The conceptual design will be based on a 2500 tonnes/day methanol feeding a single fluid-bed. Six trains will be used for a maximum plant capacity of 15,000 tonnes/day. 12 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Gierlich, H.H.; Keim, K.H.; Thiagarajan, N.; Nitschke, E.; Kam, A.Y.; Daviduk, N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5: May 16, 2011 5: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011 on AddThis.com...

388

Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methods all preceded dedicated gasoline service stations, and each can be compared to onsite hydrogen production

Melaina, Marc W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

390

Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 January ....................... - - - - - - - - - - - - February ..................... - - - - - - - - - - - - March .......................... - - - - - - - - - - - - April ............................ - - - - - - - - - - - - May ............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - June ............................ - - - - - - - - - - - - July ............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - August ........................ - - - - - - - - - - - - September .................. - - - - - - - - - - - - October ....................... 7.5 7.8 21.1 10.8 2.1 34.0 1.5 1.5 5.1 W W 7.0 November ................... 9.7 10.0 25.5 15.1 2.3 43.0 1.9 2.0 6.1 W W 8.4 December ................... 10.0 10.3 25.8 14.6 2.7 43.1 2.0 2.0 6.0 W W 8.3 1993 ............................... - - - - - - - - - - - -

391

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

January ....................... 69.0 68.4 60.0 51.0 45.4 56.3 78.0 77.3 65.7 54.8 W 62.7 February ..................... 68.3 67.8 60.1 53.2 48.7 57.8 78.1 77.4 65.9 56.8 W 63.7 March .......................... 71.0 70.2 62.6 54.1 46.9 59.1 80.4 79.5 65.7 57.1 W 63.8 April ............................ 66.5 66.0 60.8 54.4 49.6 58.3 80.1 79.6 66.5 57.9 W 64.7 May ............................. 70.6 70.5 61.9 61.1 - 61.6 82.5 82.5 W W - 58.8 June ............................ 71.9 71.9 W 64.9 - 63.8 W W W W - W July ............................. 75.1 75.1 W 70.0 W 67.4 W W W W - W August ........................ 81.9 81.8 67.6 75.7 W 70.0 W 98.1 - 69.4 - 69.4 September .................. 80.9 80.5 74.1 65.4 54.6 67.8 94.1 93.5 77.1 62.1 W 71.6 October ....................... 78.7 78.3 73.5 63.7 57.8 69.5 89.5 89.2

392

Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1996 1996 ................................ 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.9 W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 1997 January ....................... 3.7 3.7 2.9 4.5 - 7.4 0.8 0.8 W 0.5 - 1.1 February ..................... 3.6 3.7 2.9 4.2 - 7.1 0.7 0.7 W 0.5 - 1.0 March .......................... 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.3 - 4.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 - 0.6 April ............................ 0.9 0.9 0.5 1.6 - 2.1 0.2 0.2 W 0.2 - 0.3 May ............................. 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.7 - 2.7 0.2 0.2 W 0.2 - 0.3 June ............................ 1.5 1.6 1.0 1.8 - 2.8 0.3 0.3 W 0.2 - 0.4 July ............................. 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.8 - 2.8 0.2 0.2 W 0.2 - 0.4 August ........................ 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.9 - 2.8 0.2 0.2 W 0.2 - 0.4 September .................. 1.6 1.6 1.3 2.4 - 3.7 0.2 0.2 W 0.4 - 0.6 October ....................... 2.1 2.2 2.0 4.2 - 6.3 0.4 0.4 W 0.7 - 1.1

393

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 January ....................... - - - - - - - - - - - - February ..................... - - - - - - - - - - - - March .......................... - - - - - - - - - - - - April ............................ - - - - - - - - - - - - May ............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - June ............................ - - - - - - - - - - - - July ............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - August ........................ - - - - - - - - - - - - September .................. - - - - - - - - - - - - October ....................... 78.0 77.4 70.6 61.2 53.1 66.5 84.5 83.7 75.1 63.7 W 71.9 November ................... 75.9 75.3 66.8 55.2 47.0 61.6 85.0 84.2 72.1 58.4 W 68.3 December ................... 71.5 70.9 62.2 48.2 42.7 56.2 80.7 79.9 68.1

394

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1995 January ....................... 76.6 76.4 69.5 60.6 56.1 64.7 85.7 85.6 74.4 64.0 - 70.0 February ..................... 76.2 76.1 69.9 62.8 55.2 66.0 86.3 86.2 73.4 65.3 - 69.2 March .......................... 77.3 77.2 72.4 65.1 - 68.9 85.7 85.6 75.1 66.1 - 70.0 April ............................ 83.4 83.4 76.7 67.9 - 71.5 91.1 90.9 W 69.7 - 73.8 May ............................. 89.0 88.8 80.4 71.8 - 75.2 95.4 95.3 W 73.5 - 77.7 June ............................ 90.7 90.7 80.4 66.5 - 71.9 97.6 97.4 W 68.7 - 75.0 July ............................. 88.1 88.1 77.9 62.6 - 68.5 92.4 92.4 W 63.9 - 69.6 August ........................ 84.8 84.8 76.8 63.7 - 68.7 87.7 87.6 W 65.3 - 69.8 September .................. 83.4 83.1 74.3 66.4 69.3 69.4 85.2 85.1 75.6 69.1 - 72.4 October ....................... 75.6 75.3

395

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Through Retail Outlets Average a DTW Rack Bulk Average Through Retail Outlets Average a DTW Rack Bulk Average 1994...

396

Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Sales for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Through Retail Outlets Total a DTW Rack Bulk Total Through Retail Outlets Total a DTW Rack Bulk Total 1993 January...

397

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Through Retail Outlets Average a DTW Rack Bulk Average Through Retail Outlets Average a DTW Rack Bulk Average 1993 January...

398

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

399

Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1996 January ....................... 76.3 76.0 70.4 61.4 W 65.6 84.0 83.8 76.0 64.8 - 72.0 February ..................... 77.6 77.4 72.3 64.4 - 68.2 85.7 85.7 78.4 67.4 - 74.2 March .......................... 84.7 84.4 79.5 72.2 W 75.8 90.8 90.8 85.3 74.5 - 81.4 April ............................ 94.0 93.6 87.2 76.1 - 80.0 101.6 101.6 93.6 77.3 - 86.2 May ............................. 99.1 98.6 94.3 76.1 - 82.3 108.1 107.9 99.8 77.3 - 88.1 June ............................ 97.9 97.5 NA 76.5 - 82.3 105.7 105.7 98.3 77.4 - 87.6 July ............................. 95.8 95.4 NA 75.0 - 80.6 103.7 103.6 96.5 76.0 - 85.9 August ........................ 97.2 96.8 NA 78.1 - 83.2 104.3 104.3 NA 79.8 - 87.9 September .................. 97.8 97.3 88.4 79.7 - 83.2 104.5 104.4 94.1 82.5 - 88.4 October .......................

400

Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008 April 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Oil and Gas U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requestor. Preface and Contacts

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike Â… Revised Outline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike November 2003 Office of Oil and Gas Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Contacts and Acknowledgments This report was prepared by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under the direction of John Cook, Director, Petroleum Division. Questions concerning the report may be directed to Joanne Shore (202/586-4677),

402

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

Aceves, S., LLNL

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

NGL recovery being hiked by natural-gasoline recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Construction will be completed later this year at two compression plants operated by Lagoven, S.A., to install natural-gasoline recirculation to improve NGL recovery. The project is the result of a study of condensate-stream recirculation and absorber operations at the compression plants Tia Juana 2 (PCTJ-2) and Tia Juana 3 (PCTJ-3), offshore Lake Maracaibo in western Venezuela. The PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 gas compression plants have two systems: gas compression and NGL extraction. Previous analysis of the NGL extraction and fractionation processes of Lagoven determined that there are two practical and attractive alternatives for the recirculation of the condensate streams in PCTJ-2 and 3: recirculation of natural gasoline from the Ule LPG plant; recirculation of a conditioned condensate from the de-ethanizer tower of each plant. Both alternatives are discussed. Also described are fractionation capacity, and modifications for adding absorption and fractionation.

Rivas M, M.; Bracho, J.L. [Lagoven S.A., Maracaibo (Venezuela); Murray, J.E. [Murray (James E.), Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

Experimental Study on Gasoline Reforming Assisted by Nonthermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasoline conversion efficiency decreased when the electric discharge regime was changing from continuous to gliding arc and from gliding to streamer. ... Compared with catalytic reformers, plasma devices have so far lower performances, which is explained by the early stage of research on nonthermal plasma reforming and the need of an external energy input (electricity). ... and design of the plasma reactor, composed of two gliding arc discharges in series, were detailed. ...

Jean-Damien Rollier; José Gonzalez-Aguilar; Guillaume Petitpas; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri; Rudolf Metkemeijer

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

408

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

all petroleum reports all petroleum reports Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Gasoline Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 23, 2013 Diesel Fuel Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 23, 2013 U.S. Regular Gasoline Prices* (dollars per gallon)full history Change from 12/02/13 12/09/13 12/16/13 week ago year ago U.S. 3.272 3.269 3.239 values are down -0.030 values are down -0.015 East Coast (PADD1) 3.389 3.382 3.373 values are down -0.009 values are up 0.023 New England (PADD1A) 3.475 3.494 3.508 values are up 0.014 values are up 0.015 Central Atlantic (PADD1B) 3.441 3.447 3.457 values are up 0.010 values are down -0.029 Lower Atlantic (PADD1C) 3.325 3.300 3.270 values are down -0.030 values are up 0.063

409

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There is a growing need for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradients onto a tissue or culture sample in vitro. This dissertation introduces the… (more)

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #316: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6: April 19, 6: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, January 1998-February 2004 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #316: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, January 1998-February 2004 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #316: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, January 1998-February 2004 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #316: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, January 1998-February 2004 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #316: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, January 1998-February 2004 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #316: April 19, 2004 U.S. Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, January 1998-February 2004 on Digg

411

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3: April 10, 3: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and Oil Prices: January 1998 - March 2000 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and Oil Prices: January 1998 - March 2000 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and Oil Prices: January 1998 - March 2000 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and Oil Prices: January 1998 - March 2000 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and Oil Prices: January 1998 - March 2000 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123: April 10, 2000 U.S. Gasoline and Oil Prices: January 1998 - March 2000 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #123:

412

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #425: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5: May 22, 2006 5: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #425: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #425: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #425: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #425: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #425: May 22, 2006 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate? on Digg

413

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

414

Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

415

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Fractional distillation of natural gasoline by means of a modified Podbielniak apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in4ebte4 to the Humble Oil an4 Hefiaing Company for supplying hia with the samples of stabiline4 natural gasolines whish were analgas4 Isbre410t iea ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 I. Deeeriytiaa ot Apyazebue . II. Proeedere . 1T... pxeotionation of a 84. 2 Roid Vapor Pxoeeuro Watuxal Gasoline, Coiuan Uheoaled ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . 50 VII. Data Obtained in tho prost%enation of a 84. 1 Eei4 Vapor Pressure Natural Gasoline, Caiman Cooled . . . . . . . . . 51 VXII Data Obtained...

Toombs, Alfred John Lawrence

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

Examining the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand in the United States.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Estimating the consumer demand response to changes in the price of gasoline has important implications regarding fuel tax policies and environmental concerns. There are reasons… (more)

Brannan, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The environmental aspects of the evaporation of BTEX from gasoline with and without ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work the vapours from two columns simulating gasoline-contaminated soils (with and without ethanol) were monitored. Standards mixtures of BTEX, containing different ethanol contents were also analysed. The instrumental analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionisation Detector. Among BTEX, except benzene, in both columns the evaporation rate increases with time. In the gasoline/ethanol column this effect is higher particularly for the xylenes. Although the benzene concentrations were reduced in both columns, this reduction was less marked in the gasoline/ethanol column. The toluene concentrations were higher in the pure gasoline column.

Franciele Fedrizzi; Jóice Cagliari; Cláudia Echevenguá Teixeira; Alexandra Rodrigues Finotti; Irajá do Nascimento Filho

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discussed technologies applied in highly downsized efficient gasoline engine concept such as multiple injection, advanced boosting, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and electrical supercharger

420

Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

gasoline and diesel prices (dollars per gallon) in the European countries: France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and United Kingdom. For more detailed information, see supporting...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ignition CO Carbon monoxide DOE U.S. Department of Energy DPF Diesel particulate filter gHEV Gasoline hybrid electric vehicle GVWR Gross vehicle weight rating HP...

422

Higher prices or gasoline lines loom if Iran-Iraq war lasts into spring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for dealing with the gasoline shortage caused by the Iran-Iraq war are predicted. Options for allocations of existing supplies are discussed. (PSB)

Madison, C.

1981-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

424

The Effects of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends on Advanced Combustion Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation presents the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline on advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines. The unique chemical, physical and thermal properties… (more)

Fatouraie, Mohammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

426

Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

427

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

428

Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

429

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

430

Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

performance of a high compression ratio (32:1 to 74:1) high efficiency (50 to 60% BTE) ICRE operating on natural gas and gasoline

431

Production of high-octane gasoline on a semi-industrial catalytic reforming plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been carried out on the catalytic reforming at a pressure of 20 atm of a wide, straight-run gasoline fraction on an experimental industrial plant.

A. P. Fedorov; G. N. Maslyanskii…

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Total Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Total DTW Rack Bulk Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Total Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Total DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Motor Gasoline 28,179.6 24,384.0 24,143.9 23,567.1 24,120.5 23,282.9 1983-2013 by Grade Regular 23,757.8 20,526.5 20,356.1 19,806.6 20,240.9 19,586.1 1983-2013 Midgrade 1,876.1 1,545.0 1,534.8 1,527.0 1,561.5 1,484.7 1988-2013 Premium 2,545.7 2,312.4 2,252.9 2,233.5 2,318.1 2,212.1 1983-2013 by Formulation Conventional 16,716.2 14,277.3 13,878.1 13,588.6 14,053.9 13,516.9 1994-2013 Oxygenated - - - - - - 1994-2013

433

Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study we describe measurements of gas- and particle-phase carbonyl emissions from light-duty gasoline (LDV) and heavy-duty diesel (HDDV) motor vehicles operated on a chassis dynamometer under realistic driving cycles. ... Vehicles were tested under a five-mode driving cycle (HHDDT, heavy heavy-duty diesel truck) consisting of 30-min idle, 17-min creep, and 11-min transient stages and two cruise stages of 34 and 31 min, with a top speed of 65 miles h?1 for the second cruise (30). ... In general, as the volatility of the carbonyl decreased, so did the PUF/total particulate carbonyl ratio. ...

Chris A. Jakober; Michael A. Robert; Sarah G. Riddle; Hugo Destaillats; M. Judith Charles; Peter G. Green; Michael J. Kleeman

2008-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

434

Part-load performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with RON95 and RON97 gasoline: Technical viewpoint on Malaysia’s fuel price debate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to world crude oil price hike in the recent years, many countries have experienced increase in gasoline price. In Malaysia, where gasoline are sold in two grades; RON95 and RON97, and fuel price are regulated by the government, gasoline price have been gradually increased since 2009. Price rise for RON97 is more significant. By 2014, its per liter price is 38% more than that of RON95. This has resulted in escalated dissatisfaction among the mass. People argued they were denied from using a better fuel (RON97). In order to evaluate the claim, there is a need to investigate engine response to these two gasoline grades. The effect of gasoline RON95 and RON97 on performance and exhaust emissions in spark ignition engine was investigated on a representative engine: 1.6L, 4-cylinder Mitsubishi 4G92 engine with CR 11:1. The engine was run at constant speed between 1500 and 3500 rpm with 500 rpm increment at various part-load conditions. The original engine ECU, a hydraulic dynamometer and control, a combustion analyzer and an exhaust gas analyzer were used to determine engine performance, cylinder pressure and emissions. Results showed that RON95 produced higher engine performance for all part-load conditions within the speed range. RON95 produced on average 4.4% higher brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure as compared to RON97. The difference in engine performance was more significant at higher engine speed and loads. Cylinder pressure and ROHR were evaluated and correlated with engine output. With RON95, the engine produces 2.3% higher fuel conversion efficiency on average but RON97 was advantageous with 2.3% lower brake specific fuel consumption throughout all load condition. In terms of exhaust emissions, RON95 produced 7.7% lower \\{NOx\\} emission but higher CO2, CO and HC emissions by 7.9%, 36.9% and 20.3% respectively. Higher octane rating of gasoline may not necessarily beneficial on engine power, fuel economy and emissions of polluting gases. Even though there is some advantage using RON97 in terms of emission reduction of CO2, CO and HC, the 38% higher price and higher \\{NOx\\} emission is more expensive in the long run. Therefore using RON95 is economically better and environmentally friendlier. The findings provide some techno-economic evaluation on the fuel price debate that surround the Malaysia’s population in the recent years. The increased of fuel price may have limited their ability to use higher octane gasoline but it did not negatively affecting the users as they perceive.

Taib Iskandar Mohamad; Heoy Geok How

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CMS to develop a membrane CMS to develop a membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling with 99 percent efficiency. This membrane system enables gasoline stations to surpass environmental regulations while reducing fuel losses. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, DE, with the acquisition of rights to certain DuPont polymer membrane patents. CMS focuses

436

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

Stefanopoulou, Anna

437

Fact #741: August 20, 2012 Historical Gasoline Prices, 1929-2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline in 2011 was $1.24 above the price of gasoline in 1929. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early...

438

U.S. gasoline price falls below $2.90 (long version)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2014 U.S. gasoline price falls below 2.90 (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 2.89 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.7 cents from a week...

439

U.S. gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (long version...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26, 2015 U.S. gasoline price decreases for 17th week in a row (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell for the 17th week in a row to 2.04 a gallon on...

440

Developing an accelerated aging system for gasoline particulate filters and an evaluation test for effects on engine performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stringent regulations worldwide will limit the level of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline engines equipped with direct fuel injection. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one strategy for meeting PM ...

Jorgensen, James E. (James Eastman)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Analysis of Hydrocarbon Products Obtained From Methanol Conversion to Gasoline Using Open Tubular GC Columns and Selective Olefin Absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......SCOT column. Run conditions are...Table I. GC Run Conditions for Methanol Derived Gasolines Carrier Gas...minor amounts of straight-chain isomers...dependent upon process run conditions. These...methanol derived gasolines were similar in......

M.G. Bloch; R.B. Callen; J.H. Stockinger

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Conversion of the straight-run gasoline fraction of high-paraffin oil on a zeolite catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conversion of the straight-run gasoline fraction of high-paraffin crude oil into the high-octane gasoline over niobium-zirconium-aluminosilicate catalyst with the ... composition, and performance characterist...

A. V. Vosmerikov; B. Ulzii; Ya. E. Barbashin; L. L. Korobitsina…

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine September 27, 2011 - 3:52pm Addthis A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL Bryan Wheeler Intern, Office of Science

444

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine Maximizing Potential of Diesel and Gasoline for a Cleaner, More Efficient Engine September 27, 2011 - 3:52pm Addthis A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL A team of researchers and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, led by Steve Ciatti, pictured above, is looking at the possibility of using gasoline to power diesel engines, thereby increasing overall efficiency and reducing pollution. | Image courtesy of ANL Bryan Wheeler Intern, Office of Science

445

Fact #834: August 18, 2014 About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles – Dataset  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel file with dataset for Fact #834: About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles

446

DME-to-oxygenates process studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Speciation of Nitrogen Compounds in Gasoline and Diesel Range Process Streams by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography with Chemiluminescence Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Compounds in Gasoline and Diesel Range Process Streams...compounds in gasoline and diesel range process streams...compounds. Gasoline and diesel range streams containing...qualitative analyses of light cycle oil and crude oil (12...HP-5890 series II) and the general location of each flow-related......

Birbal Chawla

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

Hall, Julian

449

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct of engines with gasoline direct injection. Exhaust gas aftertreatment requires storage catalysts fractions in a gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF

Lee, Tonghun

450

NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4. Distilled naphtha can be used only to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce

Hall, Julian

451

Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

112 Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition. Flammable Liquids and Gases Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP flammability and safety precautions. Do not keep gasoline inside the home or transport it in the trunks

452

Math 115 Excel Group Project 3 Worksheet Price Elasticity of Demand: U.S. Demand for Gasoline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Math 115 Excel Group Project 3 Worksheet Price Elasticity of Demand: U.S. Demand for Gasoline 1 for Gasoline 2 4. Consider the two price-demand graphs below. The labels give the x-value. Which graph for Gasoline 3 6. Jewelry This quote is from the article "Americans Snap Up Gold Jewelry as Metal's Price Sinks

Newberger, Florence

453

Practical Observers for Unmeasured States in Turbocharged Gasoline Julia H. Buckland, Jim Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle and Mrdjan Jankovic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Practical Observers for Unmeasured States in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines Julia H. Buckland, Jim Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Turbocharged gasoline engines are becoming more with a significant reduction in calibration complexity. I. INTRODUCTION Turbocharged gasoline engines are becoming

Grizzle, Jessy W.

454

Comparison of PM emissions from a gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injected (PFI) vehicle measured by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) with two fuels: Gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two Euro 4 gasoline passenger vehicles (one gasoline direct injected vehicle and one port fuel injected vehicle) were tested over the cold start New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Each vehicle was respectively fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. Particle number concentrations were measured by the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particle masses were measured by gravimetric method and estimated from the number distributions using two density distributions (one is constant with the particle size and one is power law related with the size). The first 7 stages of ELPI were used for estimation. The results show that for each vehicle, PM masses measured by gravimetric method, the total PM numbers measured by ELPI and estimated PM masses for M15 are lower than those for gasoline. For each kind of fuel, PM masses by two methods and total PM numbers from the GDI vehicle are higher than those from the PFI one. PM number distribution curves of the four vehicle/fuel combinations are similar. All decline gradually and the maximum number of each curve occurs in the first stage. More than 99.9% numbers locate in the first 8 stages of which diameters are less than 1 ?m. PM number emissions correlate well with the acceleration of the two vehicles. The estimated particle masses were much lower than the gravimetric measurements.

Bin Liang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Xiukun Han; Liping Gao; Lijun Hao; Wentao Ye; Peipei Dai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Optimisation of transient response of a gasoline engine with variable geometry turbine turbocharger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Maintaining transient torque response is challenging on turbocharged engines because of the period of time required to accelerate the turbocharger. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) turbochargers offer a route to improve the transient response. In order to explore the transient operation without any limitation imposed by the production control strategy, an on line search was conducted using a series of open loop actuator trajectories applied to a VGT turbocharger installed on a gasoline engine. The trade-off between the responses in different stages in the transient event has been illustrated. The time required to reach 50% of maximum torque rise (T50) was improved by up to 0.54 s (35.5%) whilst the turbocharger acceleration was maintained. Fully closing the VGT resulted in high exhaust back pressure and low volumetric efficiency. This suggests that a simple boost pressure feedback control will likely not deliver optimised performance due to the excessive exhaust back pressure, reducing the available brake torque during the early part of the transient. Therefore, a model based control strategy may be required.

H. Tang; S. Akehurst; C.J. Brace; S. Garrett; L. Smith

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Prices" Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_allmg_c_nus_epm0_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_allmg_c_nus_epm0_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/2/2013 2:33:46 AM"

457

Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study Schematic of soil-gas and contaminant transport into a slab-on-grade building at a former service station site. Three effects are illustrated that can contribute to reducing the amount of contaminant available for entry into the building: biodegradation by soil microorganisms; a layer of soil that limits diffusive movement of the contaminant; and wind-driven ventilation of the soil below the building. Not illustrated are the effects of ventilation on contaminant concentrations inside the building. The transport of soil-gas-borne contaminants into buildings has been documented as a significant source of human exposure to some pollutants indoors; one example is radon, which has received widespread public

458

Study on impulsive noise radiation from of gasoline direct injector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine uses its own injectors for high pressure fuel supply to the combustion chamber. High frequency impact sound during the injection process is one of the main contributors to engine combustion noise. This impact noise is generated during opening and closing by an injector rod operated by a solenoid. For design of an injector with reduced noise generation it is necessary to analyze its sound radiation mechanism and propose consequent evaluation method. Spectral and modal characteristics of the injectors were measured through vibration induced by external hammer excitation. The injector modal characteristics were analyzed using a simple beam after analyzing its boundaries by complex transverse and rotational springs. To evaluate impulsive sounds more effectively Prony analysis of sounds was used for verifying influence of injector modal characteristics.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Liquid-phase oxidation of components of compression process gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report investigated the oxidation of hydrocarbons of various classes, the principal components of straight-run gasoline, under conditions similar to those used for industrial production of carboxylic acids at the Erevan Petroleum Refinery ''Nairit''. The study was carried out in the temperature range from 155 to 195/sup 0/C at a pressure of 5 MPa on an installation whose scheme was described previously. Normal paraffinic C/sub 5/-C/sub 8/ hydrocarbons, isoparaffinic hydrocarbons such as isopentane and isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), as well as cyclohexane were subjected to oxidation. The effluent gases were analyzed chromatographically for CO, CO/sub 2/ and hydrocarbon content, the oxidate was analyzed chemically for a total content of acids and chromatographically for its content of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. This study also determined the content of acetone and water (chromatographically) and dicarboxylic acids (chemically).

Dayan, V.M.; Astratsatryan, S.A.; Kushina, I.D.; Pyzh, M.I.; Pazderskii, Y.A.; Bryukhovetskii, V.A.; Levush, S.S.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Mapping surrogate gasoline compositions into RON/MON space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, new experimentally determined octane numbers (RON and MON) of blends of a tri-component surrogate consisting of toluene, n-heptane, i-octane (called toluene reference fuel TRF) arranged in an augmented simplex design are used to derive a simple response surface model for the octane number of any arbitrary TRF mixture. The model is second-order in its complexity and is shown to be more accurate to the standard ''linear-by-volume'' (LbV) model which is often used when no other information is available. Such observations are due to the existence of both synergistic and antagonistic blending of the octane numbers between the three components. In particular, antagonistic blending of toluene and iso-octane leads to a maximum in sensitivity that lies on the toluene/iso-octane line. The model equations are inverted so as to map from RON/MON space back into composition space. Enabling one to use two simple formulae to determine, for a given fuel with known RON and MON, the volume fractions of toluene, n-heptane and iso-octane to be blended in order to emulate that fuel. HCCI engine simulations using gasoline with a RON of 98.5 and a MON of 88 were simulated using a TRF fuel, blended according to the derived equations to match the RON and MON. The simulations matched the experimentally obtained pressure profiles well, especially when compared to simulations using only PRF fuels which matched the RON or MON. This suggested that the mapping is accurate and that to emulate a refinery gasoline, it is necessary to match not only the RON but also the MON of the fuel. (author)

Morgan, Neal; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit [Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd., 61 Canterbury Street, Cambridge CB4 3QG (United Kingdom); Cracknell, Roger; Kalghatgi, Gautam [Shell Global Solutions, Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

462

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

463

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

464

,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_c_nus_eppv_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_c_nus_eppv_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

465

,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_eppv_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_eppv_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

466

,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Products for Refiner Gasoline Volumes",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 2","by Grade",3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 3","by Formulation",3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_d_nus_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls"

467

Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19:354-359) method of in vitro recombination. Methods for analysis were developed and a preliminary analysis of the library was performed. A preliminary gasoline process design was constructed and process economics were determined based upon assumptions made from experimental results. The projected cost of gasoline BDS was determined to be competitive with current competing technologies.

Pienkos, Philip T.

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

,"New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",12,"Weekly","12/16/2013","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","12/16/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/23/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_gnd_dcus_sny_w.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_dcus_sny_w.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

469

,"New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices",8,"Weekly","12/16/2013","6/5/2000" ,"Release Date:","12/16/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/23/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_gnd_dcus_y35ny_w.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_dcus_y35ny_w.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

470

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen intermediates in metalloenzymes Justine P Roth Metalloenzymes catalyze reactions of molecular oxygen and its reduced forms through the controlled formation of metal- bound, activated oxygen intermediates

Roth, Justine P.

472

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining | U.S. DOE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » July 2013 Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) efficiently separates higher octane components from the low value ones, offering great potential for significant cost reduction in gasoline production. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page

473

What's an Alternative Fuel? Energy Department Proposes Additional Substitute for Gasolin  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

NEWS MEDIA CONTACTS: NEWS MEDIA CONTACTS: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Jayne Brady, 202/586-5806 July 28, 1998 WHAT'S AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL? Energy Department Proposes Additional Substitute for Gasoline The Department of Energy today published a proposed rule to add another new substitute for gasoline, called the "P-series fuels," to the regulatory definition of "alternative fuel." P-series fuels are designed to operate in flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on E85 (85 percent ethanol mixed with 15 percent gasoline), or gasoline, or any blend of the two. Chrysler and Ford have begun to mass-produce flexible-fuel engines as standard equipment for certain vehicle models. Chrysler's most popular minivan equipped with a flexible-fuel engine is on the market today and the Ford Ranger pick-up truck will have such an engine in the 1999 model year. These

474

U.S. Crude & Gasoline Stocks Low But Showing Signs of Recovering  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The current U.S. inventory levels for crude oil and gasoline stocks are low, but improved modestly in March. While crude oil inventories are still well below normal levels, they have increased about 10 million barrels since the end of January, despite the tight crude oil market. Gasoline stocks at the end of February had dropped about 5% below the low end of the normal range. But during March, they rose slightly, instead of dropping further as they normally would do. This allowed gasoline inventories to re-enter the low end of the normal band. While the inventory situation is improving, it remains low. With crude oil inventories still well below normal, and gasoline inventories on the low side of normal, we have little cushion to absorb unexpected events

475

Average monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September The U.S. average monthly retail price of gasoline is expected to decline by about 18 cents per gallon between May and September, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The lower price reflects, in part, slightly lower crude oil prices that account for about two-thirds of the cost at the pump. The largest price drops are expected in the Midwest states as refineries serving that region, which had been down for planned and unplanned maintenance, return to operation. For the year as a whole, the annual average retail gasoline price is forecasted to decline from $3.63 a gallon last year to $3.49 a gallon this year...and then drop to $3.37 per gallon in 2014

476

The reaction kinetics of gasoline sulfur compounds: Catalytic mechanisms for sulfur reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the key elements of reformulated gasoline is the reduction of the sulfur compounds produced by fluid catalytic cracking. This paper probes the reaction kinetics of refractory gasoline-range thiophene derivatives (thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, and alkylthiophenes) in an effort to determine the mechanisms of sulfur compound cracking in the FCC unit. The gasoline-range sulfur compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with an atomic emission detector. The authors` results show that the FCC catalysts affects the cracking of sulfur compounds through both hydrogen transfer and zeolite pore restriction mechanisms. An experimental FCC catalyst is shown to reduce gasoline sulfur content in the Davidson Circulating Riser (DCR{sup TM}) pilot unit. Model compound tests show that the activity of the catalyst is due to both its catalytic and adsorptive properties. Tetrahydrothiophene, which is produced from thiophenes by hydrogen transfer, is completely removed by the experimental catalyst.

Harding, R.H.; Gatte, R.R.; Albro, T.G.; Wormsbecher, R.F. [W.R. Grace & Co. Conn, Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

The Effect of Gasoline Taxes and Public Transit Investments on Driving Patterns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyzes how driving patterns are affected by gasoline taxes and the availability of a substitute for driving—public transportation. We develop a measure of transportation substitutability based on ...

Elisheba Spiller; Heather Stephens…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Beyond a Billion: Clean Cities Coaliations Have Displaced More Than a Billion Gallons of Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2004, DOE's Clean Cities achieved a milestone - displacing the equivalent of more than 1 billion gallons of gasoline since 1994. This fact sheet describes how Clean Cities achieved this goal.

Not Available

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Competition and price asymmetries in the Greek oil sector: an empirical analysis on gasoline market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article attempts to investigate the issue of asymmetries in the transmission of shocks to input prices and exchange rate onto the wholesale and retail price of gasoline respectively. For this purpose, we ...

Michael L. Polemis

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oxygenated gasoline control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

The Economic Effects of New Jersey's Self-Serve Operations Ban on Retail Gasoline Markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper tests the effect of the self-service ban on retail gasoline sales using a random sample of gas stations from Mercer County New Jersey. The paper ... reduces the number of pumps and islands. Gas stations

Donald Vandegrift; Joseph A. Bisti

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

U.S. gasoline prices see sharpest increase since February (long...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's up 14.7 cents from a week ago marking the sharpest increase since February, based on...

483

U.S. gasoline prices see sharpest increase since February (short...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.64 a gallon on Monday. That's up 14.7 cents from a week ago marking the sharpest increase since February, based on...

484

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease across the U.S. (short...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.43 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

485

U.S. gasoline prices continue to decrease across the U.S. (long...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.43 a gallon on Monday. That's down 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy...

486

Optimisation of gasoline engine performance and fuel consumption through combination of technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasoline engine has undergone intensive development in recent history ... introduction of technologies such as turbocharging and direct fuel injection. In addition to the reduction of part load fuel consumption

Dr.-Ing. Peter Wieske; Bernhardt Lüddecke; Sebastian Ewert…

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Fuel consumption reduction through friction optimisation of a four-cylinder gasoline engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Working in co-operation, BMW and PSA have created a completely new fourcylinder gasoline engine family which is presented in detail in ... objective throughout the development phase was to minimise fuel consumption

Wolfgang Meldt; Werner Tripolt; Gerald Gaberscik; Johann Schopp…

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of organic carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the SOA potential of diesel emissions, especially...improve heavy-duty diesel engine performance with postcombustion...attention to gasoline and diesel fuel composition and emissions...carbon. Although total consumption of oil is minor relative...

Drew R. Gentner; Gabriel Isaacman; David R. Worton; Arthur W. H. Chan; Timothy R. Dallmann; Laura Davis; Shang Liu; Douglas A. Day; Lynn M. Russell; Kevin R. Wilson; Robin Weber; Abhinav Guha; Robert A. Harley; Allen H. Goldstein

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Fact #766: February 11, 2013 Electricity Prices are More Stable than Gasoline Prices  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All energy prices vary from month to month and year to year. However, when comparing the national average retail price for a gallon of regular gasoline and a kilowatt-hour (kWh) for residential...

490

Fact #584: August 17, 2009 The Price of Gasoline and Vehicle Travel: How Do They Relate?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The price of gasoline is one factor that can have an effect on the number of highway vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The graph below shows a three-month moving average of the percentage change of...

491

Fact #566: April 13, 2009 Vehicle Travel and the Price of Gasoline  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The price of gasoline is one factor that can have an effect on the number of highway vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The graph below shows a three-month moving average of the percentage change of...

492

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

493

Methanol-to-gasoline(MTG)conversion over ZSM-5. A temperature programmed surface reaction study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conversion of methanol to gasoline over zeolite ZSM-5 has been studied by temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR). The technique is able to monitor the two steps in the process: the dehydration of m...

M. Jayamurthy; S. Vasudevan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Kohlenwasserstoffe des Erdöls, wie Gasolin, Petroläther, Petroleumessenz, Benzin, Petroleum, Gasöl usw  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Von den Benzinwasserstoffen kommen in erster Linie die flüssigen, mit nicht zu hohem Siedepunkt, etwa zwischen 70 bis 150° C, siedenden Anteile des Erdöles als Treibmittel zur Verwendung. Unter dem Namen Gasolin ...

Dr. Erwin Sedlaczek

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Combustion and emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine using biofuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Impact of biofuel (2-methlyfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethanol) on the performance of a gasoline direct injection engine has been investigated. MF demonstrates better knock resistance properties… (more)

Wang, Chongming

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

497

U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. households to pay an average 750 less for gasoline in 2015 In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects the average U.S. household to spend 750...

498

Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

499

Hydrogen-free domestic technologies for conversion of low-octane gasoline distillates on zeolite catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review is devoted to the problem of the Russian domestic manufacture of high-quality motor fuels using hydrogen-free catalytic conversion of straight-run gasoline on zeolites with a high content of...

L. M. Velichkina

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Improving catalysts for the refining of straight-run gasoline fractions of petroleum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a method for modifying catalysts based on a high-silica zeolite of the ZSM-5 type using Ni nanopowder to improve catalysts for the refining of straight-run gasoline fractions. The proposed method, whic...

E. V. Urzhumova; L. M. Velichkina; A. V. Vosmerikov; A. E. Ermakov

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z